Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: Ning Li

42 A Hybrid Multi-Objective Firefly-Sine Cosine Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization Problem

Authors: Gaohuizi Guo, Ning Zhang


Firefly algorithm (FA) and Sine Cosine algorithm (SCA) are two very popular and advanced metaheuristic algorithms. However, these algorithms applied to multi-objective optimization problems have some shortcomings, respectively, such as premature convergence and limited exploration capability. Combining the privileges of FA and SCA while avoiding their deficiencies may improve the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm. This paper proposes a hybridization of FA and SCA algorithms, named multi-objective firefly-sine cosine algorithm (MFA-SCA), to develop a more efficient meta-heuristic algorithm than FA and SCA.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, hybrid algorithm, multi-objective optimization, sine cosine algorithm

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41 Development of Configuration Software of Space Environment Simulator Control System Based on Linux

Authors: Zhan Haiyang, Zhang Lei, Ning Juan


This paper presents a configuration software solution in Linux, which is used for the control of space environment simulator. After introducing the structure and basic principle, it is said that the developing of QT software frame and the dynamic data exchanging between PLC and computer. The OPC driver in Linux is also developed. This driver realizes many-to-many communication between hardware devices and SCADA software. Moreover, an algorithm named “Scan PRI” is put forward. This algorithm is much more optimizable and efficient compared with "Scan in sequence" in Windows. This software has been used in practical project. It has a good control effect and can achieve the expected goal.

Keywords: Linux OS, configuration software, OPC Server driver, MYSQL database

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40 Study on Liquid Nitrogen Gravity Circulation Loop for Cryopumps in Large Space Simulator

Authors: Weiwei Shan, Wenjing Ding, Juan Ning, Chao He, Zijuan Wang


Gravity circulation loop for the cryopumps of the space simulator is introduced, and two phase mathematic model of flow heat transfer is analyzed as well. Based on this model, the liquid nitrogen (LN2) gravity circulation loop including its equipment and layout is designed and has served as LN2 feeding system for cryopumps in one large space simulator. With the help of control software and human machine interface, this system can be operated flexibly, simply, and automatically under four conditions. When running this system, the results show that the cryopumps can be cooled down and maintained under the required temperature, 120 K.

Keywords: cryopumps, gravity circulation loop, liquid nitrogen, two-phase

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39 Media Façades in the Wild: Some Lessons

Authors: Hai-Ning Liang, Xiaowei Dai, Nancy Diniz, Charles Fleming, Woon Kian Chong


Media displays in public areas are becoming increasingly pervasive—they are used in many settings, come in different sizes, serve different purposes, and have varied degrees of interactivity. In this paper, we aim to provide a survey of how these displays, often named media façades, are used in the wild in a city in China which is undergoing a rapid growth. This survey is intended to raise greater awareness and discussion about the use and effect of these displays in public areas. Through this survey, we have been able to distill some lessons of what is good, bad, and ugly about some current examples of media displays used in a city that is transitioning into becoming a modern one and one that is located in one of the fastest growing areas in Asia. With this research, we hope that we can provide technology designers and architects with some general principles that can help them integrate these types of technologies into their architectural creations.

Keywords: large displays, media façades, interaction design, architectural displays

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38 Current Status of 5A Lab6 Hollow Cathode Life Tests in Lanzhou Institute of Physics, China

Authors: Yanhui Jia, Ning Guo, Juan Li, Yunkui Sun, Wei Yang, Tianping Zhang, Lin Ma, Wei Meng, Hai Geng


The current statuses of lifetime test of LaB6 hollow cathode at the Lanzhou institute of physics (LIP), China, was described. 5A LaB6 hollow cathode was designed for LIPS-200 40mN Xenon ion thruster and it could be used for LHT-100 80 mN Hall thruster, too. Life test of the discharge and neutralizer modes of LHC-5 hollow cathode were stared in October 2011, and cumulative operation time reached 17,300 and 16,100 hours in April 2015, respectively. The life of cathode was designed more than 11,000 hours. Parameters of discharge and key structure dimensions were monitored in different stage of life test indicated that cathodes were health enough. The test will continue until the cathode cannot work or operation parameter is not in normally. The result of the endurance test of cathode demonstrated that the LaB6 hollow cathode is satisfied for the required of thruster in life and performance.

