Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 261

Search results for: restoration

261 The Restoration of the Old District in the Urbanization: The Case Study of Samsen Riverside Community, Dusit District, Bangkok

Authors: Tikhanporn Punluekdej, Saowapa Phaithayawat

Abstract:

The objectives of this research are: 1) to discover the mechanism in the restoration process of the old district, and 2) to study the people participation in the community with related units. This research utilizes qualitative research method together with the tools used in the study of historical and anthropological disciplines. The research revealed that the restoration process of the old district started with the needs of the local people in the community. These people are considered as a young generation in the community. The leading group of the community played a vital role in the restoration process by igniting the whole idea and followed by the help from those who have lived in the area of more than fifty years. The restoration process is the genuine desire of the local people without the intervention of the local politics. The core group would coordinate with the related units in which there were, for instance, the academic institutions in order to find out the most dominant historical features of the community including its settlement. The Crown Property Bureau, as the sole-owner of the land, joined the restoration in the physical development dimension. The restoration was possible due to the cooperation between local people and related units, under the designated plans, budget, and social activities.

Keywords: restoration, urban area, old district, people participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
260 Challenges in Adopting 3R Concept in the Heritage Building Restoration

Authors: H. H. Goh, K. C. Goh, T. W. Seow, N. S. Said, S. E. P. Ang

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Malaysia is rich with historic buildings, particularly in Penang and Malacca states. Restoration activities are increasingly important as these states are recognized under UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Restoration activities help to maintain the uniqueness and value of a heritage building. However, increasing in restoration activities has resulted in large quantities of waste. To cope with this problem, the 3R concept (reduce, reuse and recycle) is introduced. The 3R concept is one of the waste management hierarchies. This concept is still yet to apply in the building restoration industry compared to the construction industry. Therefore, this study aims to promote the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study aims to examine the importance of 3R concept and to identify challenges in applying the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study focused on contractors and consultants who are involved in heritage restoration projects in Penang. Literature review and interviews helps to reach the research objective. Data that obtained is analyzed by using content analysis. For the research, application of 3R concept is important to conserve natural resources and reduce pollution problems. However, limited space to organise waste is the obstruction during the implementation of this concept. In conclusion, the 3R concept plays an important role in promoting environmental conservation and helping in reducing the construction waste

Keywords: 3R Concept, heritage building, restoration activities, building science

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
259 Liberation as a Method for Monument Valorisation: The Case of the Defence Heritage Restoration

Authors: Donatella R. Fiorino, Marzia Loddo

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The practice of freeing monuments from subsequent additions crosses the entire history of conservation and it is traditionally connected to the aim of valorisation, both for cultural and educational purpose and recently even for touristic exploitation. Defence heritage has been widely interested by these cultural and technical moods from philological restoration to critic innovations. A renovated critical analysis of Italian episodes and in particular the Sardinian case of the area of San Pancrazio in Cagliari, constitute an important lesson about the limits of this practice and the uncertainty in terms of results, towards the definition of a sustainable good practice in the restoration of military architectures.

Keywords: defensive architecture, liberation, Valorisation for tourism, historical restoration

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
258 Geochemistry of Nutrients in the South Lagoon of Tunis, Northeast of Tunisia, Using Multivariable Methods

Authors: Abidi Myriam, Ben Amor Rim, Gueddari Moncef

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Understanding ecosystem response to the restoration project is essential to assess its rehabilitation. Indeed, the time elapsed after restoration is a critical indicator to shows the real of the restoration success. In this order, the south lagoon of Tunis, a shallow Mediterranean coastal area, has witnessed several pollutions. To resolve this environmental problem, a large restoration project of the lagoon was undertaken. In this restoration works, the main changes are the decrease of the residence time of the lagoon water and the nutrient concentrations. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the trophic state of lagoon water for evaluating the risk of eutrophication after almost 16 years of its restoration. To attend this objectives water quality monitoring was untaken. In order to identify and to analyze the natural and anthropogenic factor governing the nutrients concentrations of lagoon water geochemical methods and multivariate statistical tools were used. Results show that nutrients have duel sources due to the discharge of municipal wastewater of Megrine City in the south side of the lagoon. The Carlson index shows that the South lagoon of Tunis Lagoon Tunis is eutrophic, and may show limited summer anoxia.

Keywords: geochemistry, nutrients, statistical analysis, the south lagoon of Tunis, trophic state

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
257 New Restoration Reagent for Development of Erased Serial Number on Copper Metal Surface

Authors: Lav Kesharwani, Nalini Shankar, A. K. Gupta

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A serial number is a unique code assigned for identification of a single unit. Serial number are present on many objects. In an attempt to hide the identity of the numbered item, the numbers are often obliterated or removed by mechanical methods. The present work was carried out with an objective to develop less toxic, less time consuming, more result oriented chemical etching reagent for restoration of serial number on the copper metal plate. Around nine different reagents were prepared using different combination of reagent along with standard reagent and it was applied over 50 erased samples of copper metal and compared it with the standard reagent for restoration of erased marks. After experiment, it was found that the prepared Etching reagent no. 3 (10 g FeCl3 + 20 ml glacial acetic acid + 100 ml distilled H2O) showed the best result for restoration of erased serial number on the copper metal plate .The reagent was also less toxic and less time consuming as compared to standard reagent (19 g FeCl3 + 6 ml cans. HCl + 100 ml distilled H2O).

