Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 874

Search results for: marine sediments

874 Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France

Authors: Abriak Nor Edine, Zentar Rachid, Achour Raouf, Tran Ngoc Thanh


This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.

Keywords: marine sediments, river sediments, physico chemical characterizations, environmental characterizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
873 Treatment of Dredged Marine Sediments for Their Reuse in Road Construction

Authors: F. Ben Abdelghani, W. Maherezi


Dredging operations generate, each year, a great quantity of marine sediments. These raw materials can not be used in road construction without a specific treatment process. Sediments suitability tests has shown that most of studied sediments are not suitable to be used in road construction. In order to improve their compacity and their mechanical performance, addition of a granular material is recommended. The use of a dredged sand, to improve the granular mixture containing sediments, allows a better management of the two types of dredge materials (sand and sediment). In this study, a new road material containing dredged marine sediments and dredged sand is formulated and treated by adding various binders. Mechanical performance investigation of different mixtures by measuring Proctor-IPI values and simple compressive strengths is realized.

Keywords: dredged sediments, suitability tests, road construction, hydraulic binder, mechanical performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
872 Radioactive Contamination by ¹³⁷Cs in Marine Sediments Taken up from Cuba's North and South Coast

Authors: Marisé García Batlle, Juan Manuel Navarrete Tejero


In aquatic ecosystems, the main indicators of pollution are contaminated sediments, which are the primary repository of radionuclides and chemicals elements in the marine environment. Radioactive Contamination Factor (RCF) has been proposed as a suitable unit to measure the magnitude of radioactive contamination at global scale, caused mainly by more than 2,000 nuclear explosions tests performed during the 1945-65 period. It is obtained as percentage of contaminant radioactivity (¹³⁷Cs) compared to natural radioactivity (⁴⁰K), both expressed in Bq/g of marine sediments conditioned in Marinelli containers and detected in both NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors. So, in this paper samples of marine sediments were taken up along the occidental Cuban coasts and analyzed by gamma spectrometry for the determination of gamma-emitting radioisotopes with energies between 60 and 2000 keV. The results proved that the proposed method is simple and suitable to evaluated radioactive contamination. Also, the RCF values provide an appropriate indicator to predict which pollution levels in the future will be and if the rate will go down as disintegrates the ¹³⁷Cs present when only 2,4 half-lives have passed away.

Keywords: Cuba, gamma spectrometry, marine sediments, radioactive pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
871 Vertical Distribution of Heavy Metals and Enrichment in Core Marine Sediments of East Malaysia by INAA and ICP-MS

Authors: Ahmadreza Ashraf, Elias Saion, Elham Gharib Shahi, Chee Kong Yap, Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah


Fifty-five core marine sediments from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea of coastal East Malaysia was analyzed for heavy metals using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy. The enrichment factor of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn varied from 0.42 to 4.26, 0.50 to 2.34, 0.31 to 0.82, 0.20 to 0.61, 0.91 to 1.92, 0.23 to 1.52, and 0.90 to 1.28 respectively, with the modified degree of contamination values below 0.6. Comparative data show that coastal East Malaysia is of low levels of contamination.

Keywords: coastal East Malaysia, core marine sediments, enrichment factor, heavy metals, INAA and ICP method, modified degree of contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
870 Enrichment and Flux of Heavy Metals along the Coastal Sediments of Pakistan

Authors: Asmat Siddiqui, Noor Us Saher


Heavy metal contamination in the marine environment is a global issue, and in past decades, this problem has intensified due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization, especially in developing countries. Marine sediments act as a preliminary indicator of heavy metal contamination in the coastal and estuarine environment, which has adverse effects on biota as well as in the marine system. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contamination status, enrichment, and flux of heavy metals in two monitoring years from coastal sediments of Pakistan. A total of 74 sediment samples were collected from seven coastal areas of Pakistan in two monitoring years, 2001-03 (MY-I) and 2011-13 (MY-II). The geochemical properties (grain size analysis, organic contents and eight heavy metals, i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd) of all sediment samples were analyzed. A significant increase in Fe, Ni and Cr concentrations detected between the years, whereas no significant differences were exhibited in Cu, Zn, Co, Pb and Cd concentrations. The extremely high enrichment (>50) of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were scrutinized in both monitoring years. The annual deposition flux of heavy metals ranged from 0.63 to 66.44 and 0.78 to 68.27 tons per year in MY-I and MY-II, respectively, with the lowest flux evaluated for Cd and highest for Zn in both monitoring years. A significant increase (p <0.05) was observed in the burial flux of Cr and Ni during the last decade in coastal sediments. The use of geo-indicators is helpful to assess the contamination analysis for management and conservation of the marine environment.

