Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: reclamation

73 Effects of Reclamation on Seasonal Dynamic of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Stoichiometry in Suaeda salsa

Authors: Yajun Qiao, Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Shuqing An


In order to relieve the pressure on a land resource from a huge population, reclamation has occurred in many coastal wetlands. Plants can maintain their elemental composition within normal limits despite the variations of external conditions. Reclamation may affect carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry in the plant to some extent by altering physical and chemical properties of soil in a coastal wetland. We reported the seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in root, stem and leaf of Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. and in soil between reclamation plots and natural plots. Our results of three-way ANOVA indicated that sampling season always had significant effect on C, N, P concentrations and their ratios; organ had no significant effect on N, P concentration and N:P; plot type had no significant effect on N concentration and C:N. Sampling season explained the most variability of tissue N and P contents, C:N, C:P and N:P, while it’s organ for C using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. By independent sample T-test, we found that reclamation affect more on C, N and P stoichiometry of stem than that of root or leaf on the whole. While there was no difference between reclamation plots and natural plots for soil in four seasons. For three organs, C concentration had peak values in autumn and minimum values in spring while N concentration had peak values in spring and minimum values in autumn. For P concentration, three organs all had peak values in spring; however, the root had minimum value in winter, the stem had that in autumn, and leaf had that in summer. The seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in a leaf of Suaeda salsa were much steadier than that in root or stem under the drive of reclamation.

Keywords: nitrogen, phosphorus, reclamation, seasonal dynamic, Suaeda salsa

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
72 Reclamation of Fly Ash Dykes Using Naturally Growing Plant Species

Authors: Neelima Meravi, Santosh Prajapati


The present study was conducted over a period of three years on fly ash dyke. The physicochemical analysis of fly ash (pH, WHC, BD, porosity, EC% OC & available P, heavy metal content etc.) was performed before and after the growth of plant species. Fly ash was analyzed after concentrated nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-7000b(Shimadzu) for heavy metals. The dyke was colonized by the propagules of native species over a period of time, and it was observed that fly ash was contaminated by heavy metals and plants were able to ameliorate the metal concentration of dyke. The growth of plant species also improved the condition of fly ash so that it can be used for agricultural purposes. Phytosociological studies of the fly ash dyke were performed so that these plants may be used for reclamation of fly ash for subsequent use in agriculture.

Keywords: fly ash, heavy metals, IVI, phytosociology, reclamation

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
71 Reclamation of Molding Sand: A Chemical Approach to Recycle Waste Foundry Sand

Authors: Mohd Moiz Khan, S. M. Mahajani, G. N. Jadhav


Waste foundry sand (total clay content 15%) contains toxic heavy metals and particulate matter which make dumping of waste sand an environmental and health hazard. Disposal of waste foundry sand (WFS) remains one of the substantial challenges faced by Indian foundries nowadays. To cope up with this issue, the chemical method was used to reclaim WFS. A stirrer tank reactor was used for chemical reclamation. Experiments were performed to reduce the total clay content from 15% to as low as 0.9% in chemical reclamation. This method, although found to be effective for WFS reclamation, it may face a challenge due to the possibly high operating cost. Reclaimed sand was found to be satisfactory in terms of sand qualities such as total clay (0.9%), active clay (0.3%), acid demand value (ADV) (2.6%), loss on igniting (LOI) (3 %), grain fineness number (GFN) (56), and compressive strength (60 kPa). The experimental data generated on chemical reactor under different conditions is further used to optimize the design and operating parameters (rotation speed, sand to acidic solution ratio, acid concentration, temperature and time) for the best performance. The use of reclaimed sand within the foundry would improve the economics and efficiency of the process and reduce environmental concerns.

Keywords: chemical reclamation, clay content, environmental concerns, recycle, waste foundry sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
70 Physical and Morphological Response to Land Reclamation Projects in a Wave-Dominated Bay

Authors: Florian Monetti, Brett Beamsley, Peter McComb, Simon Weppe


Land reclamation from the ocean has considerably increased over past decades to support worldwide rapid urban growth. Reshaping the coastline, however, inevitably affects coastal systems. One of the main challenges for coastal oceanographers is to predict the physical and morphological responses for nearshore systems to man-made changes over multiple time-scales. Fully-coupled numerical models are powerful tools for simulating the wide range of interactions between flow field and bedform morphology. Restricted and inconsistent measurements, combined with limited computational resources, typically make this exercise complex and uncertain. In the present study, we investigate the impact of proposed land reclamation within a wave-dominated bay in New Zealand. For this purpose, we first calibrated our morphological model based on the long-term evolution of the bay resulting from land reclamation carried out in the 1950s. This included the application of sedimentological spin-up and reduction techniques based on historical bathymetry datasets. The updated bathymetry, including the proposed modifications of the bay, was then used to predict the effect of the proposed land reclamation on the wave climate and morphology of the bay after one decade. We show that reshaping the bay induces a distinct symmetrical response of the shoreline which likely will modify the nearshore wave patterns and consequently recreational activities in the area.

Keywords: coastal waves, impact of land reclamation, long-term coastal evolution, morphodynamic modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
69 The Role of Phytoremediation in Reclamation of Soil Pollution and Suitability of Certain Ornamental Plants to Phytoremediation

Authors: Bahriye Gülgün, Gökhan Balik, Şükrü Dursun, Kübra Yazici


The main reasons such as economic growth of society increase of the world population and rapid changes of industrialization cause the amount and the types of pollutants to increase over time. Soil pollution is the typical side effect of industrial activities. As a result of industrial activities, there are large amounts of heavy metal emission every year. Heavy metals are one of the highest pollution sources according to the soil pollution aspect. The usage of hyperaccumulator plants to clean heavy metal polluted soils and the selection of plants for phytoremediation gain importance recently. There are limited numbers of researches on the ornamental plant types of phytoremediation thus; researches on this subject are important. This research is prepared based on the ornamental plant types with phytoremediation abilities.