Keywords: serial number restoration, copper plate, obliteration, chemical method

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
256 Feature Location Restoration for Under-Sampled Photoplethysmogram Using Spline Interpolation

Authors: Hangsik Shin

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The purpose of this research is to restore the feature location of under-sampled photoplethysmogram using spline interpolation and to investigate feasibility for feature shape restoration. We obtained 10 kHz-sampled photoplethysmogram and decimated it to generate under-sampled dataset. Decimated dataset has 5 kHz, 2.5 k Hz, 1 kHz, 500 Hz, 250 Hz, 25 Hz and 10 Hz sampling frequency. To investigate the restoration performance, we interpolated under-sampled signals with 10 kHz, then compared feature locations with feature locations of 10 kHz sampled photoplethysmogram. Features were upper and lower peak of photplethysmography waveform. Result showed that time differences were dramatically decreased by interpolation. Location error was lesser than 1 ms in both feature types. In 10 Hz sampled cases, location error was also deceased a lot, however, they were still over 10 ms.

Keywords: peak detection, photoplethysmography, sampling, signal reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
255 Deep Neural Networks for Restoration of Sky Images Affected by Static and Anisotropic Aberrations

Authors: Constanza A. Barriga, Rafael Bernardi, Amokrane Berdja, Christian D. Guzman

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Most image restoration methods in astronomy rely upon probabilistic tools that infer the best solution for a deconvolution problem. They achieve good performances when the point spread function (PSF) is spatially invariable in the image plane. However, this latter condition is not always satisfied with real optical systems. PSF angular variations cannot be evaluated directly from the observations, neither be corrected at a pixel resolution. We have developed a method for the restoration of images affected by static and anisotropic aberrations using deep neural networks that can be directly applied to sky images. The network is trained using simulated sky images corresponding to the T-80 telescope optical system, an 80 cm survey imager at Cerro Tololo (Chile), which are synthesized using a Zernike polynomial representation of the optical system. Once trained, the network can be used directly on sky images, outputting a corrected version of the image, which has a constant and known PSF across its field-of-view. The method was tested with the T-80 telescope, achieving better results than with PSF deconvolution techniques. We present the method and results on this telescope.

Keywords: aberrations, deep neural networks, image restoration, variable point spread function, wide field images

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
254 Accounting for Downtime Effects in Resilience-Based Highway Network Restoration Scheduling

Authors: Zhenyu Zhang, Hsi-Hsien Wei

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Highway networks play a vital role in post-disaster recovery for disaster-damaged areas. Damaged bridges in such networks can disrupt the recovery activities by impeding the transportation of people, cargo, and reconstruction resources. Therefore, rapid restoration of damaged bridges is of paramount importance to long-term disaster recovery. In the post-disaster recovery phase, the key to restoration scheduling for a highway network is prioritization of bridge-repair tasks. Resilience is widely used as a measure of the ability to recover with which a network can return to its pre-disaster level of functionality. In practice, highways will be temporarily blocked during the downtime of bridge restoration, leading to the decrease of highway-network functionality. The failure to take downtime effects into account can lead to overestimation of network resilience. Additionally, post-disaster recovery of highway networks is generally divided into emergency bridge repair (EBR) in the response phase and long-term bridge repair (LBR) in the recovery phase, and both of EBR and LBR are different in terms of restoration objectives, restoration duration, budget, etc. Distinguish these two phases are important to precisely quantify highway network resilience and generate suitable restoration schedules for highway networks in the recovery phase. To address the above issues, this study proposes a novel resilience quantification method for the optimization of long-term bridge repair schedules (LBRS) taking into account the impact of EBR activities and restoration downtime on a highway network’s functionality. A time-dependent integer program with recursive functions is formulated for optimally scheduling LBR activities. Moreover, since uncertainty always exists in the LBRS problem, this paper extends the optimization model from the deterministic case to the stochastic case. A hybrid genetic algorithm that integrates a heuristic approach into a traditional genetic algorithm to accelerate the evolution process is developed. The proposed methods are tested using data from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, based on a regional highway network in Sichuan, China, consisting of 168 highway bridges on 36 highways connecting 25 cities/towns. The results show that, in this case, neglecting the bridge restoration downtime can lead to approximately 15% overestimation of highway network resilience. Moreover, accounting for the impact of EBR on network functionality can help to generate a more specific and reasonable LBRS. The theoretical and practical values are as follows. First, the proposed network recovery curve contributes to comprehensive quantification of highway network resilience by accounting for the impact of both restoration downtime and EBR activities on the recovery curves. Moreover, this study can improve the highway network resilience from the organizational dimension by providing bridge managers with optimal LBR strategies.

