Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: telemetry

30 Building a Scalable Telemetry Based Multiclass Predictive Maintenance Model in R

Authors: Jaya Mathew

Abstract:

Many organizations are faced with the challenge of how to analyze and build Machine Learning models using their sensitive telemetry data. In this paper, we discuss how users can leverage the power of R without having to move their big data around as well as a cloud based solution for organizations willing to host their data in the cloud. By using ScaleR technology to benefit from parallelization and remote computing or R Services on premise or in the cloud, users can leverage the power of R at scale without having to move their data around.

Keywords: predictive maintenance, machine learning, big data, cloud based, on premise solution, R

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
29 Space Telemetry Anomaly Detection Based On Statistical PCA Algorithm

Authors: Bassem Nassar, Wessam Hussein, Medhat Mokhtar

Abstract:

The crucial concern of satellite operations is to ensure the health and safety of satellites. The worst case in this perspective is probably the loss of a mission but the more common interruption of satellite functionality can result in compromised mission objectives. All the data acquiring from the spacecraft are known as Telemetry (TM), which contains the wealth information related to the health of all its subsystems. Each single item of information is contained in a telemetry parameter, which represents a time-variant property (i.e. a status or a measurement) to be checked. As a consequence, there is a continuous improvement of TM monitoring systems in order to reduce the time required to respond to changes in a satellite's state of health. A fast conception of the current state of the satellite is thus very important in order to respond to occurring failures. Statistical multivariate latent techniques are one of the vital learning tools that are used to tackle the aforementioned problem coherently. Information extraction from such rich data sources using advanced statistical methodologies is a challenging task due to the massive volume of data. To solve this problem, in this paper, we present a proposed unsupervised learning algorithm based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The algorithm is particularly applied on an actual remote sensing spacecraft. Data from the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) was acquired under two operation conditions: normal and faulty states. The models were built and tested under these conditions and the results shows that the algorithm could successfully differentiate between these operations conditions. Furthermore, the algorithm provides competent information in prediction as well as adding more insight and physical interpretation to the ADCS operation.

Keywords: space telemetry monitoring, multivariate analysis, PCA algorithm, space operations

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28 Intelligent Ambulance with Advance Features of Traffic Management and Telecommunication

Authors: Mamatha M. N.

Abstract:

Traffic problems, congested traffic, and flow management were recognized as major problems mostly in all the areas, which have caused a problem for the ambulance which carries the emergency patient. The proposed paper aims in the development of ambulance which reaches the nearby hospital faster even in heavy traffic scenario. This process is activated by implementing hardware in an ambulance as well as in traffic post thus allowing a smooth flow to the ambulance to reach the hospital in time. 1) The design of the vehicle to have a communication between ambulance and traffic post. 2)Electronic Health Record with Data-acquisition system 3)Telemetry of acquired biological parameters to the nearest hospital. Thus interfacing all these three different modules and integrating them on the ambulance could reach the hospital earlier than the present ambulance. The system is accurate and efficient of 99.8%.

Keywords: bio-telemetry, data acquisition, patient database, automatic traffic control

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
27 Design of a Telemetry, Tracking, and Command Radio-Frequency Receiver for Small Satellites Based on Commercial Off-The-Shelf Components

Authors: A. Lovascio, A. D’Orazio, V. Centonze

Abstract:

From several years till now the aerospace industry is developing more and more small satellites for Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) missions. Such satellites have a low cost of making and launching since they have a size and weight smaller than other types of satellites. However, because of size limitations, small satellites need integrated electronic equipment based on digital logic. Moreover, the LEOs require telecommunication modules with high throughput to transmit to earth a big amount of data in a short time. In order to meet such requirements, in this paper we propose a Telemetry, Tracking & Command module optimized through the use of the Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The proposed approach exploits the major flexibility offered by these components in reducing costs and optimizing the performance. The method has been applied in detail for the design of the front-end receiver, which has a low noise figure (1.5 dB) and DC power consumption (smaller than 2 W). Such a performance is particularly attractive since it allows fulfilling the energy budget stringent constraints that are typical for LEO small platforms.

Keywords: COTS, LEO, small-satellite, TT&C

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
26 Intelligent Decision Support for Wind Park Operation: Machine-Learning Based Detection and Diagnosis of Anomalous Operating States

Authors: Angela Meyer

Abstract:

The operation and maintenance cost for wind parks make up a major fraction of the park’s overall lifetime cost. To minimize the cost and risk involved, an optimal operation and maintenance strategy requires continuous monitoring and analysis. In order to facilitate this, we present a decision support system that automatically scans the stream of telemetry sensor data generated from the turbines. By learning decision boundaries and normal reference operating states using machine learning algorithms, the decision support system can detect anomalous operating behavior in individual wind turbines and diagnose the involved turbine sub-systems. Operating personal can be alerted if a normal operating state boundary is exceeded. The presented decision support system and method are applicable for any turbine type and manufacturer providing telemetry data of the turbine operating state. We demonstrate the successful detection and diagnosis of anomalous operating states in a case study at a German onshore wind park comprised of Vestas V112 turbines.

Keywords: anomaly detection, decision support, machine learning, monitoring, performance optimization, wind turbines

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
25 LWD Acquisition of Caliper and Drilling Mechanics in a Geothermal Well, A Case Study in Sorik Marapi Field – Indonesia

Authors: Vinda B. Manurung, Laila Warkhaida, David Hutabarat, Sentanu Wisnuwardhana, Christovik Simatupang, Dhani Sanjaya, Ashadi, Redha B. Putra, Kiki Yustendi

Abstract:

The geothermal drilling environment presents many obstacles that have limited the use of directional drilling and logging-while-drilling (LWD) technologies, such as borehole washout, mud losses, severe vibration, and high temperature. The case study presented in this paper demonstrates a practice to enhance data logging in geothermal drilling by deploying advanced telemetry and LWD technologies. This operation is aiming continuous improvement in geothermal drilling operations. The case study covers a 12.25-in. hole section of well XX-05 in Pad XX of the Sorik Marapi Geothermal Field. LWD string consists of electromagnetic (EM) telemetry, pressure while drilling (PWD), vibration (DDSr), and acoustic calliper (ACAL). Through this tool configuration, the operator acquired drilling mechanics and caliper logs in real-time and recorded mode, enabling effective monitoring of wellbore stability. Throughout the real-time acquisition, EM-PPM telemetry had provided a three times faster data rate to the surface unit. With the integration of Caliper data and Drilling mechanics data (vibration and ECD -equivalent circulating density), the borehole conditions were more visible to the directional driller, allowing for better control of drilling parameters to minimize vibration and achieve optimum hole cleaning in washed-out or tight formation sequences. After reaching well TD, the recorded data from the caliper sensor indicated an average of 8.6% washout for the entire 12.25-in. interval. Washout intervals were compared with loss occurrence, showing potential for the caliper to be used as an indirect indicator of fractured intervals and validating fault trend prognosis. This LWD case study has given added value in geothermal borehole characterization for both drilling operation and subsurface. Identified challenges while running LWD in this geothermal environment need to be addressed for future improvements, such as the effect of tool eccentricity and the impact of vibration. A perusal of both real-time and recorded drilling mechanics and caliper data has opened various possibilities for maximizing sensor usage in future wells.

