Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 152

Search results for: sulfur

152 Appropriate Nutrient Management for Wheat Production in Afghanistan

Authors: Azizurahman Sakhizadah, Tsugiyuki Masunaga

Abstract:

The use of sulfur fertilizer by Afghanistan farmers for wheat production has never been practiced, although sulfur deficiency has been expected for wheat production. A field experiment was conducted at Poza e Ishan Research Station Farm, Baghlan province, Afghanistan to examine the effect of sulfur fertilizer on growth and yield components of wheat. The experiment was laid out in randomize complete block design (RCBD), having three replications and eight treatments. The initial soil of experiment was alkaline (pH8.4), with textural class of sandy clay loam, available sulfur (40.8) mg kg-1, and Olsen-P (28.8) mg kg-1. Wheat variety, Kabul 013 was cultivated from November 2015 to June 2016. The recommended doses of nitrogen and Phosphors (Urea and DAP at 250 and 125 kg ha-1) were applied by broadcasting except control plot. Sulfur was applied by foliar spray (K2 SO4) at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 kg ha-1, split at tillering and flowering stages. The results demonstrated that sulfur application positively influenced on growth and yield of wheat crop with combination of nitrogen. Plant did not respond to sole sulfur application. Plant height, spike length, spikelet's number spike-1, were increased and yield g m-2 was also increased by 1.2, 19.1 and 25.1 % for 10, 20 and 30 kg sulfur ha-1 application.

Keywords: sulfur, nitrogen, wheat, foliar

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
151 Applications of Sulfur Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Sandeep K. Shukla, Roli Jain, Soumitra S. Pande, Archna Pandey

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Sulfur nanoparticles were prepared by different methods with different sizes and shapes. When the sulfur is present as nanoparticles they have many practical applications in our life. This research discusses sulfur nanoparticles synthesis, characterizations and applications. With dandruff being a common everyday problem and the market is loaded with antidandruff shampoos and such skin care products, it is obvious to assume resourceful research into this area would be both objective to present scenario and potentially lucrative. Nanoparticles are frequently in use in some very powerful antimicrobial, antifungal cosmetics nowadays, especially silver. To check its antidandruff activity, experiments have been conducted on Malassezia furfur the causal organism for seborrheaic dermatitis or dandruff, which have been cultured for such study in our lab.

Keywords: CTAB surfactant SEM, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), XRD, polymeric surfactant

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
150 Extractive Desulfurization of Atmospheric Gasoil with N,N-Dimethylformamide

Authors: Kahina Bedda, Boudjema Hamada

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Environmental regulations have been introduced in many countries around the world to reduce the sulfur content of diesel fuel to ultra low levels with the intention of lowering diesel engine’s harmful exhaust emissions and improving air quality. Removal of sulfur containing compounds from diesel feedstocks to produce ultra low sulfur diesel fuel by extraction with selective solvents has received increasing attention in recent years. This is because the sulfur extraction technologies compared to the hydrotreating processes could reduce the cost of desulfurization substantially since they do not demand hydrogen, and are carried out at atmospheric pressure. In this work, the desulfurization of distillate gasoil by liquid-liquid extraction with N, N-dimethylformamide was investigated. This fraction was recovered from a mixture of Hassi Messaoud crude oils and Hassi R'Mel gas-condensate in Algiers refinery. The sulfur content of this cut is 281 ppm. Experiments were performed in six-stage with a ratio of solvent:feed equal to 3:1. The effect of the extraction temperature was investigated in the interval 30 ÷ 110°C. At 110°C the yield of refined gas oil was 82% and its sulfur content was 69 ppm.

Keywords: desulfurization, gasoil, N, N-dimethylformamide, sulfur content

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
149 Possible Sulfur Induced Superconductivity in Nano-Diamond

Authors: J. Mona, R. R. da Silva, C.-L.Cheng, Y. Kopelevich

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We report on a possible occurrence of superconductivity in 5 nm particle size diamond powders treated with sulfur (S) at 500 o C for 10 hours in ~10-2 Torr vacuum. Superconducting-like magnetization hysteresis loops M(H) have been measured up to ~ 50 K by means of the SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design). Both X-ray (Θ-2Θ geometry) and Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed no impurity or additional phases. Nevertheless, the measured Raman spectra are characteristic to the diamond with embedded disordered carbon and/or graphitic fragments suggesting a link to the previous reports of the local or surface superconductivity in graphite- and amorphous carbon–sulfur composites.