Keywords: disaster management, highway network, long-term bridge repair schedule, resilience, restoration downtime

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
253 Foggy Image Restoration Using Neural Network

Authors: Khader S. Al-Aidmat, Venus W. Samawi

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Blurred vision in the misty atmosphere is essential problem which needs to be resolved. To solve this problem, we developed a technique to restore foggy degraded image from its original version using Back-propagation neural network (BP-NN). The suggested technique is based on mapping between foggy scene and its corresponding original scene. Seven different approaches are suggested based on type of features used in image restoration. Features are extracted from spatial and spatial-frequency domain (using DCT). Each of these approaches comes with its own BP-NN architecture depending on type and number of used features. The weight matrix resulted from training each BP-NN represents a fog filter. The performance of these filters are evaluated empirically (using PSNR), and perceptually. By comparing the performance of these filters, the effective features that suits BP-NN technique for restoring foggy images is recognized. This system proved its effectiveness and success in restoring moderate foggy images.

Keywords: artificial neural network, discrete cosine transform, feed forward neural network, foggy image restoration

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
252 Restoration Process of Kastamonu - Tufekciler Village Houses for Potential Eco-Tourism Purposes

Authors: Turkan Sultan Yasar Ismail, Mehmet Cetin, M. Danial Ismail, Hakan Sevik

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Nowadays, there is a need for the real world to be translated to the virtual environment by three-dimensional visualisation for restoration and promotional modelling of historic sites in protected areas. Visualisation models have also become the very important basis for the creation of three-dimensional Geographic Information System. The protection of historical and cultural heritage and documenting in Turkey as well as all over the world is an important issue. This heritage is a bridge between the past and the future of humanity. Many historical and cultural heritages suffer neglect and for reasons arising from natural causes. This is to determine the current status of the work and documenting information from the selected buildings. This process is important for their conservation and renovation work that might be done in the future. Kastamonu city is one of the historical cities in Turkey with a number of heritage buildings. However, Tufekciler Village is not visited and famous even though it includes several historical buildings and peaceful landscape. Digital terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most important methods used in the documentation of cultural and historical heritage. Firstly, measurements were made primarily around creating polygon mesh and 3D model drawings of the structures to be modelled on images with the move to digital media such as picture size and by subsequent visualisation process. Secondly, a restoration project is offered to the village with the concept of eco-tourism with all scales such as, interior space to landscape design.

Keywords: eco-tourism, restoration, sustainability, cultural village

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
251 Stipagrostis ciliata (Desf.) De Winter: A Promising Pastoral Species for Ecological Restoration in North African Arid Bioclimate

Authors: Lobna Mnif Fakhfakh, Mohamed Chaieb

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Most ecological studies in North Africa reveal a process of continuous degradation of pastoral ecosystems as a result of overgrazing. This degradation appears across the depletion of perennial grass species. Indeed, the majority of steppic ecosystems are characterized by a low density of perennial grasses. This phenomenon reveals a drop in food value of rangelands, which is now estimated at less than 100 UF.ha -1. -1 Year in all North African steppes. However, for ecological restoration initiatives, some species such the genus of Stipagrostis and Stipa can be considered a good candidates species for effective pastoral improvement under arid bioclimate. The present work concerns Stipagrostis ciliata (Desf.) De Winter, perennial grasses, abundant in ecosystems characterized by the high content of gypsum (CaSO4)2H2O in the southern Tunisia. This tufted species with C4 biochemical photosynthesis type is able to grow and develop under high temperature and low annual rainfall, where the minimum water potential (ψmd), can reach -4 MPa during the summer season with a phenological growth maintained throughout the season unfavorable. At this point in the early autumn rains, S. ciliata begins its growth, especially with a heading which occurs 2-3 weeks after the first autumn rains. From the foregoing, it can be concluded that Stipagrostis ciliata is an excellent promising pastoral species for the ecological restoration, and enhancement of ecosystems biological productivity in arid bioclimate of North Africa.

Keywords: Stipagrostis ciliata, pastoral species, ecological restoration, arid bioclimate

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
250 Rest Behavior and Restoration: Searching for Patterns through a Textual Analysis

Authors: Sandra Christina Gressler

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Resting is essentially the physical and mental relaxation. So, can behaviors that go beyond the merely physical relaxation to some extent be understood as a behavior of restoration? Studies on restorative environments emphasize the physical, mental and social benefits that some environments can provide and suggest that activities in natural environments reduce the stress of daily lives, promoting recovery against the daily wear. These studies, though specific in their results, do not unify the different possibilities of restoration. Considering the importance of restorative environments by promoting well-being, this research aims to verify the applicability of the theory on restorative environments in a Brazilian context, inquiring about the environment/behavior of rest. The research sought to achieve its goals by; a) identifying daily ways of how participants interact/connect with nature; b) identifying the resting environments/behavior; c) verifying if rest strategies match the restorative environments suggested by restorative studies; and d) verifying different rest strategies related to time. Workers from different companies in which certain functions require focused attention, and high school students from different schools, participated in this study. An interview was used to collect data and information. The data obtained were compared with studies of attention restoration theory and stress recovery. The collected data were analyzed through the basic descriptive inductive statistics and the use of the software ALCESTE® (Analyse Lexicale par Contexte d'un Ensemble de Segments de Texte). The open questions investigate perception of nature on a daily basis – analysis using ALCESTE; rest periods – daily, weekends and holidays – analysis using ALCESTE with tri-croisé; and resting environments and activities – analysis using a simple descriptive statistics. According to the results, environments with natural characteristics that are compatible with personal desires (physical aspects and distance) and residential environments when they fulfill the characteristics of refuge, safety, and self-expression, characteristics of primary territory, meet the requirements of restoration. Analyzes suggest that the perception of nature has a wide range that goes beyond the objects nearby and possible to be touched, as well as observation and contemplation of details. The restoration processes described in the studies of attention restoration theory occur gradually (hierarchically), starting with being away, following compatibility, fascination, and extent. They are also associated with the time that is available for rest. The relation between rest behaviors and the bio-demographic characteristics of the participants are noted. It reinforces, in studies of restoration, the need to insert not only investigations regarding the physical characteristics of the environment but also behavior, social relationship, subjective reactions, distance and time available. The complexity of the theme indicates the necessity for multimethod studies. Practical contributions provide subsidies for developing strategies to promote the welfare of the population.

