Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: agroforestry

48 Socioeconomic Benefits in Agroforestry Practices by Rural Community: Case Study in Paitan District, Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: J. Kodoh, H. L. Dumil, M. Maid


Agroforestry system has been widely documented that provide benefits to rural livelihoods and improved socioeconomic status. This study concerns on agroforestry practices in generating local socioeconomic livelihoods. The general approach is to survey local community involvement in the agroforestry activities at four selected rural villages in Paitan district, using a structured questionnaire through personal interview technique. A total of 200 respondents were interviewed where the largest age group of the respondents was more than 50 years old (31%). Almost all respondents had former education (76%), and majority of them were employed (97%) either in the government and private sectors or self-employed. All respondents (100%) were involved in agroforestry activities where agroforestry products as their source of income (Hevea brasiliensis, Durio zibethinus, Elaeis guinensis) and foods (Manihot esculenta, Mangifera sp., Musa sp.) The mean monthly income from selling agroforestry products contributed 16.6% (USD130.37) of the mean total monthly income of the respondents (r=0.407, r²=0.166, p < 0.01). This study also showed that the main driven factor for the respondents (93%) to adopt and sustain the agroforestry practices is their traditional ways of farming that transferred from generation to generation.

Keywords: agroforestry, Paitan district, rural community, socioeconomic

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47 Carbon Sequestration under Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in the Vicinity of Black Sea, Trabzon, Turkey

Authors: Mohammed Abaoli Abafogi, Sinem Satiroglu, M. Misir


The current study has addressed the effect of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry on carbon sequestration. Eight sample plots were collected from Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry using random sampling method. The diameter of all trees in each plot with ≥ 2cm at 1.3m DBH was measured by using a calliper. Average diameter, aboveground biomass, and carbon stock were calculated for each plot. Comparative data for natural forestland was used for C was taken from KTU, and the soil C was converted from the biomass conversion equation. Biomass carbon was significantly higher in the Natural forest (68.02Mgha⁻¹) than in the Hazelnut agroforestry (16.89Mgha⁻¹). SOC in Hazelnut agroforestry, Natural forest, and arable agricultural land were 7.70, 385.85, and 0.00 Mgha⁻¹ respectively. Biomass C, on average accounts for only 0.00% of the total C in arable agriculture, and 11.02% for the Hazelnut agroforestry while 88.05% for Natural forest. The result shows that the conversion of arable crop field to Hazelnut agroforestry can sequester a large amount of C in the soil as well as in the biomass than Arable agricultural lands.

Keywords: arable agriculture, biomass carbon, carbon sequestration, hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry, soil organic carbon

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46 Agroforestry Systems and Practices and Its Adoption in Kilombero Cluster of Sagcot, Tanzania

Authors: Lazaro E. Nnko, Japhet J. Kashaigili, Gerald C. Monela, Pantaleo K. T. Munishi


Agroforestry systems and practices are perceived to improve livelihood and sustainable management of natural resources. However, their adoption in various regions differs with the biophysical conditions and societal characteristics. This study was conducted in Kilombero District to investigate the factors influencing the adoption of different agroforestry systems and practices in agro-ecosystems and farming systems. A household survey, key informant interviews, and focus group discussion was used for data collection in three villages. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression in SPSS were applied for analysis. Results show that Igima and Ngajengwa villages had home garden practices dominated, as revealed by 63.3% and 66.7%, respectively, while Mbingu village had mixed intercropping practice with 56.67%. Agrosilvopasture systems were dominant in Igima and Ngajengwa villages with 56.7% and 66.7%, respectively, while in Mbingu village, the dominant system was agrosilviculture with 66.7%. The results from multinomial logistic regression show that different explanatory variable was statistical significance as predictors of the adoption of agroforestry systems and practices. Residence type and sex were the most dominant factor influencing the adoption of agroforestry systems. Duration of stay in the village, availability of extension education, residence, and sex were the dominant factor influencing the adoption of agroforestry practices. The most important and statistically significant factors among these were residence type and sex. The study concludes that agroforestry will be more successful if the local priorities, which include social-economic need characteristics of the society, will be considered in designing systems and practices. The socio-economic need of the community should be addressed in the process of expanding the adoption of agroforestry systems and practices.

Keywords: agroforestry adoption, agroforestry systems, agroforestry practices, agroforestry, Kilombero

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45 Agroforestry in Cameroon: Its Perceptions, Advantages and Limits

Authors: Djouhou Fowe Michelle Carole


In the last few decades, there have been considerable efforts by the international community to develop strategies that reduce global poverty and hunger. Despite the modest success in reducing food insecurity, there are still around 795 million people worldwide who remain undernourished, the majority of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. In many of these impoverished communities, agriculture still remains one of the most important sectors in driving economic growth and reducing poverty. For the growing population, with higher food demand and fixed agricultural land, sustainable intensification is proposed as an important strategy to respond to the challenges of low yields, environmental degradation, and adaptation to climate change. Adoption of agroforestry technologies is increasingly being promoted as a promising solution. This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of the Cameroonian population and farmers on agroforestry. The methodology used was based on a survey to determine their knowledge level of agroforestry, their representation of its advantages and disadvantages, and the reasons that might motivate them whether or not to adopt agroforestry. Participants were randomly selected and received a questionnaire. Data were subjected to a descriptive analysis using SPSS software. The obtained results showed that less than 50% of the general population had already heard about agroforestry at least once; they have basic knowledge about this concept and its advantages. Farmers had been particularly sensitive to tree's food production function and seemed to value their environmental assets. However, various constraints could affect the possible adoption of agroforestry techniques.

Keywords: agroforestry, quality and sustainable agriculture, perceptions, advantages, limits

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44 Biodiversity Interactions Between C3 and C4 Plants under Agroforestry Cropping System

Authors: Ezzat Abd El Lateef


Agroforestry means combining the management of trees with productive agricultural activities, especially in semiarid regions where crop yield increases are limited in agroforestry systems due to the fertility and microclimate improvements and the large competitive effect of trees with crops for water and nutrients, in order to assess the effect of agroforestry of some field crops with citrus trees as an approach to establish biodiversity in fruit tree plantations. Three field crops, i.e., maize, soybean and sunflower, were inter-planted with seedless orange trees (4*4 m) or were planted as solid plantings. The results for the trees indicated a larger fruit yield was obtained when soybean and sunflowers were interplant with citrus. Statistically significant effects (P<0.05) were found for maize grain and biological yields, with increased yields when grown as solid planting. There were no differences in the yields of soya bean and sunflower, where the yields were very similar between the two cropping systems. It is evident from the trials that agroforestry is an efficient concept to increase biodiversity through the interaction of trees with the interplant field crop species. Maize, unlike the other crops, was more sensitive to shade conditions under agroforestry practice and not preferred in the biodiversity system. The potential of agroforestry to improve or increase biodiversity is efficient as the understorey crops are usually C4 species, and the overstorey trees are invariably C3 species in agroforestry. Improvement in interplant species is most likely if the understorey crop is a C3 species, which are usually light saturated in the open, and partial shade may have little effect on assimilation or by a concurrent reduction in transpiration. It could be concluded that agroforestry is an efficient concept to increase biodiversity through the interaction of trees with the interplant field crop species. Some field crops could be employed successfully, like soybean or sunflowers, while others like maize are sensitive to incorporate in agroforestry system.

