Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: bistability

5 Homeostatic Analysis of the Integrated Insulin and Glucagon Signaling Network: Demonstration of Bistable Response in Catabolic and Anabolic States

Authors: Pramod Somvanshi, Manu Tomar, K. V. Venkatesh

Abstract:

Insulin and glucagon are responsible for homeostasis of key plasma metabolites like glucose, amino acids and fatty acids in the blood plasma. These hormones act antagonistically to each other during the secretion and signaling stages. In the present work, we analyze the effect of macronutrients on the response from integrated insulin and glucagon signaling pathways. The insulin and glucagon pathways are connected by DAG (a calcium signaling component which is part of the glucagon signaling module) which activates PKC and inhibits IRS (insulin signaling component) constituting a crosstalk. AKT (insulin signaling component) inhibits cAMP (glucagon signaling component) through PDE3 forming the other crosstalk between the two signaling pathways. Physiological level of anabolism and catabolism is captured through a metric quantified by the activity levels of AKT and PKA in their phosphorylated states, which represent the insulin and glucagon signaling endpoints, respectively. Under resting and starving conditions, the phosphorylation metric represents homeostasis indicating a balance between the anabolic and catabolic activities in the tissues. The steady state analysis of the integrated network demonstrates the presence of a bistable response in the phosphorylation metric with respect to input plasma glucose levels. This indicates that two steady state conditions (one in the homeostatic zone and other in the anabolic zone) are possible for a given glucose concentration depending on the ON or OFF path. When glucose levels rise above normal, during post-meal conditions, the bistability is observed in the anabolic space denoting the dominance of the glycogenesis in liver. For glucose concentrations lower than the physiological levels, while exercising, metabolic response lies in the catabolic space denoting the prevalence of glycogenolysis in liver. The non-linear positive feedback of AKT on IRS in insulin signaling module of the network is the main cause of the bistable response. The span of bistability in the phosphorylation metric increases as plasma fatty acid and amino acid levels rise and eventually the response turns monostable and catabolic representing diabetic conditions. In the case of high fat or protein diet, fatty acids and amino acids have an inhibitory effect on the insulin signaling pathway by increasing the serine phosphorylation of IRS protein via the activation of PKC and S6K, respectively. Similar analysis was also performed with respect to input amino acid and fatty acid levels. This emergent property of bistability in the integrated network helps us understand why it becomes extremely difficult to treat obesity and diabetes when blood glucose level rises beyond a certain value.

Keywords: bistability, diabetes, feedback and crosstalk, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
4 Effort Dynamics with Selective Predator Harvesting of a Ratio-Dependent Predator-Prey System

Authors: Uganta Yadav, Sunita Gakkhar

Abstract:

Sustainable harvesting of renewable resources is a core issue in fisheries and forest management. The over-exploitation of valuable resources has led to the undesirable extinction of several biological species causing non-reversible damage to ecology and the environment. In this paper, the selective predator harvesting is considered in a predator prey system. The logistic growth of prey and ratio-dependent functional response is assumed. The dynamically varying effort is employed for selective harvesting of predator species using the Michaelis-Menten type function. The boundedness, positivity, and persistence of the nonlinear dynamical system are established. The system being non-singular about the origin, its dynamics is explored by transforming it to a regular system. It is observed that the system may collapse even with positive initial conditions attracted to one of the boundary points under certain conditions. The local stability of various other equilibrium states of the dynamic model is investigated. The region of attraction of the interior equilibrium state is obtained using Lyapunov stability. The occurrence of hopf bifurcation about the coexistence equilibrium point with respect to the parameter m (fraction of predators available for harvesting) is established. The sustainable harvesting is possible in two ways firstly, in the form of a stable interior equilibrium state, and secondly, in the form of a limit cycle. Considering the fraction m as a control variable, the optimal harvesting policy is obtained using Pontraygin’s maximum principle. The two-parameter bifurcation diagram is obtained with respect to c and d (the cost of harvesting and the death rate of predators, respectively). The two bi-stability regions of parameter space are identified. One of the regions shows the bi-stability of the origin and the effort free equilibrium state. The other region involves the bi-stability of the origin and interior equilibrium state. It is proved that for sustainable harvesting of predators, the ratio of p to c (price to cost) should be greater than a certain threshold value dependent on predator density. The analytical results are illustrated numerically with different parametric values.