Keywords: LaB6, hollow cathode, thruster, lifetime test, electric propulsion

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37 Characterisation of the Physical Properties of Debris and Residual Soils Implications for the Possible Landslides Occurrence on Cililin West Java

Authors: Ikah Ning Prasetiowati Permanasari, Gunawan Handayani, Lilik Hendrajaya


Landslide occurence at Mukapayung, Cililin West Java with material movement downward slope as far as 500m and hit residential areas of the village Nagrog cause eighteen people died and ten homes were destroyed and twenty-three heads of families evacuated. In order to test the hypothesis that soil at the landslides area is prone to landslides, we do drilling and the following tests were taken: particle size distribution, atterberg limits, shear strength, density, shringkage limits and triaxial unconsolidated and consolidated undrained test. Factor of safety was calculated to find out the possibility of subsequent landslides. The value of FOS of three layers is 1,05 which means that the soil in a critical condition and would be imminent to slide if there is disruption from the outside.

Keywords: atterberg limits, particle size distribution, shear strength parameters, slope geometry, factor of safety

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36 A Security Cloud Storage Scheme Based Accountable Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption without Key Escrow

Authors: Ming Lun Wang, Yan Wang, Ning Ruo Sun


With the development of cloud computing, more and more users start to utilize the cloud storage service. However, there exist some issues: 1) cloud server steals the shared data, 2) sharers collude with the cloud server to steal the shared data, 3) cloud server tampers the shared data, 4) sharers and key generation center (KGC) conspire to steal the shared data. In this paper, we use advanced encryption standard (AES), hash algorithms, and accountable key-policy attribute-based encryption without key escrow (WOKE-AKP-ABE) to build a security cloud storage scheme. Moreover, the data are encrypted to protect the privacy. We use hash algorithms to prevent the cloud server from tampering the data uploaded to the cloud. Analysis results show that this scheme can resist conspired attacks.

Keywords: cloud storage security, sharing storage, attributes, Hash algorithm

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35 Equivalent Circuit Model for the Eddy Current Damping with Frequency-Dependence

Authors: Zhiguo Shi, Cheng Ning Loong, Jiazeng Shan, Weichao Wu


This study proposes an equivalent circuit model to simulate the eddy current damping force with shaking table tests and finite element modeling. The model is firstly proposed and applied to a simple eddy current damper, which is modelled in ANSYS, indicating that the proposed model can simulate the eddy current damping force under different types of excitations. Then, a non-contact and friction-free eddy current damper is designed and tested, and the proposed model can reproduce the experimental observations. The excellent agreement between the simulated results and the experimental data validates the accuracy and reliability of the equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, a more complicated model is performed in ANSYS to verify the feasibility of the equivalent circuit model in complex eddy current damper, and the higher-order fractional model and viscous model are adopted for comparison.

Keywords: equivalent circuit model, eddy current damping, finite element model, shake table test

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34 A Deletion-Cost Based Fast Compression Algorithm for Linear Vector Data

Authors: Qiuxiao Chen, Yan Hou, Ning Wu


As there are deficiencies of the classic Douglas-Peucker Algorithm (DPA), such as high risks of deleting key nodes by mistake, high complexity, time consumption and relatively slow execution speed, a new Deletion-Cost Based Compression Algorithm (DCA) for linear vector data was proposed. For each curve — the basic element of linear vector data, all the deletion costs of its middle nodes were calculated, and the minimum deletion cost was compared with the pre-defined threshold. If the former was greater than or equal to the latter, all remaining nodes were reserved and the curve’s compression process was finished. Otherwise, the node with the minimal deletion cost was deleted, its two neighbors' deletion costs were updated, and the same loop on the compressed curve was repeated till the termination. By several comparative experiments using different types of linear vector data, the comparison between DPA and DCA was performed from the aspects of compression quality and computing efficiency. Experiment results showed that DCA outperformed DPA in compression accuracy and execution efficiency as well.

