Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 144

Search results for: sedimentation

144 Effect of Sedimentation on Torque Transmission in the Larger Radius Magnetorheological Clutch

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Chiranjit Sarkar


Sedimentation of magnetorheological (MR) fluid affects its working. MR fluid is a smart fluid that has unique qualities such as quick responsiveness and easy controllability. It is used in the MR damper, MR brake, and MR clutch. In this work effect of sedimentation on torque transmission in the shear mode operated MR clutch is investigated. A test rig is developed to test the impact of sedimentation on torque transmission in the MR clutch. Torque transmission capability of MR clutch has been measured under two conditions to confirm the result of sedimentation. The first experiment is done just after filling and the other after one week. It has been observed that transmission torque is decreased after sedimentation. Hence sedimentation affects the working of the MR clutch.

Keywords: clutch, magnetorheological fluid, sedimentation, torque

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143 Investigating Reservior Sedimentation Control in the Conservation of Water

Authors: Mosupi Ratshaa


Despite years of diligent study, sedimentation is still undoubtedly the most severe technical problem faced by the dam industry. The problem of sedimentation build-up and its removal should be the focus as an approach to remedy this. The world's reservoirs lose about 1% of their storage capacity yearly to sedimentation, what this means is that 1% of water that could be stored is lost the world-over. The increase in population means that the need for water also increases and, therefore, the loss due to sedimentation is of great concern especially to the conservation of water. When it comes to reservoir sedimentation, the thought of water conservation comes with soil conservation since this increasing sediment that takes the volume meant for water is being lost from dry land. For this reason, reservoir sediment control is focused on reducing sediment entering the reservoir and reducing sediment within the reservoir. There are many problems with sediment control such as the difficulty to predict settling patterns, inability to greatly reduce the sediment volume entering the river flow which increases the reservoirs trap efficiency just to mention a few. Notably reservoirs are habitats for flora and fauna, the process of removing sediment from these reservoirs damages this ecosystem so there is an ethical point to be considered in this section. This paper looks at the methods used to control the sedimentation of reservoirs and their effects to the ecosystem in the aim of reducing water losses due to sedimentation. Various control measures which reduce sediment entering the reservoir such as Sabo dams or Check dams along with measures which emphasize the reduction in built-up settled sediment such as flushing will be reviewed all with the prospect of conservation.

Keywords: sedimentation, conservation, ecosystem, flushing

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
142 Potential Micro Hydro at Irrigation Canal in the Gorontalo Province and Modeling Setling Basin for Reduction of Sedimentation Effect

Authors: Arifin Matoka, Nadjamuddin Harun, Salama Manjang, M. Arsyad Thaha


Along irrigation canals in certain areas falling water level height is have potential for micro hydro power plant (MHP), which generally MHP potential valley away from society consumer of electricity and needed a long conductor cable, so that with the MHP Irrigation is ideal are typical with an Open Flume type turbines. This study is divided into two phases research phase of the potential power that exist in irrigation channels at the Gorontalo Province and stages solution sedimentation effects. The total power generated in the irrigation channel of the results of this study at 781.83 Kw, it is quite significant for the 1737 rural households on average consumes 450 watt per household. In the field of observation, sedimentation lifting effect on the quality of electric power, at which time the turbid sediment concentrations occur significant voltage fluctuations causing damage to some household electrical appliances such as electronic equipment and lighting. This problem is solution by modeling the sedimentation tub (setling basin) to reduce sedimentation thus olso can reduce the regulation load control equipment which can minimize the cost of investment and maintenance.

Keywords: irrigation canals, microhydro powerplant, sedimentation, Gorontalo Province

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141 An Improvement of a Dynamic Model of the Secondary Sedimentation Tank and Field Validation

Authors: Zahir Bakiri, Saci Nacefa


In this paper a comparison in made between two models, with and without dispersion term, and focused on the characterization of the movement of the sludge blanket in the secondary sedimentation tank using the solid flux theory and the velocity settling. This allowed us develop a one-dimensional models, with and without dispersion based on a thorough experimental study carried out in situ and the application of online data which are the mass load flow, transfer concentration, and influent characteristic. On the other hand, in the proposed model, the new settling velocity law (double-exponential function) used is based on the Vesilind function.

Keywords: wastewater, activated sludge, sedimentation, settling velocity, settling models

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
140 Numerical Simulation of Kangimi Reservoir Sedimentation, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdurrasheed Sa'id, Abubakar Isma'il, Waheed Alayande


This study focused on carrying out numerical simulations of Kangimi reservoir sedimentation by reviewing different numerical sediment transport models, and GSTARS3 was selected. The model was developed using the 1977 data. It was calibrated by simulating the 2012 profile and sediment deposition and compared with 2012 hydrographic survey results of NWRI. The model was validated by simulating the 2016 deposition and compared the results with NWRI estimates. Also, the performance of the proposed model was tested using statistical parameters such as MSE (Mean Square Error), MAPE (Mean Average Percentage Error) and R2 (Coefficient of determination) with values of 1.32m, 0.17% and 0.914 respectively which shows strong agreement. After the calibration, validation and performance testing the model was used to simulate the 2032 and 2062 profiles and deposition. The results showed that by 2032 the reservoir will be silted by 25.34MCM or 43.3% of the design capacity and 60.7% of the capacity by the year 2062. A number of sedimentation mitigation measures were recommended.