Keywords: attention restoration theory, environmental psychology, rest behavior, restorative environments

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
249 Maryland Restoration of Anterior Tooth Loss as a Minimal Invasive Dentistry: An Alternative Treatment

Authors: B. Oral, C. Bal, M. S. Kar, A. Akgürbüz

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Loss of maxillary central incisors occurs in many patients, and the treatment of young adults with this problem is a challenge for both prosthodontists and orthodontists. Common treatment alternatives are distalization of adjacent teeth and fabrication of a conventional 3-unit fixed partial denture, a single implant supported crown restoration or a resin-bonded fixed partial denture. This case report describes the indication of a resin-bonded fixed partial denture, preparation of the abutment teeth and the prosthetic procedures. The technique described here represents a conservative, esthetically pleasing and rapid solution for the missing maxillary central incisor when implant placement and/or guided bone regeneration techniques are not feasible because of financial, social or time restrictions. In this case a 16 year-old female patient who lost her maxillary left central incisor six years ago in a bicycle accident applied to our clinic with a major complaint of her unaesthetic appearance associated with the loss of her maxillary left central incisor. Although there was an indication for orthodontic treatment because of the limited space at the traumatized area, the patient did not accept to receive any orthodontic procedure. That is why an implant supported restoration could not be an option for the narrow area. Therefore maryland bridge as a minimal invasive dental therapy was preferred as a retention appliance so the patient's aesthetic appearance was restored.

Keywords: Maryland bridge, single tooth restoration, aesthetics, maxillary central incisors

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
248 A Nonlinear Parabolic Partial Differential Equation Model for Image Enhancement

Authors: Tudor Barbu

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We present a robust nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation (PDE)-based denoising scheme in this article. Our approach is based on a second-order anisotropic diffusion model that is described first. Then, a consistent and explicit numerical approximation algorithm is constructed for this continuous model by using the finite-difference method. Finally, our restoration experiments and method comparison, which prove the effectiveness of this proposed technique, are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, finite differences, image denoising and restoration, nonlinear PDE model, anisotropic diffusion, numerical approximation schemes

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
247 The Minimum Patch Size Scale for Seagrass Canopy Restoration

Authors: Aina Barcelona, Carolyn Oldham, Jordi Colomer, Teresa Serra

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The loss of seagrass meadows worldwide is being tackled by formulating coastal restoration strategies. Seagrass loss results in a network of vegetated patches which are barely interconnected, and consequently, the ecological services they provide may be highly compromised. Hence, there is a need to optimize coastal management efforts in order to implement successful restoration strategies, not only through modifying the architecture of the canopies but also by gathering together information on the hydrodynamic conditions of the seabeds. To obtain information on the hydrodynamics within the patches of vegetation, this study deals with the scale analysis of the minimum lengths of patch management strategies that can be effectively used on. To this aim, a set of laboratory experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume where the plant densities, patch lengths, and hydrodynamic conditions were varied to discern the vegetated patch lengths that can provide optimal ecosystem services for canopy development. Two possible patch behaviours based on the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production were determined: one where plants do not interact with the flow and the other where plants interact with waves and produce TKE. Furthermore, this study determines the minimum patch lengths that can provide successful management restoration. A canopy will produce TKE, depending on its density, the length of the vegetated patch, and the wave velocities. Therefore, a vegetated patch will produce plant-wave interaction under high wave velocities when it presents large lengths and high canopy densities.

Keywords: seagrass, minimum patch size, turbulent kinetic energy, oscillatory flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
246 Priority Sites for Deforested and Degraded Mountain Restoration Projects in North Korea

Authors: Koo Ja-Choon, Seok Hyun-Deok, Park So-Hee

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Even though developed countries have supported aid projects for restoring degraded and deforested mountain, recent North Korean authorities announced that North Korean forest is still very serious. Last 12 years, more than 16 thousand ha of forest were destroyed. Most of previous researches concluded that food and fuel problems should be solved for preventing people from deforesting and degrading forest in North Korea. It means that mountain restoration projects such as A/R(afforestation/reforestation) and REDD(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) project should be implemented with the agroforestry and the forest tending project. Because agroforestry and the forest tending can provide people in the project area with foods and fuels, respectively. Especially, Agroforestry has been operated well with the support of Swiss agency of Development and cooperation since 2003. This paper aims to find the priority sites for mountain restoration project where all types of projects including agroforesty can be implemented simultaneously. We tried to find the primary counties where the areas of these activities were distributed widely and evenly. Recent spatial data of 186 counties representing altitude, gradient and crown density were collected from World Forest Watch. These 3 attributes were used to determine the type of activities; A/R, REDD, Agroforestry and forest tending project. Finally, we calculated the size of 4 activities in 186 counties by using GIS technique. Result shows that Chongjin in Hamgyeongbuk-do, Hoeryong in Hamgyeongbuk-do and Tongchang in Pyeonganbuk-do are on the highest priority of counties. Most of feasible counties whose value of richness and uniformity were greater than the average were located near the eastern coast of North Korea. South Korean government has not supported any aid projects in North Korea since 2010. Recently, South Korea is trying to continue the aid projects for North Korea. Forest project which is not affected by the political situation between North- and South- Korea can be considered as a priority activities. This result can be used when South Korean government determine the priority sites for North Korean mountain restoration project in near future.