Keywords: geothermal drilling, geothermal formation, geothermal technologies, logging-while-drilling, vibration, caliper, case study

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24 Argos System: Improvements and Future of the Constellation

Authors: Sophie Baudel, Aline Duplaa, Jean Muller, Stephan Lauriol, Yann Bernard

Abstract:

Argos is the main satellite telemetry system used by the wildlife research community, since its creation in 1978, for animal tracking and scientific data collection all around the world, to analyze and understand animal migrations and behavior. The marine mammals' biology is one of the major disciplines which had benefited from Argos telemetry, and conversely, marine mammals biologists’ community has contributed a lot to the growth and development of Argos use cases. The Argos constellation with 6 satellites in orbit in 2017 (Argos 2 payload on NOAA 15, NOAA 18, Argos 3 payload on NOAA 19, SARAL, METOP A and METOP B) is being extended in the following years with Argos 3 payload on METOP C (launch in October 2018), and Argos 4 payloads on Oceansat 3 (launch in 2019), CDARS in December 2021 (to be confirmed), METOP SG B1 in December 2022, and METOP-SG-B2 in 2029. Argos 4 will allow more frequency bands (600 kHz for Argos4NG, instead of 110 kHz for Argos 3), new modulation dedicated to animal (sea turtle) tracking allowing very low transmission power transmitters (50 to 100mW), with very low data rates (124 bps), enhancement of high data rates (1200-4800 bps), and downlink performance, at the whole contribution to enhance the system capacity (50,000 active beacons per month instead of 20,000 today). In parallel of this ‘institutional Argos’ constellation, in the context of a miniaturization trend in the spatial industry in order to reduce the costs and multiply the satellites to serve more and more societal needs, the French Space Agency CNES, which designs the Argos payloads, is innovating and launching the Argos ANGELS project (Argos NEO Generic Economic Light Satellites). ANGELS will lead to a nanosatellite prototype with an Argos NEO instrument (30 cm x 30 cm x 20cm) that will be launched in 2019. In the meantime, the design of the renewal of the Argos constellation, called Argos For Next Generations (Argos4NG), is on track and will be operational in 2022. Based on Argos 4 and benefitting of the feedback from ANGELS project, this constellation will allow revisiting time of fewer than 20 minutes in average between two satellite passes, and will also bring more frequency bands to improve the overall capacity of the system. The presentation will then be an overview of the Argos system, present and future and new capacities coming with it. On top of that, use cases of two Argos hardware modules will be presented: the goniometer pathfinder allowing recovering Argos beacons at sea or on the ground in a 100 km radius horizon-free circle around the beacon location and the new Argos 4 chipset called ‘Artic’, already available and tested by several manufacturers.

Keywords: Argos satellite telemetry, marine protected areas, oceanography, maritime services

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23 Using Equipment Telemetry Data for Condition-Based maintenance decisions

Authors: John Q. Todd

Abstract:

Given that modern equipment can provide comprehensive health, status, and error condition data via built-in sensors, maintenance organizations have a new and valuable source of insight to take advantage of. This presentation will expose what these data payloads might look like and how they can be filtered, visualized, calculated into metrics, used for machine learning, and generate alerts for further action.

Keywords: condition based maintenance, equipment data, metrics, alerts

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
22 A Step Magnitude Haptic Feedback Device and Platform for Better Way to Review Kinesthetic Vibrotactile 3D Design in Professional Training

Authors: Biki Sarmah, Priyanko Raj Mudiar

Abstract:

In the modern world of remotely interactive virtual reality-based learning and teaching, including professional skill-building training and acquisition practices, as well as data acquisition and robotic systems, the revolutionary application or implementation of field-programmable neurostimulator aids and first-hand interactive sensitisation techniques into 3D holographic audio-visual platforms have been a coveted dream of many scholars, professionals, scientists, and students. Integration of 'kinaesthetic vibrotactile haptic perception' along with an actuated step magnitude contact profiloscopy in augmented reality-based learning platforms and professional training can be implemented by using an extremely calculated and well-coordinated image telemetry including remote data mining and control technique. A real-time, computer-aided (PLC-SCADA) field calibration based algorithm must be designed for the purpose. But most importantly, in order to actually realise, as well as to 'interact' with some 3D holographic models displayed over a remote screen using remote laser image telemetry and control, all spatio-physical parameters like cardinal alignment, gyroscopic compensation, as well as surface profile and thermal compositions, must be implemented using zero-order type 1 actuators (or transducers) because they provide zero hystereses, zero backlashes, low deadtime as well as providing a linear, absolutely controllable, intrinsically observable and smooth performance with the least amount of error compensation while ensuring the best ergonomic comfort ever possible for the users.

Keywords: haptic feedback, kinaesthetic vibrotactile 3D design, medical simulation training, piezo diaphragm based actuator

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21 Objectives of the Standardization of Technical Terminology Nowadays in Albanian

Authors: Gani Pllana

Abstract:

In the conditions of the rapid development of technics and technology in recent years, the cooperation of the scientific-technical language with the standard Albanian language is continuing with a higher intensity than before. We notice a vigor of enrichment in the vocabulary of technical terminology, due to the birth and formation of new fields and subfields of technics, technology, as computing, mechatronics, telemetry, a multitude of concepts many of which, on the one hand, are marked with names of the languages they come from, mainly from English, but on the other hand, they meet their needs with the lexical mother tongue composition (by common words being raised to terms) and with the activation of other layers, such as compound word terms. Thus, for example, in the field of computing, we notice in it the inclusion of the ordinary vocabulary for reproductive reasons, like mi, dritare, flamur, adresë, skedar (Engl: mouse, window, flag, address, file), and along with them, the compound word terms, serving to differentiate relevant concepts, like, adresë e hiperlidhjes, adresë e uebit, adresë relative, adresë virtuale (Engl. address hyperlink, web address, relative address, virtual address) etc.