Keywords: NWRI- national water resources institute, sedimentation, GSTARS3, model

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139 Sediment Trapping by Seagrass Blades under Oscillatory Flow

Authors: Aina Barcelona, Carolyn Oldham, Jordi Colomer, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Teresa Serra


Seagrass meadows increase the sedimentation within the canopy. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how seagrasses impact the vertical distribution of sediment coming from external sources and reaches the meadow. This study aims to determine the number of particles retained by a seagrass meadow. Based on the hydrodynamics in the vertical direction, a meadow can be separated into different compartments: the blades, the seabed, within the canopy layer, and the above canopy layer. A set of laboratory experiments were conducted under different hydrodynamic conditions and canopy densities with the purpose to mimic the real field conditions. This study demonstrates and quantifies that seagrass meadows decrease the volume of the suspended sediment by two mechanisms: capturing the suspended sediment by the seagrass blades and promoting the particle sedimentation to the seabed. This study also demonstrates that the number of sediment particles trapped by single seagrass blades decreases with canopy density. However, when considering the trapping by the total number of blades, the sediment captured by all the blades of the meadow increases with canopy density. Furthermore, comparing with the bare seabed, this study demonstrated that there is a reduction in the suspended particles within the canopy, which implies an improvement in the water clarity. In addition, the particle sedimentation on the seabed increases with the canopy density compared with the bare seabed, making evident the contribution of the vegetation in enhancing sedimentation.

Keywords: seagrass, sediment capture, turbulent kinetic energy, oscillatory flow

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138 Determining the Sources of Sediment at Different Areas of the Catchment: A Case Study of Welbedacht Reservoir, South Africa

Authors: D. T. Chabalala, J. M. Ndambuki, M. F. Ilunga


Sedimentation includes the processes of erosion, transportation, deposition, and the compaction of sediment. Sedimentation in reservoir results in a decrease in water storage capacity, downstream problems involving aggregation and degradation, blockage of the intake, and change in water quality. A study was conducted in Caledon River catchment in the upstream of Welbedacht Reservoir located in the South Eastern part of Free State province, South Africa. The aim of this research was to investigate and develop a model for an Integrated Catchment Modelling of Sedimentation processes and management for the Welbedacht reservoir. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was applied to determine sources of sediment at different areas of the catchment. The model has been also used to determine the impact of changes from management practice on erosion generation. The results revealed that the main sources of sediment in the watershed are cultivated land (273 ton per hectare), built up and forest (103.3 ton per hectare), and grassland, degraded land, mining and quarry (3.9, 9.8 and 5.3 ton per hectare) respectively. After application of soil conservation practices to developed Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model, the results revealed that the total average annual soil loss in the catchment decreased by 76% and sediment yield from cultivated land decreased by 75%, while the built up and forest area decreased by 42% and 99% respectively. Thus, results of this study will be used by government departments in order to develop sustainable policies.

Keywords: Welbedacht reservoir, sedimentation, RUSLE, Caledon River

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
137 Comparison between Two Software Packages GSTARS4 and HEC-6 about Prediction of the Sedimentation Amount in Dam Reservoirs and to Estimate Its Efficient Life Time in the South of Iran

Authors: Fatemeh Faramarzi, Hosein Mahjoob


Building dams on rivers for utilization of water resources causes problems in hydrodynamic equilibrium and results in leaving all or part of the sediments carried by water in dam reservoir. This phenomenon has also significant impacts on water and sediment flow regime and in the long term can cause morphological changes in the environment surrounding the river, reducing the useful life of the reservoir which threatens sustainable development through inefficient management of water resources. In the past, empirical methods were used to predict the sedimentation amount in dam reservoirs and to estimate its efficient lifetime. But recently the mathematical and computational models are widely used in sedimentation studies in dam reservoirs as a suitable tool. These models usually solve the equations using finite element method. This study compares the results from tow software packages, GSTARS4 & HEC-6, in the prediction of the sedimentation amount in Dez dam, southern Iran. The model provides a one-dimensional, steady-state simulation of sediment deposition and erosion by solving the equations of momentum, flow and sediment continuity and sediment transport. GSTARS4 (Generalized Sediment Transport Model for Alluvial River Simulation) which is based on a one-dimensional mathematical model that simulates bed changes in both longitudinal and transverse directions by using flow tubes in a quasi-two-dimensional scheme to calibrate a period of 47 years and forecast the next 47 years of sedimentation in Dez Dam, Southern Iran. This dam is among the highest dams all over the world (with its 203 m height), and irrigates more than 125000 square hectares of downstream lands and plays a major role in flood control in the region. The input data including geometry, hydraulic and sedimentary data, starts from 1955 to 2003 on a daily basis. To predict future river discharge, in this research, the time series data were assumed to be repeated after 47 years. Finally, the obtained result was very satisfactory in the delta region so that the output from GSTARS4 was almost identical to the hydrographic profile in 2003. In the Dez dam due to the long (65 km) and a large tank, the vertical currents are dominant causing the calculations by the above-mentioned method to be inaccurate. To solve this problem, we used the empirical reduction method to calculate the sedimentation in the downstream area which led to very good answers. Thus, we demonstrated that by combining these two methods a very suitable model for sedimentation in Dez dam for the study period can be obtained. The present study demonstrated successfully that the outputs of both methods are the same.