Keywords: phytoremediation, ornamental plants, landscape reclamation, soil reclamation, environmental pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
68 Historical Analysis of the Landscape Changes and the Eco-Environment Effects on the Coastal Zone of Bohai Bay, China

Authors: Juan Zhou, Lusan Liu, Yanzhong Zhu, Kuixuan Lin, Wenqian Cai, Yu Wang, Xing Wang


During the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of coastal land reclamation projects for residential, commercial and industrial purposes in more and more coastal cities of China, which led to the destruction of the wetlands and loss of the sensitive marine habitats. Meanwhile, the influences and nature of these projects attract widespread public and academic concern. For identifying the trend of landscape (esp. Coastal reclamation) and ecological environment changes, understanding of which interacted, and offering a general science for the development of regional plans. In the paper, a case study was carried out in Bohai Bay area, based on the analysis of remote sensing data. Land use maps were created for 1954, 1970, 1981, 1990, 2000 and 2010. Landscape metrics were calculated and illustrated that the degree of reclamation changes was linked to the hydrodynamic environment and macrobenthos community. The results indicated that the worst of the loss of initial areas occurred during 1954-1970, with 65.6% lost mostly to salt field; to 2010, Coastal reclamation area increased more than 200km² as artificial landscape. The numerical simulation of tidal current field in 2003 and 2010 respectively showed that the flow velocity in offshore became faster (from 2-5 cm/s to 10-20 cm/s), and the flow direction seem to go astray. These significant changes of coastline were not conducive to the spread of pollutants and degradation. Additionally, the dominant macrobenthos analysis from 1958 to 2012 showed that Musculus senhousei (Benson, 1842) spread very fast and had been the predominant species in the recent years, which was a disturbance tolerant species.

Keywords: Bohai Bay, coastal reclamation, landscape change, spatial patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
67 Ecological Planning Method of Reclamation Area Based on Ecological Management of Spartina Alterniflora: A Case Study of Xihu Harbor in Xiangshan County

Authors: Dong Yue, Hua Chen


The study region Xihu Harbor in Xiangshan County, Ningbo City is located in the central coast of Zhejiang Province. Concerning the wave dispating issue, Ningbo government firstly introduced Spartina alterniflora in 1980s. In the 1990s, S. alterniflora spread so rapidly thus a ‘grassland’ in the sea has been created nowadays. It has become the most important invasive plant of China’s coastal tidal flats. Although S. alterniflora had some ecological and economic functions, it has also brought series of hazards. It has ecological hazards on many aspects, including biomass and biodiversity, hydrodynamic force and sedimentation process, nutrient cycling of tidal flat, succession sequence of soil and plants and so on. On engineering, it courses problems of poor drainage and channel blocking. On economy, the hazard mainly reflected in the threat on aquaculture industry. The purpose of this study is to explore an ecological, feasible and economical way to manage Spartina alterniflora and use the land formed by it, taking Xihu Harbor in Xiangshan County as a case. Comparison method, mathematical modeling, qualitative and quantitative analysis are utilized to proceed the study. Main outcomes are as follows. By comparing a series of S. alterniflora managing methods which include the combination of mechanical cutting and hydraulic reclamation, waterlogging, herbicide and biological substitution from three standpoints – ecology, engineering and economy. It is inferred that the combination of mechanical cutting and hydraulic reclamation is among the top rank of S. alternifora managing methods. The combination of mechanical cutting and hydraulic reclamation means using large-scale mechanical equipment like large screw seagoing dredger to excavate the S. alterniflora with root and mud together. Then the mix of mud and grass was blown off nearby coastal tidal zone transported by pipelines, which can cushion the silt of tidal zone to form a land. However, as man-made land by coast, the reclamation area’s ecological sensitivity is quite high and will face high possibility of flood threat. Therefore, the reclamation area has many reasonability requirements, including ones on location, specific scope, water surface rate, direction of main watercourse, site of water-gate, the ratio of ecological land to urban construction land. These requirements all became important basis when the planning was being made. The water system planning, green space system planning, road structure and land use all need to accommodate the ecological requests. Besides, the profits from the formed land is the managing project’s source of funding, so how to utilize land efficiently is another considered point in the planning. It is concluded that by aiming at managing a large area of S. alterniflora, the combination of mechanical cutting and hydraulic reclamation is an ecological, feasible and economical method. The planning of reclamation area should fully respect the natural environment and possible disasters. Then the planning which makes land use efficient, reasonable, ecological will promote the development of the area’s city construction.

Keywords: ecological management, ecological planning method, reclamation area, Spartina alternifora, Xihu harbor

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66 Characterization of Lahar Sands for Reclamation Projects in the Manila Bay, Philippines

Authors: Julian Sandoval, Philipp Schober


Lahar sand (lahars) is a material that originates from volcanic debris flows. During and after a volcano eruption, the lahars can move at speeds up to 22 meters per hour or more, so they can easily cover extensive areas and destroy any structure in their path. Mount Pinatubo eruption (1991) brought lahars to its vicinities, and its use has been a matter of research ever since. Lahars are often disposed of for land reclamation projects in the Manila Bay, Philippines. After reclamation, some deep loss deposits may still present and they are prone to liquefaction. To mitigate the risk of liquefaction of such deposits, Vibro compaction has been proposed and used as a ground improvement technique. Cone penetration testing (CPT) campaigns are usually initiated to monitor the effectiveness of the ground improvement works by vibro compaction. The CPT cone resistance is used to analyses the in-situ relative density of the reclaimed sand before and after compaction. Available correlations between the CPT cone resistance and the relative density are only valid for non-crushable sands. Due to the partially crushable nature of lahars, the CPT data requires to be adjusted to allow for a correct interpretation of the CPT data. The objective of this paper is to characterize the chemical and mechanical properties of the lahar sands used for an ongoing project in the Port of Manila, which comprises reclamation activities using lahars from the east of Mount Pinatubo, it investigates their effect in the proposed correction factor. Additionally, numerous CPTs were carried out in a test trial and during the execution of the project. Based on this data, the influence of the grid spacing, compaction steps and the holding time on the compaction results are analyzed. Moreover, the so-called “aging effect” of the lahars is studied by comparing the results of the CPT testing campaign at different times after the vibro compaction activities. A considerable increase in the tip resistance of the CPT was observed over time.