Keywords: nanodiamond, sulfur, superconductivity, Raman spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
148 The Effect of Sulfur and Calcium on the Formation of Dioxin in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Incinerator

Authors: Chien-Song Chyang, Wei-Chih Wang

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For the incineration process, the inhibition of dioxin formation is an important issue. Many investigations indicate that adding sulfur compounds in the combustion process can be an effectively inhibition for the dioxin formation. In the process, the ratio of sulfur-to-chlorine plays an important role for the reduction efficiency of dioxin formation. Ca-base sorbent is also a common used for the acid gas removing. Moreover, that is also the indirectly way for dioxin inhibition. Although sulfur and calcium can reduce the dioxin formation, it still have some confusion exists between these additives. To understand and clarify the relationship between the dioxin and simultaneous addition of sulfur and calcium are presented in this study. The experimental data conducted in a pilot scale fluidized bed combustion system at various operating conditions are analysis comprehensively. The focus is on the dioxin of fly ash in this study. The experimental data in this study showed that the PCDD/Fs concentration in the fly ash collected from the baghouse is increased slightly as the simultaneous addition of sulfur and calcium. This work described the CO concentration with the addition of sulfur and calcium at the freeboard temperature from 800°C to 900°C, which is raised by the fuel complexity. The positive correlation exists between the dioxin concentration and CO concentration and carbon contained in the fly ash.. At the same sulfur/chlorine ratio, the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) can be reduced by increasing the actual concentration of sulfur and calcium. The homologue profiles showed that the P₅CDD and P₅CDF were the two major sources for the toxicity of dioxin. 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF reduced by the addition of pyrite and hydrated lime. The experimental results showed that the trend of PCDD/Fs concentration in the fly ash was different by the different sulfur/chlorine ratio with the addition of sulfur at 800°C.

Keywords: reduction of dioxin emissions, sulfur-to-chlorine ratio, de-chlorination, Ca-based sorbent

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
147 Size Selective Synthesis of Sulfur Nanoparticles and Their Anticancer Activity

Authors: Anas Al-Ali, Mohammed Suleiman, Ayman Hussein

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Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications in present as nanoparticles. Nanosize sulfur particles also have many important applications like in pharmaceuticals, medicine, syn-thesis of nano-composites for lithium batteries, modification of carbon nano tubes. Different methods were used for nano-sized particle synthesis; among those, chemical precipitation, electrochemical method, micro emulsion technique, composing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, aqueous phases with the specific compositions and ultrasonic treatment of sulfur-cystine solution. In this work Sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) were prepared by a quick precipitation method with and without using a surfactant to stabilize the formed S NPs. The synthesized S NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM in order to confirm their sizes and structures.Application of nanotechnology is suggested for diag-nosis and treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of the prepared S NPs has been tested on various types of cancer cell clones including leukemia, kidney and colon cancers.

Keywords: sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), TEM, SEM, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
146 Size Selective Synthesis of Sulfur Nanoparticles and Their Anti Cancer Activity

Authors: Anas Al-Ali, Mohammed Suleiman, Ayman Hussein

Abstract:

Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications in present as nanoparticles. Nanosize sulfur particles also have many important applications like in pharmaceuticals, medicine, synthesis of nanocomposites for lithium batteries, modification of carbon nanotubes. Different methods were used for nano-sized particle synthesis; among those, chemical precipitation, electrochemical method, micro-emulsion technique, composing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, aqueous phases with the specific compositions and ultrasonic treatment of sulfur-cystine solution. In this work, sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) were prepared by a quick precipitation method with and without using a surfactant to stabilize the formed S NPs. The synthesized S NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM in order to confirm their sizes and structures. Application of nanotechnology is suggested for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of the prepared S NPs has been tested on various types of cancer cell clones including leukemia, kidney and colon cancers.

Keywords: sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), TEM, SEM, anti cancer activity, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
145 Effect of Sulfur Content on Fatigue Strength of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: Sachin S. Patil, Mohan I. Mehta, Sandip J. Sutar, Akshay B. Patil, Shreyas S. Kirwai, Suresh Arangi

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MnS is the most commonly found inclusion in steel, which is desirable for machinability of alloy steels but only up to a certain limit, beyond which it weakens fatigue properties of steel. In present work, the effect of sulfur content and its inclusions on the fatigue behavior of AISI 4140 steel is studied (sulfur content 0.002% and 0.016%). Metallurgical analysis, Mechanical testing and Rotating Bending Fatigue (RBF) test were carried out. With the increase in sulfur content, ductility and toughness of the material decrease significantly and large scatter is observed in UTS and impact energy values. From the results of RBF testing, it can be observed that increase in sulfur content from 0.002% to 0.016% has a negligible effect on the endurance strength of AISI 4140 for similar hardness level. Fractography analysis was carried out to study the failure modes in testing.