Keywords: Dez Dam, prediction, sedimentation, water resources, computational models, finite element method, GSTARS4, HEC-6

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136 Balance Transfer of Heavy Metals in Marine Environments Subject to Natural and Anthropogenic Inputs: A Case Study on the Mejerda River Delta

Authors: Mohamed Amine Helali, Walid Oueslati, Ayed Added


Sedimentation rates and total fluxes of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cu) was measured in three different depths (10m, 20m and 40m) during March and August 2012, offshore of the Mejerda River outlet (Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia). The sedimentation rates are estimated from the fluxes of the suspended particulate matter at 7.32, 5.45 and 4.39 mm y⁻¹ respectively at 10m, 20m and 40m depth. Heavy metals sequestration in sediments was determined by chemical speciation and the total metal contents in each core collected from 10, 20 and 40m depth. Heavy metals intake to the sediment was measured also from the suspended particulate matter, while the fluxes from the sediment to the water column was determined using the benthic chambers technique and from the diffusive fluxes in the pore water. Results shown that iron is the only metal for which the balance transfer between intake/uptake (45 to 117 / 1.8 to 5.8 g m² y⁻¹) and sequestration (277 to 378 g m² y⁻¹) was negative, at the opposite of the Lead which intake fluxes (360 to 480 mg m² y⁻¹) are more than sequestration fluxes (50 to 92 mg m² y⁻¹). The balance transfer is neutral for Mn, Zn, and Cu. These clearly indicate that the contributions of Mejerda have consistently varied over time, probably due to the migration of the River mouth and to the changes in the mining activity in the Mejerda catchment and the recent human activities which affect the delta area.

Keywords: delta, fluxes, heavy metals, sediments, sedimentation rates

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135 Response of Caldeira De Tróia Saltmarsh to Sea Level Rise, Sado Estuary, Portugal

Authors: A. G. Cunha, M. Inácio, M. C. Freitas, C. Antunes, T. Silva, C. Andrade, V. Lopes


Saltmarshes are essential ecosystems both from an ecological and biological point of view. Furthermore, they constitute an important social niche, providing valuable economic and protection functions. Thus, understanding their rates and patterns of sedimentation is critical for functional management and rehabilitation, especially in an SLR scenario. The Sado estuary is located 40 km south of Lisbon. It is a bar built estuary, separated from the sea by a large sand spit: the Tróia barrier. Caldeira de Tróia is located on the free edge of this barrier, and encompasses a salt marsh with ca. 21,000 m². Sediment cores were collected in the high and low marshes and in the mudflat area of the North bank of Caldeira de Tróia. From the low marsh core, fifteen samples were chosen for ²¹⁰Pb and ¹³⁷Cs determination at University of Geneva. The cores from the high marsh and the mudflat are still being analyzed. A sedimentation rate of 2.96 mm/year was derived from ²¹⁰Pb using the Constant Flux Constant Sedimentation model. The ¹³⁷Cs profile shows a peak in activity (1963) between 15.50 and 18.50 cm, giving a 3.1 mm/year sedimentation rate for the past 53 years. The adopted sea level rise scenario was based on a model built with the initial rate of SLR of 2.1 mm/year in 2000 and an acceleration of 0.08 mm/year². Based on the harmonic analysis of Setubal-Tróia tide gauge of 2005 data, the tide model was estimated and used to build the tidal tables to the period 2000-2016. With these tables, the average mean water levels were determined for the same time span. A digital terrain model was created from LIDAR scanning with 2m horizontal resolution (APA-DGT, 2011) and validated with altimetric data obtained with a DGPS-RTK. The response model calculates a new elevation for each pixel of the DTM for 2050 and 2100 based on the sedimentation rates specific of each environment. At this stage, theoretical values were chosen for the high marsh and the mudflat (respectively, equal and double the low marsh rate – 2.92 mm/year). These values will be rectified once sedimentation rates are determined for the other environments. For both projections, the total surface of the marsh decreases: 2% in 2050 and 61% in 2100. Additionally, the high marsh coverage diminishes significantly, indicating a regression in terms of maturity.

Keywords: ¹³⁷Cs, ²¹⁰Pb, saltmarsh, sea level rise, response model

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
134 River's Bed Level Changing Pattern Due to Sedimentation, Case Study: Gash River, Kassala, Sudan

Authors: Faisal Ali, Hasssan Saad Mohammed Hilmi, Mustafa Mohamed, Shamseddin Musa


The Gash rivers an ephemeral river, it usually flows from July to September, it has a braided pattern with high sediment content, of 15200 ppm in suspension, and 360 kg/sec as bed load. The Gash river bed has an average slope of 1.3 m/Km. The objectives of this study were: assessing the Gash River bed level patterns; quantifying the annual variations in Gash bed level; and recommending a suitable method to reduce the sediment accumulation on the Gash River bed. The study covered temporally the period 1905-2013 using datasets included the Gash river flows, and the cross sections. The results showed that there is an increasing trend in the river bed of 5 cm3 per year. This is resulted in changing the behavior of the flood routing and consequently the flood hazard is tremendously increased in Kassala city.

Keywords: bed level, cross section, gash river, sedimentation

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133 Orbital Tuning of Marl-Limestone Alternations (Upper Tithonian to Upper Berriasian) in North-South Axis (Tunisia): Geochronology and Sequence Implications

Authors: Hamdi Omar Omar, Hela Fakhfakh, Chokri Yaich


This work reflects the integration of different techniques, such as field sampling and observations, magnetic susceptibility measurement, cyclostratigaraphy and sequence stratigraphy. The combination of these results allows us to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the Sidi Khalif Formation in the North-South Axis (NOSA), aged of Upper Tithonian, Berriasian and Lower Valanginian. Six sedimentary facies were identified and are primarily influenced by open marine sedimentation receiving increasing terrigenous influx. Spectral analysis, based on MS variation (for the outcropped section) and wireline logging gamma ray (GR) variation (for the sub-area section) show a pervasive dominance of 405-kyr eccentricity cycles with the expression of 100-kyr eccentricity, obliquity and precession. This study provides (for the first time) a precise duration of 2.4 myr for the outcropped Sidi Khalif Formation with a sedimentation rate of 5.4 cm/kyr and the sub-area section to 3.24 myr with a sedimentation rate of 7.64 cm/kyr. We outlined 27 5th-order depositional sequences, 8 Milankovitch depositional sequences and 2 major 3rd-order cycles for the outcropping section, controlled by the long eccentricity (405 kyr) cycles and the precession index cycles. This study has demonstrated the potential of MS and GR to be used as proxies to develop an astronomically calibrated time-scale for the Mesozoic era.

