Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4829

Search results for: construction and demolition waste

4829 Production and Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova

Abstract:

Recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and their new reuse in structures is one of the solutions of environmental problems. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills all the time. The paper deals with the situation of the recycling of the building and demolition waste in the Czech Republic during the recent years. The paper is dealing with questions of C&D waste recycling, it also characterizes construction and demolition waste in general, furthermore it analyses production of construction waste and subsequent production of recycled materials.

Keywords: Recycling, Construction and demolition waste, Recycled rubble, Waste management

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4828 Study on the Demolition Waste Management in Malaysia Construction Industry

Authors: Gunalan Vasudevan

Abstract:

The Malaysia construction industry generates a large quantity of construction and demolition waste nowadays. In the handbook for demolition work only comprised small portion of demolition waste management. It is important to study and determine the ways to provide a practical guide for the professional in the building industry about handling the demolition waste. In general, demolition defined as tearing down or wrecking of structural work or architectural work of the building and other infrastructures work such as road, bridge and etc. It’s a common misconception that demolition is nothing more than taking down a structure and carrying the debris to a landfill. On many projects, 80-90% of the structure is kept for reuse or recycling which help the owner to save cost. Demolition contractors required a lot of knowledge and experience to minimize the impact of demolition work to the existing surrounding area. For data collecting method, postal questionnaires and interviews have been selected to collect data. Questionnaires have distributed to 80 respondents from the construction industry in Klang Valley. 67 of 80 respondents have replied the questionnaire while 4 people have interviewed. Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Science version 17.0 were used to analyze the data collected.

Keywords: demolition, waste management, construction material, Malaysia

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4827 Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste Suitable for Concrete Production

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova

Abstract:

This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline of construction and demolition (C&D) waste management in Czech Republic. The results of research interest exhibit an increasing research interest in C&D waste management practices in recent years. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills, for reclamation or landscaping all the time. The quality of recycled aggregates for use in concrete construction depends on recycling practices. Classifications, composition and contaminants influence the mechanical-physical properties as well as environmental risks related to its utilization. The second part of contribution describes properties of fibre reinforced concrete with the full replacement of natural aggregate by recycled one (concrete or masonry rubble).

Keywords: construction and demolition waste, fibre reinforced concrete, recycled aggregate, recycling, waste management

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4826 Manufacturing Commercial Bricks with Construction and Demolition Wastes

Authors: Mustafa Kara, Yasemin Kilic, Bahattin Murat Demir, Ümit Ustaoglu, Cavit Unal

Abstract:

This paper reports utilization of different kind of construction and demolition wastes (C&D) in the production of bricks at industrial scale. Plastered brick waste and tile wastes were collected from ISTAÇ Co. Compost and Recovery Plant, Istanbul, Turkey. Plastered brick waste and tile waste are mixed with brick clay in the proportion of 0-30% and fired at 900ºC. The physical and mechanical properties of the produced bricks were determined and evaluated according to IKIZLER Brick Company Production values, Brick Industry Association (BIA) and Turkish Standards (TS). The resulted showed that plastered brick waste and tile waste can be used to produce good quality brick for various engineering applications in construction and building. The replacement of brick clay by plastered brick waste and tile waste at the levels of 30% has good effects on the compressive strength of the bricks.

Keywords: commercial brick, construction and demolition waste, manufacturing, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
4825 The Utilization of Recycled Construction and Demolition Waste Aggregate in Asphaltic Concrete

Authors: Inas Kamel, Noor Z. Habib

Abstract:

Utilizing construction and demolition wastes in hotmix asphalt (HMA) pavement construction can reduce the adverse environmental effect of its inadequate disposal and reduce the pressure of extracting and processing mineral aggregates (MA). This study aims to examine the viability of replacing MA by recycled construction and demolition waste aggregates (RCDWA) in the wearing course of asphaltic concrete (AC) pavements without compromising its loadbearing capacity. The Marshall Method was used to evaluate the performance of AC wearing course specimens by replacing MA by 10%, 20% and 30% RCDWA. Grade 60/70 bitumen was used in the range 3.0-5.5%, with 05% increments, to generate the optimum bitumen content (OBC). From the volumetric analysis and test property curves, the mixture containing 20% RCDWA was chosen as the preferred mix at 5.1% OBC. It possessed a 10% increase in Marshall Stability compared to the reference specimen, containing 100% MA, and a 6% increase in Marshall flow.

Keywords: aggregate, asphaltic concrete, Marshall method, optimum bitumen content, recycled construction and demolition waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
4824 An Optimization Model for Waste Management in Demolition Works

Authors: Eva Queheille, Franck Taillandier, Nadia Saiyouri

Abstract:

Waste management has become a major issue in demolition works, because of its environmental impact (energy consumption, resource consumption, pollution…). However, improving waste management requires to take also into account the overall demolition process and to consider demolition main objectives (e.g. cost, delay). Establishing a strategy with these conflicting objectives (economic and environment) remains complex. In order to provide a decision-support for demolition companies, a multi-objective optimization model was developed. In this model, a demolition strategy is computed from a set of 80 decision variables (worker team composition, machines, treatment for each type of waste, choice of treatment platform…), which impacts the demolition objectives. The model has experimented on a real-case study (demolition of several buildings in France). To process the optimization, different optimization algorithms (NSGA2, MOPSO, DBEA…) were tested. Results allow the engineer in charge of this case, to build a sustainable demolition strategy without affecting cost or delay.