Keywords: common words, Albanian language, technical terminology, standardization

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20 A Digital Pulse-Width Modulation Controller for High-Temperature DC-DC Power Conversion Application

Authors: Jingjing Lan, Jun Yu, Muthukumaraswamy Annamalai Arasu

Abstract:

This paper presents a digital non-linear pulse-width modulation (PWM) controller in a high-voltage (HV) buck-boost DC-DC converter for the piezoelectric transducer of the down-hole acoustic telemetry system. The proposed design controls the generation of output signal with voltage higher than the supply voltage and is targeted to work under high temperature. To minimize the power consumption and silicon area, a simple and efficient design scheme is employed to develop the PWM controller. The proposed PWM controller consists of serial to parallel (S2P) converter, data assign block, a mode and duty cycle controller (MDC), linearly PWM (LPWM) and noise shaper, pulse generator and clock generator. To improve the reliability of circuit operation at higher temperature, this design is fabricated with the 1.0-μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS process. The implementation results validated that the proposed design has the advantages of smaller size, lower power consumption and robust thermal stability.

Keywords: DC-DC power conversion, digital control, high temperatures, pulse-width modulation

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19 The Effect of Using Water Wireless Aqua Com System on the Development of Dolphin Kick Movements on the Female Swimming Team at the Faculty of Physical Education

Authors: Wisal Alrabadi

Abstract:

The study's goal was to see how the use of water wireless Aqua Com System and its accompanying music affected the Female Swimming Team at the Faculty of Physical Education's development of dolphin kick movements. To that end, a training program consisting of (12) training units spread out over four weeks, three units per week, was created and applied to a study sample of (10) students from the swimming pool enrolled in the first semester of the academic year 2022. Pre-measuring and timing the movements of dolphins kicking with and without fins above and below, measuring the water's surface over a distance of 25 meters. The results showed that there are statistically significant differences in favor of telemetry from the start within the limits of the area specified for a distance of 15 m after the comparison between the pre and post-measurement using the test (T) of the double samples, and this indicates the impact of the training program using the Aqua Com System in the swimming team(Female) at Faculty of Physical Education, and in light of this a set of recommendations was developed.

Keywords: aqua com system training program, accompanying music, dolphin kick movements, swimming team female

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
18 Futuristic Black Box Design Considerations and Global Networking for Real Time Monitoring of Flight Performance Parameters

Authors: K. Parandhama Gowd

Abstract:

The aim of this research paper is to conceptualize, discuss, analyze and propose alternate design methodologies for futuristic Black Box for flight safety. The proposal also includes global networking concepts for real time surveillance and monitoring of flight performance parameters including GPS parameters. It is expected that this proposal will serve as a failsafe real time diagnostic tool for accident investigation and location of debris in real time. In this paper, an attempt is made to improve the existing methods of flight data recording techniques and improve upon design considerations for futuristic FDR to overcome the trauma of not able to locate the block box. Since modern day communications and information technologies with large bandwidth are available coupled with faster computer processing techniques, the attempt made in this paper to develop a failsafe recording technique is feasible. Further data fusion/data warehousing technologies are available for exploitation.

Keywords: flight data recorder (FDR), black box, diagnostic tool, global networking, cockpit voice and data recorder (CVDR), air traffic control (ATC), air traffic, telemetry, tracking and control centers ATTTCC)

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17 Optimization of a Hand-Fan Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna by Means of Orthogonal Design Method of Design of Experiments for L-Band and S-Band Applications

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Nitika, Navneet Kaur, Rajesh Khanna

Abstract:

A hand-fan shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) for L-band and S-band applications is designed, and its characteristics have been reconnoitered. The proposed microstrip patch antenna with double U-slot defected ground structure (DGS) is fabricated on an FR4 substrate which is a very readily available and inexpensive material. The suggested antenna is optimized using Orthogonal Design Method (ODM) of Design of Experiments (DOE) to cover the frequency range from 0.91-2.82 GHz for L-band and S-band applications. The L-band covers the frequency range of 1-2 GHz, which is allocated to telemetry, aeronautical, and military systems for passive satellite sensors, weather radars, radio astronomy, and mobile communication. The S-band covers the frequency range of 2-3 GHz, which is used by weather radars, surface ship radars and communication satellites and is also reserved for various wireless applications such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX), super high frequency radio frequency identification (SHF RFID), industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM), Bluetooth, wireless broadband (Wi-Bro) and wireless local area network (WLAN). The proposed method of optimization is very time efficient and accurate as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms due to its statistical strategy. Moreover, the antenna is tested, followed by the comparison of simulated and measured results.

Keywords: design of experiments, hand fan shaped MPA, L-Band, orthogonal design method, S-Band

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16 Design and Optimization of a Mini High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Multi-Role Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Vishaal Subramanian, Annuatha Vinod Kumar, Santosh Kumar Budankayala, M. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

This paper discusses the aerodynamic and structural design, simulation and optimization of a mini-High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV. The applications of this mini HALE UAV vary from aerial topological surveys, quick first aid supply, emergency medical blood transport, search and relief activates to border patrol, surveillance and estimation of forest fire progression. Although classified as a mini UAV according to UVS International, our design is an amalgamation of the features of ‘mini’ and ‘HALE’ categories, combining the light weight of the ‘mini’ and the high altitude ceiling and endurance of the HALE. Designed with the idea of implementation in India, it is in strict compliance with the UAS rules proposed by the office of the Director General of Civil Aviation. The plane can be completely automated or have partial override control and is equipped with an Infra-Red camera and a multi coloured camera with on-board storage or live telemetry, GPS system with Geo Fencing and fail safe measures. An additional of 1.5 kg payload can be attached to three major hard points on the aircraft and can comprise of delicate equipment or releasable payloads. The paper details the design, optimization process and the simulations performed using various software such as Design Foil, XFLR5, Solidworks and Ansys.