Keywords: coastal contamination, enrichment factor, geo-indicator, heavy metal flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
869 Using Sea Cucumber for Mitigation of Marine Pollution

Authors: A. Al-Yaqout, A. Al-Alawi, T. Al-Said, E. Al-Enezi, M. Al-Roumi


Kuwait’s marine environment suffers from increased organic pollution. Sea cucumbers play an important role in the marine environment. They create a healthier environment for many types of benthic micro-organisms through their slow movement and feeding mechanism on micro-organisms and organic material. A preliminary study has been conducted in Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the possibility of using sea cucumbers for mitigation of the coastal pollution. Sediments were collected from locations identified to be heavily loaded with organic pollutants. Ten aquaria glass tanks, 65x 40x 30cm will be supplied with 10 cm height (14 kg) of the sediments added in each tank and filled with 70 L of filtered seawater. Two species were used in this study, Stichopus hermanni, and Holothuria atra. Water and sediment samples were analyzed weekly. The results showed promising possibility for using sea cucumber to lower the organic load in sediments.

Keywords: organic pollution, sea cucumbers, mitigation, Stichopus hermanni, Holothuria atra

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
868 Maintenance Dredging at Port of Townsville

Authors: Mohamed Jaditager, Julie Lovisa, Nagaratnam Sivakugan


The Port of Townsville conducts regular annual maintenance dredging to maintain depths of its harbor basin and approach channels for the navigational safety of the vessels against the natural accumulation of marine sediments. In addition to the regular maintenance dredging, the port undertakes emergency dredging in cases where large quantities of sediments are mobilized and deposited in port waters by cyclone or major flood events. The maintenance dredging material derived from the port may be disposed at sea or on land in accordance with relevant state and commonwealth regulations. For the land disposal, the dredged mud slurry is hydraulically placed into containment ponds and left to undergo sedimentation and self-weight consolidation to form fill material for land reclamation. This paper provides an overview of the maintenance dredging at the Port of Townsville and emphasis on maintenance dredging requirements, sediment quality, bathymetry, dredging methods used, and dredged material disposal options.

Keywords: consolidation, dredged material, maintenance dredging, marine sediments, sedimentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
867 [Keynote Talk]: Determination of Metal Content in the Surface Sediments of the Istanbul Bosphorus Strait

Authors: Durata Haciu, Elif Sena Tekin, Gokce Ozturk, Patricia Ramey Balcı


Coastal zones are under increasing threat due to anthropogenic activities that introduce considerable pollutants such as heavy metals into marine ecosystems. As part of a larger experimental study examining species responses to contaminated marine sediments, surface sediments (top 5cm) were analysed for major trace elements at three locations in Istanbul Straight. Samples were randomly collected by divers (May 2018) using hand-corers from Istinye (n=4), Garipce (n=10) and Poyrazköy (n=6), at water depths of 4-8m. Twelve metals were examined: As, arsenic; Pb, lead; Cd, cadmium; Cr, chromium; Cu, Copper; Fe, Iron; Ni, Nickel; Zn, Zinc; V, vanadium; Mn, Manganese; Ba, Barium; and Ag, silver by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectroscopy (ICP/MS). Preliminary results indicate that the average concentrations of metals (mg kg⁻¹) varied considerably among locations. In general, concentrations were relatively lower at Garipce compared to either Istinye or Poyrazköy. For most metals mean concentrations were highest at Poyrazköy and Ag and Cd were below detection limits (exception= Ag in a few samples). While Cd and As were undetected in all stations, the concentrations of Fe and Ni fall in the criteria of moderately polluted range and the rest of the metals in the range of low polluted range as compared to Effects Range Low (ERL) and Effects Range median (ERM) values determined by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Keywords: effect-range classification, ICP/MS, marine sediments, XRF

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
866 Formulation of Mortars with Marine Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mouhamadou Amar, Mahfoud Benzerzour


The transition to a more sustainable economy is directed by a reduction in the consumption of raw materials in equivalent production. The recovery of byproducts and especially the dredged sediment as mineral addition in cements matrix represents an alternative to reduce raw material consumption and construction sector’s carbon footprint. However, the efficient use of sediment requires adequate and optimal treatment. Several processing techniques have so far been applied in order to improve some physicochemical properties. The heat treatment by calcination was effective in removing the organic fraction and activates the pozzolanic properties. In this article, the effect of the optimized heat treatment of marine sediments in the physico-mechanical and environmental properties of mortars are shown. A finding is that the optimal substitution of a portion of cement by treated sediments by calcination at 750 °C helps to maintain or improve the mechanical properties of the cement matrix in comparison with a standard reference mortar. The use of calcined sediment enhances mortar behavior in terms of mechanical strength and durability. From an environmental point of view and life cycle, mortars formulated containing treated sediments are considered inert with respect to the inert waste storage facilities reference (ISDI-France).