Keywords: deconstruction, life cycle assessment, multi-objective optimization, waste management

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4823 Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Grand Challenges in Construction Recovery Process

Authors: Abioye A. Oyenuga, Rao Bhamidiarri

Abstract:

Hurling a successful Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) recycling operation around the globe is a challenge today, predominantly because secondary materials markets are yet to be integrated. Reducing, Reusing and recycling of (C&DW) have been employed over the years, and various techniques have been investigated. However, the economic and environmental viability of its application seems limited. This paper discusses the costs and benefits in using secondary materials and focus on investigating reuse and recycling process for five major types of construction materials: concrete, metal, wood, cardboard/paper, and plasterboard. Data obtained from demolition specialist and contractors are considered and evaluated. With the date source, the research paper found that construction material recovery process fully incorporate the 3R’s process and shows how energy recovery by means of 3R's principles can be evaluated. This scrutiny leads to the empathy of grand challenges in construction material recovery process. Recommendations to deepen material recovery process are also discussed.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste (C&DW), 3R concept, recycling, reuse, waste management, UK

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4822 Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste in the Production of Concrete Blocks

Authors: Juan A. Ferriz-Papi, Simon Thomas

Abstract:

The construction industry generates large amounts of waste, usually mixed, which can be composed of different origin materials, most of them catalogued as non-hazardous. The European Union targets for this waste for 2020 have been already achieved by the UK, but it is mainly developed in downcycling processes (backfilling) whereas upcycling (such as recycle in new concrete batches) still keeps at a low percentage. The aim of this paper is to explore further in the use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) in concrete mixes so as to improve upcycling. A review of most recent research and legislation applied in the UK is developed regarding the production of concrete blocks. As a case study, initial tests were developed with a CDW recycled aggregate sample from a CDW plant in Swansea. Composition by visual inspection and sieving tests of two samples were developed and compared to original aggregates. More than 70% was formed by soil waste from excavation, and the rest was a mix of waste from mortar, concrete, and ceramics with small traces of plaster, glass and organic matter. Two concrete mixes were made with 80% replacement of recycled aggregates and different water/cement ratio. Tests were carried out for slump, absorption, density and compression strength. The results were compared to a reference sample and showed a substantial reduction of quality in both mixes. Despite that, the discussion brings to identify different aspects to solve, such as heterogeneity or composition, and analyze them for the successful use of these recycled aggregates in the production of concrete blocks. The conclusions obtained can help increase upcycling processes ratio with mixed CDW as recycled aggregates in concrete mixes.

Keywords: aggregates, concrete, concrete block, construction and demolition waste, recycling

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4821 Adsorption Mechanism of Heavy Metals and Organic Pesticide on Industrial Construction and Demolition Waste and Its Runoff Behaviors

Authors: Sheng Huang, Xin Zhao, Xiaofeng Gao, Tao Zhou, Shijin Dai, Youcai Zhao

Abstract:

Adsorption of heavy metal pollutants (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu) and organic pesticide (phorate, dithiophosphate diethyl, triethyl phosphorothioate), along with their multi-contamination on the surface of industrial construction & demolition waste (C&D waste) was investigated. Brick powder was selected as the appropriate waste while its maximum equilibrium adsorption amount of heavy metal under single controlled contamination matrix reached 5.41, 0.81, 0.45, 1.13 and 0.97 mg/g, respectively. Effects of pH and spiking dose of ICDW was also investigated. Equilibrium adsorption amount of organic pesticide varied from 0.02 to 0.97 mg/g, which was negatively correlated to the size distribution and hydrophilism. Existence of organic pesticide on surface of ICDW caused various effects on the heavy metal adsorption, mainly due to combination of metal ions and the floccule formation along with wrapping behaviors by pesticide pollutants. Adsorption of Zn was sharply decreased from 7.1 to 0.15 mg/g compared with clean ICDW and phorate contaminated ICDW, while that of Pb, Cr and Cd experienced an increase- then decrease procedure. On the other hand, runoff of pesticide contaminants was investigated under 25 mm/h simulated rainfall. Results showed that the cumulative runoff amount fitted well with curve obtained from a power function, of which r2=0.95 and 0.91 for 1DAA (1 day between contamination and runoff) and 7DAA, respectively. This study helps provide evaluation of industrial construction and demolition waste contamination into aquatic systems.

Keywords: adsorption mechanism, industrial construction waste, metals, pesticide, runoff

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4820 Analysis of Construction Waste Generation and Its Effect in a Construction Site

Authors: R. K. D. G. Kaluarachchi

Abstract:

The generation of solid waste and its effective management are debated topics in Sri Lanka as well as in the global environment. It was estimated that the most of the waste generated in global was originated from construction and demolition of buildings. Thus, the proportion of construction waste in solid waste generation cannot be underestimated. The construction waste, which is the by-product generated and removed from work sites is collected in direct and indirect processes. Hence, the objectives of this research are to identify the proportion of construction waste which can be reused and identify the methods to reduce the waste generation without reducing the quality of the process. A 6-storey building construction site was selected for this research. The site was divided into six zones depending on the process. Ten waste materials were identified by considering the adverse effects on safety and health of people and the economic value of them. The generated construction waste in each zone was recorded per week for a period of five months. The data revealed that sand, cement, wood used for form work and rusted steel rods were the generated waste which has higher economic value in all zones. Structured interviews were conducted to gather information on how the materials are categorized as waste and the capability of reducing, reusing and recycling the waste. It was identified that waste is generated in following processes; ineffective storage of material for a longer time and improper handling of material during the work process. Further, the alteration of scheduled activities of construction work also yielded more waste. Finally, a proper management of construction waste is suggested to reduce and reuse waste.