Keywords: Berriasian, magnetic susceptibility, orbital tuning, Sidi Khalif Formation

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132 The Effect of Fly Ash in Dewatering of Marble Processing Wastewaters

Authors: H. A. Taner, V. Önen


In the thermal power plants established to meet the energy need, lignite with low calorie and high ash content is used. Burning of these coals results in wastes such as fly ash, slag and flue gas. This constitutes a significant economic and environmental problems. However, fly ash can find evaluation opportunities in various sectors. In this study, the effectiveness of fly ash on suspended solid removal from marble processing wastewater containing high concentration of suspended solids was examined. Experiments were carried out for two different suspensions, marble and travertine. In the experiments, FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3 and anionic polymer A130 were used also to compare with fly ash. Coagulant/flocculant type/dosage, mixing time/speed and pH were the experimental parameters. The performances in the experimental studies were assessed with the change in the interface height during sedimentation resultant and turbidity values of treated water. The highest sedimentation efficiency was achieved with anionic flocculant. However, it was determined that fly ash can be used instead of FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 in the travertine plant as a coagulant.

Keywords: dewatering, flocculant, fly ash, marble plant wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
131 Effect of Bi-Dispersity on Particle Clustering in Sedimentation

Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi


In free settling or sedimentation, particles form clusters at high Reynolds number and dilute suspensions. It is due to the entrapment of particles in the wakes of upstream particles. In this paper, the effect of bi-dispersity of settling particles on particle clustering is investigated using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Immersed boundary method is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method is used for particle-particle interactions. The solid volume fraction used in the simulation is 1% and the Reynolds number based on Sauter mean diameter is 350. Both solid volume fraction and Reynolds number lie in the clustering regime of sedimentation. In simulations, the particle diameter ratio (i.e. diameter of larger particle to smaller particle (d₁/d₂)) is varied from 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. For each case of particle diameter ratio, solid volume fraction for each particle size (φ₁/φ₂) is varied from 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For comparison, simulations are also performed for monodisperse particles. For studying particles clustering, radial distribution function and instantaneous location of particles in the computational domain are studied. It is observed that the degree of particle clustering decreases with the increase in the bi-dispersity of settling particles. The smallest degree of particle clustering or dispersion of particles is observed for particles with d₁/d₂ equal to 4:1 and φ₁/φ₂ equal to 1:2. Simulations showed that the reduction in particle clustering by increasing bi-dispersity is due to the difference in settling velocity of particles. Particles with larger size settle faster and knockout the smaller particles from clustered regions of particles in the computational domain.

Keywords: dispersion in bi-disperse settling particles, particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions, particle resolved direct numerical simulations, settling of bi-disperse particles

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130 Maintenance Dredging at Port of Townsville

Authors: Mohamed Jaditager, Julie Lovisa, Nagaratnam Sivakugan


The Port of Townsville conducts regular annual maintenance dredging to maintain depths of its harbor basin and approach channels for the navigational safety of the vessels against the natural accumulation of marine sediments. In addition to the regular maintenance dredging, the port undertakes emergency dredging in cases where large quantities of sediments are mobilized and deposited in port waters by cyclone or major flood events. The maintenance dredging material derived from the port may be disposed at sea or on land in accordance with relevant state and commonwealth regulations. For the land disposal, the dredged mud slurry is hydraulically placed into containment ponds and left to undergo sedimentation and self-weight consolidation to form fill material for land reclamation. This paper provides an overview of the maintenance dredging at the Port of Townsville and emphasis on maintenance dredging requirements, sediment quality, bathymetry, dredging methods used, and dredged material disposal options.

Keywords: consolidation, dredged material, maintenance dredging, marine sediments, sedimentation

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129 Modeling of Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts from off-Road Vehicles in Arid Regions

Authors: Abigail Rosenberg, Jennifer Duan, Michael Poteuck, Chunshui Yu


The Barry M. Goldwater Range, West in southwestern Arizona encompasses 2,808 square kilometers of Sonoran Desert. The hyper-arid range has an annual rainfall of less than 10 cm with an average high temperature of 41 degrees Celsius in July to an average low of 4 degrees Celsius in January. The range shares approximately 60 kilometers of the international border with Mexico. A majority of the range is open for recreational use, primarily off-highway vehicles. Because of its proximity to Mexico, the range is also heavily patrolled by U.S. Customs and Border Protection seeking to intercept and apprehend inadmissible people and illicit goods. Decades of off-roading and Border Patrol activities have negatively impacted this sensitive desert ecosystem. To assist the range program managers, this study is developing a model to identify erosion prone areas and calibrate the model’s parameters using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment modeling tool.

Keywords: arid lands, automated geospatial watershed assessment, erosion modeling, sedimentation modeling, watershed modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
128 Improving the Performance of DBE Structure in Pressure Flushing Using Submerged Vanes

Authors: Sepideh Beiramipour, Hadi Haghjouei, Kourosh Qaderi, Majid Rahimpour, Mohammad M. Ahmadi, Sameh A. Kantoush


Reservoir sedimentation is one of the main challenges by which the reservoir behind the dam is filled with sediments transferred through the river flow. Pressure flushing method is an effective way to drain the deposited sediments of the reservoirs through the bottom outlet. So far, several structural methods have been proposed to increase the efficiency of pressure flushing. The aim of this study is to increase the performance of Dendritic Bottomless Extended (DBE) structure on the efficiency of pressurized sediment flushing using submerged vanes. For this purpose, the physical model of the dam reservoir with dimensions of 7.5 m in length, 3.5 m in width, and 1.8 m in height in the hydraulic and water structures research laboratory of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman was used. In order to investigate the influence of submerged vanes on the performance of DBE structure in pressure flushing, the best arrangement and geometric parameters of the vanes were selected and combined with the DBE structure. The results showed that the submerged vanes significantly increased the performance of the DBE structure so that the volume of the sediment flushing cone with the combination of two structures increased by 3.7 times compared to the DBE structure test.