Keywords: AISI 4140, sulfur content, MnS inclusion, rotating bending fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
144 Biological Organic or Inorganic Sulfur Sources Feeding Effects on Intake and Some Blood Metabolites of Close-Up Holstein Cows

Authors: Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari, Esmaeil Manidari, Vahid Keshavarz

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This study was carried out to investigate the effects of increased level of sulfur by supplementing magnesium sulfate with or without biologically organic source in dairy cow close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI) and some blood metabolites. The 24 multiparous close-up Holstein cows averaging body weight 687.94 kg and days until expected calving date 21.89 d were allocated in three different treatments (8 cows per each) in a completely randomized design. The first treatment (T1) has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis), the second treatment (T2) has contained 0.41% sulfur which entirely supplied through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3) has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur. All the cows were fed same diet after parturition until 21 d. The DMI for both pre-calving (P < 0.001) and post-calving was affected by treatments (P < 0.004) and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Among the blood metabolites, glucose, calcium, and copper were decreased in T2 (P < 0.05). However, blood concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, urea, CPK, and AST were increased in T2 (P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and biological organic source of sulfur in close-up diets could have positive effects on DMI and performance of Holstein dairy cows.

Keywords: organic sulfur, dairy cow, intake, blood metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
143 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim

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Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8 L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal.

Keywords: At.ferrooxidans, batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
142 Tribological Behavior of EP Additives with Different Percentage of Sulfur

Authors: Salete Martins Alves, José Josemar de Oliveira Junior

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The current efforts on design of lubricants are based in attending the new requirement of modern equipment with the focus on the choice of base oil and additives. Nowadays, there are different types of lubricant oils’ bases, such as mineral oils, synthetic oils, re-refined oils and vegetable oils. The lubrication in the boundary condition is controlled mainly by EP additives that interact with the surface forming very thin films. Therefore, the study’s goal is to evaluate the action of three EP additives, with different percentage of sulfur, on friction and wear reduction. They were evaluated in mineral and synthetic oils. Lubricants were prepared with synthetic and mineral oils and added 3 % and 5 % of EP additives. The friction and wear characteristics were studied using HFRR test. In this test, a normal load of 10 N was applied at a frequency of 20 Hz. The analysis of results has appointed that the percentage of sulfur in mineral oil has influenced on wear reduction. However, synthetic oil had good performance with low sulfur content.

Keywords: boundary lubrication, EP additives, sulfur, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
141 Structural Property and Mechanical Behavior of Polypropylene–Elemental Sulfur (S8) Composites: Effect of Sulfur Loading

Authors: S. Vijay Kumar, Kishore K. Jena, Saeed M. Alhassan

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Elemental sulfur is currently produced on the level of 70 million tons annually by petroleum refining, majority of which is used in the production of sulfuric acid, fertilizer and other chemicals. Still, over 6 million tons of elemental sulfur is generated in excess, which creates exciting opportunities to develop new chemistry to utilize sulfur as a feedstock for polymers. Development of new polymer composite materials using sulfur is not widely explored and remains an important challenge in the field. Polymer nanocomposites prepared by carbon nanotube, graphene, silica and other nanomaterials were well established. However, utilization of sulfur as filler in the polymer matrix could be an interesting study. This work is to presents the possibility of utilizing elemental sulfur as reinforcing fillers in the polymer matrix. In this study we attempted to prepare polypropylene/sulfur nanocomposite. The physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the newly developed composites were studied according to the sulfur loading. In the sample preparation, four levels of elemental sulfur loading (5, 10, 20 and 30 wt. %) were designed. Composites were prepared by the melt mixing process by using laboratory scale mini twin screw extruder at 180°C for 15 min. The reaction time and temperature were maintained constant for all prepared composites. The structure and crystallization behavior of composites was investigated by Raman, FTIR, XRD and DSC analysis. It was observed that sulfur interfere with the crystalline arrangement of polypropylene and depresses the crystallization, which affects the melting point, mechanical and thermal stability. In the tensile test, one level of test temperature (room temperature) and crosshead speed (10 mm/min) was designed. Tensile strengths and tensile modulus of the composites were slightly decreased with increasing in filler loading, however, percentage of elongation improved by more than 350% compared to neat polypropylene. The effect of sulfur on the morphology of polypropylene was studied with TEM and SEM techniques. Microscope analysis revels that sulfur is homogeneously dispersed in polymer matrix and behaves as single phase arrangement in the polymer. The maximum elongation for the polypropylene can be achieved by adjusting the sulfur loading in the polymer. This study reviles the possibility of using elemental sulfur as a solid plasticizer in the polypropylene matrix.

Keywords: crystallization, elemental sulfur, morphology, thermo-mechanical properties, polypropylene, polymer nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
140 Designing of Efficient Polysulphide Reservoirs to Boost the Performance of Li-S Battery

Authors: Sarish Rehman, Kishwar Khan, Yanglong Hou

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Among the existed myriad energy-storage technologies, lithium–sulfur batteries (LSBs) show the appealing potential for the ubiquitous growth of next-generation electrical energy storage application, owing to their unparalleled theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh/kg that is over five times larger than that of conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Despite its significant advances, its large scale implementations are plagued by multitude issues: particularly the intrinsic insulating nature of the sulfur (10-30 S/cm), mechanical degradation of the cathode due to large volume changes of sulfur up to 80 % during cycling and loss of active material (producing polysulfide shuttle effect). We design a unique structure, namely silicon/silica (Si/SiO2) crosslink with hierarchical porous carbon spheres (Si/[email protected]), and use it as a new and efficient sulfur host to prepare Si/[email protected] hybrid spheres to solve the hurdle of the polysulfides dissolution. As results of intriguing structural advantages developed hybrids spheres, it acts as efficient polysulfides reservoir for enhancing lithium sulfur battery (LSB) in the terms of capacity, rate ability and cycling stability via combined chemical and physical effects.