Keywords: construction-waste, effective management, reduce, reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
4819 Experimental Investigation on High Performance Concrete with Silica Fume and Ceramic Waste

Authors: P. Vinayagam, A. Madhanagopal

Abstract:

This experimental investigation focuses on the study of the strength of concrete with ceramic waste as coarse aggregate. It is not a new concept of using alternate materials for aggregates. Pottery and ceramics have been an important part of human culture for thousands of years. The ceramic waste from ceramic and construction industries is a major contribution to construction demolition waste (CDW), representing a serious environmental, technical, and economical problem of today’s society. The major sources of ceramic waste are ceramic industry, building construction and building demolition. In ceramic industries, a significant part of the losses in the manufacturing of ceramic elements is not returned to the production process. In building construction, ceramic waste is produced during transportation to the building site, on the execution of several construction elements and on subsequent works. This waste is regionally deposited in dumping grounds, without any separation or reuse. In this study an attempt has been made to find the suitability of the ceramic industrial wastes as a possible replacement for conventional crushed stone coarse aggregate in high performance concrete. In this study, glazed stoneware pipe waste was used as coarse aggregates. In this investigation, physical properties of ceramic waste coarse aggregates were studied. Experiments were carried out to determine the strength of high performance concrete with silica fume and ceramic stoneware pipe waste coarse aggregate of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% different replacement ratios in comparison with those of corresponding conventional concrete mixes.

Keywords: ceramic waste, coarse aggregate replacement, glazed stoneware pipe waste, silica fume

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4818 Construction and Demolition Waste Management in Indian Cities

Authors: Vaibhav Rathi, Soumen Maity, Achu R. Sekhar, Abhijit Banerjee

Abstract:

Construction sector in India is extremely resource and carbon intensive. It contributes to significantly to national greenhouse emissions. At the resource end the industry consumes significant portions of the output from mining. Resources such as sand and soil are most exploited and their rampant extraction is becoming constant source of impact on environment and society. Cement is another resource that is used in abundance in building and construction and has a direct impact on limestone resources. Though India is rich in cement grade limestone resource, efforts have to be made for sustainable consumption of this resource to ensure future availability. Use of these resources in high volumes in India is a result of rapid urbanization. More cities have grown to a population of million plus in the last decade and million plus cities are growing further. To cater to needs of growing urban population of construction activities are inevitable in the coming future thereby increasing material consumption. Increased construction will also lead to substantial increase in end of life waste generation from Construction and Demolition (C&D). Therefore proper management of C&D waste has the potential to reduce environmental pollution as well as contribute to the resource efficiency in the construction sector. The present study deals with estimation, characterisation and documenting current management practices of C&D waste in 10 Indian cities of different geographies and classes. Based on primary data the study draws conclusions on the potential of C&D waste to be used as an alternative to primary raw materials. The estimation results show that India generates 716 million tons of C&D waste annually, placing the country as second largest C&D waste generator in the world after China. The study also aimed at utilization of C&D waste in to building materials. The waste samples collected from various cities have been used to replace 100% stone aggregates in paver blocks without any decrease in strength. However, management practices of C&D waste in cities still remains poor instead of notification of rules and regulations notified for C&D waste management. Only a few cities have managed to install processing plant and set up management systems for C&D waste. Therefore there is immense opportunity for management and reuse of C&D waste in Indian cities.

Keywords: building materials, construction and demolition waste, cities, environmental pollution, resource efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
4817 Investigating Sustainable Construction and Demolition Waste Management Practices in South Africa

Authors: Ademilade J. Aboginije, Clinton O. Aigbavboa

Abstract:

South Africa is among the emerging economy, which has a policy and suitable environment that dynamically stimulates waste management practices of diverting waste away from landfill through prevention, reuse, recycling, and recovery known as the 4R-approaches. The focus of this paper is to investigate the existing structures and processes that are environmentally responsible, then determine the resource-efficiency of the waste management practices in the South Africa construction industry. This paper indicates the results of an investigation carried out by using a systematic review of several related literatures to assess the sustainability of waste management scenarios with secondary material recovery to pinpoint all influential criteria and consequently, highlights a step by step approach to adequately analyze the process by using the indicators that can clearly and fully value the waste management practices in South Africa. Furthermore, a life cycle Analytical tool is used to support the development of a framework which can be applied in measuring the sustainability of existing waste management practices in South Africa. Finding shows that sustainable C&D waste management practices stance a great prospect far more noticeable in terms of job creation and opportunities, saving cost and conserving natural resources when incorporated, especially in the process of recycling and reusing of C&D waste materials in several construction projects in South Africa. However, there are problems such as; inadequacy of waste to energy plants, low compliances to policies and sustainable principles, lack of enough technical capacities confronting the effectiveness of the current waste management practices. Thus, with the increase in the pursuit of sustainable development in most developing countries, this paper determines how sustainability can be measured and used in top-level decision-making policy within construction and demolition waste management for a sustainable built environment.