Keywords: Douglas-Peucker algorithm, linear vector data, compression, deletion cost

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33 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao


Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.

Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wake

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32 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen


We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode, neural signal recording

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31 Potential Contribution of Combined High-Resolution and Fluorescence Remote Sensing to Coastal Ecosystem Service Assessments

Authors: Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An


Although most studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services, there is still a knowledge gap on coastal ecosystem services and an urgent need to assess them. Lau (2013) clearly defined five types of costal ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, shoreline protection, fish nursery, biodiversity, and water quality. While high-resolution remote sensing can provide the more direct, spatially estimates of biophysical parameters, such as species distribution relating to biodiversity service, and Fluorescence information derived from remote sensing direct relate to photosynthesis, availing in estimation of carbon sequestration and the response to environmental changes in coastal wetland. Here, we review the capabilities of high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing for describing biodiversity, vegetation condition, ecological processes and highlight how these prodicts may contribute to costal ecosystem service assessment. In so doing, we anticipate rapid progress to combine the high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing to estimate the spatial pattern of costal ecosystem services.

Keywords: ecosystem services, high resolution, remote sensing, chlorophyll fluorescence

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30 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee


Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biosorption, hydrometallurgy, gold, adsorption, reduction, biomass, sustainability

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29 Correlation between Funding and Publications: A Pre-Step towards Future Research Prediction

Authors: Ning Kang, Marius Doornenbal


Funding is a very important – if not crucial – resource for research projects. Usually, funding organizations will publish a description of the funded research to describe the scope of the funding award. Logically, we would expect research outcomes to align with this funding award. For that reason, we might be able to predict future research topics based on present funding award data. That said, it remains to be shown if and how future research topics can be predicted by using the funding information. In this paper, we extract funding project information and their generated paper abstracts from the Gateway to Research database as a group, and use the papers from the same domains and publication years in the Scopus database as a baseline comparison group. We annotate both the project awards and the papers resulting from the funded projects with linguistic features (noun phrases), and then calculate tf-idf and cosine similarity between these two set of features. We show that the cosine similarity between the project-generated papers group is bigger than the project-baseline group, and also that these two groups of similarities are significantly different. Based on this result, we conclude that the funding information actually correlates with the content of future research output for the funded project on the topical level. How funding really changes the course of science or of scientific careers remains an elusive question.

Keywords: natural language processing, noun phrase, tf-idf, cosine similarity

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28 Comparison of Interactive Performance of Clicking Tasks Using Cursor Control Devices under Different Feedback Modes

Authors: Jinshou Shi, Xiaozhou Zhou, Yingwei Zhou, Tuoyang Zhou, Ning Li, Chi Zhang, Zhanshuo Zhang, Ziang Chen


In order to select the optimal interaction method for common computer click tasks, the click experiment test adopts the ISO 9241-9 task paradigm, using four common operations: mouse, trackball, touch, and eye control under visual feedback, auditory feedback, and no feedback. Through data analysis of various parameters of movement time, throughput, and accuracy, it is found that the movement time of touch-control is the shortest, the operation accuracy and throughput are higher than others, and the overall operation performance is the best. In addition, the motion time of the click operation with auditory feedback is significantly lower than the other two feedback methods in each operation mode experiment. In terms of the size of the click target, it is found that when the target is too small (less than 14px), the click performance of all aspects is reduced, so it is proposed that the design of the interface button should not be less than 28px. In this article, we discussed in detail the advantages and disadvantages of the operation and feedback methods, and the results of the discussion of the click operation can be applied to the design of the buttons in the interactive interface.