Keywords: agroforestry, field crops, C3 and C4 plants, yield

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43 Assessing the Actual Status and Farmer’s Attitude towards Agroforestry in Chiniot, Pakistan

Authors: M. F. Nawaz, S. Gul, T. H. Farooq, M. T. Siddiqui, M. Asif, I. Ahmad, N. K. Niazi


In Pakistan, major demands of fuel wood and timber wood are fulfilled by agroforestry. However, the information regarding economic significance of agroforestry and its productivity in Pakistan is still insufficient and unreliable. Survey of field conditions to examine the agroforestry status at local level helps us to know the future trends and to formulate the policies for sustainable wood supply. The objectives of this research were to examine the actual status and potential of agroforestry and to point out the barriers that are faced by farmers in the adoption of agroforestry. Research was carried out in Chiniot district, Pakistan because it is the famous city for furniture industry that is largely dependent on farm trees. A detailed survey of district Chiniot was carried out from 150 randomly selected farmer respondents using multi-objective oriented and pre-tested questionnaire. It was found that linear tree planting method was more adopted (45%) as compared to linear + interplanting (42%) and/or compact planting (12.6%). Chi-square values at P-value <0.5 showed that age (11.35) and education (17.09) were two more important factors in the quick adoption of agroforestry as compared to land holdings (P-value of 0.7). The major reason of agroforestry adoption was to obtain income, fodder and fuelwood. The most dominant species in farmlands was shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) but since last five years, mostly farmers were growing Sufeida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), kikar (Acacia nilotica) and popular (Populus deltoides) on their fields due to “Shisham die-back” problem. It was found that agro-forestry can be increased by providing good quality planting material to farmers and improving wood markets.

Keywords: agroforestry, trees, services, agriculture, farmers

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42 Agroforestry Practices on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon and Organic Carbon in Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Nebiyou Masebo


The rapid conversion of an old aged agroforestry (AF) based agricultural system to monocropping farming system in southern Ethiopia is increasing. The consequence of this, combined with climate change, has been impaired biodiversity, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and soil organic carbon (SOC). The AF system could curb such problems due it is an ecologically and economically sustainable strategies. This study was aimed to investigate different agroforestry practices (AFPs) on MBC and SOC in southern Ethiopia. Soil samples were collected from homegarden based agroforestry practice (HAFP), crop land based agroforestry practice (ClAFP), woodlot based agroforestry practice (WlAFP), and trees on soil and water conservation based agroforestry practice (TSWAFP) using two depth layer (0-30 & 30-60 cm) by systematic sampling. Moreover, woody species inventorywas also collected. The chloroform fumigation extraction method was employed to determine MBC from different AFP types. In this study, the value of MBC and SOC decreased significantly with soil depth (p< 0.05). Besides, AFP type, soil depth, woody species diversity, and key soil properties also strongly influenced MBC and SOC (p< 0.05). In this study, the MBC was the highest (786 mg kg⁻¹ soil) in HAFP, followed by WlAFP (592 mg kg⁻¹ soil), TSWAFP (421 mg kg⁻¹ soil), and ClAFP (357 mg kg⁻¹ soil). The highest mean value of SOC (43.5Mg C ha⁻¹) was recorded in HAFP, followed by WlAFP (35.1Mg C ha⁻¹), TSWAFP (22.3 Mg C ha⁻¹), while the lowest (21.8 Mg C ha⁻¹) was recorded in ClAFP. The HAFP had high woody species diversity, and the lowest was recorded in ClAFP. The finding indicated that SOC and MBC were significantly affected by land management practices, and HAFP has the potential to improve MBC and SOC through good management practices of AFP.

Keywords: agroforestry practices, microbial biomass carbon, soil carbon, rapid conversion

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41 Assessment of the Adoption and Distribution Pattern of Agroforestry in Faisalabad District Using GIS

Authors: Irfan Ahmad, Raza Ghafoor, Hammad Raza Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Farrakh Nawaz, M. Tahir Siddiqui


Due to the exploding population of Pakistan the pressure on natural forests is increasing to meet the demands of wood and wood based products. Agroforestry is being practiced throughout the world on scientific basis but unfortunately the farmers of Pakistan are reluctant in its adoption. The presents study was designed to assess the adoption of agroforestry practices in Faisalabad with respect to land holdings of farmers and future suitability by using Geographic information system (GIS). Faisalabad is the third largest city of the country and is famous due to the textile industry. A comprehensive survey from target villages of the Lyallpur town of Faisalabad district was carried out. Out of total 65 villages, 40 were selected for study. From each selected village, one farmer who was actively engaged in farming activities was selected. It was observed that medium sized farmers having 10-20 acre were more in number as compared to small and large farmers. Number of trees was found maximum in large farm lands, ratio of diseased trees was almost similar in all categories with maximum in small farmlands (24.1%). Regarding the future prospects 35% farmer were interested in agroforestry practices 65% were not interested in the promotion of trees due to the non-availability of technical guidance and proper markets. Geographic images of the study site can further help the researchers and policy makers in the promotion of agroforestry.

Keywords: agroforestry trends, adoption, Faisalabad, geographic information system (GIS)

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40 The Role of Agroforestry Practices in Climate Change Mitigation in Western Kenya

Authors: Humphrey Agevi, Harrison Tsingalia, Richard Onwonga, Shem Kuyah


Most of the world ecosystems have been affected by the effects of climate change. Efforts have been made to mitigate against climate change effects. While most studies have been done in forest ecosystems and pure plant plantations, trees on farms including agroforestry have only received attention recently. Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural lands make an important contribution to climate change mitigation but are not systematically accounted for in the global carbon budgets. This study sought to: (i) determine tree diversity in different agroforestry practices; (ii) determine tree biomass in different agroforestry practices. Study area was determined according to the Land degradation surveillance framework (LSDF). Two study sites were established. At each of the site, a 5km x 10km block was established on a map using Google maps and satellite images. Way points were then uploaded in a GPS helped locate the blocks on the ground. In each of the blocks, Nine (8) sentinel clusters measuring 1km x 1km were randomized. Randomization was done in a common spreadsheet program and later be downloaded to a Global Positioning System (GPS) so that during surveys the researchers were able to navigate to the sampling points. In each of the sentinel cluster, two farm boundaries were randomly identified for convenience and to avoid bias. This led to 16 farms in Kakamega South and 16 farms in Kakamega North totalling to 32 farms in Kakamega Site. Species diversity was determined using Shannon wiener index. Tree biomass was determined using allometric equation. Two agroforestry practices were found; homegarden and hedgerow. Species diversity ranged from 0.25-2.7 with a mean of 1.8 ± 0.10. Species diversity in homegarden ranged from 1-2.7 with a mean of 1.98± 0.14. Hedgerow species diversity ranged from 0.25-2.52 with a mean of 1.74± 0.11. Total Aboveground Biomass (AGB) determined was 13.96±0.37 Mgha-1. Homegarden with the highest abundance of trees had higher above ground biomass (AGB) compared to hedgerow agroforestry. This study is timely as carbon budgets in the agroforestry can be incorporated in the global carbon budgets and improve the accuracy of national reporting of greenhouse gases.