Keywords: sediment, calcination, cement, reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
865 Geochemical Approach of Rare Earth Element Distribution: A Case Study from Lake Acigol, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, D. Kiran, M. Kumral


About 50 mg lake sediment was digested in two steps. While first stage was completed with 6 ml 37% HCl, 2 ml 65% HNO3 and 1 ml 38-40% HF in an pressure and temperature controlled Teflon beaker using Berghoff Microwave™ at average 135°C, digestion procedure was completed with the addition of 6 ml 5% boric acid solution. REE contents of sediment samples were determined by Perkin Elmer DRC II ICP-MS in Geochemistry Research Laboratories (JAL/GRL) of Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of Lake Acıgöl sediments show generally high abundance of REE compared to chondritic concentrations, with particular enrichment in LREE [(La/Lu)N = 4.85-19.90], [(La/Lu)N = 7.09-15.14], [(La/Lu)N = 9.42-15.52] and [(La/Lu)N = 7.69-15.63] for the surface sediment and 0-10 cm-, 10-20 cm- and 20-30 cm-subsurface sediments respectively. Also these samples showed flat HREE normalized to chondrite as (La/Sm)N ranging from 2.98 to 4.8 for surface sediments and for subsurface sediments from 3.28 to 3.97 (0-10 cm), 3.57 to 3.94 (10-20 cm) and 3.36 to 3.94 (20-30 cm) while (Gd/Yb)N ranging from 2.14 to 2.93, from 2.03 to 2.76, from 2.26 to 2.79 and from 2.05 to 2.76 from the surface and subsurface sediments respectively. Moreover, their REE profiles are similar to profiles of the continental collision basin (CCB) with negative Eu anomalies. In addition, their REE patterns illustrate generally low abundance of REE compared to concentrations of NASC, PAAS and UCC with very slight enrichment of LREE and positive Eu* anomalies. Therefore there is no comparable between our samples of surface and subsurface sediments and these types of international sediments.

Keywords: chondrite-normalized REE patterns, hypersaline lake, surface sediments, subsurface sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

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864 Heavy Metal Contamination and Environmental Risk in Surface Sediments along the Coasts of Suez and Aqaba Gulfs, Egypt

Authors: Alaa M. Younis, Ismail S. Ismail, Lamiaa I. Mohamedein, Shimaa F. Ahmed


Sandy surface sediments collected from fourteen sites along the gulfs of Suez and Aqaba coasts, Egypt were analyzed for heavy metals including Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Chromium, Nickel, Lead, Copper and Cadmium in order to evaluate the pollution status and environmental risk assessment of the study area. The obtained results showed that the concentrations of investigated metals are represented in the following sequence; For Gulf of Aqaba sediments Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd. While for Gulf of Suez Sediments Fe > Mn > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd. The degree of surface sediment contamination using Geo-accumulation index (I geo) and Metal Pollution Index (MPI) was computed. Higher MPI values were observed at the sites III (Nama Bay) and VIII (Rex Beach). According to Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) approach, Pb and Cu in the gulf of Suez at station IX (Kabanon Beach) had probably adverse ecological effects to marine organisms.

Keywords: heavy metal, environmental risk, Suez gulf, Aqaba gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
863 [Keynote Speech]: Determination of Naturally Occurring and Artificial Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Marine Sediments in Western Marmara, Turkey