Keywords: vibro compaction, CPT, lahar sands, correction factor, chemical composition

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65 Water Reclamation and Reuse in Asia’s Largest Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: Naveen Porika, Snigdho Majumdar, Niraj Sethi


Water, food and energy securities are emerging as increasingly important and vital issues for India and the world. Hyderabad urban agglomeration (HUA), the capital city of Andhra Pradesh State in India, is the sixth largest city has a population of about 8.2 million. The Musi River, which is a tributary of Krishna river flows from west to east right through the heart of Hyderabad, about 80% of the water used by people is released back as sewage, which flows back into Musi every day with detrimental effects on the environment and people downstream of the city. The average daily sewage generated in Hyderabad city is 950 MLD, however, treatment capacity exists only for 541 Million Liters per Day (MLD) but only 407 MLD of sewage is treated. As a result, 543 MLD of sewage daily flows into Musi river. Hyderabad’s current estimated water demand stands at 320 Million Gallons per Day (MGD). However, its installed capacity is merely 270 MGD; by 2020 estimated demand will grow to 400 MGD. There is huge gap between current supply and demand, and this is likely to widen by 2021. Developing new fresh water sources is a challenge for Hyderabad, as the fresh water sources are few and far from the City (about 150-200 km) and requires excessive pumping. The constraints presented above make the conventional alternatives for supply augmentation unsustainable and unattractive .One such dependable and captive source of easily available water is the treated sewage. With proper treatment, water of desired quality can be recovered from the waste water (sewage) for recycle and reuse. Hyderabad Amberpet sewage treatment of capacity 339 MLD is Asia’s largest sewage treatment plant. Tertiary sewage treatment Standard basic engineering modules of 30 MLD,60 MLD, 120MLD & 180 MLD for sewage treatment plants has been developed which are utilized for developing Sewage Reclamation & Reuse model in Asia’s largest sewage treatment plant. This paper will focus on Hyderabad Water Supply & Demand, Sewage Generation & Treatment, Technical aspects of Tertiary Sewage Treatment and Utilization of developed standard modules for reclamation & reuse of treated sewage to overcome the deficit of 130 MGD as projected by 2021.

Keywords: water reclamation, reuse, Andhra Pradesh, hyderabad, musi river, sewage, demand and supply, recycle, Amberpet, 339 MLD, engineering modules, tertiary treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
64 Assessment of Wastewater Reuse Potential for an Enamel Coating Industry

Authors: Guclu Insel, Efe Gumuslu, Gulten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tugba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatos Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Okmen Yildirim, Ozge Erturan, Betul Kirci


In order to eliminate water scarcity problems, effective precautions must be taken. Growing competition for water is increasingly forcing facilities to tackle their own water scarcity problems. At this point, application of wastewater reclamation and reuse results in considerable economic advantageous. In this study, an enamel coating facility, which is one of the high water consumed facilities, is evaluated in terms of its wastewater reuse potential. Wastewater reclamation and reuse can be defined as one of the best available techniques for this sector. Hence, process and pollution profiles together with detailed characterization of segregated wastewater sources are appraised in a way to find out the recoverable effluent streams arising from enamel coating operations. Daily, 170 m3 of process water is required and 160 m3 of wastewater is generated. The segregated streams generated by two enamel coating processes are characterized in terms of conventional parameters. Relatively clean segregated wastewater streams (reusable wastewaters) are separately collected and experimental treatability studies are conducted on it. The results reflected that the reusable wastewater fraction has an approximate amount of 110 m3/day that accounts for 68% of the total wastewaters. The need for treatment applicable on reusable wastewaters is determined by considering water quality requirements of various operations and characterization of reusable wastewater streams. Ultra-filtration (UF), Nano-filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes are subsequently applied on reusable effluent fraction. Adequate organic matter removal is not obtained with the mentioned treatment sequence.

Keywords: enamel coating, membrane, reuse, wastewater reclamation

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
63 Water Reclamation from Synthetic Winery Wastewater Using a Fertiliser Drawn Forward Osmosis System Evaluating Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic and Cellulose Triacetate Forward Osmosis Membranes

Authors: Robyn Augustine, Irena Petrinic, Claus Helix-Nielsen, Marshall S. Sheldon


This study examined the performance of two commercial forward osmosis (FO) membranes; an aquaporin (AQP) based biomimetic membrane, and cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane in a fertiliser is drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) system for the reclamation of water from synthetic winery wastewater (SWW) operated over 24 hr. Straight, 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ fertiliser solutions were evaluated as draw solutions in the FDFO system. The performance of the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA FO membranes were evaluated in terms of permeate water flux (Jw), reverse solute flux (Js) and percentage water recovery (Re). The average water flux and reverse solute flux when using 1 M KCl as a draw solution against controlled feed solution, deionised (DI) water, was 11.65 L/m²h and 3.98 g/m²h (AQP) and 6.24 L/m²h and 2.89 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. Using 1 M NH₄NO₃ as a draw solution yielded average water fluxes and reverse solute fluxes of 10.73 L/m²h and 1.31 g/m²h (AQP) and 5.84 L/m²h and 1.39 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. When using SWW as the feed solution and 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ as draw solutions, respectively, the average water fluxes observed were 8.15 and 9.66 L/m²h (AQP) and 5.02 and 5.65 L/m²h (CTA). Membrane water flux decline was the result of a combined decrease in the effective driving force of the FDFO system, reverse solute flux and organic fouling. Permeate water flux recoveries of between 84-98%, and 83-89% were observed for the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA membrane, respectively after physical cleaning by flushing was employed. The highest water recovery rate of 49% was observed for the 1 M KCl fertiliser draw solution with AQP-based biomimetic membrane and proved superior in the reclamation of water from SWW.