Keywords: dendritic bottomless extended structure, flushing efficiency, sedimentation, sediment flushing

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127 Financial Regulation and the Twin Peaks Model in a Developing and Developed Country Contexts: An Institutional Theory Perspective

Authors: Pumela Msweli, Dexter L. Ryneveldt


This paper seeks to shed light on institutional logics and institutionalization processes that influence the successful implementation of financial sector regulations. We use the neo-institutional theory lens to interrogate how the newly promulgated Financial Sector Regulations Act (FSRA) provides for the institutionalisation of the Twin Peaks Model. With the enactment of FSRA, previous financial regulatory institutions were dismantled, and new financial regulators established. In point, the Financial Services Conduct Authority (FSCA) replaced the Financial Services Board (FSB), and accordingly, the Prudential Authority (PA) was established. FSRA is layered with complexities that make it mandatory to co-exist, cooperate, and collaborate with other institutions to fulfill FSRA’s overall financial stability objective. We use content analysis of the financial regulations that established the Twin Peaks Models (TPM) in South Africa and in the Netherlands, to map out the three-stage institutionalization processes: (1) habitualisation, (2) objectification and (3) sedimentation. This allowed for a comparison of how South Africa, as a developing country and Netherlands as a developed country, have institutionalized the Twin Peak model. We provide valuable insights into how differences in the institutional and societal logics of the developing and developed contexts shape the institutionalization of financial regulations.

Keywords: financial industry, financial regulation, financial stability, institutionalisation, habitualization, objectification, sedimentation, twin peaks model

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126 Estimation of Ribb Dam Catchment Sediment Yield and Reservoir Effective Life Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model and Empirical Methods

Authors: Getalem E. Haylia


The Ribb dam is one of the irrigation projects in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia, to irrigate the Fogera plain. Reservoir sedimentation is a major problem because it reduces the useful reservoir capacity by the accumulation of sediments coming from the watersheds. Estimates of sediment yield are needed for studies of reservoir sedimentation and planning of soil and water conservation measures. The objective of this study was to simulate the Ribb dam catchment sediment yield using SWAT model and to estimate Ribb reservoir effective life according to trap efficiency methods. The Ribb dam catchment is found in North Western part of Ethiopia highlands, and it belongs to the upper Blue Nile and Lake Tana basins. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was selected to simulate flow and sediment yield in the Ribb dam catchment. The model sensitivity, calibration, and validation analysis at Ambo Bahir site were performed with Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2). The flow data at this site was obtained by transforming the Lower Ribb gauge station (2002-2013) flow data using Area Ratio Method. The sediment load was derived based on the sediment concentration yield curve of Ambo site. Stream flow results showed that the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) was 0.81 and the coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.86 in calibration period (2004-2010) and, 0.74 and 0.77 in validation period (2011-2013), respectively. Using the same periods, the NS and R² for the sediment load calibration were 0.85 and 0.79 and, for the validation, it became 0.83 and 0.78, respectively. The simulated average daily flow rate and sediment yield generated from Ribb dam watershed were 3.38 m³/s and 1772.96 tons/km²/yr, respectively. The effective life of Ribb reservoir was estimated using the developed empirical methods of the Brune (1953), Churchill (1948) and Brown (1958) methods and found to be 30, 38 and 29 years respectively. To conclude, massive sediment comes from the steep slope agricultural areas, and approximately 98-100% of this incoming annual sediment loads have been trapped by the Ribb reservoir. In Ribb catchment, as well as reservoir systematic and thorough consideration of technical, social, environmental, and catchment managements and practices should be made to lengthen the useful life of Ribb reservoir.

Keywords: catchment, reservoir effective life, reservoir sedimentation, Ribb, sediment yield, SWAT model

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125 Genetic Advance versus Environmental Impact toward Sustainable Protein, Wet Gluten and Zeleny Sedimentation in Bread and Durum Wheat

Authors: Gordana Branković, Dejan Dodig, Vesna Pajić, Vesna Kandić, Desimir Knežević, Nenad Đurić