Keywords: aircraft, endurance, HALE, high altitude, long range, UAV, unmanned aerial vehicle

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15 Thermal Vacuum Chamber Test Result for CubeSat Transmitter

Authors: Fitri D. Jaswar, Tharek A. Rahman, Yasser A. Ahmad

Abstract:

CubeSat in low earth orbit (LEO) mainly uses ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter with fixed radio frequency (RF) output power to download the telemetry and the payload data. The transmitter consumes large amount of electrical energy during the transmission considering the limited satellite size of a CubeSat. A transmitter with power control ability is designed to achieve optimize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and efficient power consumption. In this paper, the thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC) test is performed to validate the performance of the UHF band transmitter with power control capability. The TVAC is used to simulate the satellite condition in the outer space environment. The TVAC test was conducted at the Laboratory of Spacecraft Environment Interaction Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan. The TVAC test used 4 thermal cycles starting from +60°C to -20°C for the temperature setting. The pressure condition inside chamber was less than 10-5Pa. During the test, the UHF transmitter is integrated in a CubeSat configuration with other CubeSat subsystem such as on board computer (OBC), power module, and satellite structure. The system is validated and verified through its performance in terms of its frequency stability and the RF output power. The UHF band transmitter output power is tested from 0.5W to 2W according the satellite mode of operations and the satellite power limitations. The frequency stability is measured and the performance obtained is less than 2 ppm in the tested operating temperature range. The test demonstrates the RF output power is adjustable in a thermal vacuum condition.

Keywords: communication system, CubeSat, SNR, UHF transmitter

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14 A Continuous Real-Time Analytic for Predicting Instability in Acute Care Rapid Response Team Activations

Authors: Ashwin Belle, Bryce Benson, Mark Salamango, Fadi Islim, Rodney Daniels, Kevin Ward

Abstract:

A reliable, real-time, and non-invasive system that can identify patients at risk for hemodynamic instability is needed to aid clinicians in their efforts to anticipate patient deterioration and initiate early interventions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the clinical capabilities of a real-time analytic from a single lead of an electrocardiograph to correctly distinguish between rapid response team (RRT) activations due to hemodynamic (H-RRT) and non-hemodynamic (NH-RRT) causes, as well as predict H-RRT cases with actionable lead times. The study consisted of a single center, retrospective cohort of 21 patients with RRT activations from step-down and telemetry units. Through electronic health record review and blinded to the analytic’s output, each patient was categorized by clinicians into H-RRT and NH-RRT cases. The analytic output and the categorization were compared. The prediction lead time prior to the RRT call was calculated. The analytic correctly distinguished between H-RRT and NH-RRT cases with 100% accuracy, demonstrating 100% positive and negative predictive values, and 100% sensitivity and specificity. In H-RRT cases, the analytic detected hemodynamic deterioration with a median lead time of 9.5 hours prior to the RRT call (range 14 minutes to 52 hours). The study demonstrates that an electrocardiogram (ECG) based analytic has the potential for providing clinical decision and monitoring support for caregivers to identify at risk patients within a clinically relevant timeframe allowing for increased vigilance and early interventional support to reduce the chances of continued patient deterioration.

Keywords: critical care, early warning systems, emergency medicine, heart rate variability, hemodynamic instability, rapid response team

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
13 ROSgeoregistration: Aerial Multi-Spectral Image Simulator for the Robot Operating System

Authors: Andrew R. Willis, Kevin Brink, Kathleen Dipple

Abstract:

This article describes a software package called ROS-georegistration intended for use with the robot operating system (ROS) and the Gazebo 3D simulation environment. ROSgeoregistration provides tools for the simulation, test, and deployment of aerial georegistration algorithms and is available at github.com/uncc-visionlab/rosgeoregistration. A model creation package is provided which downloads multi-spectral images from the Google Earth Engine database and, if necessary, incorporates these images into a single, possibly very large, reference image. Additionally a Gazebo plugin which uses the real-time sensor pose and image formation model to generate simulated imagery using the specified reference image is provided along with related plugins for UAV relevant data. The novelty of this work is threefold: (1) this is the first system to link the massive multi-spectral imaging database of Google’s Earth Engine to the Gazebo simulator, (2) this is the first example of a system that can simulate geospatially and radiometrically accurate imagery from multiple sensor views of the same terrain region, and (3) integration with other UAS tools creates a new holistic UAS simulation environment to support UAS system and subsystem development where real-world testing would generally be prohibitive. Sensed imagery and ground truth registration information is published to client applications which can receive imagery synchronously with telemetry from other payload sensors, e.g., IMU, GPS/GNSS, barometer, and windspeed sensor data. To highlight functionality, we demonstrate ROSgeoregistration for simulating Electro-Optical (EO) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image sensors and an example use case for developing and evaluating image-based UAS position feedback, i.e., pose for image-based Guidance Navigation and Control (GNC) applications.

Keywords: EO-to-EO, EO-to-SAR, flight simulation, georegistration, image generation, robot operating system, vision-based navigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
12 Integrated On-Board Diagnostic-II and Direct Controller Area Network Access for Vehicle Monitoring System

Authors: Kavian Khosravinia, Mohd Khair Hassan, Ribhan Zafira Abdul Rahman, Syed Abdul Rahman Al-Haddad

Abstract:

The CAN (controller area network) bus is introduced as a multi-master, message broadcast system. The messages sent on the CAN are used to communicate state information, referred as a signal between different ECUs, which provides data consistency in every node of the system. OBD-II Dongles that are based on request and response method is the wide-spread solution for extracting sensor data from cars among researchers. Unfortunately, most of the past researches do not consider resolution and quantity of their input data extracted through OBD-II technology. The maximum feasible scan rate is only 9 queries per second which provide 8 data points per second with using ELM327 as well-known OBD-II dongle. This study aims to develop and design a programmable, and latency-sensitive vehicle data acquisition system that improves the modularity and flexibility to extract exact, trustworthy, and fresh car sensor data with higher frequency rates. Furthermore, the researcher must break apart, thoroughly inspect, and observe the internal network of the vehicle, which may cause severe damages to the expensive ECUs of the vehicle due to intrinsic vulnerabilities of the CAN bus during initial research. Desired sensors data were collected from various vehicles utilizing Raspberry Pi3 as computing and processing unit with using OBD (request-response) and direct CAN method at the same time. Two types of data were collected for this study. The first, CAN bus frame data that illustrates data collected for each line of hex data sent from an ECU and the second type is the OBD data that represents some limited data that is requested from ECU under standard condition. The proposed system is reconfigurable, human-readable and multi-task telematics device that can be fitted into any vehicle with minimum effort and minimum time lag in the data extraction process. The standard operational procedure experimental vehicle network test bench is developed and can be used for future vehicle network testing experiment.