Keywords: agroforestry, forest restoration project, GIS, North Korea, priority

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245 The Role of Cornulaca aucheri in Stabilization of Degraded Sandy Soil in Kuwait

Authors: Modi M. Ahmed, Noor Al-Dousari, Ali M. Al-Dousari

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Cornulaca aucheri is an annual herb consider as disturbance indicator currently visible and widely distributed in disturbed lands in Liyah area. Such area is suffered from severe land degradation due to multiple interacting factors such as, overgrazing, gravel and sand quarrying, military activities and natural process. The restoration program is applied after refilled quarries sites and levelled the surface irregularities in order to rehabilitate the natural vegetation and wildlife to its original shape. During the past 10 years of rehabilitation, noticeable greenery healthy cover of Cornulaca sp. are shown specially around artificial lake and playas. The existence of such species in high density it means that restoration program has succeeded and transit from bare ground state to Cornulaca and annual forb state. This state is lower state of Range State Transition Succession model, but it is better than bare soil. Cornulaca spp is native desert plant grows in arid conditions on sandy, stony ground, near oasis, on sand dunes and in sandy depressions. The sheep and goats are repulsive of it. Despite its spiny leaves, it provides good grazing for camels and is said to increase the milk supply produced by lactating females. It is about 80 cm tall and has stems that branched from the base with new faster greenery growth in the summer. It shows good environmental potential to be managed as natural types used for the restoration of degraded lands in desert areas.

Keywords: land degradation, range state transition succession model, rehabilitation, restoration program

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244 Evaluation of Microleakage of a New Generation Nano-Ionomer in Class II Restoration of Primary Molars

Authors: Ghada Salem, Nihal Kabel

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Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to assess the microleakage properties of nano-filled glass ionomer in comparison to resin-reinforced glass ionomers. Material and Methods: 40 deciduous molar teeth were included in this study. Class-II cavity was prepared in a standard form for all the specimens. The teeth were randomly distributed into two groups (20 per group) according to the restorative material used either nano-glass ionomer or Photac Fill glass ionomer restoration. All specimens were thermocycled for 1000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C. After that, the teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye then sectioned and evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Microleakage was assessed using linear dye penetration and on a scale from zero to five. Results: Two way ANOVA test revealed a statistically significant lower degree of microleakage in both occlusal and gingival restorations (0.4±0.2), (0.9±0.1) for nano-filled glass ionomer group in comparison to resin modified glass ionomer (2.3±0.7), (2.4±0.5). No statistical difference was found between gingival and occlusal leakage regarding the effect of the measured site. Conclusion: Nano-filled glass ionomer shows superior sealing ability which enables this type of restoration to be used in minimum invasive treatment.

Keywords: microleakage, nanoionomer, resin-reinforced glass ionomer, proximal cavity preparation

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
243 The Effect of Tooth Brushing with Whitening and Non-Whitening Tooth Paste on Surface Roughness of Coated and Uncoated Glass Ionomer Cement

Authors: Hidayati, Eni Rahmi, Deli Mona, Cytha Nilam Chairani, Aulina Refri Rahmi

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Background: Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration's surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. It can be prevented by mechanically clean the tooth surface by brushing the teeth using toothpaste. Toothpaste may contain abrasives materials that usually found in whitening toothpaste. Those abrasive materials could increase the roughness of the restoration`s surface. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is one of the restorative material widely used to this day. GC America has made an innovation called EQUIA to improve their wear resistance by coating the surface of GIC using G-Coat Plus. Objective: To determine the effect of teeth was brushing with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste to the surface roughness of coated and uncoated restoration (GIC). Methods: This research was a laboratory experimental with pretest-posttest group design. There were 28 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with non-whitening toothpaste. Each group was divided into group which coated by G-Coat Plus and group which left uncoated. The value of surface roughness was measured by using Roughness Tester. The data was analyzed by using independent t-test to determine differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste. Result: It was found that average roughness differences before and after being brushed by whitening toothpaste were smaller in coated samples than in uncoated samples (0.07 ± 0.09 < 0.12 ± 0.02). Similar results were also found in samples brushed by non-whitening toothpaste (0.02 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01). The differences of average roughness in samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste were smaller than samples brushed with whitening toothpaste. Conclusion: The data showed there were statistically significant differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste (p < 0.05) but the was no statistically significant to samples brushed with whitening toothpaste (p > 0.05).