The wheat grain quality properties are influenced by genotype, environmental conditions and genotype × environment interaction (GEI). The increasing request of more nutritious wheat products will direct future breeding programmes. Therefore, the aim of investigation was to determine: i) variability of the protein content (PC), wet gluten content (WG) and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZS); ii) components of variance, heritability in a broad sense (hb2), and expected genetic advance as percent of mean (GAM) for PC, WG, and ZS; iii) correlations between PC, WG, ZS, and most important agronomic traits; in order to assess expected breeding success versus environmental impact for these quality traits. The plant material consisted of 30 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). The trials were sown at the three test locations in Serbia: Rimski Šančevi, Zemun Polje and Padinska Skela during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The experiments were set as randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot consisted of five rows of 1 m2 (5 × 0.2 m × 1 m). PC, WG and ZS were determined by the use of Near infrared spectrometry (NIRS) with the Infraneo analyser (Chopin Technologies, France). PC, WG and ZS, in bread wheat, were in the range 13.4-16.4%, 22.8-30.3%, and 39.4-67.1 mL, respectively, and in durum wheat, in the range 15.3-18.1%, 28.9-36.3%, 37.4-48.3 mL, respectively. The dominant component of variance for PC, WG, and ZS, in bread wheat, was genotype with the genetic variance/GEI variance (VG/VG × E) relation of 3.2, 2.9 and 1.0, respectively, and in durum wheat was GEI with the VG/VG × E relation of 0.70, 0.69 and 0.49, respectively. hb2 and GAM values for PC, WG and ZS, in bread wheat, were 94.9% and 12.6%, 93.7% and 18.4%, and 86.2% and 28.1%, respectively, and in durum wheat, 80.7% and 7.6%, 79.7% and 10.2%, and 74% and 11.2%, respectively. The most consistent through six environments, statistically significant correlations, for bread wheat, were between PC and spike length (-0.312 to -0.637); PC, WG, ZS and grain number per spike (-0.320 to -0.620; -0.369 to -0.567; -0.301 to -0.378, respectively); PC and grain thickness (0.338 to 0.566), and for durum wheat, were between PC, WG, ZS and yield (-0.290 to -0.690; -0.433 to -0.753; -0.297 to -0.660, respectively); PC and plant height (-0.314 to -0.521); PC, WG and spike length (-0.298 to -0.597; -0.293 to -0.627, respectively); PC, WG and grain thickness (0.260 to 0.575; 0.269 to 0.498, respectively); PC, WG and grain vitreousness (0.278 to 0.665; 0.357 to 0.690, respectively). Breeding success can be anticipated for ZS in bread wheat due to coupled high values for hb2 and GAM, suggesting existence of additive genetic effects, and also for WG in bread wheat, due to very high hb2 and medium high GAM. The small, and medium, negative correlations between PC, WG, ZS, and yield or yield components, indicate difficulties to select simultaneously for high quality and yield, depending on linkage for particular genetic arrangements to be broken by recombination.

Keywords: bread and durum wheat, genetic advance, protein and wet gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation volume

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124 Fortification of Concentrated Milk Protein Beverages with Soy Proteins: Impact of Divalent Cations and Heating Treatment on the Physical Stability

Authors: Yichao Liang, Biye Chen, Xiang Li, Steven R. Dimler


This study investigated the effects of adding calcium and magnesium chloride on heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate (8:2 respectively) mixtures containing 10% w/w total protein subjected to the in-container sterilization (115 °C x 15 min). The particle size does not change when emulsions are heated at pH between 6.7 and 7.3 irrespective of the mixed protein ratio. Increasing concentration of divalent cation salts resulted in an increase in protein particle size, dry sediment formation and sediment height and a decrease in pH, heat stability and hydration in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions on sterilization at 115°C. Fortification of divalent cation salts in milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture solutions resulted in an accelerated protein sedimentation and two unique sediment regions during accelerated storage stability testing. Moreover, the heat stability decreased upon sterilization at 115°C, with addition of MgCl₂ causing a greater increase in sedimentation velocity and compressibility than CaCl₂. Increasing pH value of protein milk concentrate-soy protein isolate mixtures solutions from 6.7 to 7.2 resulted in an increase in viscosity following the heat treatment. The study demonstrated that the type and concentration of divalent cation salts used strongly impact heat and storage stability of milk protein concentrate-soy protein isolate mixture nutritional beverages.

Keywords: divalent cation salts, heat stability, milk protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, storage stability

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123 Experimental Correlation for Erythrocyte Aggregation Rate in Population Balance Modeling

Authors: Erfan Niazi, Marianne Fenech


Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes tend to form chain-like aggregates under low shear rate called rouleaux. This is a reversible process and rouleaux disaggregate in high shear rates. Therefore, RBCs aggregation occurs in the microcirculation where low shear rates are present but does not occur under normal physiological conditions in large arteries. Numerical modeling of RBCs interactions is fundamental in analytical models of a blood flow in microcirculation. Population Balance Modeling (PBM) is particularly useful for studying problems where particles agglomerate and break in a two phase flow systems to find flow characteristics. In this method, the elementary particles lose their individual identity due to continuous destructions and recreations by break-up and agglomeration. The aim of this study is to find RBCs aggregation in a dynamic situation. Simplified PBM was used previously to find the aggregation rate on a static observation of the RBCs aggregation in a drop of blood under the microscope. To find aggregation rate in a dynamic situation we propose an experimental set up testing RBCs sedimentation. In this test, RBCs interact and aggregate to form rouleaux. In this configuration, disaggregation can be neglected due to low shear stress. A high-speed camera is used to acquire video-microscopic pictures of the process. The sizes of the aggregates and velocity of sedimentation are extracted using an image processing techniques. Based on the data collection from 5 healthy human blood samples, the aggregation rate was estimated as 2.7x103(±0.3 x103) 1/s.