Keywords: agroforestry, allometric equations, biomass, climate change

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39 Deriving an Index of Adoption Rate and Assessing Factors Affecting Adoption of an Agroforestry-Based Farming System in Dhanusha District, Nepal

Authors: Arun Dhakal, Geoff Cockfield, Tek Narayan Maraseni


This paper attempts to fulfil the gap in measuring adoption in agroforestry studies. It explains the derivation of an index of adoption rate in a Nepalese context and examines the factors affecting adoption of agroforestry-based land management practice (AFLMP) in the Dhanusha District of Nepal. Data about the different farm practices and the factors (bio-physical, socio-economic) influencing adoption were collected during focus group discussion and from the randomly selected households using a household survey questionnaire, respectively. A multivariate regression model was used to determine the factors. The factors (variables) found to significantly affect adoption of AFLMP were: farm size, availability of irrigation water, education of household heads, agricultural labour force, frequency of visits by extension workers, expenditure on farm inputs purchase, household’s experience in agroforestry, and distance from home to government forest. The regression model explained about 75% of variation in adoption decision. The model rejected ‘erosion hazard’, ‘flood hazard’ and ‘gender’ as determinants of adoption, which in case of single agroforestry practice were major variables and played positive role. Out of eight variables, farm size played the most powerful role in explaining the variation in adoption, followed by availability of irrigation water and education of household heads. The results of this study suggest that policies to promote the provision of irrigation water, extension services and motivation to obtaining higher education would probably provide the incentive to adopt agroforestry elsewhere in the terai of Nepal.

Keywords: agroforestry, adoption index, determinants of adoption, step-wise linear regression, Nepal

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38 The Effects of Different Agroforestry Practices on Glomalin Related Soil Protein, Soil Aggregate Stability and Organic Carbon-Association with Soil Aggregates in Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Nebiyou Masebo


The severities of land degradation in southern Ethiopia has been increasing due to high population density, replacement of an age-old agroforestry (AF) based agricultural system with monocropping. The consequences of these activities combined with climate change have been impaired soil biota, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil glomalin, soil aggregation and aggregate stability. The AF systems could curb these problems due it is an ecologically and economically sustainable. This study was aimed to determine the effect of agroforestry practices (AFPs) on soil glomalin, soil aggregate stability (SAS), and aggregate association with SOC. Soil samples (from two depth level: 0-30 & 30-60 cm) and woody species were collected from homegarden based agroforestry practice (HAFP), cropland based agroforestry practice (ClAFP), woodlot based agroforestry practice (WlAFP) and trees on soil and water conservation based agroforestry practice (TSWAFP) using systematic sampling. In this study, both easily extractable glomalin related soil protein (EEGRSP) and total glomalin related soil protein (TGRSP) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in HAFP compared to others, with decreasing order HAFP>WlAFP>TSWAFP>ClAFP at upper surface but in subsurface in decreasing order: WlAFP>HAFP>TSWAFP>ClAFP. On the other hand, the macroaggregate fraction of AFPs ranged from 22.64-36.51% where the lowest was in ClAFP, while the highest was in HAFP, moreover, the order for subsurface was also the same but SAS decreased with the increasing of soil depths. The micro-aggregate fraction ranged from 15.9–24.56%, where the lowest was in HAFP, but the highest was in ClAFP. Besides, the association of OC with both macro-and micro-aggregates was greatest in HAFP and followed by WlAFP. The findings also showed that both glomalin and SAS were significantly high with woody species diversity and richness. Thus, AFP with good management practice can play role on maintenance of biodiversity, glomalin content and other soil quality parameters with future implications for a stable ecosystem.

Keywords: agroforestry, soil aggregate stability, glomalin, aggregate-associated carbon, HAFP, ClAFP, WlAFP, TSWAFP.

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37 Livelihood Security and Mitigating Climate Changes in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh through Agroforestry Systems

Authors: Md Shafiqul Bari, Md Shafiqul Islam Sikdar


This paper summarizes the current knowledge on Agroforestry practices in the Barind tract of Bangladesh. The part of greater Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Rangpur and Bogra district of Bangladesh is geographically identified as the Barind tract. The hard red soil of these areas is very significant in comparison to that of the other parts of the country. A typical dry climate with comparatively high temperature prevails in the Barind area. Scanty rainfall and excessive extraction of groundwater have created an alarming situation among the Barind people and others about irrigation to the rice field. In addition, the situation may cause an adverse impact on the people whose livelihood largely depends on agriculture. The groundwater table has been declined by at least 10 to 15 meters in some areas of the Barind tract during the last 20 years. Due to absent of forestland in the Barind tract, the soil organic carbon content can decrease more rapidly because of the higher rate of decomposition. The Barind soils are largely carbon depleted but can be brought back to carbon-carrying capacity by bringing under suitable Agroforestry systems. Agroforestry has tremendous potential for carbon sequestration not only in above C biomass but also root C biomass in deeper soil depths. Agroforestry systems habitually conserve soil organic carbon and maintain a great natural nutrient pool. Cultivation of trees with arable crops under Agroforestry systems help in improving soil organic carbon content and sequestration carbon, particularly in the highly degraded Barind lands. Agroforestry systems are a way of securing the growth of cash crops that may constitute an alternative source of income in moments of crisis. Besides being a source of fuel wood, a greater presence of trees in cropping system contributes to decreasing temperatures and to increasing rainfall, thus contrasting the negative environmental impact of climate changes. In order to fulfill the objectives of this study, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment was survey on the impact of existing agroforestry system on the livelihood security in the Barind tract of Bangladesh and the second one was the role of agroforestry system on the improvement of soil properties in a multilayered coconut orchard. Agroforestry systems have been generated a lot of employment opportunities in the Barind area. More crops mean involvement of more people in various activities like involvements in dairying, sericulture, apiculture and additional associated agro-based interventions. Successful adoption of Agroforestry practices in the Barind area has shown that the Agroforestry practitioners of this area were very sound positioned economically, and had added social status too. However, from the findings of the present study, it may be concluded that the majority rural farmers of the Barind tract of Bangladesh had a very good knowledge and medium extension contact related to agroforestry production system. It was also observed that 85 per cent farmers followed agroforestry production system and received benefits to a higher extent. Again, from the research study on orchard based mutistoried agroforestry cropping system, it was evident that there was an important effect of agroforestry cropping systems on the improvement of soil chemical properties. As a result, the agroforestry systems may be helpful to attain the development objectives and preserve the biosphere core.