Keywords: CAN bus, OBD-II, vehicle data acquisition, connected cars, telemetry, Raspberry Pi3

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
11 Smart Automated Furrow Irrigation: A Preliminary Evaluation

Authors: Jasim Uddin, Rod Smith, Malcolm Gillies

Abstract:

Surface irrigation is the most popular irrigation method all over the world. However, two issues: low efficiency and huge labour involvement concern irrigators due to scarcity in recent years. To address these issues, a smart automated furrow is conceptualised that can be operated using digital devices like smartphone, iPad or computer and a preliminary evaluation was conducted in this study. The smart automated system is the integration of commercially available software and hardware. It includes real-time surface irrigation optimisation software (SISCO) and Rubicon Water’s surface irrigation automation hardware and software. The automated system consists of automatic water delivery system with 300 mm flexible pipes attached to both sides of a remotely controlled valve to operate the irrigation. A water level sensor to obtain the real-time inflow rate from the measured head in the channel, advance sensors to measure the advance time to particular points of an irrigated field, a solar-powered telemetry system including a base station to communicate all the field sensors with the main server. On the basis of field data, the software (SISCO) is optimised the ongoing irrigation and determine the optimum cut-off for particular irrigation and send this information to the control valve to stop the irrigation in a particular (cut-off) time. The preliminary evaluation shows that the automated surface irrigation worked reasonably well without manual intervention. The evaluation of farmers managed irrigation events show the potentials to save a significant amount of water and labour. A substantial amount of economic and social benefits are expected in rural industries by adopting this system. The future outcome of this work would be a fully tested commercial adaptive real-time furrow irrigation system able to compete with the pressurised alternative of centre pivot or lateral move machines on capital cost, water and labour savings but without the massive energy costs.

Keywords: furrow irrigation, smart automation, infiltration, SISCO, real-time irrigation, adoptive control

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10 A Xenon Mass Gauging through Heat Transfer Modeling for Electric Propulsion Thrusters

Authors: A. Soria-Salinas, M.-P. Zorzano, J. Martín-Torres, J. Sánchez-García-Casarrubios, J.-L. Pérez-Díaz, A. Vakkada-Ramachandran

Abstract:

The current state-of-the-art methods of mass gauging of Electric Propulsion (EP) propellants in microgravity conditions rely on external measurements that are taken at the surface of the tank. The tanks are operated under a constant thermal duty cycle to store the propellant within a pre-defined temperature and pressure range. We demonstrate using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that the heat-transfer within the pressurized propellant generates temperature and density anisotropies. This challenges the standard mass gauging methods that rely on the use of time changing skin-temperatures and pressures. We observe that the domes of the tanks are prone to be overheated, and that a long time after the heaters of the thermal cycle are switched off, the system reaches a quasi-equilibrium state with a more uniform density. We propose a new gauging method, which we call the Improved PVT method, based on universal physics and thermodynamics principles, existing TRL-9 technology and telemetry data. This method only uses as inputs the temperature and pressure readings of sensors externally attached to the tank. These sensors can operate during the nominal thermal duty cycle. The improved PVT method shows little sensitivity to the pressure sensor drifts which are critical towards the end-of-life of the missions, as well as little sensitivity to systematic temperature errors. The retrieval method has been validated experimentally with CO2 in gas and fluid state in a chamber that operates up to 82 bar within a nominal thermal cycle of 38 °C to 42 °C. The mass gauging error is shown to be lower than 1% the mass at the beginning of life, assuming an initial tank load at 100 bar. In particular, for a pressure of about 70 bar, just below the critical pressure of CO2, the error of the mass gauging in gas phase goes down to 0.1% and for 77 bar, just above the critical point, the error of the mass gauging of the liquid phase is 0.6% of initial tank load. This gauging method improves by a factor of 8 the accuracy of the standard PVT retrievals using look-up tables with tabulated data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Keywords: electric propulsion, mass gauging, propellant, PVT, xenon

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9 Evidence of Behavioural Thermoregulation by Dugongs (Dugong dugon) at the High Latitude Limit to Their Range in Eastern Australia

Authors: Daniel R. Zeh, Michelle R. Heupel, Mark Hamann, Rhondda Jones, Colin J. Limpus, Helene Marsh

Abstract:

Marine mammals live in an environment with water temperatures nearly always lower than the mammalian core body temperature of 35 - 38°C. Marine mammals can lose heat at high rates and have evolved a range of adaptations to minimise heat loss. Our project tracked dugongs to examine if there was a discoverable relationship between the animals’ movements and the temperature of their environment that might suggest behavioural thermoregulation. Twenty-nine dugongs were fitted with acoustic and satellite/GPS transmitters in 2012, 2013 and 2014 in Moreton Bay Queensland at the high latitude limit of the species’ winter range in eastern Australia on 30 occasions (one animal was tagged twice). All 22 animals that stayed in the area and had functional transmitters made at least one (and up to 66) return trip(s) to the warmer oceanic waters outside the bay where seagrass is unavailable. Individual dugongs went in and out of the bay in synchrony with the tides and typically spent about 6 hours in the oceanic water. There was a diel pattern in the movements: 85% of outgoing trips occurred between midnight and noon. There were significant individual differences, but the likelihood of a dugong leaving the bay was independent of body length or sex. In Quarter 2 (April – June), the odds of a dugong making a trip increased by about 40% for each 1°C increase in the temperature difference between the bay and the warmer adjacent oceanic waters. In Quarter 3, the odds of making a trip were lower when the outside –inside bay temperature differences were small or negative but increased by a factor of up to 2.12 for each 1°C difference in outside – inside temperatures. In Quarter 4, the odds of making a trip were higher when it was cooler outside the bay and decreased by a factor of nearly 0.5 for each 1°C difference in outside – inside bay temperatures. The activity spaces of the dugongs generally declined as winter progressed suggesting a change in the cost-effectiveness of moving outside the bay. Our analysis suggests that dugongs can thermoregulate their core temperature through the behaviour of moving to water having more favourable temperature.