Keywords: red blood cell, rouleaux, microfluidics, image processing, population balance modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
122 Braiding Channel Pattern Due to Variation of Discharge

Authors: Satish Kumar, Spandan Sahu, Sarjati Sahoo, K. K. Khatua


An experimental investigation has been carried out in a tilting flume of 2 m wide, 13 m long, and 0.3 m deep to study the effect of flow on the formation of braided channel pattern. Sediment flow is recirculated through the flume, which passes from the headgate to the sediment/water collecting tank through the tailgate. Further, without altering the geometry of the sand bed channel, the discharge is varied to study the effect of the formation of the braided pattern with time. Then the flow rate is varied to study the effect of flow on the formation of the braided pattern. Sediment transport rate is highly variable and was found to be a nonlinear function of flow rate, aspect ratio, longitudinal slope, and time. Total braided intensity (BIT) for each discharge case is found to be more than the active braided intensity (BIA). Both the parameters first increase and then decrease as the time progresses following a similar pattern for all the observed discharge cases. When the flow is increased, the movement of sediment also increases since the active braided intensity is found to adjust quickly. The measurement of velocity and boundary shear helps to study the erosion and sedimentation processes in the channel and formation of small meandering channels and then the braided channel for different discharge conditions of a sediment river. Due to regime properties of rivers, both total braided Intensity and active braided intensity become stable for a given channel and flow conditions. In the present case, the trend of the ratio of BIA to BIT is found to be asymptotic against the time with a value of 0.4. After the particular time elapses off the flow, new small channels are also found to be formed with changes in the sinuosity of the active channels, thus forming the braided network. This is due to the continuous erosion and sedimentation processes occurring for the flow process for the flow and sediment conditions.

Keywords: active braided intensity, bed load, sediment transport, shear stress, total braided intensity

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121 Seed Yield and Quality of Late Planted Rabi Wheat Crop as Influenced by Basal and Foliar Application of Urea

Authors: Omvati Verma, Shyamashrre Roy


A field experiment was conducted with three basal nitrogen levels (90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) and five foliar application of urea (absolute control, water spray, 3% urea spray at anthesis, 7 and 14 days after anthesis) at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand) during rabi season in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Results revealed that nitrogen application of 150 kg/ha produced the highest seed yield, straw and biological yield and it was significantly superior to 90 kg N/ha and was at par with 120 kg N/ha. The number of tillers increased significantly with increase in nitrogen doses up to 150 kg N/ha. Spike length, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike and thousand seed weight showed significantly higher values with 120 kg N/ha than 90 kg N/ha and were at par with that of 150 kg N/ha. Also, plant height showed similar trend. Leaf area index and chlorophyll content showed significant increase with an increase in nitrogen levels at different stages. In the case of foliar spray treatments, urea spray at anthesis showed highest value for yield and yield attributes. In case of spike length and thousand seed weight, it was similar with the urea spray at 7 and 14 days after anthesis, but for rest of the yield attributes, it was significantly higher than rest of the treatments. Among seed quality parameters protein and sedimentation value showed significant increase due to increase in nitrogen rates whereas, starch and hectolitre weight had a decreasing trend. Wet gluten content was not influenced by nitrogen levels. Foliar urea spray at anthesis resulted in highest value of protein and hectolitre weight whereas, urea spray at 7 days after anthesis showed highest value of sedimentation value and wet gluten content.

Keywords: foliar application, nitrogenous fertilizer, seed quality, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
120 Recirculated Sedimentation Method to Control Contamination for Algal Biomass Production

Authors: Ismail S. Bostanci, Ebru Akkaya


Microalgae-derived biodiesel, fertilizer or industrial chemicals' production with wastewater has great potential. Especially water from a municipal wastewater treatment plant is a very important nutrient source for biofuel production. Microalgae biomass production in open ponds system is lower cost culture systems. There are many hurdles for commercial algal biomass production in large scale. One of the important technical bottlenecks for microalgae production in open system is culture contamination. The algae culture contaminants can generally be described as invading organisms which could cause pond crash. These invading organisms can be competitors, parasites, and predators. Contamination is unavoidable in open systems. Potential contaminant organisms are already inoculated if wastewater is utilized for algal biomass cultivation. Especially, it is important to control contaminants to retain in acceptable level in order to reach true potential of algal biofuel production. There are several contamination management methods in algae industry, ranging from mechanical, chemical, biological and growth condition change applications. However, none of them are accepted as a suitable contamination control method. This experiment describes an innovative contamination control method, 'Recirculated Sedimentation Method', to manage contamination to avoid pond cash. The method can be used for the production of algal biofuel, fertilizer etc. and algal wastewater treatment. To evaluate the performance of the method on algal culture, an experiment was conducted for 90 days at a lab-scale raceway (60 L) reactor with the use of non-sterilized and non-filtered wastewater (secondary effluent and centrate of anaerobic digestion). The application of the method provided the following; removing contaminants (predators and diatoms) and other debris from reactor without discharging the culture (with microscopic evidence), increasing raceway tank’s suspended solids holding capacity (770 mg L-1), increasing ammonium removal rate (29.83 mg L-1 d-1), decreasing algal and microbial biofilm formation on inner walls of reactor, washing out generated nitrifier from reactor to prevent ammonium consumption.

Keywords: contamination control, microalgae culture contamination, pond crash, predator control

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
119 The Prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminths among Newly Arrived Expatriate Labors in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammad Al-Refai, Majed Wakid