Keywords: agroforestry systems, Barind tract, carbon sequestration, climate changes

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36 A Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Traditional and Climate-smart Farming: A Case of Dhanusha District, Nepal

Authors: Arun Dhakal, Geoff Cockfield


This paper examines the emission potential of different farming practices that the farmers have adopted in Dhanusha District of Nepal and scope of these practices in climate change mitigation. Which practice is more climate-smarter is the question that this aims to address through a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The LCA was performed to assess if there is difference in emission potential of broadly two farming systems (agroforestry–based and traditional agriculture) but specifically four farming systems. The required data for this was collected through household survey of randomly selected households of 200. The sources of emissions across the farming systems were paddy cultivation, livestock, chemical fertilizer, fossil fuels and biomass (fuel-wood and crop residue) burning. However, the amount of emission from these sources varied with farming system adopted. Emissions from biomass burning appeared to be the highest while the source ‘fossil fuel’ caused the lowest emission in all systems. The emissions decreased gradually from agriculture towards the highly integrated agroforestry-based farming system (HIS), indicating that integrating trees into farming system not only sequester more carbon but also help in reducing emissions from the system. The annual emissions for HIS, Medium integrated agroforestry-based farming system (MIS), LIS (less integrated agroforestry-based farming system and subsistence agricultural system (SAS) were 6.67 t ha-1, 8.62 t ha-1, 10.75 t ha-1 and 17.85 t ha-1 respectively. In one agroforestry cycle, the HIS, MIS and LIS released 64%, 52% and 40% less GHG emission than that of SAS. Within agroforestry-based farming systems, the HIS produced 25% and 50% less emissions than those of MIS and LIS respectively. Our finding suggests that a tree-based farming system is more climate-smarter than a traditional farming. If other two benefits (carbon sequestered within the farm and in the natural forest because of agroforestry) are to be considered, a considerable amount of emissions is reduced from a climate-smart farming. Some policy intervention is required to motivate farmers towards adopting such climate-friendly farming practices in developing countries.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, greenhouse gas, climate change, farming systems, Nepal

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35 Circulating Public Perception on Agroforestry: Discourse Networks Analysis Using Social Media and Online News Media in Four Countries of the Sahel Region

Authors: Luisa Müting, Wisnu Harto Adiwijoyo


Agroforestry systems transform the agricultural landscapes in the Sahel region of Africa, providing food and farming products consumed for subsistence or sold for income. In the incrementally dry climate of the Sahel region, the spreading of agroforestry practices is integral for policymaker efforts to counteract land degradation and provide soil restoration in the region. Several measures on agroforestry practices have been implemented in the region by governmental and non-governmental institutions in recent years. However, despite the efforts, past research shows that awareness of how policies and interventions are being consumed and perceived by the public remains low. Therefore, interpreting public policy dilemmas by analyzing the public perception regarding agroforestry concepts and practices is necessary. Public perceptions and discourses can be an essential driver or constraint for the adoption of agroforestry practices in the region. Thus, understanding the public discourse behavior of crucial stakeholders could assist policymakers in developing inclusive and contextual policies that are relevant to the context of agroforestry adoption in Sahel region. To answer how information about agroforestry spreads and is perceived by the public. As internet usage increased drastically over the past decade, reaching a share of 33 percent of the population being connected to the internet, this research is based on online conversation data. Social media data from Facebook are gathered daily between April 2021 and April 2022 in Djibouti, Senegal, Mali, and Nigeria based on their share of active internet users compared to other countries in the Sahel region. A systematic methodology was applied to the extracted social media using discourse network analysis (DNA). This study then clustered the data by the types of agroforestry practices, sentiments, and country. Additionally, this research extracted the text data from online news media during the same period to pinpoint events related to the topic of agroforestry. The preliminary result indicates that tree management, crops, and livestock integration, diversifying species and genetic resources, and focusing on interactions and productivity across the agricultural system; are the most notable keywords in agroforestry-related conversations within the four countries in the Sahel region. Additionally, approximately 84 percent of the discussions were still dominated by big actors, such as NGO or government actors. Furthermore, as a subject of communication within agroforestry discourse, the Great Green Wall initiative generates almost 60 percent positive sentiment within the captured social media data, effectively having a more significant outreach than general agroforestry topics. This study provides an understanding for scholars and policymakers with a springboard for further research or policy design on agroforestry in the four countries of the Sahel region with systematically uncaptured novel data from the internet.

Keywords: sahel, djibouti, senegal, mali, nigeria, social networks analysis, public discourse analysis, sentiment analysis, content analysis, social media, online news, agroforestry, land restoration

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34 Assessment of Factors Influencing Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies in Halaba Special Woreda, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Mihretu Erjabo


Halaba special district is characterized by drought, soil erosion, high population pressure, poor livestock production, lack of feed for livestock, very deep water table, very low productivity of crops and food insufficiency. In order to address these problems, the woreda agricultural development office along with other management practices such as soil physical conservation measures agroforestry was introduced decades ago as a means to alleviate the problem. However, the level of agroforestry adoption remains low. Objective of this study was to identify the factors that influence adoption of agroforestry technologies by farmers in the district. Random sampling was employed to select two kebele administrations and respondents. Data collection was conducted by rural household questionnaire survey, participatory rural appraisal, questionnaires for local and woreda extension staff, secondary data resources and field observation. A sample of 12 key informants, 6 extension staffs, and 182 households, were used in the data collection. Chi square test used to determine significant relationships between adoption of agroforestry and 15 selected variables. Out of which eleven were found to be significant to affect farmers’ adoptiveness. These were frequency of visits of farmers (13.39%), participation in training (11.49%), farmers’ attitude towards agroforestry practices (10.61%), frequency of visits of extensionists (10.38%), participation in extension meeting (10.34%), participation in field day (10.28%), land holding size (9.29%), level of literacy (8.78%), awareness about the importance of agroforestry technology packages (7.06%), time taken from their residence to nearest extension (5.04%) and gender of respondents (3.34%). This study also identified various factors that result in low adoption rates of agroforestry including fear of competition, seedling, rainfall and labour shortage, free grazing, financial problem, expecting trees as soil degrader and long span of trees and lack of need ranking. To improve farmers’ adoption, the factors identified should be well addressed by launching a series and recurrent outreach extension program appropriate and suitable to farmers need.

Keywords: farmers attitude, farmers participation, soil degradation, technology packages

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33 Effects of Cacao Agroforestry and Landscape Composition on Farm Biodiversity and Household Dietary Diversity

Authors: Marlene Yu Lilin Wätzold, Wisnu Harto Adiwijoyo, Meike Wollni


Land-use conversion from tropical forests to cash crop production in the form of monocultures has drastic consequences for biodiversity. Meanwhile, high dependence on cash crop production is often associated with a decrease in other food crop production, thereby affecting household dietary diversity. Additionally, deforestation rates have been found to reduce households’ dietary diversity, as forests often offer various food sources. Agroforestry systems are seen as a potential solution to improve local biodiversity as well as provide a range of provisioning ecosystem services, such as timber and other food crops. While a number of studies have analyzed the effects of agroforestry on biodiversity, as well as household livelihood indicators, little is understood between potential trade-offs or synergies between the two. This interdisciplinary study aims to fill this gap by assessing cacao agroforestry’s role in enhancing local bird diversity, as well as farm household dietary diversity. Additionally, we will take a landscape perspective and investigate in what ways the landscape composition, such as the proximity to forests and forest patches, are able to contribute to the local bird diversity, as well as households’ dietary diversity. Our study will take place in two agro-ecological zones in Ghana, based on household surveys of 500 cacao farm households. Using a subsample of 120 cacao plots, we will assess the degree of shade tree diversity and density using drone flights and a computer vision tree detection algorithm. Bird density and diversity will be assessed using sound recordings that will be kept in the cacao plots for 24 hours. Landscape compositions will be assessed via remote sensing images. The results of our study are of high importance as they will allow us to understand the effects of agroforestry and landscape composition in improving simultaneous ecosystem services.