Keywords: aquaporin biomimetic membrane, cellulose triacetate membrane, forward osmosis, reverse solute flux, synthetic winery wastewater and water flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
62 Use of Bamboo Piles in Ground Improvement Design: Case Study

Authors: Thayalan Nall, Andreas Putra


A major offshore reclamation work is currently underway in Southeast Asia for a container terminal. The total extent of the reclamation extent is 2600m x 800m and the seabed level is around -5mRL below mean sea level. Subsoil profile below seabed comprises soft marine clays of thickness varying from 8m to 15m. To contain the dredging spoil within the reclamation area, perimeter bunds have been constructed to +2.5mRL. They include breakwaters of trapezoidal geometry, made of boulder size rock along the northern, eastern and western perimeters, with a sand bund along the southern perimeter. Breakwaters were constructed on a composite bamboo pile and raft foundation system. Bamboo clusters 8m long, with 7 individual Bamboos bundled together as one, have been installed within the footprint of the breakwater below seabed in soft marine clay. To facilitate drainage two prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) have been attached to each cluster. Once the cluster piles were installed, a bamboo raft was placed as a load transfer platform. Rafts were made up of 5 layers of bamboo mattress, and in each layer bamboos were spaced at 200mm centres. The rafts wouldn’t sink under their own weight, and hence, they were sunk by loading quarry run rock onto them. Bamboo is a building material available in abundance in Indonesia and obtained at a relatively low cost. They are commonly used as semi-rigid inclusions to improve compressibility and stability of soft soils. Although bamboo is widely used in soft soil engineering design, no local design guides are available and the designs are carried out based on local experience. In June 2015, when the 1st load of sand was pumped by a dredging vessel next to the breakwater, a 150m long section of the breakwater underwent failure and displaced the breakwater between 1.2m to 4.0m. The cause of the failure was investigated to implement remedial measures to reduce the risk of further failures. Analyses using both limit equilibrium approach and finite element modelling revealed two plausible modes of breakwater failure. This paper outlines: 1) Developed Geology and the ground model, 2) The techniques used for the installation of bamboo piles, 3) Details of the analyses including modes and mechanism of failure and 4) Design changes incorporated to reduce the risk of failure.

Keywords: bamboo piles, ground improvement, reclamation, breakwater failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
61 Experimental Investigation of Absorbent Regeneration Techniques to Lower the Cost of Combined CO₂ and SO₂ Capture Process

Authors: Bharti Garg, Ashleigh Cousins, Pauline Pearson, Vincent Verheyen, Paul Feron


The presence of SO₂ in power plant flue gases makes flue gas desulfurization (FGD) an essential requirement prior to post combustion CO₂ (PCC) removal facilities. Although most of the power plants worldwide deploy FGD in order to comply with environmental regulations, generally the achieved SO₂ levels are not sufficiently low for the flue gases to enter the PCC unit. The SO₂ level in the flue gases needs to be less than 10 ppm to effectively operate the PCC installation. The existing FGD units alone cannot bring down the SO₂ levels to or below 10 ppm as required for CO₂ capture. It might require an additional scrubber along with the existing FGD unit to bring the SO₂ to the desired levels. The absence of FGD units in Australian power plants brings an additional challenge. SO₂ concentrations in Australian power station flue gas emissions are in the range of 100-600 ppm. This imposes a serious barrier on the implementation of standard PCC technologies in Australia. CSIRO’s developed CS-Cap process is a unique solution to capture SO₂ and CO₂ in a single column with single absorbent which can potentially bring cost-effectiveness to the commercial deployment of carbon capture in Australia, by removing the need for FGD. Estimated savings of removing SO₂ through a similar process as CS-Cap is around 200 MMUSD for a 500 MW Australian power plant. Pilot plant trials conducted to generate the proof of concept resulted in 100% removal of SO₂ from flue gas without utilising standard limestone-based FGD. In this work, removal of absorbed sulfur from aqueous amine absorbents generated in the pilot plant trials has been investigated by reactive crystallisation and thermal reclamation. More than 95% of the aqueous amines can be reclaimed back from the sulfur loaded absorbent via reactive crystallisation. However, the recovery of amines through thermal reclamation is limited and depends on the sulfur loading on the spent absorbent. The initial experimental work revealed that reactive crystallisation is a better fit for CS-Cap’s sulfur-rich absorbent especially when it is also capable of generating K₂SO₄ crystals of highly saleable quality ~ 99%. Initial cost estimation carried on both the technologies resulted in almost similar capital expenditure; however, the operating cost is considerably higher in thermal reclaimer than that in crystalliser. The experimental data generated in the laboratory from both the regeneration techniques have been used to generate the simulation model in Aspen Plus. The simulation model illustrates the economic benefits which could be gained by removing flue gas desulfurization prior to standard PCC unit and replacing it with a CS-Cap absorber column co-capturing CO₂ and SO₂, and it's absorbent regeneration system which would be either reactive crystallisation or thermal reclamation.