Keywords: surface roughness, toothpaste, EQUIA, coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
242 Signal Restoration Using Neural Network Based Equalizer for Nonlinear channels

Authors: Z. Zerdoumi, D. Benatia, , D. Chicouche

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This paper investigates the application of artificial neural network to the problem of nonlinear channel equalization. The difficulties caused by channel distortions such as inter symbol interference (ISI) and nonlinearity can overcome by nonlinear equalizers employing neural networks. It has been shown that multilayer perceptron based equalizer outperform significantly linear equalizers. We present a multilayer perceptron based equalizer with decision feedback (MLP-DFE) trained with the back propagation algorithm. The capacity of the MLP-DFE to deal with nonlinear channels is evaluated. From simulation results it can be noted that the MLP based DFE improves significantly the restored signal quality, the steady state mean square error (MSE), and minimum Bit Error Rate (BER), when comparing with its conventional counterpart.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, signal restoration, Nonlinear Channel equalization, equalization

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241 Using the UK as a Case Study to Assess the Current State of Large Woody Debris Restoration as a Tool for Improving the Ecological Status of Natural Watercourses Globally

Authors: Isabelle Barrett

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Natural watercourses provide a range of vital ecosystem services, notably freshwater provision. They also offer highly heterogeneous habitat which supports an extreme diversity of aquatic life. Exploitation of rivers, changing land use and flood prevention measures have led to habitat degradation and subsequent biodiversity loss; indeed, freshwater species currently face a disproportionate rate of extinction compared to their terrestrial and marine counterparts. Large woody debris (LWD) encompasses the trees, large branches and logs which fall into watercourses, and is responsible for important habitat characteristics. Historically, natural LWD has been removed from streams under the assumption that it is not aesthetically pleasing and is thus ecologically unfavourable, despite extensive evidence contradicting this. Restoration efforts aim to replace lost LWD in order to reinstate habitat heterogeneity. This paper aims to assess the current state of such restoration schemes for improving fluvial ecological health in the UK. A detailed review of the scientific literature was conducted alongside a meta-analysis of 25 UK-based projects involving LWD restoration. Projects were chosen for which sufficient information was attainable for analysis, covering a broad range of budgets and scales. The most effective strategies for river restoration encompass ecological success, stakeholder engagement and scientific advancement, however few projects surveyed showed sensitivity to all three; for example, only 32% of projects stated biological aims. Focus tended to be on stakeholder engagement and public approval, since this is often a key funding driver. Consequently, there is a tendency to focus on the aesthetic outcomes of a project, however physical habitat restoration does not necessarily lead to direct biodiversity increases. This highlights the significance of rivers as highly heterogeneous environments with multiple interlinked processes, and emphasises a need for a stronger scientific presence in project planning. Poor scientific rigour means monitoring is often lacking, with varying, if any, definitions of success which are rarely pre-determined. A tendency to overlook negative or neutral results was apparent, with unjustified focus often put on qualitative results. The temporal scale of monitoring is typically inadequate to facilitate scientific conclusions, with only 20% of projects surveyed reporting any pre-restoration monitoring. Furthermore, monitoring is often limited to a few variables, with biotic monitoring often fish-focussed. Due to their longer life cycles and dispersal capability, fish are usually poor indicators of environmental change, making it difficult to attribute any changes in ecological health to restoration efforts. Although the potential impact of LWD restoration may be positive, this method of restoration could simply be making short-term, small-scale improvements; without addressing the underlying symptoms of degradation, for example water quality, the issue cannot be fully resolved. Promotion of standardised monitoring for LWD projects could help establish a deeper understanding of the ecology surrounding the practice, supporting movement towards adaptive management in which scientific evidence feeds back to practitioners, enabling the design of more efficient projects with greater ecological success. By highlighting LWD, this study hopes to address the difficulties faced within river management, and emphasise the need for a more holistic international and inter-institutional approach to tackling problems associated with degradation.

Keywords: biological monitoring, ecological health, large woody debris, river management, river restoration

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240 Estimation and Restoration of Ill-Posed Parameters for Underwater Motion Blurred Images

Authors: M. Vimal Raj, S. Sakthivel Murugan

Abstract:

Underwater images degrade their quality due to atmospheric conditions. One of the major problems in an underwater image is motion blur caused by the imaging device or the movement of the object. In order to rectify that in post-imaging, parameters of the blurred image are to be estimated. So, the point spread function is estimated by the properties, using the spectrum of the image. To improve the estimation accuracy of the parameters, Optimized Polynomial Lagrange Interpolation (OPLI) method is implemented after the angle and length measurement of motion-blurred images. Initially, the data were collected from real-time environments in Chennai and processed. The proposed OPLI method shows better accuracy than the existing classical Cepstral, Hough, and Radon transform estimation methods for underwater images.

Keywords: image restoration, motion blur, parameter estimation, radon transform, underwater

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239 Science and Monitoring Underpinning River Restoration: A Case Study

Authors: Geoffrey Gilfillan, Peter Barham, Lisa Smallwood, David Harper

Abstract:

The ‘Welland for People and Wildlife’ project aimed to improve the River Welland’s ecology and water quality, and to make it more accessible to the community of Market Harborough. A joint monitoring project by the Welland Rivers Trust & University of Leicester was incorporated into the design. The techniques that have been used to measure its success are hydrological, geomorphological, and water quality monitoring, species and habitat surveys, and community engagement. Early results show improvements to flow and habitat diversity, water quality and biodiversity of the river environment. Barrier removal has increased stickleback mating activity, and decreased parasitically infected fish in sample catches. The habitats provided by the berms now boast over 25 native plant species, and the river is clearer, cleaner and with better-oxygenated water.