Keywords: agroforestry, biodiversity, landscape composition, nutrition

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32 Operation '1 Household Dry Toilet for Planting 20 Fruit Trees and/or Acacias on Cropland': Strategy for Promoting Adoption of Well-Managed Agroforestry Systems and Prevent Streaming and Soil Erosion

Authors: Stanis Koko Nyalongomo, Benjamin Mputela Bankanza, Moise Kisempa Mahungudi


Several areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) experience serious problems of streaming and soil erosion. Erosion leads to degradation of soil health, and the three main causative factors of similar importance are deforestation, overgrazing, and land agricultural mismanagement. Degradation of soil health leads to a decrease in agricultural productivity and carbon dioxide (CO₂), and other greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural productivity low, and sanitation-related diseases are a concern of a majority of DRC rural people -whose main livelihoods are conventional smallholder agriculture- due to degradation of agricultural soil health and prevalence of inappropriate sanitation in rural areas. Land management practices that increase soil carbon stocks on agricultural lands with practices including conservation agriculture and agroforestry do not only limit CO₂ emissions but also help prevent erosion while enhancing soil health and productivity. Promotion to adopt sustainable land management practices, especially conversion to well-managed agroforestry practices, is a necessity. This needs to be accompanied by incentives. Methods that incite smallholders to adopt practices that increase carbon stocks in agricultural lands and enhance soil health and productivity for social, economic, and environmental benefits, and give them the ability to get and use household dry toilets -included activities to inform and raise smallholder households awareness on the conversion of croplands to well-managed agroforestry systems through planting at least 20 fruit trees and/or acacias, soil carbon and practices that sequester it in soil and ecological sanitation; and offer smallholders technique and material supports and incentives under the form of dry toilets constructed for free for well-managed agroforestry implementation- were carried out to address problems of soil erosion as well as agricultural productivity and sanitation-related diseases. In 2018 and 2019, 19 of 23 targeted smallholder households expressed their satisfaction and converted their croplands to agroforestry through planting 374 trees, and each gotten 1 dry toilet constructed for free. Their neighbors expressed a willingness to participate in the project. Conversion to well-managed agroforestry practices offers many advantages to both farmers and the environment. The strategy of offering smallholders incentives for soil-friendly agricultural practices, especially well-managed agroforestry, is one of the solutions to prevent soil erosion. DRC rural people whose majority are smallholder households, need to be able to get and use dry toilets. So, dry toilets could be offered like incentives for well-managed agroforestry practices. Given the many advantages agroforestry and dry toilet can offer, recommendations are made for funding organizations to support such projects that promote the adoption of soil health practices.

Keywords: agroforestry, croplands, soil carbon, soil health

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31 Investigation and Comprehensive Benefit Analysis of 11 Typical Polar-Based Agroforestry Models Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process in Anhui Province, Eastern China

Authors: Zhihua Cao, Hongfei Zhao, Zhongneng Wu


The development of polar-based agroforestry was necessary due to the influence of the timber market environment in China, which can promote the coordinated development of forestry and agriculture, and gain remarkable ecological, economic and social benefits. The main agroforestry models of the main poplar planting area in Huaibei plain and along the Yangtze River plain were carried out. 11 typical management models of poplar were selected to sum up: pure poplar forest, poplar-rape-soybean, poplar-wheat-soybean, poplar-rape-cotton, poplar-wheat, poplar-chicken, poplar-duck, poplar-sheep, poplar-Agaricus blazei, poplar-oil peony, poplar-fish, represented by M0-M10, respectively. 12 indexes related with economic, ecological and social benefits (annual average cost, net income, ratio of output to investment, payback period of investment, land utilization ratio, utilization ratio of light energy, improvement and system stability of ecological and production environment, product richness, labor capacity, cultural quality of labor force, sustainability) were screened out to carry on the comprehensive evaluation and analysis to 11 kinds of typical agroforestry models based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that the economic benefit of each agroforestry model was in the order of: M8 > M6 > M9 > M7 > M5 > M10 > M4 > M1 > M2 > M3 > M0. The economic benefit of poplar-A. blazei model was the highest (332, 800 RMB / hm²), followed by poplar-duck and poplar-oil peony model (109, 820RMB /hm², 5, 7226 RMB /hm²). The order of comprehensive benefit was: M8 > M4 > M9 > M6 > M1 > M2 > M3 > M7 > M5 > M10 > M0. The economic benefit and comprehensive benefit of each agroforestry model were higher than that of pure poplar forest. The comprehensive benefit of poplar-A. blazei model was the highest, and that of poplar-wheat model ranked second, while its economic benefit was not high. Next were poplar-oil peony and poplar-duck models. It was suggested that the model of poplar-wheat should be adopted in the plain along the Yangtze River, and the whole cycle mode of poplar-grain, popalr-A. blazei, or poplar-oil peony should be adopted in Huaibei plain, northern Anhui. Furthermore, wheat, rape, and soybean are the main crops before the stand was closed; the agroforestry model of edible fungus or Chinese herbal medicine can be carried out when the stand was closed in order to maximize the comprehensive benefit. The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference for forest farmers in the selection of poplar agroforestry model in the future and to provide the basic data for the sustainable and efficient study of poplar agroforestry in Anhui province, eastern China.

Keywords: agroforestry, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), comprehensive benefit, model, poplar

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30 Prospects of Agroforestry Products in the Emergency Situation: A Case Study of Earthquake of 2015 in Central Nepal

Authors: Raju Chhetri


Agroforestry is one of the main sources of livelihood among the people of Nepal. In particular, this is the only one mode of livelihood among the Chepangs. The monster earthquake (7.3 MW) that hit the country on the 25th of April in 2015 and many of its aftershocks had devastating effects. As a result, not only the big structures collapsed, it incurred great losses on fabrication, collection centers, schools, markets and other necessary service centers. Although there were a large number of aftershocks after the monster earthquake, the most devastating aftershock took place on 12th May, 2015, which measured 6.3 richter scale. Consequently, it caused more destruction of houses, further calamity to the lives of people, and public life got further perdition. This study was mainly carried out to find out the food security and market situation of Agroforestry product of the Chepang community in Raksirang VDC (one of the severely affected VDCs of Makwanpur district) due to the earthquake. A total of 40 households (12 percent) were randomly selected as a sample in ward number 7 only. Questionnaires and focus groups were used to gather primary data. Additional, two Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were convened in the study area to get some descriptive information on this study. Estimated 370 hectares of land, which was full of Agroforestry plantation, ruptured by the earthquake. It caused severe damages to the households, and a serious loss of food-stock, up to 60-80 percent (maize, millet, and rice). Instead of regular cereal intake, banana (Muas Paradisca) consumption was found ‘high scale’ in the emergency period. The market price of rice (37-44 NRS/Kg) increased by 18.9 percent. Some difference in the income range before and after the earthquake was observed. Before earthquake, sale of Agroforestry, and livestock products were continuing, but after the earthquake, Agroforestry product sale is the only one means of livelihood among Chepangs. Nearly 50-60 percent Agroforestry production of banana (Mass Paradisca), citrus (Citrus Lemon), pineapple (Ananus comosus) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) declined, excepting for cash income from the residual. Heavy demands of Agroforestry product mentioned above lay high farm gate prices (50-100 percent) helps surveyed the community to continue livelihood from its sale. Out of the survey samples, 30 households (75 percent) respondents migrated to safe location due to land rupture, ongoing aftershocks, and landslides. Overall food security situation in this community is acute and challenging for the days to come. Immediate and long term both response from a relief agency concerning food, shelter and safe stocking of Agroforestry product is required to keep secured livelihood in Chepang community.