Keywords: combined capture, cost analysis, crystallisation, CS-Cap, flue gas desulfurisation, regeneration, sulfur, thermal reclamation

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60 Reclamation of Saline and Alkaline Soils through Aquaculture: A Review and Prospects for Future Research

Authors: M. Shivakumar, S. R. Somashekhar, C. V. Raju


Secondary salinization of agricultural lands in any command areas of the world is the major issue in the recent past. Currently, it is estimated that the 954 mh of saline and alkaline soil is present in the world. Thousands of hectares of land, getting added every year. Argentina, Bangladesh and Australia are most affected countries. In India, out of 142.80 million hectare (mh) cropped area, 56 mh is irrigated area. Of which, more than 9 mh (about 16.%) of land is found to be alkaline/saline. Due to continuous utilization of same land for same agricultural activities, excessive usage of fertilizers and water, most of the soils have become alkaline, saline or water logged. These lands are low productive and at times totally unfit for agricultural activities. These soils may or may not posses good physical condition, but plants may suffer from its inability to absorb water from salty solution. Plants suffer from dehydration and loose water to the soil, shrink, resulting death of plant. This process is called plasmolysis. It is the fact that soil is an independent, organic body of nature that acquires properties in accordance with forces which act upon it. Aquaculture is one of the solutions to utilize such problematic soils for food production. When the impoundments are constructed in an area 10-15% of the affected areas, the excess water along with the salts gets into impoundments and management of salt is easier in water than in the soil. Due to high organic input in aquaculture such as feed, manure and continuous deposition of fecal matter, pH of the soil gets reduced and over the period of time such soils can be put back into the original activity. Under National Agricultural Development Program (NADP), the project was implemented in 258 villages of Mandya District, Karnataka State, India and found that these lands can be effectively utilized for fish culture and increase the proteinacious food production by many folds while conserving the soils. The findings of the research can be adopted and up scaled in any country.

Keywords: saline and alkaline soils, Aquaculture, Problematic soils, Reclamation

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59 Lessons from Farmers Performing Agroforestry for Reclamation of Gold Mine Spoils in Colombia

Authors: Bibiana Betancur-Corredor, Juan Carlos Loaiza, Manfred Denich, Christian Borgemeister


Alluvial gold mining generates a vast amount of deposits that cover the natural soil and negatively impacts riverbeds and valleys, causing loss of livelihood opportunities for farmers of these regions. In Colombia, more than 79,000 ha are affected by alluvial gold mining, therefore developing strategies to return this land to productivity is of crucial importance for the country. A novel restoration strategy has been created by a mining company, where the land is restored through the establishment of agroforestry systems, in which agricultural crops and livestock are combined to complement reforestation in the area. The purpose of this study is to capture the knowledge of farmers who perform agroforestry in areas with deposits created by alluvial gold mining activities. Semi structured interviews were conducted with farmers with regard to the following: indicators of soil fertility, management practices, soil heterogeneity, pest outbreaks and weeds. In order to compare the perceptions of soil fertility of farmers with physicochemical properties of soils, the farmers were asked to identify spots within their farms that have exhibited good and poor yields. Soil samples were collected in order to correlate farmer’s perceptions with soil physicochemical properties. The findings suggest that the main challenge that farmers face is the identification of fertile soil for crop establishment. They identify the fertile soil through visually analyzing soil color and compaction as well as the use of spontaneous growth of specific plants as indicator of soil fertility. For less fertile areas, nitrogen fixing plants are used as green manure to restore soil fertility for crop establishment. The findings of this study imply that if gold mining is followed by reclamation practices that involve the successful establishment of productive farmlands, agricultural productivity of these lands might improve, increasing food security of the affected communities.

Keywords: agroforestry, knowledge, mining, restoration

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
58 Analysing the Perception of Climate Hazards on Biodiversity Conservation in Mining Landscapes within Southwestern Ghana

Authors: Salamatu Shaibu, Jan Hernning Sommer


Integrating biodiversity conservation practices in mining landscapes ensures the continual provision of various ecosystem services to the dependent communities whilst serving as ecological insurance for corporate mining when purchasing reclamation security bonds. Climate hazards such as long dry seasons, erratic rainfall patterns, and extreme weather events contribute to biodiversity loss in addition to the impact due to mining. Both corporate mining and mine-fringe communities perceive the effect of climate on biodiversity from the context of the benefits they accrue, which motivate their conservation practices. In this study, pragmatic approaches including semi-structured interviews, field visual observation, and review were used to collect data on corporate mining employees and households of fringing communities in the southwestern mining hub. The perceived changes in the local climatic conditions and the consequences on environmental management practices that promote biodiversity conservation were examined. Using a thematic content analysis tool, the result shows that best practices such as concurrent land rehabilitation, reclamation ponds, artificial wetlands, land clearance, and topsoil management are directly affected by prolonging long dry seasons and erratic rainfall patterns. Excessive dust and noise generation directly affect both floral and faunal diversity coupled with excessive fire outbreaks in rehabilitated lands and nearby forest reserves. Proposed adaptive measures include engaging national conservation authorities to promote reforestation projects around forest reserves. National government to desist from using permit for mining concessions in forest reserves, engaging local communities through educational campaigns to control forest encroachment and burning, promoting community-based resource management to promote community ownership, and provision of stricter environmental legislation to compel corporate, artisanal, and small scale mining companies to promote biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, climate hazards, corporate mining, mining landscapes

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
57 Recovery of Boron from Industrial Wastewater by Chemical Oxo-Precipitation

Authors: Yao-Hui Huang, Ming-Chun Yen, Jui-Yen Lin, Yu-Jen Shih


This work investigated the reclamation of boron in industrial wastewaters by a chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) technique at room temperature. In COP, the boric acid was pretreated with H₂O₂, yielding various perborate anions. Afterwards, calcium chloride was used to efficiently remove boron through precipitation of calcium perborate. The important factors included reacted pH and the molar ratio of [Ca]/[B]. Under conditions of pH 11 and [Ca]/[B] of 1, the boron concentration could be reduced immediately from 600 ppm to 50 ppm in 10 minutes. The boron removal was enhanced with a higher [Ca]/[B], which further reduced boron to 20 ppm in 10 minutes. Nevertheless, the dissolution of carbon dioxide potentially affected the efficacy of COP and increased the boron concentration after 10 minutes.