Introduction: Soil-transmitted diseases (STD) are caused by intestinal worms that are transmitted via various routes into the human body resulting in various clinical manifestations. The intestinal worms causing these infections are known as soil transmitted helminths (STH), including Hook worms, Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides), Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura), and Strongyloides sterocoralis (S. sterocoralis). Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of STH among newly arrived expatriate labors in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, using three different techniques (direct smears, sedimentation concentration, and real-time PCR). Methods: A total of 188 stool specimens were collected and investigated at the parasitology laboratory in the Special Infectious Agents Unit at King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Microscopic examination of wet mount preparations using normal saline and Lugols Iodine was carried out, followed by the formal ether sedimentation method. In addition, real-time PCR was used as a molecular tool to detect several STH and hookworm speciation. Results: Out of 188 stool specimens analyzed, in addition to STH parasite, several other types were detected. 9 samples (4.79%) were positive for Entamoeba coli, 7 samples (3.72%) for T. trichiura, 6 samples (3.19%) for Necator americanus, 4 samples (2.13%) for S. sterocoralis, 4 samples (2.13%) for A. lumbricoides, 4 samples (2.13%) for E. histolytica, 3 samples (1.60%) for Blastocystis hominis, 2 samples (1.06%) for Ancylostoma duodenale, 2 samples (1.06%) for Giardia lamblia, 1 sample (0.53%) for Iodamoeba buetschlii, 1 sample (0.53%) for Hymenolepis nana, 1 sample (0.53%) for Endolimax nana, and 1 sample (0.53%) for Heterophyes heterophyes. Out of the 35 infected cases, 26 revealed single infection, 8 with double infections, and only one triple infection of different STH species and other intestinal parasites. Higher rates of STH infections were detected among housemaids (11 cases) followed by drivers (7 cases) when compared to other occupations. According to educational level, illiterate participants represent the majority of infected workers (12 cases). The majority of workers' positive cases were from the Philippines. In comparison between laboratory techniques, out of the 188 samples screened for STH, real-time PCR was able to detect the DNA in (19/188) samples followed by Ritchie sedimentation technique (18/188), and direct wet smear (7/188). Conclusion: STH infections are a major public health issue to healthcare systems around the world. Communities must be educated on hygiene practices and the severity of such parasites to human health. As far as drivers and housemaids come to close contact with families, including children and elderlies. This may put family members at risk of developing serious side effects related to STH, especially as the majority of workers were illiterate, lacking the basic hygiene knowledge and practices. We recommend the official authority in Jeddah and around the kingdom of Saudi Arabia to revise the standard screening tests for newly arrived workers and enforce regular follow-up inspections to minimize the chances of the spread of STH from expatriate workers to the public.

Keywords: expatriate labors, Jeddah, prevalence, soil transmitted helminths

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
118 Evaluation of Soil Erosion Risk and Prioritization for Implementation of Management Strategies in Morocco

Authors: Lahcen Daoudi, Fatima Zahra Omdi, Abldelali Gourfi


In Morocco, as in most Mediterranean countries, water scarcity is a common situation because of low and unevenly distributed rainfall. The expansions of irrigated lands, as well as the growth of urban and industrial areas and tourist resorts, contribute to an increase of water demand. Therefore in the 1960s Morocco embarked on an ambitious program to increase the number of dams to boost water retention capacity. However, the decrease in the capacity of these reservoirs caused by sedimentation is a major problem; it is estimated at 75 million m3/year. Dams and reservoirs became unusable for their intended purposes due to sedimentation in large rivers that result from soil erosion. Soil erosion presents an important driving force in the process affecting the landscape. It has become one of the most serious environmental problems that raised much interest throughout the world. Monitoring soil erosion risk is an important part of soil conservation practices. The estimation of soil loss risk is the first step for a successful control of water erosion. The aim of this study is to estimate the soil loss risk and its spatial distribution in the different fields of Morocco and to prioritize areas for soil conservation interventions. The approach followed is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using remote sensing and GIS, which is the most popular empirically based model used globally for erosion prediction and control. This model has been tested in many agricultural watersheds in the world, particularly for large-scale basins due to the simplicity of the model formulation and easy availability of the dataset. The spatial distribution of the annual soil loss was elaborated by the combination of several factors: rainfall erosivity, soil erodability, topography, and land cover. The average annual soil loss estimated in several basins watershed of Morocco varies from 0 to 50t/ha/year. Watersheds characterized by high-erosion-vulnerability are located in the North (Rif Mountains) and more particularly in the Central part of Morocco (High Atlas Mountains). This variation of vulnerability is highly correlated to slope variation which indicates that the topography factor is the main agent of soil erosion within these basin catchments. These results could be helpful for the planning of natural resources management and for implementing sustainable long-term management strategies which are necessary for soil conservation and for increasing over the projected economic life of the dam implemented.

Keywords: soil loss, RUSLE, GIS-remote sensing, watershed, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
117 Concentrations and History of Heavy Metals in Sediment Cores: Geochemistry and Geochronology Using 210Pb

Authors: F. Fernandes, C. Poleto


This paper aims at assessing the concentrations of heavy metals and the isotopic composition of lead 210Pb in different fractions of sediment produced in the watershed that makes up the Mãe d'água dam and thus characterizing the distribution of metals along the sedimentary column and inferencing in the urbanization of the same process. Sample collection was carried out in June 2014; eight sediment cores were sampled in the lake of the dam. For extraction of the sediments core, a core sampler “Piston Core” was used. The trace metal concentrations were determined by conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The samples were subjected to radiochemical analysis of 210Po. 210Pb activity was obtained by measuring 210Po activity. The chronology was calculated using the constant rate of supply (CRS). 210Pb is used to estimate the sedimentation rate.

Keywords: ²¹⁰Pb dating method, heavy metal, lakes urban, pollution history

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
116 Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis in Children: A Serial Case

Authors: A. Lubis, S. S. Pasulu, Z. Hikmah, A. Endaryanto, A. Harsono


Infection by group A streptococci (GAS) can trigger an autoantibody that cause a poststreptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). Four patients with PSRA aged 10 years to 14 years old with the main complaint of joint pain for five days to 10 days after suffering a fever and sore throat. The joint pain was persistent, additive, and non migratory. All patients revealed an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and anti-streptolysin O (ASLO), but the chest x-ray, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were normal. Bone imaging showed no destruction on the affected joint. Jones Criteria were not fulfilled in all patients. Erythromycin and ibuprofen were given in all patients and an improvement was shown. Erythromycin was continued for one year and routine controls were conducted for cardiac evaluation. The prognosis of all the patients was good.

Keywords: arthritis, group a streptococcus, autoantibody, Jones criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
115 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz


In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 294