Keywords: earthquake, rupture, agroforestry, livelihood, indigenous, food security

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29 Influence of Agroforestry Trees Leafy Biomass and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Crop Growth Rate and Relative Growth Rate of Maize

Authors: A. B. Alarape, O. D. Aba


The use of legume tree pruning as mulch in agroforestry system is a common practice to maintain soil organic matter and improve soil fertility in the tropics. The study was conducted to determine the influence of agroforestry trees leafy biomass and nitrogen fertilizer on crop growth rate and relative growth rate of maize. The experiments were laid out as 3 x 4 x 2 factorial in a split-split plot design with three replicates. Control, biomass species (Parkia biglobosa and Albizia lebbeck) as main plots were considered, rates of nitrogen considered include (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N ha⁻¹) as sub-plots, and maize varieties (DMR-ESR-7 and 2009 EVAT) were used as sub-sub plots. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA) at α = 0.05. Incorporation of leafy biomass was significant in 2015 on Relative Growth Rate (RGR), while nitrogen application was significant on Crop Growth Rate (CGR). 2009 EVAT had higher CGR in 2015 at 4-6 and 6-8 WAP. Incorporation of Albizia leaves enhanced the growth of maize than Parkia leaves. Farmers are, therefore, encouraged to use Albizia leaves as mulch to enrich their soil for maize production and most especially, in case of availability of inorganic fertilizers. Though, production of maize with biomass and application of 120 kg N ha⁻¹ will bring better growth of maize.

Keywords: agroforestry trees, fertilizer, growth, incorporation, leafy biomass

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28 Assessing the Financial Potential of an Agroforestry-Based Farming Practice in a Labor Scarce Subsistence Economy

Authors: Arun Dhakal, Rajesh Kumar Rai


Agroforestry is long practiced in Nepal as a means of subsistence livelihoods. Given its potential to climate change mitigation, this practice is being recommended as a climate-smart farming practice in the recent years. However, the financial attractiveness of this practice is not well-documented in a labor scarce economy such as Nepal. This study attempts to examine the financial suitability of an agroforestry-based farming practice in the present socio-economic context of Nepal where labor is in short supply. A total of 200 households were randomly selected for household surveys in Dhanusha district during April to July 2015. Two farming practices were found to be dominant in the study area: 1) conventional farming (field crops only) in which at least two field crops are annually grown, and 2) agroforestry-based farming (agroforest, home garden and field crops combined) practice (ABFP). The ABFP was found to be less labor intensive than the conventional farming (137 Man days/yr/ha vs 218 Man days/yr/ha). The ex-ante financial analysis indicated that both the farming practices generated positive NPVs (Net Present Values) and B/C (Benefit-Cost) ratios greater than one, indicating both are financially attractive farming enterprises under the base discount rate of 12%. However, the ABFP generated higher NPV and greater B/C ratio than the conventional farming, indicating the former was financially more attractive than the later. The sensitivity analysis showed that the conventional farming was more sensitive to change in labor wage rate than that of the ABFP. Up to the 24% discount rate, the ABFP generated higher NPV and in case of B/C ratio, the ratio was found greater for ABFP even in 50% discount rate.

Keywords: agroforestry, benefit-cost analysis, conventional farming, net present value

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27 Augmented Reality to Support the Design of Innovative Agroforestry Systems

Authors: Laetitia Lemiere, Marie Gosme, Gerard Subsol, Marc Jaeger


Agroforestry is recognized as a way of developing sustainable and resilient agriculture that can fight against climate change. However, the number of species combinations, spatial configurations, and management options for trees and crops is vast. These choices must be adapted to the pedoclimatic and socio-economic contexts and to the objectives of the farmer, who therefore needs support in designing his system. Participative design workshops are a good way to integrate the knowledge of several experts in order to design such complex systems. The design of agroforestry systems should take into account both spatial aspects (e.g., spacing of trees within the lines and between lines, tree line orientation, tree-crop distance, species spatial patterns) and temporal aspects (e.g., crop rotations, tree thinning and pruning, tree planting in the case of successional agroforestry). Furthermore, the interactions between trees and crops evolve as the trees grow. However, agroforestry design workshops generally emphasize the spatial aspect only through the use of static tokens to represent the different species when designing the spatial configuration of the system. Augmented reality (AR) may overcome this limitation, allowing to visualize dynamic representations of trees and crops, and also their interactions, while at the same time retaining the possibility to physically interact with the system being designed (i.e., move trees, add or remove species, etc.). We propose an ergonomic digital solution capable of assisting a group of agroforestry experts to design an agroforestry system and to represent it. We investigated the use of web-based marker-based AR that does not require specific hardware and does not require specific installation so that all users could use their own smartphones right out of the pocket. We developed a prototype mobilizing the AR.js, ArToolKit.js, and Three.js open source libraries. In our implementation, we gradually build a virtual agroforestry system pattern scene from the users' interactions. A specific set of markers initialize the scene properties, and the various plant species are added and located during the workshop design session. The full virtual scene, including the trees positions with their neighborhood, are saved for further uses, such as virtual, augmented instantiation in the farmer fields. The number of tree species available in the application is gradually increasing; we mobilize 3D digital models for walnut, poplar, wild cherry, and other popular species used in agroforestry systems. The prototype allows shadow computations and the representation of trees at various growth stages, as well as different tree generations, and is thus able to visualize the dynamics of the system over time. Future work will focus on i) the design of complex patterns mobilizing several tree/shrub organizations, not restricted to lines; ii) the design of interfaces related to cultural practices, such as clearing or pruning; iii) the representation of tree-crop interactions. Beside tree shade (light competition), our objective is to represent also below-ground competitions (water, nitrogen) or other variables of interest for the design of agroforestry systems (e.g., predicted crop yield).