Keywords: construction industry, green-star rating, life-cycle analysis, sustainability, zero-waste hierarchy

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4816 Integrating Best Practices for Construction Waste in Quality Management Systems

Authors: Paola Villoria Sáez, Mercedes Del Río Merino, Jaime Santa Cruz Astorqui, Antonio Rodríguez Sánchez

Abstract:

The Spanish construction industry generates large volumes of waste. However, despite the legislative improvements introduced for construction and demolition waste (CDW), construction waste recycling rate remains well below other European countries and also below the target set for 2020. This situation can be due to many difficulties. i.e.: The difficulty of onsite segregation or the estimation in advance of the total amount generated. Despite these difficulties, the proper management of CDW must be one of the main aspects to be considered by the construction companies. In this sense, some large national companies are implementing Integrated Management Systems (IMS) including not only quality and safety aspects, but also environment issues. However, although this fact is a reality for large construction companies still the vast majority of companies need to adopt this trend. In short, it is common to find in small and medium enterprises a decentralized management system: A single system of quality management, another for system safety management and a third one for environmental management system (EMS). In addition, the EMSs currently used address CDW superficially and are mainly focus on other environmental concerns such as carbon emissions. Therefore, this research determines and implements a specific best practice management system for CDW based on eight procedures in a Spanish Construction company. The main advantages and drawbacks of its implementation are highlighted. Results of this study show that establishing and implementing a CDW management system in building works, improve CDW quantification as the company obtains their own CDW generation ratio. This helps construction stakeholders when developing CDW Management Plans and also helps to achieve a higher adjustment of CDW management costs. Finally, integrating this CDW system with the EMS of the company favors the cohesion of the construction process organization at all stages, establishing responsibilities in the field of waste and providing a greater control over the process.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste, waste management, best practices, waste minimization, building, quality management systems

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4815 Instrumentation of Urban Pavements Built with Construction and Demolition Waste

Authors: Sofia Figueroa, Efrain Bernal, Silvia Del Pilar Forero, Humberto Ramirez

Abstract:

This work shows a detailed review of the scope of global research on the road infrastructure using materials from Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW), also called RCD. In the first phase of this research, a segment of road was designed using recycled materials such as Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) on the top, the natural coarse base including 30% of RAP and recycled concrete blocks. The second part of this segment was designed using regular materials for each layer of the pavement. Both structures were built next to each other in order to analyze and measure the material properties as well as performance and environmental factors in the pavement under real traffic and weather conditions. Different monitoring devices were installed among the structure, based on the literature revision, such as soil cells, linear potentiometer, moisture sensors, and strain gauges that help us to know the C&DW as a part of the pavement structure. This research includes not only the physical characterization but also the measured parameters in a field such as an asphalt mixture (RAP) strain (ετ), vertical strain (εᵥ) and moisture control in coarse layers (%w), and the applied loads and strain in the subgrade (εᵥ). The results will show us what is happening with these materials in order to obtain not only a sustainable solution but also to know its behavior and lifecycle.

Keywords: sustainable pavements, construction & demolition waste-C&DW, recycled rigid concrete, reclaimed asphalt pavement-rap

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4814 Valorization of the Waste Generated in Building Energy-Efficiency Rehabilitation Works as Raw Materials for Gypsum Composites

Authors: Paola Villoria Saez, Mercedes Del Rio Merino, Jaime Santacruz Astorqui, Cesar Porras Amores

Abstract:

In construction the Circular Economy covers the whole cycle of the building construction: from production and consumption to waste management and the market for secondary raw materials. The circular economy will definitely contribute to 'closing the loop' of construction product lifecycles through greater recycling and re-use, helping to build a market for reused construction materials salvaged from demolition sites, boosting global competitiveness and fostering sustainable economic growth. In this context, this paper presents the latest research of 'Waste to resources (W2R)' project funded by the Spanish Government, which seeks new solutions to improve energy efficiency in buildings by developing new building materials and products that are less expensive, more durable, with higher quality and more environmentally friendly. This project differs from others as its main objective is to reduce to almost zero the Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) generated in building rehabilitation works. In order to achieve this objective, the group is looking for new ways of CDW recycling as raw materials for new conglomerate materials. With these new materials, construction elements reducing building energy consumption will be proposed. In this paper, the results obtained in the project are presented. Several tests were performed to gypsum samples containing different percentages of CDW waste generated in Spanish building retroffiting works. Results were further analyzed and one of the gypsum composites was highlighted and discussed. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Spanish State Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under 'Waste 2 Resources' Project (BIA2013-43061-R).

Keywords: building waste, CDW, gypsum, recycling, resources

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4813 Value Generation of Construction and Demolition Waste Originated in the Building Rehabilitation to Improve Energy Efficiency; From Waste to Resources

Authors: Mercedes Del Rio Merino, Jaime Santacruz Astorqui, Paola Villoria Saez, Carmen Viñas Arrebola

Abstract:

The lack of treatment of the waste from construction and demolition waste (CDW) is a problem that must be solved immediately. It is estimated that in the world not to use CDW generates an increase in the use of new materials close to 20% of the total value of the materials used. The problem is even greater in case these wastes are considered hazardous because the final deposition of them may also generate significant contamination. Therefore, the possibility of including CDW in the manufacturing of building materials, represents an interesting alternative to ensure their use and to reduce their possible risk. In this context and in the last years, many researches are being carried out in order to analyze the viability of using CDW as a substitute for the traditional raw material of high environmental impact. Even though it is true, much remains to be done, because these works generally characterize materials but not specific applications that allow the agents of the construction to have the guarantees required by the projects. Therefore, it is necessary the involvement of all the actors included in the life cycle of these new construction materials, and also to promote its use for, for example, definition of standards, tax advantages or market intervention is necessary. This paper presents the main findings reached in "Waste to resources (W2R)" project since it began in October 2014. The main goal of the project is to develop new materials, elements and construction systems, manufactured from CDW, to be used in improving the energy efficiency of buildings. Other objectives of the project are: to quantify the CDW generated in the energy rehabilitation works, specifically wastes from the building envelope; and to study the traceability of CDW generated and promote CDW reuse and recycle in order to get close to the life cycle of buildings, generating zero waste and reducing the ecological footprint of the construction sector. This paper determines the most important aspects to consider during the design of new constructive solutions, which improve the energy efficiency of buildings and what materials made with CDW would be the most suitable for that. Also, a survey to select best practices for reducing "close to zero waste" in refurbishment was done. Finally, several pilot rehabilitation works conform the parameters analyzed in the project were selected, in order to apply the results and thus compare the theoretical with reality. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Spanish State Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under "Waste 2 Resources" Project (BIA2013-43061-R).

Keywords: building waste, construction and demolition waste, recycling, resources

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4812 Flexural Behavior of Geocell Reinforced Subgrade with Demolition Waste as Infill Material

Authors: Mahima D, Sini T

Abstract:

The use of geocell in subgrade has been previously studied by various researchers in the past. It was observed that the infill material used could affect the performance of the geocell reinforced subgrade. So, the use of waste materials as infill in geocell reinforced subgrade may prove to be more effective, economical, and environment-friendly. The performance of demolition waste as an infill was studied using flexure testing, and we compared the results with that of the other infill materials; soil and sand. Flexural behaviour is very important to the geosynthetic application in pavements as it acts as a the geocell reinforcement acts as flexible layer embedded in pavements and leads to an improvement in stress distribution and reduction in stress on the soil subgrade. The flexural behaviour was determined using four-point bending tests and results were expressed in terms of modulus improvement factor (MIF) and load-deflection behaviour. The geocell reinforced subgrade with different infill materials was tested for flexural behaviour in a polywood-polywood three-layered beam model. The deflections of the three-layered model beam were measured for the corresponding load increments. Elastic modulus of the soil-geocell composite was calculated using closed-form solutions. Geocells were prepared from geonets with three different aspect ratios 0.45, 0.67, and 1. The demolition waste infilled geocell mattress with aspect ratio 0.67 showed improved flexural behavior with MIF of 2.67 followed by soil and sand. Owing to its improved flexural resistance as seen from the MIF and load-deflection behivour, crushed demolition waste can be effectively used as infill material for geocell reinforced subgrade, thereby reducing the difficulties in the management of demolition waste and improving the load distribution of weaker subgrade.

Keywords: demolition waste, flexural behavior, geocell, modulus improvement factor

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4811 Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Construction and Demolition Waste Produced in Greece

Authors: C. Alexandridou, G. N. Angelopoulos, F. A. Coutelieris

Abstract:

Construction industry in Greece consumes annually more than 25 million tons of natural aggregates originating mainly from quarries. At the same time, more than 2 million tons of construction and demolition waste are deposited every year, usually without control, therefore increasing the environmental impact of this sector. A potential alternative for saving natural resources and minimize landfilling, could be the recycling and re-use of Concrete and Demolition Waste (CDW) in concrete production. Moreover, in order to conform to the European legislation, Greece is obliged to recycle non-hazardous construction and demolition waste to a minimum of 70% by 2020. In this paper characterization of recycled materials - commercially and laboratory produced, coarse and fine, Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) - has been performed. Namely, X-Ray Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used for chemical and mineralogical analysis respectively. Physical properties such as particle density, water absorption, sand equivalent and resistance to fragmentation were also determined. This study, first time made in Greece, aims at outlining the differences between RCA and natural aggregates and evaluating their possible influence in concrete performance. Results indicate that RCA’s chemical composition is enriched in Si, Al, and alkali oxides compared to natural aggregates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses results indicated the presence of calcite, quartz and minor peaks of mica and feldspars. From all the evaluated physical properties of coarse RCA, only water absorption and resistance to fragmentation seem to have a direct influence on the properties of concrete. Low Sand Equivalent and significantly high water absorption values indicate that fine fractions of RCA cannot be used for concrete production unless further processed. Chemical properties of RCA in terms of water soluble ions are similar to those of natural aggregates. Four different concrete mixtures were produced and examined, replacing natural coarse aggregates with RCA by a ratio of 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% respectively. Results indicate that concrete mixtures containing recycled concrete aggregates have a minor deterioration of their properties (3-9% lower compression strength at 28 days) compared to conventional concrete containing the same cement quantity.