Keywords: acoustic, behavioral thermoregulation, dugongs, movements, satellite, telemetry, quick fix GPS

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8 Design of Data Management Software System Supporting Rendezvous and Docking with Various Spaceships

Authors: Zhan Panpan, Lu Lan, Sun Yong, He Xiongwen, Yan Dong, Gu Ming

Abstract:

The function of the two spacecraft docking network, the communication and control of a docking target with various spacecrafts is realized in the space lab data management system. In order to solve the problem of the complex data communication mode between the space lab and various spaceships, and the problem of software reuse caused by non-standard protocol, a data management software system supporting rendezvous and docking with various spaceships has been designed. The software system is based on CCSDS Spcecraft Onboard Interface Service(SOIS). It consists of Software Driver Layer, Middleware Layer and Appliaction Layer. The Software Driver Layer hides the various device interfaces using the uniform device driver framework. The Middleware Layer is divided into three lays, including transfer layer, application support layer and system business layer. The communication of space lab plaform bus and the docking bus is realized in transfer layer. Application support layer provides the inter tasks communitaion and the function of unified time management for the software system. The data management software functions are realized in system business layer, which contains telemetry management service, telecontrol management service, flight status management service, rendezvous and docking management service and so on. The Appliaction Layer accomplishes the space lab data management system defined tasks using the standard interface supplied by the Middleware Layer. On the basis of layered architecture, rendezvous and docking tasks and the rendezvous and docking management service are independent in the software system. The rendezvous and docking tasks will be activated and executed according to the different spaceships. In this way, the communication management functions in the independent flight mode, the combination mode of the manned spaceship and the combination mode of the cargo spaceship are achieved separately. The software architecture designed standard appliction interface for the services in each layer. Different requirements of the space lab can be supported by the use of standard services per layer, and the scalability and flexibility of the data management software can be effectively improved. It can also dynamically expand the number and adapt to the protocol of visiting spaceships. The software system has been applied in the data management subsystem of the space lab, and has been verified in the flight of the space lab. The research results of this paper can provide the basis for the design of the data manage system in the future space station.

Keywords: space lab, rendezvous and docking, data management, software system

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7 A Four-Step Ortho-Rectification Procedure for Geo-Referencing Video Streams from a Low-Cost UAV

Authors: B. O. Olawale, C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, P. M. Birch, F. O. Faithpraise, A. O. Olukiran

Abstract:

Ortho-rectification is the process of geometrically correcting an aerial image such that the scale is uniform. The ortho-image formed from the process is corrected for lens distortion, topographic relief, and camera tilt. This can be used to measure true distances, because it is an accurate representation of the Earth’s surface. Ortho-rectification and geo-referencing are essential to pin point the exact location of targets in video imagery acquired at the UAV platform. This can only be achieved by comparing such video imagery with an existing digital map. However, it is only when the image is ortho-rectified with the same co-ordinate system as an existing map that such a comparison is possible. The video image sequences from the UAV platform must be geo-registered, that is, each video frame must carry the necessary camera information before performing the ortho-rectification process. Each rectified image frame can then be mosaicked together to form a seamless image map covering the selected area. This can then be used for comparison with an existing map for geo-referencing. In this paper, we present a four-step ortho-rectification procedure for real-time geo-referencing of video data from a low-cost UAV equipped with multi-sensor system. The basic procedures for the real-time ortho-rectification are: (1) Decompilation of video stream into individual frames; (2) Finding of interior camera orientation parameters; (3) Finding the relative exterior orientation parameters for each video frames with respect to each other; (4) Finding the absolute exterior orientation parameters, using self-calibration adjustment with the aid of a mathematical model. Each ortho-rectified video frame is then mosaicked together to produce a 2-D planimetric mapping, which can be compared with a well referenced existing digital map for the purpose of georeferencing and aerial surveillance. A test field located in Abuja, Nigeria was used for testing our method. Fifteen minutes video and telemetry data were collected using the UAV and the data collected were processed using the four-step ortho-rectification procedure. The results demonstrated that the geometric measurement of the control field from ortho-images are more reliable than those from original perspective photographs when used to pin point the exact location of targets on the video imagery acquired by the UAV. The 2-D planimetric accuracy when compared with the 6 control points measured by a GPS receiver is between 3 to 5 meters.

Keywords: geo-referencing, ortho-rectification, video frame, self-calibration

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6 Colonization Pattern and Growth of Reintroduced Tiger (Panthera tigris) Population at Central India

Authors: M. S. Sarkar, J. A. Johnson, S. Sen, G. K. Saha, K. Ramesh

Abstract:

There is growing recognition of several important roles played by tigers for maintaining sustainable biodiversity at diverse ecosystems in South and South-East Asia. Only <3200 individuals are left in the wild because of poaching and habitat loss. Thus, restoring wild population is an emerging as well as important conservation initiative, but such efforts still remain challenging due to their elusive and solitary behavior. After careful translocation of few individuals, how reintroduced individuals colonize into suitable habitat and achieve stable stage population through reproduction is vital information for forest managers and policy makers of its 13 distribution range countries. Four wild and two captive radio collared tigers were reintroduced at Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya-pradesh, India during 2009-2014. We critically examined their settlement behavior and population growth over the period. Results from long term telemetry data showed that male explored larger areas rapidly in short time span, while females explored small area in long time period and with significant high rate of movement in both sexes during exploratory period. Significant difference in home range sizes of tigers were observed in exploratory and settlement period. Though all reintroduced tigers preferred densely vegetated undisturbed forest patches within the core area of tiger reserve, a niche based k select analysis showed that individual variation in habitat selection was prominent among reintroduced tigers. Total 18 litter of >42 known cubs were born with low mortality rate, high maternity rate, high observed growth rate and short generation time in both the sexes. The population achieved its carrying capacity in a very short time span, marking success of this current tiger conservation programme. Our study information could provide significant insights on the tiger biology of translocated tigers with implication for future conservation strategies that consider translocation based recovery in their range countries.