Keywords: high specific surface area, high power density, high content of sulfur, lithium sulfur battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
139 Effect of Pulp Density on Biodesulfurization of Mongolian Lignite Coal

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Byoung-Gon Kim

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Biological processes based on oxidation of sulfur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms are emerging as an efficient and eco-friendly technique for removal of sulfur from the coal. In the present article, study was carried out to investigate the potential of biodesulfurization process in removing the sulfur from lignite coal sample collected from a Mongolian coal mine. The batch biodesulfurization experiments were conducted in 2.5 L borosilicate baffle type reactors at 35 ºC using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effect of pulp density on efficiency of biodesulfurization was investigated at different solids concentration (1-10%) of coal. The results of the present study suggested that the rate of desulfurization was retarded at higher coal pulp density. The optimum pulp density found 5% at which about 48% of the total sulfur was removed from the coal.

Keywords: biodesulfurization, bioreactor, coal, pyrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
138 Valorization of Gypsum as Industrial Waste

Authors: Hasna Soli

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The main objective of this work is the extraction of sulfur from gypsum here is industrial waste. Indeed the sulfuric acid production, passing through the following process; melting sulfur, filtration of the liquid sulfur, sulfur combustion to produce SO₂, conversion of SO₂ to SO₃ and SO₃ absorption in water to produce H₂SO₄ product as waste CaSO₄ the anhydrous calcium sulfate. The main objectives of this work are improving the industrial practices and to find other ways to manage these solid wastes. It should also assess the consequences of treatment in terms of training and become byproducts. Firstly there will be a characterization of this type of waste by an X-ray diffraction; to obtain phase solid compositions and chemical analysis; gravimetrically and atomic absorption spectrometry or by ICP. The samples are mineralized in suitable acidic or basic solutions. The elements analyzed are CaO, Sulfide (SO₃), Al₂O₃, Fe₂O₃, MgO, SiO₂. Then an analysis by EDS energy dispersive spectrometry using an Oxford EDX probe and differential thermal and gravimetric analyzes. Gypsum’s valuation will be performed. Indeed, the CaSO₄ will be reused to produce sulfuric acid, which will be reintroduced into the production line. The second approach explored in this work is the thermal utilization of solid waste to remove sulfur as a dilute sulfuric acid solution.

Keywords: environment, gypsum, sulfur, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
137 Leaching Losses of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Sulfur and Nitrification Inhibitor Applications

Authors: Abdel Khalek Selim, Safaa Mahmoud

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Experiments were designed to study nitrogen loss through leaching in soil columns treated with different nitrogen sources and elemental sulfur. The soil material (3 kg alluvial or calcareous soil) were packed in Plexiglas columns (10 cm diameter). The soil columns were treated with 2 g N in the form of Ca(NO3)2, urea, urea + inhibitor (Nitrapyrin), another set of these treatments was prepared to add elemental sulfur. During incubation period, leaching was performed by applying a volume of water that allows the percolation of 250-ml water throughout the soil column. The leachates were analyzed for NH4-N and N03-N. After 10 weeks, soil columns were cut into four equal segments and analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Results indicated the following: Ca(NO3)2 treatment showed a rapid NO3 leaching, especially in the first 3 weeks, in both clay and calcareous soils. This means that soil texture did not play any role in this respect. Sulfur addition also did not affect the rate of NO3 leaching. In urea treatment, there was a steady increase of NH4- and NO3–N from one leachate to another. Addition of sulfur with urea slowed down the nitrification process and decreased N losses. Clay soil contained residual N much more than calcareous soil. Almost one-third of added nitrogen might have been immobilized by soil microorganisms or lost through other loss paths. Nitrification inhibitor can play a role in preserving added nitrogen from being lost through leaching. Combining the inhibitor with elemental sulfur may help to stabilize certain preferred ratio of NH4 to NO3 in the soil for the benefit of the growing plants.