Keywords: agroforestry system design, augmented reality, marker-based AR, participative design, web-based AR

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26 Insects and Meteorological Inventories in a Mango-Based Agroforestry System in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin, Shakura Namni, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Giashuddin Miah, Mohammad Zakaria, Sang Jae Suh, Yong Jung Kwon


Insect species abundance and diversity associated with meteorological factors during January to June 2013 at a mango-based agroforestry research field in Bangladesh, and the effects of pests and pollinator species on mango are presented in this study. Among the collected and identified insects, nine species belong to 3 orders were found as pollinator, 11 species in 5 orders as pest, and 13 species in 6 orders as predator. The mango hopper, fruit fly and stone weevil appeared as major pest because of their high levels of abundance and infestation. The hoppers caused 100% inflorescence damage followed by fruit fly (51.7% fruit) and stone weevil (31.0% mature fruit). The major pests exerted significantly higher abundance compared to pollinator, predator and minor pests. Hemipteroid insects were most abundant (60%) followed by Diptera (21%), Hymenoptera (10%), Lepidoptera (5%), and Coleoptera (4%). Insect population increased with increasing trend of temperature and humidity, and revealed peak abundance during April-May. The flower visiting insects differed in their landing duration and showed preference to forage with time of a day. Their foraging activity was found to be peaked between 11.00 am to 01.00 pm. The activity of the pollinators led to higher level of fruit set. This study provides baseline information about the phenological patterns of insect abundance in an agroforestry research field which could be an indication to incorporate some aspects of pest management.

Keywords: agroforestry, abundance, abiotic factors, insects, mango

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25 Priority Sites for Deforested and Degraded Mountain Restoration Projects in North Korea

Authors: Koo Ja-Choon, Seok Hyun-Deok, Park So-Hee


Even though developed countries have supported aid projects for restoring degraded and deforested mountain, recent North Korean authorities announced that North Korean forest is still very serious. Last 12 years, more than 16 thousand ha of forest were destroyed. Most of previous researches concluded that food and fuel problems should be solved for preventing people from deforesting and degrading forest in North Korea. It means that mountain restoration projects such as A/R(afforestation/reforestation) and REDD(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) project should be implemented with the agroforestry and the forest tending project. Because agroforestry and the forest tending can provide people in the project area with foods and fuels, respectively. Especially, Agroforestry has been operated well with the support of Swiss agency of Development and cooperation since 2003. This paper aims to find the priority sites for mountain restoration project where all types of projects including agroforesty can be implemented simultaneously. We tried to find the primary counties where the areas of these activities were distributed widely and evenly. Recent spatial data of 186 counties representing altitude, gradient and crown density were collected from World Forest Watch. These 3 attributes were used to determine the type of activities; A/R, REDD, Agroforestry and forest tending project. Finally, we calculated the size of 4 activities in 186 counties by using GIS technique. Result shows that Chongjin in Hamgyeongbuk-do, Hoeryong in Hamgyeongbuk-do and Tongchang in Pyeonganbuk-do are on the highest priority of counties. Most of feasible counties whose value of richness and uniformity were greater than the average were located near the eastern coast of North Korea. South Korean government has not supported any aid projects in North Korea since 2010. Recently, South Korea is trying to continue the aid projects for North Korea. Forest project which is not affected by the political situation between North- and South- Korea can be considered as a priority activities. This result can be used when South Korean government determine the priority sites for North Korean mountain restoration project in near future.

Keywords: agroforestry, forest restoration project, GIS, North Korea, priority

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24 Characterization of Agroforestry Systems in Burkina Faso Using an Earth Observation Data Cube

Authors: Dan Kanmegne


Africa will become the most populated continent by the end of the century, with around 4 billion inhabitants. Food security and climate changes will become continental issues since agricultural practices depend on climate but also contribute to global emissions and land degradation. Agroforestry has been identified as a cost-efficient and reliable strategy to address these two issues. It is defined as the integrated management of trees and crops/animals in the same land unit. Agroforestry provides benefits in terms of goods (fruits, medicine, wood, etc.) and services (windbreaks, fertility, etc.), and is acknowledged to have a great potential for carbon sequestration; therefore it can be integrated into reduction mechanisms of carbon emissions. Particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, the constraint stands in the lack of information about both areas under agroforestry and the characterization (composition, structure, and management) of each agroforestry system at the country level. This study describes and quantifies “what is where?”, earliest to the quantification of carbon stock in different systems. Remote sensing (RS) is the most efficient approach to map such a dynamic technology as agroforestry since it gives relatively adequate and consistent information over a large area at nearly no cost. RS data fulfill the good practice guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change (IPCC) that is to be used in carbon estimation. Satellite data are getting more and more accessible, and the archives are growing exponentially. To retrieve useful information to support decision-making out of this large amount of data, satellite data needs to be organized so to ensure fast processing, quick accessibility, and ease of use. A new solution is a data cube, which can be understood as a multi-dimensional stack (space, time, data type) of spatially aligned pixels and used for efficient access and analysis. A data cube for Burkina Faso has been set up from the cooperation project between the international service provider WASCAL and Germany, which provides an accessible exploitation architecture of multi-temporal satellite data. The aim of this study is to map and characterize agroforestry systems using the Burkina Faso earth observation data cube. The approach in its initial stage is based on an unsupervised image classification of a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series from 2010 to 2018, to stratify the country based on the vegetation. Fifteen strata were identified, and four samples per location were randomly assigned to define the sampling units. For safety reasons, the northern part will not be part of the fieldwork. A total of 52 locations will be visited by the end of the dry season in February-March 2020. The field campaigns will consist of identifying and describing different agroforestry systems and qualitative interviews. A multi-temporal supervised image classification will be done with a random forest algorithm, and the field data will be used for both training the algorithm and accuracy assessment. The expected outputs are (i) map(s) of agroforestry dynamics, (ii) characteristics of different systems (main species, management, area, etc.); (iii) assessment report of Burkina Faso data cube.

Keywords: agroforestry systems, Burkina Faso, earth observation data cube, multi-temporal image classification

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23 Determinants of Carbon-Certified Small-Scale Agroforestry Adoption In Rural Mount Kenyan

Authors: Emmanuel Benjamin, Matthias Blum


Purpose – We address smallholder farmers’ restricted possibilities to adopt sustainable technologies which have direct and indirect benefits. Smallholders often face little asset endowment due to small farm size und insecure property rights, therefore experiencing constraints in adopting agricultural innovation. A program involving payments for ecosystem services (PES) benefits poor smallholder farmers in developing countries in many ways and has been suggested as a means of easing smallholder farmers’ financial constraints. PES may also provide additional mainstay which can eventually result in more favorable credit contract terms due to the availability of collateral substitute. Results of this study may help to understand the barriers, motives and incentives for smallholders’ participation in PES and help in designing a strategy to foster participation in beneficial programs. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a random utility model and a logistic regression approach to investigate factors that influence agroforestry adoption. We investigate non-monetary factors, such as information spillover, that influence the decision to adopt such conservation strategies. We collected original data from non-government-run agroforestry mitigation programs with PES that have been implemented in the Mount Kenya region. Preliminary Findings – We find that spread of information, existing networks and peer involvement in such programs drive participation. Conversely, participation by smallholders does not seem to be influenced by education, land or asset endowment. Contrary to some existing literature, we found weak evidence for a positive correlation between the adoption of agroforestry with PES and age of smallholder, e.g., one increases with the other, in the Mount Kenyan region. Research implications – Poverty alleviation policies for developing countries should target social capital to increase the adoption rate of modern technologies amongst smallholders.