Keywords: bifurcation, bistability, coexistence, optimal harvesting, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
3 An Experimental Investigation of the Cognitive Noise Influence on the Bistable Visual Perception

Authors: Alexander E. Hramov, Vadim V. Grubov, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Maria K. Kurovskaуa, Anastasija E. Runnova

Abstract:

The perception of visual signals in the brain was among the first issues discussed in terms of multistability which has been introduced to provide mechanisms for information processing in biological neural systems. In this work the influence of the cognitive noise on the visual perception of multistable pictures has been investigated. The study includes an experiment with the bistable Necker cube illusion and the theoretical background explaining the obtained experimental results. In our experiments Necker cubes with different wireframe contrast were demonstrated repeatedly to different people and the probability of the choice of one of the cubes projection was calculated for each picture. The Necker cube was placed at the middle of a computer screen as black lines on a white background. The contrast of the three middle lines centered in the left middle corner was used as one of the control parameter. Between two successive demonstrations of Necker cubes another picture was shown to distract attention and to make a perception of next Necker cube more independent from the previous one. Eleven subjects, male and female, of the ages 20 through 45 were studied. The choice of the Necker cube projection was detected with the Electroencephalograph-recorder Encephalan-EEGR-19/26, Medicom MTD. To treat the experimental results we carried out theoretical consideration using the simplest double-well potential model with the presence of noise that led to the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of the stochastic process. At the first time an analytical solution for the probability of the selection of one of the Necker cube projection for different values of wireframe contrast have been obtained. Furthermore, having used the results of the experimental measurements with the help of the method of least squares we have calculated the value of the parameter corresponding to the cognitive noise of the person being studied. The range of cognitive noise parameter values for studied subjects turned to be [0.08; 0.55]. It should be noted, that experimental results have a good reproducibility, the same person being studied repeatedly another day produces very similar data with very close levels of cognitive noise. We found an excellent agreement between analytically deduced probability and the results obtained in the experiment. A good qualitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results indicates that even such a simple model allows simulating brain cognitive dynamics and estimating important cognitive characteristic of the brain, such as brain noise.

Keywords: bistability, brain, noise, perception, stochastic processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
2 Dynamic EEG Desynchronization in Response to Vicarious Pain

Authors: Justin Durham, Chanda Rooney, Robert Mather, Mickie Vanhoy

Abstract:

The psychological construct of empathy is to understand a person’s cognitive perspective and experience the other person’s emotional state. Deciphering emotional states is conducive for interpreting vicarious pain. Observing others' physical pain activates neural networks related to the actual experience of pain itself. The study addresses empathy as a nonlinear dynamic process of simulation for individuals to understand the mental states of others and experience vicarious pain, exhibiting self-organized criticality. Such criticality follows from a combination of neural networks with an excitatory feedback loop generating bistability to resonate permutated empathy. Cortical networks exhibit diverse patterns of activity, including oscillations, synchrony and waves, however, the temporal dynamics of neurophysiological activities underlying empathic processes remain poorly understood. Mu rhythms are EEG oscillations with dominant frequencies of 8-13 Hz becoming synchronized when the body is relaxed with eyes open and when the sensorimotor system is in idle, thus, mu rhythm synchrony is expected to be highest in baseline conditions. When the sensorimotor system is activated either by performing or simulating action, mu rhythms become suppressed or desynchronize, thus, should be suppressed while observing video clips of painful injuries if previous research on mirror system activation holds. Twelve undergraduates contributed EEG data and survey responses to empathy and psychopathy scales in addition to watching consecutive video clips of sports injuries. Participants watched a blank, black image on a computer monitor before and after observing a video of consecutive sports injuries incidents. Each video condition lasted five-minutes long. A BIOPAC MP150 recorded EEG signals from sensorimotor and thalamocortical regions related to a complex neural network called the ‘pain matrix’. Physical and social pain are activated in this network to resonate vicarious pain responses to processing empathy. Five EEG single electrode locations were applied to regions measuring sensorimotor electrical activity in microvolts (μV) to monitor mu rhythms. EEG signals were sampled at a rate of 200 Hz. Mu rhythm desynchronization was measured via 8-13 Hz at electrode sites (F3 & F4). Data for each participant’s mu rhythms were analyzed via Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and multifractal time series analysis.