Keywords: chemical oxo-precipitation, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen peroxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
56 Comparing the Durability of Saudi Silica Sands for Use in Foundry Processing

Authors: Mahdi Alsagour, Sam Ramrattan


This paper was developed to investigate two types of sands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for potential use in the global metal casting industry. Four types of sands were selected for study, two of the sand systems investigated are natural sands from the KSA. The third sand sample is a heat processed synthetic sand and the last sample is commercially available US silica sand that is used as a control in the study. The purpose of this study is to define the durability of the four sand systems selected for foundry usage. Additionally, chemical analysis of the sand systems is presented before and after elevated temperature exposure. Results show that Saudi silica sands are durable and can be used in foundry processing.

Keywords: alternative molding media, foundry sand, reclamation, silica sand, specialty sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
55 Assessment of Water Reuse Potential in a Metal Finishing Factory

Authors: Efe Gumuslu, Guclu Insel, Gülten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tuğba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatoş Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Ökmen Yildirim, Özge Erturan, Betül Kirci


Although water reclamation and reuse are inseparable parts of sustainable production concept all around the world, current levels of reuse constitute only a small fraction of the total volume of industrial effluents. Nowadays, within the perspective of serious climate change, wastewater reclamation and reuse practices should be considered as a requirement. Industrial sector is one of the largest users of water sources. The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 predicts that global water demand for manufacturing will increase by 400% from 2000 to 2050 which is much larger than any other sector. Metal finishing industry is one of the industries that requires high amount of water during the manufacturing. Therefore, actions regarding the improvement of wastewater treatment and reuse should be undertaken on both economic and environmental sustainability grounds. Process wastewater can be reused for more purposes if the appropriate treatment systems are installed to treat the wastewater to the required quality level. Recent studies showed that membrane separation techniques may help in solving the problem of attaining a suitable quality of water that allows being recycled back to the process. The metal finishing factory where this study is conducted is one of the biggest white-goods manufacturers in Turkey. The sheet metal parts used in the cookers production have to be exposed to surface pre-treatment processes composed of degreasing, rinsing, nanoceramics coating and deionization rinsing processes, consecutively. The wastewater generating processes in the factory are enamel coating, painting and styrofoam processes. In the factory, the main source of water is the well water. While some part of the well water is directly used in the processes after passing through resin treatment, some portion of it is directed to the reverse osmosis treatment to obtain required water quality for enamel coating and painting processes. In addition to these processes another important source of water that can be considered as a potential water source is rainwater (3660 tons/year). In this study, process profiles as well as pollution profiles were assessed by a detailed quantitative and qualitative characterization of the wastewater sources generated in the factory. Based on the preliminary results the main water sources that can be considered for reuse in the processes were determined as painting and styrofoam processes.

Keywords: enamel coating, painting, reuse, wastewater

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54 The Study of Hydro Physical Complex Characteristic of Clay Soil-Ground of Colchis Lowland

Authors: Paata Sitchinava


It has been studied phenomena subjected on the water physical (hydrophysical, mineralogy containing, specific hydrophysical) class of heavy clay soils of the Colchis lowland, according to various categories and forms of the porous water, which will be the base of the distributed used methods of the engineering practice and reclamation effectiveness evaluation. According to of clay grounds data, it has been chosen three research bases section in the central part of lowland, where has implemented investigation works by using a special program. It has been established, that three of cuts are somewhat identical, and by morphological grounds separated layers are the difference by Gallic quality. It has been implemented suitable laboratory experimental research at the samples taken from the cuts, at the base of these created classification mark of physical-technical characteristic, which is the base of suitable calculation of hydrophysical researches.

Keywords: Colchis lowland, drainage, water, soil-ground

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53 Transforming Ganges to be a Living River through Waste Water Management

Authors: P. M. Natarajan, Shambhu Kallolikar, S. Ganesh


By size and volume of water, Ganges River basin is the biggest among the fourteen major river basins in India. By Hindu’s faith, it is the main ‘holy river’ in this nation. But, of late, the pollution load, both domestic and industrial sources are deteriorating the surface and groundwater as well as land resources and hence the environment of the Ganges River basin is under threat. Seeing this scenario, the Indian government began to reclaim this river by two Ganges Action Plans I and II since 1986 by spending Rs. 2,747.52 crores ($457.92 million). But the result was no improvement in the water quality of the river and groundwater and environment even after almost three decades of reclamation, and hence now the New Indian Government is taking extra care to rejuvenate this river and allotted Rs. 2,037 cores ($339.50 million) in 2014 and Rs. 20,000 crores ($3,333.33 million) in 2015. The reasons for the poor water quality and stinking environment even after three decades of reclamation of the river are either no treatment/partial treatment of the sewage. Hence, now the authors are suggesting a tertiary level treatment standard of sewages of all sources and origins of the Ganges River basin and recycling the entire treated water for nondomestic uses. At 20million litres per day (MLD) capacity of each sewage treatment plant (STP), this basin needs about 2020 plants to treat the entire sewage load. Cost of the STPs is Rs. 3,43,400 million ($5,723.33 million) and the annual maintenance cost is Rs. 15,352 million ($255.87 million). The advantages of the proposed exercise are: we can produce a volume of 1,769.52 million m3 of biogas. Since biogas is energy, can be used as a fuel, for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. It is possible to generate about 3,539.04 million kilowatt electricity per annum from the biogas generated in the process of wastewater treatment in Ganges basin. The income generation from electricity works out to Rs 10,617.12million ($176.95million). This power can be used to bridge the supply and demand gap of energy in the power hungry villages where 300million people are without electricity in India even today, and to run these STPs as well. The 664.18 million tonnes of sludge generated by the treatment plants per annum can be used in agriculture as manure with suitable amendments. By arresting the pollution load the 187.42 cubic kilometer (km3) of groundwater potential of the Ganges River basin could be protected from deterioration. Since we can recycle the sewage for non-domestic purposes, about 14.75km3 of fresh water per annum can be conserved for future use. The total value of the water saving per annum is Rs.22,11,916million ($36,865.27million) and each citizen of Ganges River basin can save Rs. 4,423.83/ ($73.73) per annum and Rs. 12.12 ($0.202) per day by recycling the treated water for nondomestic uses. Further the environment of this basin could be kept clean by arresting the foul smell as well as the 3% of greenhouse gages emission from the stinking waterways and land. These are the ways to reclaim the waterways of Ganges River basin from deterioration.