Keywords: chemical and physical characterization, compressive strength, mineralogical analysis, recycled concrete aggregates, waste management

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4810 Towards Sustainable Construction: An Exploratory Study of the Factors Affecting the Investment on Construction and Demolition Waste in Saudi Arabia (KSA)

Authors: Mohammed Alnuwairan, Mahmoud Abdelrahman

Abstract:

Based on the sustainability concept, this paper explores the current situation of construction and demolition waste (C&D) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the source of production to final destinations. The issues that hindered the investment of recycling C&D in the context will be studied in order to identify the challenges and opportunities to improve this sector and put forward a strategic framework to reduce, reuse, recycle and minimize the disposal of this type of waste. The research, which is exploratory in nature, identified four types of organizations that were appropriate case studies. These organizations were drawn from the municipalities, city council, recyclers and manufacturers. Secondary data collection, direct observation, and elite interviewing methods were used in the case studies to facilitate comparisons with existing literature to explore opportunities to improve sustainability practices in the buildings sector. Implementation of C&D waste management and recycling in KSA is in the early stages. Resistance of virgin building material manufacturers, free usage of landfill, culture, surpluses of natural raw material, availability of land and the cost of recycling this material compared with virgin material hinders the adoption of recycled buildings martial. Although the metal material is collected and recycled but it has the lowest percentage of C&D waste in Saudi. The findings indicate that government and industry need to collaborate more closely in order to successfully implement best practices. Economic and environmental benefits can be achieved, particularly through improvements to infrastructure and legislation. Feasible solution framework and recommendations for managing C&D waste under current situation are provided. The findings can be used to extend this framework and to enable it to be applicable in other context with emerging economies similar to that found in KSA. No study of this type has been previously carried out in KSA. The findings should prove useful in creating a future research agenda for C&D waste in KSA and, possibly, other emerging countries within a similar context.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste, recycling, reuse, sustainability

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4809 Sustainability Assessment of a Deconstructed Residential House

Authors: Atiq U. Zaman, Juliet Arnott

Abstract:

This paper analyses the various benefits and barriers of residential deconstruction in the context of environmental performance and circular economy based on a case study project in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case study project “Whole House Deconstruction” which aimed, firstly, to harvest materials from a residential house, secondly, to produce new products using the recovered materials, and thirdly, to organize an exhibition for the local public to promote awareness on resource conservation and sustainable deconstruction practices. Through a systematic deconstruction process, the project recovered around 12 tonnes of various construction materials, most of which would otherwise be disposed of to landfill in the traditional demolition approach. It is estimated that the deconstruction of a similar residential house could potentially prevent around 27,029 kg of carbon emission to the atmosphere by recovering and reusing the building materials. In addition, the project involved local designers to produce 400 artefacts using the recovered materials and to exhibit them to accelerate public awareness. The findings from this study suggest that the deconstruction project has significant environmental benefits, as well as social benefits by involving the local community and unemployed youth as a part of their professional skills development opportunities. However, the project faced a number of economic and institutional challenges. The study concludes that with proper economic models and appropriate institutional support a significant amount of construction and demolition waste can be reduced through a systematic deconstruction process. Traditionally, the greatest benefits from such projects are often ignored and remain unreported to wider audiences as most of the external and environmental costs have not been considered in the traditional linear economy.

Keywords: circular economy, construction and demolition waste, resource recovery, systematic deconstruction, sustainable waste management

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4808 Study of Management of Waste Construction Materials in Civil Engineering Projects

Authors: Jalindar R. Patil, Harish P. Gayakwad

Abstract:

The increased economic growth across the globe as well as urbanization in developing countries have led into extensive construction activities that generate large amounts of wastes. Material wastage in construction projects resulted into huge financial setbacks to builders and contractors. In addition to this, it may also cause significant effects over aesthetics, health, and the general environment. However in many cities across the globe where construction wastes material management is still a problem. In this paper, the discussion is all about the method for the management of waste construction materials. The objectives of this seminar are to identify the significant source of construction waste globally, to improve the performance of by extracting the major barriers construction waste management and to determine the cost impact on the construction project. These wastes needs to be managed as well as their impacts needs to be ascertained to pave way for their proper management. The seminar includes the details of construction waste management with the reference to construction project. The application of construction waste management in the civil engineering projects is to describe the reduction in the construction wastes.

Keywords: civil engineering, construction materials, waste management, construction activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
4807 Study of the Performances of an Environmental Concrete Based on Recycled Aggregates and Marble Waste Fillers Addition

Authors: Larbi Belagraa, Miloud Beddar, Abderrazak Bouzid

Abstract:

The needs of the construction sector still increasing for concrete. However, the shortage of natural resources of aggregate could be a problem for the concrete industry, in addition to the negative impact on the environment due to the demolition wastes. Recycling aggregate from construction and demolition (C&D) waste presents a major interest for users and researchers of concrete since this constituent can occupies more than 70% of concrete volume. The aim of the study here in is to assess the effect of sulfate resistant cement combined with the local mineral addition of marble waste fillers on the mechanical behavior of a recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). Physical and mechanical properties of RAC including the density, the flexural and the compressive strength were studied. The non destructive test methods (pulse-velocity, rebound hammer) were performed . The results obtained were compared to crushed aggregate concrete (CAC) using the normal compressive testing machine test method. The optimal content of 5% marble fillers showed an improvement for both used test methods (compression, flexion and NDT). Non-destructive methods (ultrasonic and rebound hammer test) can be used to assess the strength of RAC, but a correction coefficient is required to obtain a similar value to the compressive strength given by the compression tests. The study emphasizes that these waste materials can be successfully and economically utilized as additional inert filler in RAC formulation within similar performances compared to a conventional concrete.