Keywords: community engagement, ecological monitoring, river restoration, water quality

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238 Rediscovery of Important Elements Contributing to Cultural Interchange Values Made during Restoration of Khanpur Gate

Authors: Poonam A. Trambadia, Ashish V. Trambadia

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The architecture of sultanate period of Ahmedabad had evolved just before the establishment of Mughal rule in North India. After shifting the capital of the kingdom from Patan to Ahmedabad, when the buildings and structures were being built, an interesting cultural blend happened in architecture. Many sultanate buildings in Ahmedabad historic city have resemblance with Patan including the names. Outer fortification walls and Gates were built during the rule of the third ruler in the late 15th century. All the gates had sandstone slabs supported by three arched entrance in sandstone with wooden shutter. A restoration project of Khanpur Gate was initiated in 2016. The paper identifies some evidences and some hidden layers of structures as important elements of cultural interchange while some were just forgotten in the process. The recycling of pre-existing elements of structures are examined and compared. There were layers uncovered that were hidden behind later repairs using traditional brick arch, which was taken out in the process. As the gate had partially collapsed, the restoration included piece by piece dismantling and restoring in the same sequence wherever required. The recycled materials found in the process were recorded and provided the basis for this study. The gate after this discovery sets a new example of fortification Gate built in Sultanate era. The comparison excludes Maratha and British Period Gates to avoid further confusion and focuses on 15th – 16th century sultanate architecture of Ahmedabad.

Keywords: Ahmedabad World Heritage, fortification, Indo-Islamic style, Sultanate architecture, cultural interchange

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237 The Correlation between Three-Dimensional Implant Positions and Esthetic Outcomes of Single-Tooth Implant Restoration

Authors: Pongsakorn Komutpol, Pravej Serichetaphongse, Soontra Panmekiate, Atiphan Pimkhaokham

Abstract:

Statement of Problem: The important parameter of esthetic assessment in anterior maxillary implant include pink esthetic of gingiva and white esthetic of restoration. While the 3 dimensional (3D) implant position are recently concerned as a key for succeeding in implant treatment. However, to our knowledge, the authors did not come across any publication that demonstrated the relations of esthetic outcome and 3D implant position. Objectives: To investigate the correlation between positional accuracy of single-tooth implant restoration (STIR) in all 3 dimensions and their esthetic outcomes. Materials and Methods: 17 patients’ data who had a STIR at central incisor with pristine contralateral tooth were included in this study. Intraoral photographs, dental models, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were retrieved. The esthetic outcome was assessed in accordance with pink esthetic score and white esthetic score (PES/WES). While the number of correct position in each dimension (mesiodistal, labiolingual, apicocoronal) of the implant were evaluated and defined as 'right' or 'wrong' according to ITI consensus conference by one investigator using CBCT data. The different mean score between right and wrong position in all dimensions was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test with 0.05 was the significant level of the study. Results: The average score of PES/WES was 15.88 ± 1.65 which was considered as clinically acceptable. The average PES/WES score in 1, 2 and 3 right dimension of the implant position were 16.71, 15.75 and 15.17 respectively. None of the implants placed wrongly in all three dimensions. Statistically significant difference of the PES/WES score was found between the implants that placed right in 3 dimensions and 1 dimension (p = 0.041). Conclusion: This study supported the principle of 3D position of implant. The more properly implant was placed, the higher esthetic outcome was found.

Keywords: accuracy, dental implant, esthetic, 3D implant position

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236 Suitability Assessment of Water Harvesting and Land Restoration in Catchment Comprising Abandoned Quarry Site in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Rahel Birhanu Kassaye, Ralf Otterpohl, Kumelachew Yeshitila

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Water resource management and land degradation are among the critical issues threatening the suitable livability of many cities in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Rapid expansion of urban areas and fast growing population has increased the pressure on water security. On the other hand, the large transformation of natural green cover and agricultural land loss to settlement and industrial activities such as quarrying is contributing to environmental concerns. Integrated water harvesting is considered to play a crucial role in terms of providing alternative water source to insure water security and helping to improve soil condition, agricultural productivity and regeneration of ecosystem. Moreover, it helps to control stormwater runoff, thus reducing flood risks and pollution, thereby improving the quality of receiving water bodies and the health of inhabitants. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of applying integrated water harvesting approaches as a provision for water source and enabling land restoration in Jemo river catchment consisting of abandoned quarry site adjacent to a settlement area that is facing serious water shortage in western hilly part of Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. The abandoned quarry site, apart from its contribution to the loss of aesthetics, has resulted in poor water infiltration and increase in stormwater runoff leading to land degradation and flooding in the downstream. Application of GIS and multi-criteria based analysis are used for the assessment of potential water harvesting technologies considering the technology features and site characteristics of the case study area. Biophysical parameters including precipitation, surrounding land use, surface gradient, soil characteristics and geological aspects are used as site characteristic indicators and water harvesting technologies including retention pond, check dam, agro-forestation employing contour trench system were considered for evaluation with technical and socio-economic factors used as parameters in the assessment. The assessment results indicate the different suitability potential among the analyzed water harvesting and restoration techniques with respect to the abandoned quarry site characteristics. Application of agro-forestation with contour trench system with the revegetation of indigenous plants is found to be the most suitable option for reclamation and restoration of the quarry site. Successful application of the selected technologies and strategies for water harvesting and restoration is considered to play a significant role to provide additional water source, maintain good water quality, increase agricultural productivity at urban peri-urban interface scale and improve biodiversity in the catchment. The results of the study provide guideline for decision makers and contribute to the integration of decentralized water harvesting and restoration techniques in the water management and planning of the case study area.