Keywords: agriculture innovation, agroforestry adoption, smallholders, payment for ecosystem services, Sub-Saharan Africa

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22 The Use of Drones in Measuring Environmental Impacts of the Forest Garden Approach

Authors: Andrew J. Zacharias


The forest garden approach (FGA) was established by Trees for the Future (TREES) over the organization’s 30 years of agroforestry projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This method transforms traditional agricultural systems into highly managed gardens that produce food and marketable products year-round. The effects of the FGA on food security, dietary diversity, and economic resilience have been measured closely, and TREES has begun to closely monitor the environmental impacts through the use of sensors mounted on unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly known as 'drones'. These drones collect thousands of pictures to create 3-D models in both the visible and the near-infrared wavelengths. Analysis of these models provides TREES with quantitative and qualitative evidence of improvements to the annual above-ground biomass and leaf area indices, as measured in-situ using NDVI calculations.

Keywords: agroforestry, biomass, drones, NDVI

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21 Lessons from Farmers Performing Agroforestry for Reclamation of Gold Mine Spoils in Colombia

Authors: Bibiana Betancur-Corredor, Juan Carlos Loaiza, Manfred Denich, Christian Borgemeister


Alluvial gold mining generates a vast amount of deposits that cover the natural soil and negatively impacts riverbeds and valleys, causing loss of livelihood opportunities for farmers of these regions. In Colombia, more than 79,000 ha are affected by alluvial gold mining, therefore developing strategies to return this land to productivity is of crucial importance for the country. A novel restoration strategy has been created by a mining company, where the land is restored through the establishment of agroforestry systems, in which agricultural crops and livestock are combined to complement reforestation in the area. The purpose of this study is to capture the knowledge of farmers who perform agroforestry in areas with deposits created by alluvial gold mining activities. Semi structured interviews were conducted with farmers with regard to the following: indicators of soil fertility, management practices, soil heterogeneity, pest outbreaks and weeds. In order to compare the perceptions of soil fertility of farmers with physicochemical properties of soils, the farmers were asked to identify spots within their farms that have exhibited good and poor yields. Soil samples were collected in order to correlate farmer’s perceptions with soil physicochemical properties. The findings suggest that the main challenge that farmers face is the identification of fertile soil for crop establishment. They identify the fertile soil through visually analyzing soil color and compaction as well as the use of spontaneous growth of specific plants as indicator of soil fertility. For less fertile areas, nitrogen fixing plants are used as green manure to restore soil fertility for crop establishment. The findings of this study imply that if gold mining is followed by reclamation practices that involve the successful establishment of productive farmlands, agricultural productivity of these lands might improve, increasing food security of the affected communities.

Keywords: agroforestry, knowledge, mining, restoration

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20 Diversity and Use of Agroforestry Yards of Family Farmers of Ponte Alta – Gama, Federal District, Brazil

Authors: Kever Bruno Paradelo Gomes, Rosana Carvalho Martins


The home gardens areas are production systems, which are located near the homes and are quite common in the tropics. They consist of agricultural and forest species and may also involve the raising of small animals to produce food for subsistence as well as income generation, with a special focus on the conservation of biodiversity. Home gardens are diverse Agroforestry systems with multiple uses, among many, food security, income aid, traditional medicine. The work was carried out on rural properties of the family farmers of the Ponte Alta Rural Nucleus, Gama Administrative Region, in the city of Brasília, Federal District- Brazil. The present research is characterized methodologically as a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive nature. The instruments used in this research were: bibliographic survey and semi-structured questionnaire. The data collection was performed through the application of a semi-structured questionnaire, containing questions that referred to the perception and behavior of the interviewed producer on the subject under analysis. In each question, the respondent explained his knowledge about sustainability, agroecological practices, environmental legislation, conservation methods, forest and medicinal species, ago social and socioeconomic characteristics, use and purpose of agroforestry and technical assistance. The sample represented 55.62% of the universe of the study. We interviewed 99 people aged 18-83 years, with a mean age of 49 years. The low level of education, coupled with the lack of training and guidance for small family farmers in the Ponte Alta Rural Nucleus, is one of the limitations to the development of practices oriented towards sustainable and agroecological agriculture in the nucleus. It is observed that 50.5% of the interviewed people landed with agroforestry yards less than 20 years ago, and only 16.17% of them are older than 35 years. In identifying agriculture as the main activity of most of the rural properties studied, attention is drawn to the cultivation of medicinal plants, fruits and crops as the most extracted products. However, it is verified that the crops in the backyards have the exclusive purpose of family consumption, which could be complemented with the marketing of the surplus, as well as with the aggregation of value to the cultivated products. Initiatives such as this may contribute to the increase in family income and to the motivation and value of the crop in agroecological gardens. We conclude that home gardens of Ponte Alta are highly diverse thus contributing to local biodiversity conservation of are managed by women to ensure food security and allows income generation. The tradition of existing knowledge on the use and management of the diversity of resources used in agroforestry yards is of paramount importance for the development of sustainable alternative practices.

Keywords: agriculture, agroforestry system, rural development, sustainability

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19 Agriculture and Forests: A Perception of Farmers on Sustainable Agro-Ecological Practices

Authors: Kever Gomes, Rosana Martins


The use of environmental indicators is today an important strategy for analyzing the sustainability of agricultural systems. Despite of the considerable importance of family agriculture for Brazilian economy, sustainable agricultural practices are still weakly known, and the known ones, underused. Currently, economic aspects of the relationship between man and nature lead to the destruction of natural ecosystems, which justifies the urgent need for dissemination and usage of new sustainable production techniques. The study shows the agro-social and social-cultural trajectory of the farmers and hypothesis are advanced on what would imply the adoption of agroforestry systems in family agriculture. This study aimed to investigate aspects related to the perception of sustainable agriculture, especially on agroforestry systems in farms of farmers from Distrito Federal-Brazil. Agro-social characteristics of farmers were systematized considering their perceptions about agroforestry systems for the preparation of proposal for a program of Environmental Services Payment, intended for families who are involved in the various activities of home gardens. This study used qualitative methodological approaches of quantitative research, using descriptive exploratory research. To get the necessary elements for the intended analysis, interviews were conducted at 40 heads of households of which 15 were men and 25 women. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, having been considered in the analysis the frequency, consistency, coherence and originality of responses. It was found that the lack of financial resources and lack of technical assistance are limiting factors for the dissemination and use of sustainable agricultural practices. Considering the great number of species found for the main categories of use, it can be inferred that the home gardens play important functions for the interviewed families, contributing for the food and medicine production destined for the consumption by the families themselves, and also playing an important esthetic function thanks to the variety of their ornamental plants. The wealth of these home gardens may be related to the rural origin and to the culture of the owners, who still keep a cultivation tradition. It was found that the products obtained from the home gardens contributed for the diet’s variety of the informants, representing a promising potential for the improvement of the population alimentation. The study reached the conclusion over the need to motivate the interest of these farmers to seek information and resources to enable the implementation of Agroforestry projects, including the recovery of areas in their properties, even those distinct from their backyards. The study shows the agro-social and social-cultural trajectory of the farmers and hypothesis are advanced on what would imply the adoption of agroforestry systems in family agriculture.

Keywords: agro-biodiversity, natural conservation, silviculture, urban agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 127