Keywords: cursor control performance, feedback, human computer interaction, throughput

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27 Development of Rh/Ce-Zr-La/Al2O3 TWCs’ Wash Coat: Effect of Reactor on Catalytic and Thermal Stability

Authors: Su-Ning Wang, Yao-Qiang Chen


The CeO2-ZrO2-La2O3-Al2O3 composite oxides are synthesized using co-precipitation method by two different reactors (i.e. continuous stirred-tank reactor and batch reactor), and the corresponding Rh-only three-way catalysts are obtained by wet-impregnation approach. The textural, structural, morphology and redox properties of the support materials, as well as the catalytic performance of the Rh-only catalyst are investigated systematically. The results reveal that the materials (CZLA-C) synthesized by continuous stirred-tank reactor have a better physic-chemical properties than the counterpart material (CZLA-B) prepared by batch reactor. After aging treatment at 1000 ℃ for 5 h, the BET surface area and pore volume of S1 reach up to 76 m2 g-1 and 0.36 mL/g, respectively, which is higher than that of S2. The XRD and Raman results demonstrate that a high structural stability is obtained by S1 because of the negligible lattice variation and the slight grain growth after aging treatment. The SEM and TEM images display that the morphology of S1 is assembled by many homogeneous primary nanoparticles (about 6.12 nm) that are connected to form mesoporous structure The TPR measurement shows that S1 possesses a higher reduction ability than S2. Compared with the catalyst supported on the CZLA-B, the as-prepared CZLA-C demonstrates an improved three-way catalytic activity both before and after aging treatment.

Keywords: composite oxides, reactor, catalysis, catalytic performance

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26 An Alternative Framework of Multi-Resolution Nested Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Schemes for Solving Euler Equations with Adaptive Order

Authors: Zhenming Wang, Jun Zhu, Yuchen Yang, Ning Zhao


In the present paper, an alternative framework is proposed to construct a class of finite difference multi-resolution nested weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes with an increasingly higher order of accuracy for solving inviscid Euler equations. These WENO schemes firstly obtain a set of reconstruction polynomials by a hierarchy of nested central spatial stencils, and then recursively achieve a higher order approximation through the lower-order precision WENO schemes. The linear weights of such WENO schemes can be set as any positive numbers with a requirement that their sum equals one and they will not pollute the optimal order of accuracy in smooth regions and could simultaneously suppress spurious oscillations near discontinuities. Numerical results obtained indicate that these alternative finite-difference multi-resolution nested WENO schemes with different accuracies are very robust with low dissipation and use as few reconstruction stencils as possible while maintaining the same efficiency, achieving the high-resolution property without any equivalent multi-resolution representation. Besides, its finite volume form is easier to implement in unstructured grids.

Keywords: finite-difference, WENO schemes, high order, inviscid Euler equations, multi-resolution

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25 PointNetLK-OBB: A Point Cloud Registration Algorithm with High Accuracy

Authors: Wenhao Lan, Ning Li, Qiang Tong


To improve the registration accuracy of a source point cloud and template point cloud when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, a PointNetLK algorithm combined with an oriented bounding box (PointNetLK-OBB) is proposed. In this algorithm, the OBB of a 3D point cloud is used to represent the macro feature of source and template point clouds. Under the guidance of the iterative closest point algorithm, the OBB of the source and template point clouds is aligned, and a mirror symmetry effect is produced between them. According to the fitting degree of the source and template point clouds, the mirror symmetry plane is detected, and the optimal rotation and translation of the source point cloud is obtained to complete the 3D point cloud registration task. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment was performed using the publicly available ModelNet40 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with PointNetLK, PointNetLK-OBB improves the registration accuracy of the source and template point clouds when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, and the sensitivity of the initial relative position between the source point cloud and template point cloud is reduced. The primary contribution of this paper is the use of PointNetLK to avoid the non-convex problem of traditional point cloud registration and leveraging the regularity of the OBB to avoid the local optimization problem in the PointNetLK context.

Keywords: mirror symmetry, oriented bounding box, point cloud registration, PointNetLK-OBB

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24 Assessing the Impacts of Frugivorous Birds on Dispersal and Recruitment of Invasive Phytolacca Americana in an Urban Landscape

Authors: Ning Li, Yaner Yan, Yajun Qiao, Shu-qing An


Although seed dispersal is considered to be a key process determining the spatial structure and spread of invasive plant populations, few studies have explicitly addressed the link between dispersal vector behaviour, and seedling recruitment to gain insight into the process of exotic species invasion within a urban landscape. The present study tests the effects of native bird species on the dispersal and recruitment of invasive Phytolacca Americana in an urban garden. We found the invasive population of American pokeweed attracted both generalist species and specialist species to forage and disperse its seeds, with generalists Pycnonotus sinensis and Urocissa erythrorhyncha being by far the most important dispersers. Seedling numbers of P. Americana was strongly affected by perching behavior of bird dispersers. Moreover, two main disperser species, P. sinensis and U. erythrorhyncha govern a high quality dispersal service for P. Americana. Our results highlight the ability of invasive P. americana to recruit seed dispersal agents in urban habitats. However, if the newly recruited species could use the seedling safe site for perching shelter, the invasive plants will get a high regenerate rate in the invasive new habitats thus enhancing their invasive ability.