Authors: Erol Kam, Z. U. Yümün


Natural and artificial radionuclides cause radioactive contamination in environments, just as the other non-biodegradable pollutants (heavy metals, etc.) sink to the sea floor and accumulate in sediments. Especially the habitat of benthic foraminifera living on the surface of sediments or in sediments at the seafloor are affected by radioactive pollution in the marine environment. Thus, it is important for pollution analysis to determine the radionuclides. Radioactive pollution accumulates in the lowest level of the food chain and reaches humans at the highest level. The more the accumulation, the more the environment is endangered. This study used gamma spectrometry to investigate the natural and artificial radionuclide distribution of sediment samples taken from living benthic foraminifera habitats in the Western Marmara Sea. The radionuclides, K-40, Cs-137, Ra-226, Mn 54, Zr-95+ and Th-232, were identified in the sediment samples. For this purpose, 18 core samples were taken from depths of about 25-30 meters in the Marmara Sea in 2016. The locations of the core samples were specifically selected exclusively from discharge points for domestic and industrial areas, port locations, and so forth to represent pollution in the study area. Gamma spectrometric analysis was used to determine the radioactive properties of sediments. The radionuclide concentration activity values in the sediment samples obtained were Cs-137=0.9-9.4 Bq/kg, Th-232=18.9-86 Bq/kg, Ra-226=10-50 Bq/kg, K-40=24.4–670 Bq/kg, Mn 54=0.71–0.9 Bq/kg and Zr-95+=0.18–0.19 Bq/kg. These values were compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) data, and an environmental analysis was carried out. The Ra-226 series, the Th-232 series, and the K-40 radionuclides accumulate naturally and are increasing every day due to anthropogenic pollution. Although the Ra-226 values obtained in the study areas remained within normal limits according to the UNSCEAR values, the K-40, and Th-232 series values were found to be high in almost all the locations.

Keywords: Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, Cs-137, Mn 54, Zr-95+, radionuclides, Western Marmara Sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
862 The Effects of Siltation in Seagrass along Claver Surigao Del Norte

Authors: Dawn Rosarie M. Fajardo


Seagrass plays a crucial role in sustaining marine ecosystem. In this investigation two areas (Panyug and Kinalablaban) were studied to assess the effect of siltation in seagrass condition. The size of the sediment was also examined. Data analysis showed that Panyug had higher level of silt compared to Kinalablaban. The results indicate that seagrass is vulnerable to environmental disturbances. The results also indicate that plants grown in undisturbed natural sediments were more successful than plants in sediments which were disturbed. In addition to that, there are total of seven species of seagrass that are found tolerant with siltation it includes Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea rotundata, Halophila minor, Halodule pinifolia, Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Thalassia hemprichii. The results were given emphasis especially for the five representative quadrats in each area. Among these species of seagrass Cymodocea rotundata is the most tolerant to siltation. There is also no significant relationships between silt and seagrass percent cover which had r² = 0.192, Panyug and r² = 0.145, at Kinalablaban at P> 0.05. The data showed that Panyug (area 1) was characterized with high level of silt compared to that of Kinalablaban that contains more granulated sediments.

Keywords: seagrass, siltation, cymodocea rotundata, sediments, environmental issues

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
861 Availability of Metals in Fired Bricks Incorporating Harbour Sediments

Authors: Fabienne Baraud, Lydia Leleyter, Sandra Poree, Melanie Lemoine, Fatiha Oudghiri


Alternative solutions to immersion at sea are searched for the huge amounts of dredged sediments around the world that might contain various types of contaminants. Possible re-uses of such materials in civil engineering appear as sustainable solutions. The French SEDIBRIC project (valorisation de SEDIments en BRIQues et tuiles) aims to replace a part of natural clays with dredged sediments in the preparation of fired bricks. The potential environmental impact of this re-use is explored to complete the technical and economic feasibility of the study. As part of the project, we investigate the environmental availability of metallic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Mn, Pb, Ti, and Zn) initially present in the dredged sediments selected for the project. Leaching tests (with H₂O, HCl, or EDTA) are conducted in the sediments than in the final bricks in order to evaluate the possible influence of some steps of the bricks manufacturing (desalination pre-treatment, firing, etc.). The desalination pre-treatment using tap water has no or few impacts on the environmental availability of the studied elements. On the opposite, the firing process (900°C) affects the value of the total content of elements detected in the bricks but also the environmental availability for various elements. For instance, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn are stabilized in the bricks, whereas the availability of some other elements (i.e., Cr, Ni) increases, depending on the nature of the extracting solution.

Keywords: availability, bricks, dredged sediments, metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
860 Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran

Authors: Samad Alipour, Khadije Mosavi Onlaghi


Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.