Keywords: alluvial soil, calcareous soil, elemental sulfur, nitrate leaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
136 A Study on Removal of SO3 in Flue Gas Generated from Power Plant

Authors: E. Y. Jo, S. M. Park, I. S. Yeo, K. K. Kim, S. J. Park, Y. K. Kim, Y. D. Kim, C. G. Park

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SO3 is created in small quantities during the combustion of fuel that contains sulfur, with the quantity produced a function of the boiler design, fuel sulfur content, excess air level, and the presence of oxidizing agents. Typically, about 1% of the fuel sulfur will be oxidized to SO3, but it can range from 0.5% to 1.5% depending on various factors. Combustion of fuels that contain oxidizing agents, such as certain types of fuel oil or petroleum coke, can result in even higher levels of oxidation. SO3 levels in the flue gas emitted by combustion are very high, which becomes a cause of machinery corrosion or a visible blue plume. Because of that, power plants firing petroleum residues need to installation of SO3 removal system. In this study, SO3 removal system using salt solution was developed and several salts solutions were tested for obtain optimal solution for SO3 removal system. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the operation parameters such as gas-liquid ratio, concentration of salts.

Keywords: flue gas desulfurization, petroleum cokes, Sulfur trioxide, SO3 removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
135 Effect of Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Inhalation on Voice Resonances

Authors: Pallavi Marathe

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Voice is considered to be a unique biometric property of human beings. Unlike other biometric evidence, for example, fingerprints and retina scans, etc., voice can be easily changed or mimicked. The present paper talks about how the inhalation of helium and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas affects the voice formant frequencies that are the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract. Helium gas is low-density gas; hence, the voice travels with a higher speed than that of air. On the other side in SF6 gas voice travels with lower speed than that of air due to its higher density. These results in decreasing the resonant frequencies of voice in helium and increasing in SF6. Results are presented with the help of Praat software, which is used for voice analysis.

Keywords: voice formants, helium, sulfur hexafluoride, gas inhalation

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
134 A Comparison of Sulfur Mustard Cytotoxic Effects on the Two Human Lung Origin Cell Lines

Authors: P. Jost, L. Muckova, M. Matula, J. Pejchal, D. Jun, R. Stetina

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Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide) is highly toxic, chemical warfare agent that has been used in the past in several armed conflicts. Except for the skin, respiratory tract is one of the important routes of exposure. The elucidation and understanding of the mechanism of toxicity of SM have been effort intensive research. The multiple targets character of SM caused cellular damage resulted in activation of many different mechanisms which contribute to cellular response and participate in the final cytopathology effect. In our present work, we compared time-dependent changes in sulfur mustard exposed adult human lung fibroblasts NHLF and lung epithelial alveolar cell line A-549. Cell viability (MTT assay, Calcein-AM assay, and xCELLigence - real-time cell analysis), apoptosis (flow cytometry), mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, flow cytometry), reactive oxygen species induction (DC and cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry) were studied. We observed significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequent induction of apoptosis correlating with decreased cellular viability in the sulfur mustard exposed cells. In low concentrations, sulfur mustard-induced S-phase cell cycle arrest, on the other hand, high concentrations, cell cycle phase distribution of sulfur mustard exposed cells resembled cell cycle phase distribution of control group, which implies nonspecific cell cycle inhibition. Epithelial cells A-549 was found as more sensible to sulfur mustard toxicity. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a long-term organization development plan Medical Aspects of Weapons of Mass Destruction of the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence.

Keywords: apoptosis, cell cycle, cytotoxicity, sulfur mustard

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
133 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Allium Hookeri Root and Processed Sulfur on the Growth Performance of Guinea Pigs

Authors: Nayeon, Lee, Won-Young, Cho, Hyun Joo, Jang, Chi-Ho, Lee

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This study investigated the effects of the dietary supplementation of the Allium hookeri root, and processed sulfur, on the growth performance of guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were fed a control diet (CON), as well as the control diet including 1% freeze-dried Allium hookeri root (AH), or 0.1% processed sulfur (S), or including both the freeze-dried Allium hookeri root and the processed sulfur (AHS). The weight of perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) and the epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) in the AH were significantly lower than CON (p < 0.05). The serum cholesterols levels of the AH and the AHS were significantly lower than the S (p < 0.05). While the total saturated fatty acid content in the serum of the AH and AHS groups showed a tendency to decrease, the total monounsaturated fatty acid increased. The results of this study suggested that dietary consumption of Allium hookeri root may help to decrease fat accumulation, lower serum cholesterol levels, and control serum free fatty acid contents in the guinea pigs.

Keywords: Allium hookeri, dietary supplementation, growth performance, processed sulfur, Guinea pig

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
132 Review of Sulfur Unit Capacity Expansion Options

Authors: Avinashkumar Karre

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Sulfur recovery unit, most commonly called as Claus process, is very significant gas desulfurization process unit in refinery and gas industries. Explorations of new natural gas fields, refining of high-sulfur crude oils, and recent crude expansion projects are needing capacity expansion of Claus unit for many companies around the world. In refineries, the sulphur recovery units take acid gas from amine regeneration units and sour water strippers, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur using the Claus process. The Claus process is hydraulically limited by mass flow rate. Reducing the pressure drop across control valves, flow meters, lines, knock-out drums, and packing improves the capacity. Oxygen enrichment helps improve the capacity by removing nitrogen, this is more commonly done on all capacity expansion projects. Typical upgrades required due to oxygen enrichment are new burners, new refractory in thermal reactor, resizing of 1st condenser, instrumentation changes, and steam/condensate heat integration. Some other capacity expansion options typically considered are tail gas compressor, replacing air blower with higher head, hydrocarbon minimization in the feed, water removal, and ammonia removal. Increased capacity related upgrades in sulfur recovery unit also need changes in the tail gas treatment unit, typical changes include improvement to quench tower duty, packing area upgrades in quench and absorber towers and increased amine circulation flow rates.