Keywords: frugivorous birds, phytolacca americana, seed dispersal, urban landscape

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23 An Improved Sub-Nyquist Sampling Jamming Method for Deceiving Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar

Authors: Yanli Qi, Ning Lv, Jing Li


Sub-Nyquist sampling jamming method (SNSJ) is a well known deception jamming method for inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). However, the anti-decoy of the SNSJ method performs easier since the amplitude of the false-target images are weaker than the real-target image; the false-target images always lag behind the real-target image, and all targets are located in the same cross-range. In order to overcome the drawbacks mentioned above, a simple modulation based on SNSJ (M-SNSJ) is presented in this paper. The method first uses amplitude modulation factor to make the amplitude of the false-target images consistent with the real-target image, then uses the down-range modulation factor and cross-range modulation factor to make the false-target images move freely in down-range and cross-range, respectively, thus the capacity of deception is improved. Finally, the simulation results on the six available combinations of three modulation factors are given to illustrate our conclusion.

Keywords: inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR), deceptive jamming, Sub-Nyquist sampling jamming method (SNSJ), modulation based on Sub-Nyquist sampling jamming method (M-SNSJ)

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22 Dancing Calligraphy: An Aesthetic Study of Dancing Ink (2017)

Authors: Chingwen Yeh, Chang Ning Hung


This paper aims to analysis the aesthetic qualities of Dancing Ink (2017) performed by Miao-Hsuan Dance Group in Taiwan. The premiere was performed at Taichung Seaport Art Center Exhibition Hall Room A, in Taichung Taiwan on March 11th, 2017. What calligraphic elements were applied into the contemporary dance choreography was examed by these authors. Although calligraphy and dance are two different art forms, one can see in Dancing Ink that the beauty of Yin Yang force circling; the flow of Chi from inner meditation to the outer physical action are resonated in both art forms. The aesthetic experience was documented through qualitative research methods. In-depth interviews were conducted within a focus group including the calligrapher, the choreographer, the participated professional dancers and the appreciators. Subject matter, movement qualities, characteristic and meaning are the four main areas of interpretation originated from Janet Adshead’s dance analytical theory. Based on all the research data collection and analysis, this research found: 1) Making invisible spirituality visible in relations to creative process, 2) An artistic symbol that transforms from two-dimensional into three-dimensional generates a new aesthetic value, 3) Choreography and calligraphy require different artistic skills and disciplines but expressed the similar dynamic and rhythm in their movement.

Keywords: Chi, Dancing Ink, Miao Hsuan Dance Group, Yin Yang force

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21 The Preparation of Titanate Nano-Materials Removing Efficiently Cs-137 from Waste Water in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Liu De-jun, Fu Jing, Zhang Rong, Luo Tian, Ma Ning


Cs-137, the radioactive fission products of uranium, can be easily dissolved in water during the accident of nuclear power plant, such as Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Fukushima accidents. The concentration of Cs in the groundwater around the nuclear power plant exceeded the standard value almost 10,000 times after the Fukushima accident. The adsorption capacity of Titanate nano-materials for radioactive cation (Cs+) is very strong. Moreover, the radioactive ion can be tightly contained in the nanotubes or nanofibers without reversible adsorption, and it can safely be fixed. In addition, the nano-material has good chemical stability, thermal stability and mechanical stability to minimize the environmental impact of nuclear waste and waste volume. The preparation of titanate nanotubes or nanofibers was studied by hydrothermal methods, and chemical kinetics of removal of Cs by nano-materials was obtained. The adsorption time with maximum adsorption capacity and the effects of pH, coexisting ion concentration and the optimum adsorption conditions on the removal of Cs by titanate nano-materials were also obtained. The adsorption boundary curves, adsorption isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cs-137 as tracer on the nano-materials were studied in the research. The experimental results showed that the removal rate of Cs-137 in 0.01 tons of waste water with only 1 gram nano-materials could reach above 98%, according to the optimum adsorption conditions.