Keywords: Urmia Lake, weathering, mineralogy, augite, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
859 Heavy Metals Concentration in Sediments Along the Ports, Samoa

Authors: T. Imo, F. Latū, S. Aloi, J. Leung-Wai, V. Vaurasi, P. Amosa, M. A. Sheikh


Contamination of heavy metals in coral reefs and coastal areas is a serious ecotoxicological and environmental problem due to direct runoff from anthropogenic wastes, commercial vessels, and discharge from industrial effluents. In Samoa, the information on the ecotoxicological impact of heavy metals on sediments is limited. This study presents baseline data on the concentration and distribution of heavy metals in sediments collected along the commercial and fishing ports in Samoa. Surface sediment samples were collected within the months of August-October 2013 from the 5 sites along the 2 ports. Sieved sample fractions were used for the evaluation of sediment physicochemical parameters namely pH, conductivity, organic matter, and bicarbonates of calcium. Heavy metal (Cu, Pb) analysis was achieved by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Two heavy metals (Cu, Pb) were detected from each port with some concentration below the WHO permissible maximum concentration of environment quality standard. The results obtained from this study advocate for further studies regarding emerging threats of heavy metals on the vital marine resources which have significant importance to the livelihood of coastal societies, particularly Small Island States including Samoa.

Keywords: coastal environment, heavy metals, pollution, sediments

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858 Study of the Potential of Raw Sediments and Sediments Treated with Lime or Cement for Use in a Foundation Layer and the Base Layer of a Roadway

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Abdeljalil Zri


In this work, firstly we have studied the potential of raw sediments and sediments treated with lime or cement for use in a foundation layer and the base layer of a roadway. Secondly, we have examined mineral changes caused by the addition of lime or cement in order to explain the mechanical performance of stabilized sediments. After determining the amount of lime and cement required stabilizing the sediments, the compaction characteristics and Immediate Bearing Capacity (IBI) were studied using the Modified Proctor method. Then, the evolution of the three parameters, which are optimum water content, maximum dry density and IBI, were determined. Mechanical performances can be evaluated through resistance to compression, resistance under traction and the elasticity modulus. The resistances of the formulations treated with ROLAC®645 increase with the amount of ROLAC®645. Traction resistance and the elastic modulus were used to evaluate the potential of the formulations as road construction materials using the classification diagram. The results show that all the other formulations with ROLAC®645 can be used in subgrades and foundation layers for roads.

Keywords: sediment, lime, cement, roadway

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
857 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral


The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
856 Antibiotic Potential of Bioactive Compounds from a Marine Streptomyces Isolated from South Pacific Sediments

Authors: Ilaisa Kacivakanadina, Samson Viulu, Brad Carte, Katy Soapi


Two bioactive compounds namely Vulgamycin (also known as enterocin A) and 5-deoxyenterocin were purified from a marine bacterial strain 1903. Strain 1903 was isolated from marine sediments collected from the Solomon Islands. Morphological features of strain 1903 showed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The two secondary metabolites were extracted using EtOAc and purified by chromatographic methods using EtOAc and hexane solvents. Mass spectrum and NMR data of pure compounds were used to elucidate the chemical structures. In this study, results showed that both compounds were strongly active against Wild Type Staphylococcus aureus (WTSA) (MIC < 1 µg/mL) and in Brine shrimp assays (BSA) (MIC < 1 µg/mL). 5-deoxyenterocin was also active against Rifamycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (RRSA) (MIC, 250 µg/mL) while vulgamycin showed bioactivity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (MIC 250 µg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that showed the bio-activity of 5-deoxyenterocin. This is also the first time that Vulgamycin has been reported to be active in a BSA. There has not been any mechanism of action studies for these two compounds against pathogens. This warrants further studies on their mechanism of action against microbial pathogens.

Keywords: 5-deoxyenterocin, bioactivity, brine shrimp assay (BSA), vulgamycin

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
855 Isolation, Characterization and Screening of Antimicrobial Producing Actinomycetes from Sediments of Persian Gulf

Authors: H. Alijani, M. Jabari, S. Matroodi, H. Zolqarnein, A. Sharafi, I. Zamani