Keywords: marble waste fillers, mechanical strength, natural aggregate, non-destructive testing (NDT), recycled aggregate concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
4806 Natural and Construction/Demolition Waste Aggregates: A Comparative Study

Authors: Debora C. Mendes, Matthias Eckert, Claudia S. Moço, Helio Martins, Jean-Pierre Gonçalves, Miguel Oliveira, Jose P. Da Silva

Abstract:

Disposal of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) in embankments in the periphery of cities causes both environmental and social problems. To achieve the management of C&DW, a detailed analysis of the properties of these materials should be done. In this work we report a comparative study of the physical, chemical and environmental properties of natural and C&DW aggregates from 25 different origins. Assays were performed according to European Standards. Analysis of heavy metals and organic compounds, namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were performed. Finally, properties of concrete prepared with C&DW aggregates are reported. Physical analyses of C&DW aggregates indicated lower quality properties than natural aggregates, particularly for concrete preparation and unbound layers of road pavements. Chemical properties showed that most samples (80%) meet the values required by European regulations for concrete and unbound layers of road pavements. Analyses of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and Zn in the C&DW leachates showed levels below the limits established by the Council Decision of 19 December 2002. Identification and quantification of PCBs and PAHs indicated that few samples shows the presence of these compounds. The measured levels of PCBs and PAHs are also below the limits. Other compounds identified in the C&DW leachates include phthalates and diphenylmethanol. The characterized C&DW aggregates show lower quality properties than natural aggregates but most samples showed to be environmentally safe. A continuous monitoring of the presence of heavy metals and organic compounds should be made to trial safe C&DW aggregates. C&DW aggregates provide a good economic and environmental alternative to natural aggregates.

Keywords: concrete preparation, construction and demolition waste, heavy metals, organic pollutants

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4805 Gypsum Composites with CDW as Raw Material

Authors: R. Santos Jiménez, A. San-Antonio-González, M. del Río Merino, M. González Cortina, C. Viñas Arrebola

Abstract:

On average, Europe generates around 890 million tons of construction and demolition waste (CDW) per year and only 50% of these CDW are recycled. This is far from the objectives determined in the European Directive for 2020 and aware of this situation, the European Countries are implementing national policies to prevent the waste that can be avoidable and to promote measures to increase recycling and recovering. In Spain, one of these measures has been the development of a CDW recycling guide for the manufacture of mortar, concrete, bricks and lightweight aggregates. However, there is still not enough information on the possibility of incorporating CDW materials in the manufacture of gypsum products. In view of the foregoing, the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid is creating a database with information on the possibility of incorporating CDW materials in the manufacture of gypsum products. The objective of this study is to improve this database by analysing the feasibility of incorporating two different CDW in a gypsum matrix: ceramic waste bricks (perforated brick and double hollow brick), and extruded polystyrene (XPS) waste. Results show that it is possible to incorporate up to 25% of ceramic waste and 4% of XPS waste over the weight of gypsum in a gypsum matrix. Furhtermore, with the addition of ceramic waste an 8% of surface hardness increase and a 25% of capillary water absorption reduction can be obtained. On the other hand, with the addition of XPS, a 26% reduction of density and a 37% improvement of thermal conductivity can be obtained.

Keywords: CDW, waste materials, ceramic waste, XPS, construction materials, gypsum

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4804 Improvement of the Mechanical Behavior of an Environmental Concrete Based on Demolished

Authors: Larbi Belagraa

Abstract:

The universal need to conserve resources, protect the environment and use energy efficiently must necessarily be felt in the field of concrete technology. The recycling of construction and demolition waste as a source of aggregates for the production of concrete has attracted growing interest from the construction industry. In Algeria, the depletion of natural deposits of aggregates and the difficulties in setting up new quarries; makes it necessary to seek new sources of supply, to meet the need for aggregates for the major projects launched by the Algerian government in the last decades. In this context, this work is a part of the approach to provide answers to concerns about the lack of aggregates for concrete. It also aims to develop the inert fraction of demolition materials and mainly concrete construction demolition waste(C&D) as a source of aggregates for the manufacture of new hydraulic concretes based on recycled aggregates. This experimental study presents the results of physical and mechanical characterizations of natural and recycled aggregates, as well as their influence on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. The characterization of the materials used has shown that the recycled aggregates have heterogeneity, a high water absorption capacity, and a medium quality hardness. However, the limits prescribed by the standards in force do not disqualify these materials of use for application as recycled aggregate concrete type (RAC). The results obtained from the present study show that acceptable mechanical, compressive, and flexural strengths of RACs are obtained using Superplasticizer SP 45 and 5% replacement of cement with silica fume based on recycled aggregates, compared to those of natural concretes. These mechanical performances demonstrate a characteristic resistance at 28 days in compression within the limits of 30 to 40 MPa without any particular suitable technology .to be adapted in the case.