Keywords: reintroduction, tiger, home range, demography

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5 Spatial Ecology of an Endangered Amphibian Litoria Raniformis within Modified Tasmanian Landscapes

Authors: Timothy Garvey, Don Driscoll

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Within Tasmania, the growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis) has experienced a rapid contraction in distribution. This decline is primarily attributed to habitat loss through landscape modification and improved land drainage. Reductions in seasonal water-sources have placed increasing importance on permanent water bodies for reproduction and foraging. Tasmanian agricultural and commercial forestry landscapes often feature small artificial ponds, utilized for watering livestock and fighting wildfires. Improved knowledge of how L. raniformis may be exploiting anthropogenic ponds is required for improved conservation management. We implemented telemetric tracking in order to evaluate the spatial ecology of L. raniformis (n = 20) within agricultural and managed forestry sites, with tracking conducted periodically over the breeding season (November/December, January/February, March/April). We investigated (1) potential differences in habitat utilization between agricultural and plantation sites, and (2) the post-breeding dispersal of individual frogs. Frogs were found to remain in close proximity to ponds throughout November/December, with individuals occupying vegetative depauperate water bodies beginning to disperse by January/February. Dispersing individuals traversed exposed plantation understory and agricultural pasture land in order to enter patches of native scrubland. By March/April all individuals captured at minimally vegetated ponds had retreated to adjacent scrub corridors. Animals found in ponds featuring dense riparian vegetation were not recorded to disperse. No difference in behavior was recorded between sexes. Rising temperatures coincided with increased movement by individuals towards native scrub refugia. The patterns of movement reported in this investigation emphasize the significant contribution of manmade water-bodies towards the conservation of L. raniformis within modified landscapes. The use of natural scrubland as cyclical retreats between breeding seasons also highlights the importance of the continued preservation of remnant vegetation corridors. Loss of artificial dams or buffering scrubland in heavily altered landscapes could see the breakdown of the greater L. raniformis meta-population further threatening their regional persistence.

Keywords: habitat loss, modified landscapes, spatial ecology, telemetry

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4 Reservoir-Triggered Seismicity of Water Level Variation in the Lake Aswan

Authors: Abdel-Monem Sayed Mohamed

Abstract:

Lake Aswan is one of the largest man-made reservoirs in the world. The reservoir began to fill in 1964 and the level rose gradually, with annual irrigation cycles, until it reached a maximum water level of 181.5 m in November 1999, with a capacity of 160 km3. The filling of such large reservoir changes the stress system either through increasing vertical compressional stress by loading and/or increased pore pressure through the decrease of the effective normal stress. The resulted effect on fault zones changes stability depending strongly on the orientation of pre-existing stress and geometry of the reservoir/fault system. The main earthquake occurred on November 14, 1981, with magnitude 5.5. This event occurred after 17 years of the reservoir began to fill, along the active part of the Kalabsha fault and located not far from the High Dam. Numerous of small earthquakes follow this earthquake and continue till now. For this reason, 13 seismograph stations (radio-telemetry network short-period seismometers) were installed around the northern part of Lake Aswan. The main purpose of the network is to monitor the earthquake activity continuously within Aswan region. The data described here are obtained from the continuous record of earthquake activity and lake-water level variation through the period from 1982 to 2015. The seismicity is concentrated in the Kalabsha area, where there is an intersection of the easterly trending Kalabsha fault with the northerly trending faults. The earthquake foci are distributed in two seismic zones, shallow and deep in the crust. Shallow events have focal depths of less than 12 km while deep events extend from 12 to 28 km. Correlation between the seismicity and the water level variation in the lake provides great suggestion to distinguish the micro-earthquakes, particularly, those in shallow seismic zone in the reservoir–triggered seismicity category. The water loading is one factor from several factors, as an activating medium in triggering earthquakes. The common factors for all cases of induced seismicity seem to be the presence of specific geological conditions, the tectonic setting and water loading. The role of the water loading is as a supplementary source of earthquake events. So, the earthquake activity in the area originated tectonically (ML ≥ 4) and the water factor works as an activating medium in triggering small earthquakes (ML ≤ 3). Study of the inducing seismicity from the water level variation in Aswan Lake is of great importance and play great roles necessity for the safety of the High Dam body and its economic resources.

Keywords: Aswan lake, Aswan seismic network, seismicity, water level variation

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3 Recurrent Torsades De Pointes Post Direct Current Cardioversion for Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response

Authors: Taikchan Lildar, Ayesha Samad, Suraj Sookhu

Abstract:

Atrial fibrillation with the rapid ventricular response (AF-RVR) results in the loss of atrial kick and shortened ventricular filling time, which often leads to decompensated heart failure. Pharmacologic rhythm control is the treatment of choice, and patients frequently benefit from the restoration of sinus rhythm. When pharmacologic treatment is unsuccessful or a patient declines hemodynamically, direct cardioversion is the treatment of choice. Torsades de pointes, or “twisting of the points'' in French, is a rare but under-appreciated risk of cardioversion therapy. torsades de pointes account for fewer than 5% of the estimated 300,000 sudden cardiac deaths annually in the United States. A 61-year-old female with no significant past medical history presented to the ED with worsening dyspnea. An electrocardiogram (ECG) showed AF-RVR, and a chest X-ray was significant for bilateral pulmonary vascular congestion. Full dose anticoagulation and diuresis were initiated with moderate improvement in symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed biventricular systolic dysfunction with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30%. After consultation with an electrophysiologist, the consensus was to proceed with the restoration of sinus rhythm, which would likely improve the patient’s heart failure symptoms and possibly the ejection fraction. Transesophageal echocardiogram was negative for left atrial appendage thrombus. The patient was treated with a loading dose of amiodarone and underwent successful direct current cardioversion with 200 Joules. The patient was placed on telemetry monitoring for 24-hours and was noted to have frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with subsequent degeneration to torsades de pointes. The patient was found unresponsive and pulseless; cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated with cardioversion, and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved after four minutestonormal sinus rhythm. Post-cardiac arrest ECG showed sinus bradycardia with a calculated QTc of 592msec. The patient continued to have frequent PVCs and required two additional cardioversions to achieve ROSC with intravenous magnesium and lidocaine. An automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) was subsequently implanted for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The backup pacing rate of the AICD was set higher than usual in an attempt to prevent PVC-induced torsades de pointes. The patient did not have any further ventricular arrhythmias after implantation of the AICD. Overdrive pacing is a method utilized to treat PVC-induced torsades de pointes by preventing a patient’s susceptibility to R on T-wave induced ventricular arrhythmias. Pacing at a rate of 90 beats per minute succeeded in controlling the arrhythmia without the need for traumatic cardiac defibrillation. In our patient, conversion of AF-RVR to NSR resulted in a slower heart rate and an increased probability of PVC occurring on the T-wave and ensuing ventricular arrhythmia. This case highlights direct current cardioversion for AF-RVR resulting in persistent ventricular arrhythmia requiring ICD placement with overdrive pacing to prevent a recurrence.