Actinomycetes, Gram-positive bacteria, are interesting as a main producer of secondary metabolites and are important industrially and pharmaceutically. The marine environment is a potential source for new actinomycetes, which can provide novel bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify novel actinomycetes from Persian Gulf sediments and screen these isolates for the production of secondary metabolites, especially antibiotics, Using phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene sequence), morphological and biochemical analyses. 15 different actinomycete strains from Persian Gulf sediments at a depth of 5-10 m were identified. DNA extraction was done using Cinnapure DNA Kit. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA gene was performed using F27 and R1492 primers. Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the MEGA 6 software. Most of the isolated strains belong to the genus namely Streptomyces (14), followed by Nocardiopsis (1). Antibacterial assay of the isolates supernatant was performed using a standard disc diffusion assay with replication (n=3). The results of disk diffusion assay showed that most active strain against Proteus volgaris and Bacillus cereus was AMJ1 (16.46±0.2mm and 13.78±0.2mm, respectively), against Salmonella sp. AMJ7 was the most effective strain (10.13±0.2mm), and AMJ1 and AHA5 showed more inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli (8.04±0.02 mm and 8.2±0.03 ). The AMJ6 strain showed best antibacterial activity against Klebsiella sp. (8.03±0.02mm). Antifungal activity of AMJ2 showed that it was most active strain against complex (16.05±0.02mm) and against Aspergillus flavus strain AMJ1 was most active strain (16.4±0.2mm) and highest antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gyp serum and Candida albicans, were shown by AHA1 (21.03±0.02mm), AHA3 and AHA7 (18±0.03mm), AMJ6 (21.03±0.2mm) respectively. Our results revealed that the marine actinomycetes of Persian Gulf sediments were potent source of novel antibiotics and bioactive compounds and indicated that the antimicrobial metabolites were extracellular. Most of the secondary metabolites and antibiotics are extracellular in nature and extracellular products of actinomycetes show potent antimicrobial activities.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, marine actinomycetes, Persian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
854 Use of Chemical Extractions to Estimate the Metals Availability in Bricks Made of Dredged Sediments

Authors: Fabienne Baraud, Lydia Leleyter, Sandra Poree, Melanie Lemoine


SEDIBRIC (valorization de SEDIments en BRIQues et tuiles) is a French project that aims to replace a part of natural clays with dredged sediments in the preparation of fired bricks in order to propose an alternative solution for the management of harbor dredged sediments. The feasibility of such re-use is explored from a technical, economic, and environmental point of view. The present study focuses on the potential environmental impact of various chemical elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Mn, Pb, Ti, and Zn) that are initially present in the dredged sediments. The total content (after acid digestion) and the environmental availability (estimated by single extractions with various extractants) of these elements are determined in the raw sediments and in the obtained fired bricks. The possible influence of some steps of the manufacturing process (sediment pre-treatment, firing) is also explored. The first results show that the pre-treatment step, which uses tap water to desalinate the raw sediment, does not influence the environmental availability of the studied elements. However, the firing process, performed at 900°C, can affect the amount of some elements detected in the bricks, as well as their environmental availability. We note that for Cr, or Ni, the HCl or EDTA availability was increased in the brick (compared to the availability in the raw sediment). For Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, the HCl and EDTA availability was reduced in the bricks, meaning that these elements were stabilized within the bricks.

Keywords: bricks, chemical extraction, metals, sediment

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
853 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan


Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, hydrate, sequestration, surfactant

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852 Measure Determination and Zoning of Oil Pollution (TPH) on ‎Costal Sediments of Bandar Abbas (Hormoz Strait) ‎

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami ‎


This study investigated the presence of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found in west coast of Bandar Abass (northern part of Hormoz strait). Therefore, six transects from west of the city were selected. Each transect consists of three stations intervals 100, 600 and 1100 meter from the low tide were sampled in both the summer and winter season (July and January 2009). Physical and chemical parameters of water, concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and soil tissue deposition were evaluated according to standard procedures of MOOPAM. Average results of dissolved oxygen were 6.42 mg/l, temperature 26.31°C, pH 8.55, EC 54.47 ms/cm and salinity 35.98 g/l respectively. Results indicate that minimum, maximum and average concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in sediments were, 60.18, 751.83, and 229.21 µg/kg respectively which are less than comparable studies in other parts of Persian Gulf.

Keywords: oil pollution, Bandar Abbas, costal sediments, TPH ‎

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851 Enhancing Value of Dam Dredged Sediments as a Component of a Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: N. Belas, O. Belaribi, S. Aggoun, K. Bendani, N. Bouhamou, A. Mebrouki


This experimental work is a part of a long research on the valorization of the dam dredged sediments issued from Fergoug Dam (Mascara-West Algeria). These sediments have to be subjected to thermal treatment to become reactive with the cement and thus to obtain an artificial pozzolana. It is therefore a question of developing the calcined mud as substitutable material in part to the cement used in the composition of self compacting concrete. The objective of the present work is to highlight its influence on the behavior of self compacting concrete compared to that of the natural pozzolana and this, in fresh and hardened states. The study is being conducted on three SCC, the first using 20% in volume of natural pozzolana, the second with 20 % of calcined mud and the third for the sake of comparison is made with cement only. The first results showed the possibility of obtaining SCC with calcined mud complying with the AFGC recommendations having a good mechanical behavior which makes interesting its development as construction materials.