Keywords: preparation, titanate, cs-137, removal, nuclear

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20 Fault Tolerant (n,k)-star Power Network Topology for Multi-Agent Communication in Automated Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Ning Gong, Michael Korostelev, Qiangguo Ren, Li Bai, Saroj K. Biswas, Frank Ferrese


This paper investigates the joint effect of the interconnected (n,k)-star network topology and Multi-Agent automated control on restoration and reconfiguration of power systems. With the increasing trend in development in Multi-Agent control technologies applied to power system reconfiguration in presence of faulty components or nodes. Fault tolerance is becoming an important challenge in the design processes of the distributed power system topology. Since the reconfiguration of a power system is performed by agent communication, the (n,k)-star interconnected network topology is studied and modeled in this paper to optimize the process of power reconfiguration. In this paper, we discuss the recently proposed (n,k)-star topology and examine its properties and advantages as compared to the traditional multi-bus power topologies. We design and simulate the topology model for distributed power system test cases. A related lemma based on the fault tolerance and conditional diagnosability properties is presented and proved both theoretically and practically. The conclusion is reached that (n,k)-star topology model has measurable advantages compared to standard bus power systems while exhibiting fault tolerance properties in power restoration, as well as showing efficiency when applied to power system route discovery.

Keywords: (n, k)-star topology, fault tolerance, conditional diagnosability, multi-agent system, automated power system

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19 Fault Tolerant (n, k)-Star Power Network Topology for Multi-Agent Communication in Automated Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Ning Gong, Michael Korostelev, Qiangguo Ren, Li Bai, Saroj Biswas, Frank Ferrese


This paper investigates the joint effect of the interconnected (n,k)-star network topology and Multi-Agent automated control on restoration and reconfiguration of power systems. With the increasing trend in development in Multi-Agent control technologies applied to power system reconfiguration in presence of faulty components or nodes. Fault tolerance is becoming an important challenge in the design processes of the distributed power system topology. Since the reconfiguration of a power system is performed by agent communication, the (n,k)-star interconnected network topology is studied and modeled in this paper to optimize the process of power reconfiguration. In this paper, we discuss the recently proposed (n,k)-star topology and examine its properties and advantages as compared to the traditional multi-bus power topologies. We design and simulate the topology model for distributed power system test cases. A related lemma based on the fault tolerance and conditional diagnosability properties is presented and proved both theoretically and practically. The conclusion is reached that (n,k)-star topology model has measurable advantages compared to standard bus power systems while exhibiting fault tolerance properties in power restoration, as well as showing efficiency when applied to power system route discovery.

Keywords: (n, k)-star topology, fault tolerance, conditional diagnosability, multi-agent system, automated power system

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18 Is Hormone Replacement Therapy Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hongxin Zhao, Shibing Yang, Bingming Yi, Yi Ning


Background: A few studies have found evidence that exposure to endogenous or postmenopausal exogenous estrogens may be associated with a lower prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but dispute over this association is ongoing due to inconsistent results reported by different studies. Objectives: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and AMD. Methods: Relevant studies that assessed the association between HRT and AMD were searched through four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by three independent reviewers. The fixed-effect meta-analyses were performed to estimate the association between HRT ever-use and AMD by pooling risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) across studies. Results: The review identified 2 prospective and 7 cross-sectional studies with 93992 female participants that reported an estimate of the association between HRT ever-use and presence of early AMD or late AMD. Meta-analyses showed that there were no statistically significant associations between HRT ever-use and early AMD (pooled RR for cohort studies was 1.04, 95% CI 0.86 - 1.24; pooled OR for cross-sectional studies was 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 - 1.01). The pooled results from cross-sectional studies also showed no statistically significant association between HRT ever-use and late AMD (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.89 - 1.15). Conclusions: The pooled effects from observational studies published to date indicate that HRT use is associated with neither early nor late AMD. Exposure to HRT may not protect women from developing AMD.