Keywords: Claus process, oxygen enrichment, sulfur recovery unit, tail gas treatment unit

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
131 Electrocatalysts for Lithium-Sulfur Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Mirko Ante, Şeniz Sörgel, Andreas Bund

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Li-S- (Lithium-Sulfur-) battery systems provide very high specific gravimetric energy (2600 Wh/kg) and volumetric energy density (2800Wh/l). Hence, Li-S batteries are one of the key technologies for both the upcoming electromobility and stationary applications. Furthermore, the Li-S battery system is potentially cheap and environmentally benign. However, the technical implementation suffers from cycling stability, low charge and discharge rates and incomplete understanding of the complex polysulfide reaction mechanism. The aim of this work is to develop an effective electrocatalyst for the polysulfide reactions so that the electrode kinetics of the sulfur half-cell will be improved. Accordingly, the overvoltage will be decreased, and the efficiency of the cell will be increased. An enhanced electroactive surface additionally improves the charge and discharge rates. To reach this goal, functionalized electrocatalytic coatings are investigated to accelerate the kinetics of the polysulfide reactions. In order to determine a suitable electrocatalyst, apparent exchange current densities of a variety of materials (Ni, Co, Pt, Cr, Al, Cu, ITO, stainless steel) have been evaluated in a polysulfide containing electrolyte by potentiodynamic measurements and a Butler-Volmer fit including diffusion limitation. The samples have been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after the potentiodynamic measurements. Up to now, our work shows that cobalt is a promising material with good electrocatalytic properties for the polysulfide reactions and good chemical stability in the system. Furthermore, an electrodeposition from a modified Watt’s nickel electrolyte with a sulfur source seems to provide an autocatalytic effect, but the electrocatalytic behavior decreases after several cycles of the current-potential-curve.

Keywords: electrocatalyst, energy storage, lithium sulfur battery, sulfur electrode materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
130 An Approach in Design of Large-Scale Hydrogen Plants

Authors: Hamidreza Sahaleh

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Because of the stringent prerequisite of low sulfur and heavier raw oil feedstock more hydrogen will be devoured in the refineries. Specifically if huge scale limits are the reaction to an expanded hydrogen request, certain configuration and building background are obliged with, which will be depicted in this paper with an illustration. Chosen procedure plan prerequisite will be recorded and portrayed in agreement to the flowsheet. Also, a determination of imaginative outline elements, similar to process condensate reuse, safe reformer start up and prerequisites will be highlighted.

Keywords: low sulfur, raw oil, refineries, flowsheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
129 Isolation of Soil Thiobacterii and Determination of Their Bio-Oxidation Activity

Authors: A. Kistaubayeva, I. Savitskaya, D. Ibrayeva, M. Abdulzhanova, N. Voronova

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36 strains of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated in Southern Kazakhstan soda-saline soils and identified. Screening of strains according bio-oxidation (destruction thiosulfate to sulfate) and enzymatic (Thiosulfate dehydrogenises and thiosulfate reductase) activity was conducted. There were selected modes of aeration and culture conditions (pH, temperature), which provide optimum harvest cells. These strains can be used in bio-melioration technology.

Keywords: elemental sulfur, oxidation activity, Тhiobacilli, fertilizers, heterotrophic S-oxidizers

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
128 Positive Effects of Natural Gas Usage on Air Pollution

Authors: Ismail Becenen

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Air pollution, a consequence of urbanization brought about by modern life, is as global as it is local and regional. Because of the adverse effects of air pollution on human health, air quality is given importance all over the world. According to the decision of the World Health Organization, clean air is the basic necessity for human health and well-being. It poses a very high risk especially for heart diseases and stroke cases. In this study, the positive effects of natural gas usage on air pollution in cities are explained by using literature scans and air pollution measurement values. Natural gas is cleaner than other types of fuel. It contains less sulfur and organic sulfur compounds. When natural gas burns, it does not leave ashes, it does not cause problems in the rubbish mountains. It's a clean fuel, it easily burns and shines. It is a burning gas that is easy and efficient. In addition, there is not a toxic effect for people in case of inhalation. As a result, the use of natural gas needs to be widespread to reduce air pollution around the world in order to provide a healthier life for people and the environment.