Keywords: dam, fresh state, hardened state mud, sediments, self compacting concrete, valorization

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850 Mechanical Characterization and Impact Study on the Environment of Raw Sediments and Sediments Dehydrated by Addition of Polymer

Authors: A. Kasmi, N. E. Abriak, M. Benzerzour, I. Shahrour


Large volumes of river sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities and prevent floods. The management of this sediment has become increasingly complex. Several European projects were implemented to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. The main objective of this study is to show the ability of river sediment to be used in road. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, then a dehydrating treatment by addition of the flocculation aid has been used. Firstly, a lot of physical characteristics are measured and discussed for a better identification of the raw sediment and this dehydrated sediment by addition the flocculation aid. The identified parameters are, for example, the initial water content, the density, the organic matter content, the grain size distribution, the liquid limit and plastic limit and geotechnical parameters. The environmental impacts of the used material were evaluated. The results obtained show that there is a slight change on the physical-chemical and geotechnical characteristics of sediment after dehydration by the addition of polymer. However, these sediments cannot be used in road construction.

Keywords: rive sediment, dehydration, flocculation aid or polymer, characteristics, treatments, valorisation, road construction

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849 Mobility of Metallic Trace Elements (MTE) in Water and Sediment of the Rivers: Case of Nil River, North-Eastern Algerian

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, S. Amiour, A. Chine, S. Khelili


The metallic trace elements (MTE) are present in water and sediments of the rivers with weak concentrations. Several physicochemical parameters (Eh, pH and oxygen dissolved) and chemical processes (adsorption, absorption, complexation and precipitation) as well as nature of the sediments control their mobility. In order to determine the effect of these factors on the mobility of some MTE (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in water of the rivers, a two-monthly monitoring of the physicochemical parameters and chemistry of water and sediments of the Nil wadi (Algeria) was carried out during the period from November 2013 to January 2015. The results show that each MTE has its own conditions of mobility and generally are very influence by the variations of the pH and Eh. Under the natural conditions, neutral pH with basic and medium oxidizing, only the lead presented in water with raised values, indicating its solubility in water and its salting out of the sediments. The other MTE present raised concentrations in the sediments, indicating their trapping by adsorption and/or chemical precipitation. The chemical form of each ETM was given by Eh-pH diagrams. The spatio-temporal monitoring of these ETM shows the effect of the rains, the dry periods and the rejects in the variation of their concentrations.

Keywords: chemistry, metallic trace elements, sediment, water

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848 Grain Size Characteristics and Sediments Distribution in the Eastern Part of Lekki Lagoon

Authors: Mayowa Philips Ibitola, Abe Oluwaseun Banji, Olorunfemi Akinade-Solomon


A total of 20 bottom sediment samples were collected from the Lekki Lagoon during the wet and dry season. The study was carried out to determine the textural characteristics, sediment distribution pattern and energy of transportation within the lagoon system. The sediment grain sizes and depth profiling was analyzed using dry sieving method and MATLAB algorithm for processing. The granulometric reveals fine grained sand both for the wet and dry season with an average mean value of 2.03 ϕ and -2.88 ϕ, respectively. Sediments were moderately sorted with an average inclusive standard deviation of 0.77 ϕ and -0.82 ϕ. Skewness varied from strongly coarse and near symmetrical 0.34- ϕ and 0.09 ϕ. The kurtosis average value was 0.87 ϕ and -1.4 ϕ (platykurtic and leptokurtic). Entirely, the bathymetry shows an average depth of 4.0 m. The deepest and shallowest area has a depth of 11.2 m and 0.5 m, respectively. High concentration of fine sand was observed at deep areas compared to the shallow areas during wet and dry season. Statistical parameter results show that the overall sediments are sorted, and deposited under low energy condition over a long distance. However, sediment distribution and sediment transport pattern of Lekki Lagoon is controlled by a low energy current and the down slope configuration of the bathymetry enhances the sorting and the deposition rate in the Lekki Lagoon.