Keywords: hormone replacement therapy, age-related macular degeneration, meta-analysis, systematic review

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17 Efficient Implementation of Finite Volume Multi-Resolution Weno Scheme on Adaptive Cartesian Grids

Authors: Yuchen Yang, Zhenming Wang, Jun Zhu, Ning Zhao


An easy-to-implement and robust finite volume multi-resolution Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) scheme is proposed on adaptive cartesian grids in this paper. Such a multi-resolution WENO scheme is combined with the ghost cell immersed boundary method (IBM) and wall-function technique to solve Navier-Stokes equations. Unlike the k-exact finite volume WENO schemes which involve large amounts of extra storage, repeatedly solving the matrix generated in a least-square method or the process of calculating optimal linear weights on adaptive cartesian grids, the present methodology only adds very small overhead and can be easily implemented in existing edge-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes with minor modifications. Also, the linear weights of this adaptive finite volume multi-resolution WENO scheme can be any positive numbers on condition that their sum is one. It is a way of bypassing the calculation of the optimal linear weights and such a multi-resolution WENO scheme avoids dealing with the negative linear weights on adaptive cartesian grids. Some benchmark viscous problems are numerical solved to show the efficiency and good performance of this adaptive multi-resolution WENO scheme. Compared with a second-order edge-based method, the presented method can be implemented into an adaptive cartesian grid with slight modification for big Reynolds number problems.

Keywords: adaptive mesh refinement method, finite volume multi-resolution WENO scheme, immersed boundary method, wall-function technique.

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16 Energy-Saving Methods and Principles of Energy-Efficient Concept Design in the Northern Hemisphere

Authors: Yulia A. Kononova, Znang X. Ning


Nowadays, architectural development is getting faster and faster. Nevertheless, modern architecture often does not meet all the points, which could help our planet to get better. As we know, people are spending an enormous amount of energy every day of their lives. Because of the uncontrolled energy usage, people have to increase energy production. As energy production process demands a lot of fuel sources, it courses a lot of problems such as climate changes, environment pollution, animals’ distinction, and lack of energy sources also. Nevertheless, nowadays humanity has all the opportunities to change this situation. Architecture is one of the most popular fields where it is possible to apply new methods of saving energy or even creating it. Nowadays we have kinds of buildings, which can meet new willing. One of them is energy effective buildings, which can save or even produce energy, combining several energy-saving principles. The main aim of this research is to provide information that helps to apply energy-saving methods while designing an environment-friendly building. The research methodology requires gathering relevant information from literature, building guidelines documents and previous research works in order to analyze it and sum up into a material that can be applied to energy-efficient building design. To mark results it should be noted that the usage of all the energy-saving methods applied to a design project of building results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space heating or cooling. As a conclusion it can be stated that developing methods of passive house design can decrease the need of energy production, which is an important issue that has to be solved in order to save planet sources and decrease environment pollution.

Keywords: accumulation, energy-efficient building, storage, superinsulation, passive house

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15 Effects of Reclamation on Seasonal Dynamic of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Stoichiometry in Suaeda salsa

Authors: Yajun Qiao, Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Shuqing An


In order to relieve the pressure on a land resource from a huge population, reclamation has occurred in many coastal wetlands. Plants can maintain their elemental composition within normal limits despite the variations of external conditions. Reclamation may affect carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry in the plant to some extent by altering physical and chemical properties of soil in a coastal wetland. We reported the seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in root, stem and leaf of Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. and in soil between reclamation plots and natural plots. Our results of three-way ANOVA indicated that sampling season always had significant effect on C, N, P concentrations and their ratios; organ had no significant effect on N, P concentration and N:P; plot type had no significant effect on N concentration and C:N. Sampling season explained the most variability of tissue N and P contents, C:N, C:P and N:P, while it’s organ for C using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. By independent sample T-test, we found that reclamation affect more on C, N and P stoichiometry of stem than that of root or leaf on the whole. While there was no difference between reclamation plots and natural plots for soil in four seasons. For three organs, C concentration had peak values in autumn and minimum values in spring while N concentration had peak values in spring and minimum values in autumn. For P concentration, three organs all had peak values in spring; however, the root had minimum value in winter, the stem had that in autumn, and leaf had that in summer. The seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in a leaf of Suaeda salsa were much steadier than that in root or stem under the drive of reclamation.