Keywords: torsades, afib, cardioversion, refractory afib

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2 Argos-Linked Fastloc GPS Reveals the Resting Activity of Migrating Sea Turtles

Authors: Gail Schofield, Antoine M. Dujon, Nicole Esteban, Rebecca M. Lester, Graeme C. Hays

Abstract:

Variation in diel movement patterns during migration provides information on the strategies used by animals to maximize energy efficiency and ensure the successful completion of migration. For instance, many flying and land-based terrestrial species stop to rest and refuel at regular intervals along the migratory route, or at transitory ‘stopover’ sites, depending on resource availability. However, in cases where stopping is not possible (such as over–or through deep–open oceans, or over deserts and mountains), non-stop travel is required, with animals needing to develop strategies to rest while actively traveling. Recent advances in biologging technologies have identified mid-flight micro sleeps by swifts in Africa during the 10-month non-breeding period, and the use of lateralized sleep behavior in orca and bottlenose dolphins during migration. Here, highly accurate locations obtained by Argos-linked Fastloc-GPS transmitters of adult green (n=8 turtles, 9487 locations) and loggerhead (n=46 turtles, 47,588 locations) sea turtles migrating around thousand kilometers (over several weeks) from breeding to foraging grounds across the Indian and Mediterranean oceans were used to identify potential resting strategies. Stopovers were only documented for seven turtles, lasting up to 6 days; thus, this strategy was not commonly used, possibly due to the lack of potential ‘shallow’ ( < 100 m seabed depth) sites along routes. However, observations of the day versus night speed of travel indicated that turtles might use other mechanisms to rest. For instance, turtles traveled an average 31% slower at night compared to day during oceanic crossings. Slower travel speeds at night might be explained by turtles swimming in a less direct line at night and/or deeper dives reducing their forward motion, as indicated through studies using Argos-linked transmitters and accelerometers. Furthermore, within the first 24 h of entering waters shallower than 100 m towards the end of migration (the depth at which sea turtles can swim and rest on the seabed), some individuals travelled 72% slower at night, repeating this behavior intermittently (each time for a one-night duration at 3–6-day intervals) until reaching the foraging grounds. If the turtles were, in fact, resting on the seabed at this point, they could be inactive for up to 8-hours, facilitating protracted periods of rest after several weeks of constant swimming. Turtles might not rest every night once within these shallower depths, due to the time constraints of reaching foraging grounds and restoring depleted energetic reserves (as sea turtles are capital breeders, they tend not to feed for several months during migration to and from the breeding grounds and while breeding). In conclusion, access to data-rich, highly accurate Argos-linked Fastloc-GPS provided information about differences in the day versus night activity at different stages of migration, allowing us, for the first time, to compare the strategies used by a marine vertebrate with terrestrial land-based and flying species. However, the question of what resting strategies are used by individuals that remain in oceanic waters to forage, with combinations of highly accurate Argos-linked Fastloc-GPS transmitters and accelerometry or time-depth recorders being required for sufficient numbers of individuals.

Keywords: argos-linked fastloc GPS, data loggers, migration, resting strategy, telemetry

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1 Introducing Global Navigation Satellite System Capabilities into IoT Field-Sensing Infrastructures for Advanced Precision Agriculture Services

Authors: Savvas Rogotis, Nikolaos Kalatzis, Stergios Dimou-Sakellariou, Nikolaos Marianos

Abstract:

As precision holds the key for the introduction of distinct benefits in agriculture (e.g., energy savings, reduced labor costs, optimal application of inputs, improved products, and yields), it steadily becomes evident that new initiatives should focus on rendering Precision Agriculture (PA) more accessible to the average farmer. PA leverages on technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), earth observation, robotics and positioning systems (e.g., the Global Navigation Satellite System – GNSS - as well as individual positioning systems like GPS, Glonass, Galileo) that allow: from simple data georeferencing to optimal navigation of agricultural machinery to even more complex tasks like Variable Rate Applications. An identified customer pain point is that, from one hand, typical triangulation-based positioning systems are not accurate enough (with errors up to several meters), while on the other hand, high precision positioning systems reaching centimeter-level accuracy, are very costly (up to thousands of euros). Within this paper, a Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) is introduced, that can be adapted to any existing IoT field-sensing station infrastructure. The latter should cover a minimum set of requirements, and in particular, each station should operate as a fixed, obstruction-free towards the sky, energy supplying unit. Station augmentation will allow them to function in pairs with GNSS rovers following the differential GNSS base-rover paradigm. This constitutes a key innovation element for the proposed solution that encompasses differential GNSS capabilities into an IoT field-sensing infrastructure. Integrating this kind of information supports the provision of several additional PA beneficial services such as spatial mapping, route planning, and automatic field navigation of unmanned vehicles (UVs). Right at the heart of the designed system, there is a high-end GNSS toolkit with base-rover variants and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) capabilities. The GNSS toolkit had to tackle all availability, performance, interfacing, and energy-related challenges that are faced for a real-time, low-power, and reliable in the field operation. Specifically, in terms of performance, preliminary findings exhibit a high rover positioning precision that can even reach less than 10-centimeters. As this precision is propagated to the full dataset collection, it enables tractors, UVs, Android-powered devices, and measuring units to deal with challenging real-world scenarios. The system is validated with the help of Gaiatrons, a mature network of agro-climatic telemetry stations with presence all over Greece and beyond ( > 60.000ha of agricultural land covered) that constitutes part of “gaiasense” (www.gaiasense.gr) smart farming (SF) solution. Gaiatrons constantly monitor atmospheric and soil parameters, thus, providing exact fit to operational requirements asked from modern SF infrastructures. Gaiatrons are ultra-low-cost, compact, and energy-autonomous stations with a modular design that enables the integration of advanced GNSS base station capabilities on top of them. A set of demanding pilot demonstrations has been initiated in Stimagka, Greece, an area with a diverse geomorphological landscape where grape cultivation is particularly popular. Pilot demonstrations are in the course of validating the preliminary system findings in its intended environment, tackle all technical challenges, and effectively highlight the added-value offered by the system in action.

Keywords: GNSS, GBAS, precision agriculture, RTK, smart farming

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