Keywords: Lekki Lagoon, Marine sediment, bathymetry, grain size distribution

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847 Organic Pollution of Waters and Sediments in the Middle and Lower Valley of the Medjerda, Tunisia

Authors: Samia Khadhar, Anis Chekirbene, Nouha Khiari, Amira Mabrouki


The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in aquatic environments are one of the most worrying problems for environmental sustainability and human health because of their carcinogenic and toxic characteristics. Human anthropogenic actions (wastewater discharges, agricultural and industrial activities) without prior treatment are the main cause of this organic pollution. Oued Madjerda is considered the most important river in Tunisia, hence the importance of assessing the level of organic pollution of water and sediments, taking into account the anthropogenic stress exerted on this river. Water and sediment samples were taken from the middle and lower valley of the Medjerda to determine the state of contamination by 7PCBs, priority 15PAHs, and pesticides. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography (GC) and liquid phase coupled to HPLC MS-MS mass spectroscopy. The results showed that for the waters, the total PAH and PCB contents vary respectively from 0.0023 to 7.72 mg/l and from 0.0001 to 0.179 mg/l. In surface sediments 0 to 15 cm, 7PCB levels vary from 1,112 to 110,062 µg/kg-1. In this study, we tried to determine the concentration of 96 pesticides in surface sediments; analyzes showed the presence of Buprofezin, propamocarb-HCl, hexaconazole, flutriafol, quinalphos, and tebufenpyrad with concentrations varying from 1.06 to 2.388 µg/kg-1. The pace of the spatial variation confirms the impact of wastewater discharged on the quality of water and sediments despite the perennial aspect of the river.

Keywords: Wadi Madjerda, organic pollution, water and sediments surface, anthropics stress

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846 Assessment of Trace Metals Contamination in Surficial and Core Sediments from Ghannouch- Gabes Coastline, Impact of Phosphogypsum Discharge, Southeastern of Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea: Geochemical and Mineralogical Approaches

Authors: Rim Ben Amor, Myriam Abidi, Moncef Gueddari


The purpose of the present study is to assess the level and the distribution of CaO, SO3, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn incore sediments of Ghannouch-Gabes coast, Gulf of Gabes, Tunisian Mediterranean coast. The XRD analyses indicate that the sediments of Ghannouch-Gabes coast are mainly composed of quartz, calcite, gypsum and fluorine reflecting the impact of the phosphate fertilizer industrial waste. The vertical distribution of surface sediments shows for all the elements analyzed, that the area located between the commercial and the fishing port of Gabes, is the most polluted zone, where the two harbors acted as barriers and limited the dispersion of phosphogypsum discharge. The abundance order of metals was found to be Zn > Cd > Cu >Pb and that the highest levels of heavy metals were found in the uppermost segment of the sediment core compared to lower depth subsurface due to a continuous input of PG release and showed that the area between the two harbor suffered from several types of pollutants compared to reference core C1, collected from non-industrialized area. The level of pollution was evaluated using contamination factor (Cf), pollution load index (PLI) and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo). The obtained results of Igeo allowed us to distinguish that the area between the commercial harbor of Ghannouch and the fishing harbor of Gabes is the most polluted where sediments are strongly contaminated for Pb, Cu and Cd. The pollution load index (PLI) of all sediments collected classified them as "polluted". According to contamination factor (Cf), the sediments can be considered as ‘considerable’ to ‘very high’ contaminated for Pb, ‘very high to moderate’ for Cd, ‘ moderate’ for Zn, between ‘moderate’ and ‘considerable’ for Cu. Statistical analyses show that heavy metals, fluoride, calcium and sulphate are resulting from the same anthropogenic origin. The metallic pollution status of sediments of Ghanouch -Gabes coast is worrying and requires a serious intervention.

Keywords: trace metals, phosphogypsum, core sediments, accumulation factor, contamination factor

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845 Grain Size Statistics and Depositional Pattern of the Ecca Group Sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Christopher Baiyegunhi, Kuiwu Liu, Oswald Gwavava


Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicates the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function (LDF) analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are fluvial (deltaic) deposits. The graphic mean value shows the dominance of fine sand-size particles, which point to relatively low energy conditions of deposition. In addition, the LDF results point to low energy conditions during the deposition of the Prince Albert, Collingham and part of the Ripon Formation (Pluto Vale and Wonderfontein Shale Members), whereas the Trumpeters Member of the Ripon Formation and the overlying Fort Brown Formation accumulated under high energy conditions. The CM pattern shows a clustered distribution of sediments in the PQ and QR segments, indicating that the sediments were deposited mostly by suspension and rolling/saltation, and graded suspension. Furthermore, the plots also show that the sediments are mainly deposited by turbidity currents. Visher diagrams show the variability of hydraulic depositional conditions for the Permian Ecca Group sandstones. Saltation is the major process of transportation, although suspension and traction also played some role during deposition of the sediments. The sediments were mainly in saltation and suspension before being deposited.

Keywords: grain size analysis, hydrodynamic condition, depositional environment, Ecca Group, South Africa

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