Keywords: nitrogen, phosphorus, reclamation, seasonal dynamic, Suaeda salsa

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14 A Clinical Study of Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica: Findings from a Large Chinese Cohort

Authors: Ying Zhu, Ning Wu, Hai-Dong Huang, Yu-Chao Dong, Qin-Ying Sun, Wei Zhang, Qin Wang, Qiang Li


Background and study aims: Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is an uncommon disease of the tracheobronchial system that leads to narrowing of the airway lumen from cartilaginous and/or osseous submucosal nodules. The aim of this study is to perform a detailed review of this rare disease in a large cohort of patients with TO proven by fiberoptic bronchoscopy from China. Patients and Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed on 41,600 patients who underwent bronchoscopy in the Department of Respiratory Medicine of Changhai Hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Cases of TO were identified based on characteristic features during bronchoscopic examination. Results: 22 cases of bronchoscopic TO were identified. Among whom one-half were male and the mean age was 47.45 ±10.91 years old. The most frequent symptoms at presentation were chronic cough (n=14) and increased sputum production (n=10). Radiographic abnormalities were observed in 3/18 patients and findings on computed tomography consistent with TO such as beaded intraluminal calcifications and/or increased luminal thickenings were observed in 18/22 patients. Patients were classified into the following categories based on the severity of bronchoscopic findings: Stage I (n=2), Stage II (n=6) and Stage III(n=14). The result that bronchoscopic improvement was observed in 2 patients administered with inhaled corticosteroids suggested that resolution of this disease is possible. Conclusions: TO is a benign disease with slow progression, which could be roughly divided into 3 stages on the basis of the characteristic endoscopic features and histopathologic findings. Chronic inflammation was thought to be more important than the other existing plausible hypotheses in the course of TO. Inhaled corticosteroids might have some impact on patients at Stage I/II.

Keywords: airway obstruction, bronchoscopy, etiology, Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO), treatment

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13 Temperature and Substrate Orientation Effects on the Thermal Stability of Graphene Sheet Attached on the Si Surface

Authors: Wen-Jay Lee, Kuo-Ning Chiang


The graphene binding with silicon substrate has apparently Schottky barriers property, which can be used in the application of solar cell and light source. Because graphene has only one atom layer, the atomistic structure of graphene binding with the silicon surface plays an important role to affect the properties of graphene. In this work, temperature effect on the morphology of graphene sheet attached on different crystal planes of silicon substrates are investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) (LAMMPS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories). The results show that the covered graphene sheet would cause the structural deformation of the surface Si atoms of stubtrate. To achieve a stable state in the binding process, the surface Si atoms would adjust their position and fit the honeycomb structure of graphene after the graphene attaches to the Si surface. The height contour of graphene on different plane of silicon surfaces presents different pattern, leading the local residual stress at the interface. Due to the high density of dangling bond on the Si (111)7x7 surface, the surface of Si(111)7x7 is not matching with the graphene so well in contrast with Si(100)2x1and Si(111)2x1. Si(111)7x7 is found that only partial silicon adatoms are rearranged on surface after the attachment when the temperature is lower than 200K, As the temperature gradually increases, the deformation of surface structure becomes significant, as well as the residue stress. With increasing temperature till the 815K, the graphene sheet begins to destroy and mixes with the silicon atoms. For the Si(100)2x1 and Si(111)2x1, the silicon surface structure keep its structural arrangement with a higher temperature. With increasing temperature, the residual stress gradually decrease till a critical temperatures. When the temperature is higher than the critical temperature, the residual stress gradually increases and the structural deformation is found on the surface of the Si substrates.

Keywords: molecular dynamics, graphene, silicon, Schottky barriers, interface

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