Keywords: desynchronization, dynamical systems theory, electroencephalography (EEG), empathy, multifractal time series analysis, mu waveform, neurophysiology, pain simulation, social cognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1 Transition Metal Bis(Dicarbollide) Complexes in Design of Molecular Switches

Authors: Igor B. Sivaev

Abstract:

Design of molecular machines is an extraordinary growing and very important area of research that it was recognized by awarding Sauvage, Stoddart and Feringa the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016 'for the design and synthesis of molecular machines'. Based on the type of motion being performed, molecular machines can be divided into two main types: molecular motors and molecular switches. Molecular switches are molecules or supramolecular complexes having bistability, i.e., the ability to exist in two or more stable forms, among which may be reversible transitions under external influence (heating, lighting, changing the medium acidity, the action of chemicals, exposure to magnetic or electric field). Molecular switches are the main structural element of any molecular electronics devices. Therefore, the design and the study of molecules and supramolecular systems capable of performing mechanical movement is an important and urgent problem of modern chemistry. There is growing interest in molecular switches and other devices of molecular electronics based on transition metal complexes; therefore choice of suitable stable organometallic unit is of great importance. An example of such unit is bis(dicarbollide) complexes of transition metals [3,3’-M(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]ⁿ⁻. The control on the ligand rotation in such complexes can be reached by introducing substituents which could provide stabilization of certain rotamers due to specific interactions between the ligands, on the one hand, and which can participate as Lewis bases in complex formation with external metals resulting in a change in the rotation angle of the ligands, on the other hand. A series of isomeric methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes containing methyl sulfide substituents at boron atoms in different positions of the pentagonal face of the dicarbollide ligands [8,8’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻, rac-[4,4’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ and meso-[4,7’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ were synthesized by the reaction of CoCl₂ with the corresponding methyl sulfide carborane derivatives [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻ and [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻. In the case of asymmetrically substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes the corresponding rac- and meso-isomers were successfully separated by column chromatography as the tetrabutylammonium salts. The compounds obtained were studied by the methods of ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry and quantum chemical calculations. It was found that in the solid state, the transoid- and gauche-conformations of the 8,8’- and 4,4’-isomers are stabilized by four intramolecular CH···S(Me)B hydrogen bonds each one (2.683-2.712 Å and 2.709-2.752 Å, respectively), whereas gauche-conformation of the 4,7’-isomer is stabilized by two intramolecular CH···S hydrogen bonds (2.699-2.711 Å). The existence of the intramolecular CH·S(Me)B hydrogen bonding in solutions was supported by the 1H NMR spectroscopy. These data are in a good agreement with results of the quantum chemical calculations. The corresponding iron and nickel complexes were synthesized as well. The reaction of the methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) with various labile transition metal complexes results in rupture of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and complexation of the methyl sulfide groups with external metal. This results in stabilization of other rotational conformation of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) and can be used in design of molecular switches. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (16-13-10331).

Keywords: molecular switches, NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, transition metal bis(dicarbollide) complexes, quantum chemical calculations

Procedia PDF Downloads 70