Keywords: Holy Ganges River, lifeline of India, wastewater treatment and management, making Ganges permanently holy

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52 Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste Suitable for Concrete Production

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova


This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline of construction and demolition (C&D) waste management in Czech Republic. The results of research interest exhibit an increasing research interest in C&D waste management practices in recent years. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills, for reclamation or landscaping all the time. The quality of recycled aggregates for use in concrete construction depends on recycling practices. Classifications, composition and contaminants influence the mechanical-physical properties as well as environmental risks related to its utilization. The second part of contribution describes properties of fibre reinforced concrete with the full replacement of natural aggregate by recycled one (concrete or masonry rubble).

Keywords: construction and demolition waste, fibre reinforced concrete, recycled aggregate, recycling, waste management

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51 Maintenance Dredging at Port of Townsville

Authors: Mohamed Jaditager, Julie Lovisa, Nagaratnam Sivakugan


The Port of Townsville conducts regular annual maintenance dredging to maintain depths of its harbor basin and approach channels for the navigational safety of the vessels against the natural accumulation of marine sediments. In addition to the regular maintenance dredging, the port undertakes emergency dredging in cases where large quantities of sediments are mobilized and deposited in port waters by cyclone or major flood events. The maintenance dredging material derived from the port may be disposed at sea or on land in accordance with relevant state and commonwealth regulations. For the land disposal, the dredged mud slurry is hydraulically placed into containment ponds and left to undergo sedimentation and self-weight consolidation to form fill material for land reclamation. This paper provides an overview of the maintenance dredging at the Port of Townsville and emphasis on maintenance dredging requirements, sediment quality, bathymetry, dredging methods used, and dredged material disposal options.

Keywords: consolidation, dredged material, maintenance dredging, marine sediments, sedimentation

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50 Landfill Design for Reclamation of Şırnak Coal Mine Dumps: Shalefill Stability and Risk Assessment

Authors: Yıldırım I. Tosun, Halim Cevizci, Hakan Ceylan


By GEO5 FEM program with four rockfill slope modeling and stability analysis was performed for S1, S2, S3 and S4 slopes where landslides of the shalefills were limited. Effective angle of internal friction (φ'°) 17°-22.5°, the effective cohesion (c') from 0.5 to 1.8 kPa, saturated unit weight 1.78-2.43 g/cm3, natural unit weight 1.9-2.35 g/cm3, dry unit weight 1.97-2.40 g/cm3, the permeability coefficient of 1x10-4 - 6.5x10-4 cm/s. In cross-sections of the slope, GEO 5 FEM program possible critical surface tension was examined. Rockfill dump design was made to prevent sliding slopes. Bulk material designated geotechnical properties using also GEO5 programs FEM and stability program via a safety factor determined and calculated according to the values S3 and S4 No. slopes are stable S1 and S2 No. slopes were close to stable state that has been found to be risk. GEO5 programs with limestone rock fill dump through FEM program was found to exhibit stability.

Keywords: slope stability, stability analysis, rockfills, sock stability

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49 Sustainable Land Use Policy and Monitoring Urban Land Expansion in Kabul: A Case Study of Rapid Urbanization

Authors: Osama Hidayat, Yoshitaka Kajiat


Kabul is a city that is highly representative of Afghanistan’s rapid urbanization process. As the city rapidly expands, there are enormous challenges to the sustainable use of land resources. This paper evaluates land use change and urban spatial expansion, from 1950 to 2016, in Kabul the capital of Afghanistan, using satellite images, field observation, and socio-economic data. The discussion covers the reduction in rural-to-urban land conversion, the delineation of urban growth boundaries, arable land reclamation and the establishment of farmland protection areas, urban upgrading, and the investigation and prosecution of illegal construction. This paper considers the aspects of urbanization and land management systems in Afghanistan. Efficient frames are outlined in Kabul for the following elements: governmental self-restraint and policy modification. The paper concludes that Kabul’s sustainable land use practices can provide a reference for other cities in Afghanistan.

Keywords: urban land expansion, urbanization, land use policy, sustainable development

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48 Innovative Method for Treating Oil-Produced Water with Low Operating Cost

Authors: Maha Salman, Gada Al-Nuwaibit, Ahmed Al-Haji, Saleh Al-Haddad, Abbas Al-Mesri, Mansour Al-Rugeeb


The high salinity of oil-produced water and its complicated chemical composition, makes designing a suitable treatment system for oil-produced water is extremely difficult and costly. On the current study, a new innovative method was proposed to treat the complicated oil-produced water through a simple mixing with brine stream produced from waste water treatment plant. The proposal will investigate the scaling potential of oil-produce water, seawater and the selected brine water (BW) produced from Sulaibiya waste water treatment and reclamation plant (SWWTRP) before and after the mixing with oil-produced water, and will calculate the scaling potential of all expected precipitated salts using different conversion and different % of mixing to optimize the % of mixing between the oil-produced water and the selected stream. The result shows a great, feasible and economic solution to treat oil produced with a very low capital cost.