Keywords: natural gas, air pollution, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
127 Preparation and Properties of Chloroacetated Natural Rubber Rubber Foam Using Corn Starch as Curing Agent

Authors: Ploenpit Boochathum, Pitchayanad Kaolim, Phimjutha Srisangkaew

Abstract:

In general, rubber foam is produced based on the sulfur curing system. However, the remaining sulfur in the rubber product waste is burned to sulfur dioxide gas causing the environment pollution. To avoid using sulfur as curing agent in the rubber foam products, this research work proposes non-sulfur curing system by using corn starch as a curing agent. The ether crosslinks were proposed to be produced via the functional bonding between hydroxyl groups of the starch molecules and chloroacetate groups added on the natural rubber molecules. The chloroacetated natural rubber (CNR) latex was prepared via the epoxidation reaction of the concentrated natural rubber latex, subsequently, epoxy rings were attacked by chloroacetic acid to produce hydroxyl groups and chloroacetate groups on the rubber molecules. Foaming agent namely NaHCO3 was selected to add in the CNR latex due to the low decomposition temperature at about 50°C. The appropriate curing temperature was assigned to be 90°C that is above gelatinization temperature; 60-70°C, of starch. The effect of weight ratio of starch, i.e., 0 phr, 3 phr and 5 phr, on the physical properties of CNR rubber foam was investigated. It was found that density reduced from 0.81 g/cm3 for 0 phr to 0.75 g/cm3 for 3 phr and 0.79 g/cm3 for 5 phr. The ability to return to its original thickness after prolonged compressive stresses of CNR rubber foam cured with starch loading of 5 phr was found to be considerably better than that of CNR rubber foam cured with starch 3 phr and CNR rubber foam without addition of starch according to the compression set that was determined to decrease from 66.67% to 40% and 26.67% with the increase loading of starch. The mechanical properties including tensile strength and modulus of CNR rubber foams cured using starch were determined to increase except that the elongation at break was found to decrease. In addition, all mechanical properties of CNR rubber foams cured with the starch 3 phr and 5 phr were found to be slightly different and drastically higher than those of CNR rubber foam without the addition of starch. This research work indicates that starch can be applicable as a curing agent for CNR rubber. This is confirmed by the increase of the elastic modulus (G') of CNR rubber foams that was cured with the starch over the CNR rubber foam without curing agent. This type of rubber foam is believed to be one of the biodegradable and environment-friendly product that can be cured at low temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: chloroacetated natural rubber, corn starch, non-sulfur curing system, rubber foam

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126 Polypyrrole as Bifunctional Materials for Advanced Li-S Batteries

Authors: Fang Li, Jiazhao Wang, Jianmin Ma

Abstract:

The practical application of Li-S batteries is hampered due to poor cycling stability caused by electrolyte-dissolved lithium polysulfides. Dual functionalities such as strong chemical adsorption stability and high conductivity are highly desired for an ideal host material for a sulfur-based cathode. Polypyrrole (PPy), as a conductive polymer, was widely studied as matrixes for sulfur cathode due to its high conductivity and strong chemical interaction with soluble polysulfides. Thus, a novel cathode structure consisting of a free-standing sulfur-polypyrrole cathode and a polypyrrole coated separator was designed for flexible Li-S batteries. The PPy materials show strong interaction with dissoluble polysulfides, which could suppress the shuttle effect and improve the cycling stability. In addition, the synthesized PPy film with a rough surface acts as a current collector, which improves the adhesion of sulfur materials and restrain the volume expansion, enhancing the structural stability during the cycling process. For further enhancing the cycling stability, a PPy coated separator was also applied, which could make polysulfides into the cathode side to alleviate the shuttle effect. Moreover, the PPy layer coated on commercial separator is much lighter than other reported interlayers. A soft-packaged flexible Li-S battery has been designed and fabricated for testing the practical application of the designed cathode and separator, which could power a device consisting of 24 light-emitting diode (LED) lights. Moreover, the soft-packaged flexible battery can still show relatively stable cycling performance after repeated bending, indicating the potential application in flexible batteries. A novel vapor phase deposition method was also applied to prepare uniform polypyrrole layer coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite. The polypyrrole layer simultaneously acts as host and adsorbent for efficient suppression of polysulfides dissolution through strong chemical interaction. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the polypyrrole could trap lithium polysulfides through stronger bonding energy. In addition, the deflation of sulfur/graphene hydrogel during the vapor phase deposition process enhances the contact of sulfur with matrixes, resulting in high sulfur utilization and good rate capability. As a result, the synthesized polypyrrole coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite delivers a specific discharge capacity of 1167 mAh g⁻¹ and 409.1 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.2 C and 5 C respectively. The capacity can maintain at 698 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.5 C after 500 cycles, showing an ultra-slow decay rate of 0.03% per cycle.