Keywords: recycled aggregates, concrete(RAC), superplasticizer, silica fume, compressive strength

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4803 Utilization of Waste Crushed Tile as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: Harkaranjit Singh, Arun Kumar

Abstract:

Depletion of natural resources is a common phenomenon in developing countries like India due to rapid urbanization and industrialization involving construction of infrastructure and other amenities. In view of this, people have started searching for suitable other viable alternative materials for concrete so that the existing natural resources could be preserved to the possible extent for the future generation. In this process, different industrial waste materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, tile waste, bricks, broken glass waste, waste aggregate from demolition of structures, ceramic insulator waste, etc. have been tried as a viable substitute material to the conventional materials in concrete and has also been succeeded. This paper describes the studies conducted on strength characteristics of concrete made with utilizing of crushed tiles as a coarse aggregate. The waste crushed tiles can be used as coarse aggregates with the replacement ratio of 0, 50, 75 and 100% were used. Mechanical and physical tests were conducted on specimens. It was found that, the concrete made of waste ceramic tile aggregate produced more strength in compression, and flexure.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, waste crushed tile, concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
4802 Managing Construction and Demolition Wastes - A Case Study of Multi Triagem, Lda

Authors: Cláudia Moço, Maria Santos, Carlos Arsénio, Débora Mendes, Miguel Oliveira. José Paulo Da Silva

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Construction industry generates large amounts of waste all over the world. About 450 million tons of construction and demolition wastes (C&DW) are produced annually in the European Union. C&DW are highly heterogeneous materials in size and composition, which imposes strong difficulties on their management. Directive n.º 2008/98/CE, of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November establishes that 70 % of the C&DW have to be recycled by 2020. To evaluate possible applications of these materials, a detailed physical, chemical and environmental characterization is necessary. Multi Triagem, Lda. is a company located in Algarve (Portugal) and was supported by the European Regional Development Fund (grant QREN 30307 Multivalor) to quantify and characterize the received C&DW, in order to evaluate their possible applications. This evaluation, performed in collaboration with the University of Algarve, involves a physical, chemical and environmental detailed characterization of the received C&DW. In this work we report on the amounts, trial procedures and properties of the C&DW received over a period of fifteen month. In this period the company received C&DW coming from 393 different origins. The total amount was 32.458 tons, mostly mixtures containing concrete, masonry/mortar and soil/rock. Most of C&DW came from demodulation constructions and diggings. The organic/inert component, namely metal, glass, wood and plastics, were screened first and account for about 3 % of the received materials. The remaining materials were screened and grouped according to their origin and contents, the latter evaluated by visual inspection. Twenty five samples were prepared and submitted to a detailed physical, chemical and environmental analysis. The C&DW aggregates show lower quality properties than natural aggregates for concrete preparation and unbound layers of road pavements. However, chemical analyzes indicated that most samples are environmentally safe. A continuous monitoring of the presence of heavy metals and organic compounds is needed in order to perform a proper screening of the C&DW. C&DW aggregates provide a good alternative to natural aggregates.

Keywords: construction and demolition wastes, waste classification, waste composition, waste screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
4801 Laboratory Investigations on the Utilization of Recycled Construction Aggregates in Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Farzaneh Tahmoorian, Bijan Samali, John Yeaman

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Road networks are increasingly expanding all over the world. The construction and maintenance of the road pavements require large amounts of aggregates. Considerable usage of various natural aggregates for constructing roads as well as the increasing rate at which solid waste is generated have attracted the attention of many researchers in the pavement industry to investigate the feasibility of the application of some of the waste materials as alternative materials in pavement construction. Among various waste materials, construction and demolition wastes, including Recycled Construction Aggregate (RCA) constitute a major part of the municipal solid wastes in Australia. Creating opportunities for the application of RCA in civil and geotechnical engineering applications is an efficient way to increase the market value of RCA. However, in spite of such promising potentials, insufficient and inconclusive data and information on the engineering properties of RCA had limited the reliability and design specifications of RCA to date. In light of this, this paper, as a first step of a comprehensive research, aims to investigate the feasibility of the application of RCA obtained from construction and demolition wastes for the replacement of part of coarse aggregates in asphalt mixture. As the suitability of aggregates for using in asphalt mixtures is determined based on the aggregate characteristics, including physical and mechanical properties of the aggregates, an experimental program is set up to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of RCA. This laboratory investigation included the measurement of compressive strength and workability of RCA, particle shape, water absorption, flakiness index, crushing value, deleterious materials and weak particles, wet/dry strength variation, and particle density. In addition, the comparison of RCA properties with virgin aggregates has been included as part of this investigation and this paper presents the results of these investigations on RCA, basalt, and the mix of RCA/basalt.

Keywords: asphalt, basalt, pavement, recycled aggregate

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
4800 Recycled Use of Solid Wastes in Building Material: A Review

Authors: Oriyomi M. Okeyinka, David A. Oloke, Jamal M. Khatib

Abstract:

Large quantities of solid wastes being generated worldwide from sources such as household, domestic, industrial, commercial and construction demolition activities, leads to environmental concerns. Utilization of these wastes in making building construction materials can reduce the magnitude of the associated problems. When these waste products are used in place of other conventional materials, natural resources and energy are preserved and expensive and/or potentially harmful waste disposal is avoided. Recycling which is regarded as the third most preferred waste disposal option, with its numerous environmental benefits, stand as a viable option to offset the environmental impact associated with the construction industry. This paper reviews the results of laboratory tests and important research findings, and the potential of using these wastes in building construction materials with focus on sustainable development. Research gaps, which includes; the need to develop standard mix design for solid waste based building materials; the need to develop energy efficient method of processing solid waste use in concrete; the need to study the actual behavior or performance of such building materials in practical application and the limited real life application of such building materials have also been identified. Therefore a research is being proposed to develop an environmentally friendly, lightweight building block from recycled waste paper, without the use of cement, and with properties suitable for use as walling unit. This proposed research intends to incorporate, laboratory experimentation and modeling to address the identified research gaps.

Keywords: recycling, solid wastes, construction, building materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 315