Keywords: brine water, oil-produced water, scaling potential, Sulaibiyah waste water and reclaminatin plant

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47 Evaluation of the Environmental Risk from the Co-Deposition of Waste Rock Material and Fly Ash

Authors: A. Mavrikos, N. Petsas, E. Kaltsi, D. Kaliampakos


The lignite-fired power plants in the Western Macedonia Lignite Center produce more than 8 106 t of fly ash per year. Approximately 90% of this quantity is used for restoration-reclamation of exhausted open-cast lignite mines and slope stabilization of the overburden. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the environmental behavior of the mixture of waste rock and fly ash that is being used in the external deposition site of the South Field lignite mine. For this reason, a borehole was made within the site and 86 samples were taken and subjected to chemical analyses and leaching tests. The results showed very limited leaching of trace elements and heavy metals from this mixture. Moreover, when compared to the limit values set for waste acceptable in inert waste landfills, only few excesses were observed, indicating only minor risk for groundwater pollution. However, due to the complexity of both the leaching process and the contaminant pathway, more boreholes and analyses should be made in nearby locations and a systematic groundwater monitoring program should be implemented both downstream and within the external deposition site.

Keywords: co-deposition, fly ash, leaching tests, lignite, waste rock

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46 Numerical Modeling of Flow in USBR II Stilling Basin with End Adverse Slope

Authors: Hamidreza Babaali, Alireza Mojtahedi, Nasim Soori, Saba Soori


Hydraulic jump is one of the effective ways of energy dissipation in stilling basins that the ‎energy is highly dissipated by jumping. Adverse slope surface at the end stilling basin is ‎caused to increase energy dissipation and stability of the hydraulic jump. In this study, the adverse slope ‎has been added to end of United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) II stilling basin in hydraulic model of Nazloochay dam with scale 1:40, and flow simulated into stilling basin using Flow-3D ‎software. The numerical model is verified by experimental data of water depth in ‎stilling basin. Then, the parameters of water level profile, Froude Number, pressure, air ‎entrainment and turbulent dissipation investigated for discharging 300 m3/s using K-Ɛ and Re-Normalization Group (RNG) turbulence ‎models. The results showed a good agreement between numerical and experimental model‎ as ‎numerical model can be used to optimize of stilling basins.‎

Keywords: experimental and numerical modelling, end adverse slope, flow ‎parameters, USBR II stilling basin

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45 Suitability Assessment of Water Harvesting and Land Restoration in Catchment Comprising Abandoned Quarry Site in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Rahel Birhanu Kassaye, Ralf Otterpohl, Kumelachew Yeshitila


Water resource management and land degradation are among the critical issues threatening the suitable livability of many cities in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Rapid expansion of urban areas and fast growing population has increased the pressure on water security. On the other hand, the large transformation of natural green cover and agricultural land loss to settlement and industrial activities such as quarrying is contributing to environmental concerns. Integrated water harvesting is considered to play a crucial role in terms of providing alternative water source to insure water security and helping to improve soil condition, agricultural productivity and regeneration of ecosystem. Moreover, it helps to control stormwater runoff, thus reducing flood risks and pollution, thereby improving the quality of receiving water bodies and the health of inhabitants. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of applying integrated water harvesting approaches as a provision for water source and enabling land restoration in Jemo river catchment consisting of abandoned quarry site adjacent to a settlement area that is facing serious water shortage in western hilly part of Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. The abandoned quarry site, apart from its contribution to the loss of aesthetics, has resulted in poor water infiltration and increase in stormwater runoff leading to land degradation and flooding in the downstream. Application of GIS and multi-criteria based analysis are used for the assessment of potential water harvesting technologies considering the technology features and site characteristics of the case study area. Biophysical parameters including precipitation, surrounding land use, surface gradient, soil characteristics and geological aspects are used as site characteristic indicators and water harvesting technologies including retention pond, check dam, agro-forestation employing contour trench system were considered for evaluation with technical and socio-economic factors used as parameters in the assessment. The assessment results indicate the different suitability potential among the analyzed water harvesting and restoration techniques with respect to the abandoned quarry site characteristics. Application of agro-forestation with contour trench system with the revegetation of indigenous plants is found to be the most suitable option for reclamation and restoration of the quarry site. Successful application of the selected technologies and strategies for water harvesting and restoration is considered to play a significant role to provide additional water source, maintain good water quality, increase agricultural productivity at urban peri-urban interface scale and improve biodiversity in the catchment. The results of the study provide guideline for decision makers and contribute to the integration of decentralized water harvesting and restoration techniques in the water management and planning of the case study area.

Keywords: abandoned quarry site, land reclamation and restoration, multi-criteria assessment, water harvesting

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44 Large Eddy Simulation of Particle Clouds Using Open-Source CFD

Authors: Ruo-Qian Wang


Open-source CFD has become increasingly popular and promising. The recent progress in multiphase flow enables new CFD applications, which provides an economic and flexible research tool for complex flow problems. Our numerical study using four-way coupling Euler-Lagrangian Large-Eddy Simulations to resolve particle cloud dynamics with OpenFOAM and CFDEM will be introduced: The fractioned Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved for fluid phase motion, solid phase motion is addressed by Lagrangian tracking for every single particle, and total momentum is conserved by fluid-solid inter-phase coupling. The grid convergence test was performed, which proves the current resolution of the mesh is appropriate. Then, we validated the code by comparing numerical results with experiments in terms of particle cloud settlement and growth. A good comparison was obtained showing reliability of the present numerical schemes. The time and height at phase separations were defined and analyzed for a variety of initial release conditions. Empirical formulas were drawn to fit the results.

Keywords: four-way coupling, dredging, land reclamation, multiphase flows, oil spill

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