Keywords: polypyrrole, strong chemical interaction, long-term stability, Li-S batteries

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125 Effect of Sulfur on the High-Temperature Oxidation of DIN1.4091

Authors: M. J. Kim, D. B. Lee

Abstract:

Centrifugal casting is a metal casting method that uses forces make by centripetal acceleration to distribute molten material in mold. Centrifugal cast parts manufactured in industry contain gas pipes and water supply lines, moreover rings, turbocharger, bushings, brake drums. Turbochargers were exposed to exhaust temperatures of 900-1050°C require a material for the corrosion resistance that will withstand such high component temperatures during the entire service life of the vehicle. Hence, the study of corrosion resistance for turbocharger is important for practical application. DIN1.4091 steels were used widely. The DIN1.4091 steels whose compositions were Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni-2.5Mo-0.4W-0.4Mn-0.5Si-(0.009 or 0.35)S (wt.%) were centrifugally cast, and oxidized at 900°C for 50-200 h in order to find the effect of sulfur on the high-temperature oxidation of Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni-2.5Mo-0.4W-0.4Mn-0.5Si-(0.009 or 0.35)S (wt.%) alloys. These alloys formed oxide scales that consisted primarily of Cr₂O₃ as the major oxide and Cr₂MnO₄ as the minor one through preferential oxidation of Cr and Mn. Cr formed a thin CrOx oxide film on the surface to prevent further oxidation, and when it is added more than 20%, the sulphide decreased corrosion rate. The high affinity of Mn with S, led to the formation of scattered MnS inclusions, particularly in the 0.35S-containing cast alloy. Sulfur was harmful to the oxidation resistance because it deteriorated the scale/alloy adherence so as to accelerate the adherence and compactness of the formed scales. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A2B1013169).

Keywords: centrifugal casting, turbocharger, sulfur, oxidation, Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
124 Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Novel Trihexyltetradecyl Phosphonium Chloride for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

Authors: Swapnil A. Dharaskar, Kailas L. Wasewar, Mahesh N. Varma, Diwakar Z. Shende

Abstract:

Owing to the stringent environmental regulations in many countries for production of ultra low sulfur petroleum fractions intending to reduce sulfur emissions results in enormous interest in this area among the scientific community. The requirement of zero sulfur emissions enhances the prominence for more advanced techniques in desulfurization. Desulfurization by extraction is a promising approach having several advantages over conventional hydrodesulphurization. Present work is dealt with various new approaches for desulfurization of ultra clean gasoline, diesel and other liquid fuels by extraction with ionic liquids. In present paper experimental data on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using trihexyl tetradecyl phosphonium chloride has been presented. The FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized ionic liquid. Further, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of ionic liquids were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on removal of dibenzothiphene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 84.5% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30OC under the mild reaction conditions. Phosphonium ionic liquids could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in present paper explore the significant insights of phosphonium based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

Keywords: ionic liquid, PPIL, desulfurization, liquid fuel, extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 514
123 Determination of the Effectiveness of Some Methods Used in Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L.) in Honeycombs

Authors: Neslihan Ozsoy Taskiran, Miray Dayioglu, Belgin Gunbey, Banu Yucel, Cigdem Takma, Unal Karik, Tugce Olgun, Levent Aydin

Abstract:

A greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella L.), which is one of the most important pests after Varroa, plays a role in the transportation of many pathogens into the hive as well as damage to the honeycombs, and beekeepers suffer economically. Due to the risk that some of the methods against this pest may cause residue in bee products, and it can be harmful to the health of people who consume these products. Therefore, the most appropriate, most economical, and effective method should be applied in the moth control. For this purpose, in the first phase of the project (2017-2018), planned to be 2-stage in the Aegean Agricultural Research Institute in 2017-2020, the honeycombs, certified with good agricultural practice, were kept in a favorable condition for moths. Later, applications (Sulfur - B401 - Walnut (Leaf & Smoker) - lavender essential oil (1cc & 2cc & 3cc & 4cc) - laurel essential oil (1cc & 2cc & 3cc & 4cc) - control) were applied to the honeycombs with moths. In 2017, the B401 group had the highest wax moth damage area, and the group with the lowest wax moth damage area was determined as lavender 1cc; In 2018, the highest wax moth damage area was found in the walnut smoker group, while the lowest wax moth damage area was found in sulfur, walnut leaves, laurel 1cc - 2cc - 4cc, lavender 1cc - 2cc - 3cc - 4cc and control groups. In addition, sulfur residue amount (mean 128,18 mg/kg) in honeycomb was measured in the sulfur-treated group. Phase 1 of the project was completed, and the most important sub-groups among walnut (leaf) - lavender (1cc) and laurel (4cc) groups were identified. Accordingly, it is planned to carry out these treatments ((sulfur - B401 - walnut (leaf) - lavender (1cc) and laurel (4cc)) on honeycombs with do not contain moths, and later, it is planned to examine the effects of the treatment on the offspring area and honey yield by giving these honeycombs to the hives, in the 2nd stage of the project (2019-2020).

Keywords: honey bee, lavender essential oil, laurel essential oil, walnut, wax moth

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