Keywords: abandoned quarry site, land reclamation and restoration, multi-criteria assessment, water harvesting

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235 Restoring Trees Damaged by Cyclone Hudhud at Visakhapatnam, India

Authors: Mohan Kotamrazu

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Cyclone Hudhud which battered the city of Visakhapatnam on 12th October, 2014, damaged many buildings, public amenities and infrastructure facilities along the Visakha- Bheemili coastal corridor. More than half the green cover of the city was wiped out. Majority of the trees along the coastal corridor suffered from complete or partial damage. In order to understand the different ways that trees incurred damage during the cyclone, a damage assessment study was carried out by the author. The areas covered by this study included two university campuses, several parks and residential colonies which bore the brunt of the cyclone. Post disaster attempts have been made to restore many of the trees that have suffered from partial or complete damage from the effects of extreme winds. This paper examines the various ways that trees incurred damage from the cyclone Hudhud and presents some examples of the restoration efforts carried out by educational institutions, public parks and religious institutions of the city of Visakhapatnam in the aftermath of the devastating cyclone.

Keywords: defoliaton, salt spray damage, uprooting and wind throw, restoration

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
234 Understanding How to Increase Restorativeness of Interiors: A Qualitative Exploratory Study on Attention Restoration Theory in Relation to Interior Design

Authors: Hande Burcu Deniz

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People in the U.S. spend a considerable portion of their time indoors. This makes it crucial to provide environments that support the well-being of people. Restorative environments aim to help people recover their cognitive resources that were spent due to intensive use of directed attention. Spending time in nature and taking a nap are two of the best ways to restore these resources. However, they are not possible to do most of the time. The problem is that many studies have revealed how nature and spending time in natural contexts can help boost restoration, but there are fewer studies conducted to understand how cognitive resources can be restored in interior settings. This study aims to explore the answer to this question: which qualities of interiors increase the restorativeness of an interior setting and how do they mediate restorativeness of an interior. To do this, a phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. The study was interested in the definition of attention restoration and the experiences of the phenomena. As the themes emerged, they were analyzed to match with Attention Restoration Theory components (being away, extent, fascination, compatibility) to examine how interior design elements mediate the restorativeness of an interior. The data was gathered from semi-structured interviews with international residents of Minnesota. The interviewees represent young professionals who work in Minnesota and often experience mental fatigue. Also, they have less emotional connections with places in Minnesota, which enabled data to be based on the physical qualities of a space rather than emotional connections. In the interviews, participants were asked about where they prefer to be when they experience mental fatigue. Next, they were asked to describe the physical qualities of the places they prefer to be with reasons. Four themes were derived from the analysis of interviews. The themes are in order according to their frequency. The first, and most common, the theme was “connection to outside”. The analysis showed that people need to be either physically or visually connected to recover from mental fatigue. Direct connection to nature was reported as preferable, whereas urban settings were the secondary preference along with interiors. The second theme emerged from the analysis was “the presence of the artwork,” which was experienced differently by the interviewees. The third theme was “amenities”. Interviews pointed out that people prefer to have the amenities that support desired activity during recovery from mental fatigue. The last theme was “aesthetics.” Interviewees stated that they prefer places that are pleasing to their eyes. Additionally, they could not get rid of the feeling of being worn out in places that are not well-designed. When we matched the themes with the four art components (being away, extent, fascination, compatibility), some of the interior qualities showed overlapping since they were experienced differently by the interviewees. In conclusion, this study showed that interior settings have restorative potential, and they are multidimensional in their experience.

Keywords: attention restoration, fatigue, interior design, qualitative study, restorative environments

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233 The Voice Rehabilitation Program Following Ileocolon Flap Transfer for Voice Reconstruction after Laryngectomy

Authors: Chi-Wen Huang, Hung-Chi Chen

Abstract:

Total laryngectomy affects swallowing, speech functions and life quality in the head and neck cancer. Voice restoration plays an important role in social activities and communication. Several techniques have been developed for voice restoration and reported to improve the life quality. However, the rehabilitation program for voice reconstruction by using the ileocolon flap still unclear. A retrospective study was done, and the patients' data were drawn from the medical records between 2010 and 2016 who underwent voice reconstruction by ileocolon flap after laryngectomy. All of them were trained to swallow first; then, the voice rehabilitation was started. The outcome of voice was evaluated after 6 months using the 4-point scoring scale. In our result, 9.8% patients could give very clear voice so everyone could understand their speech, 61% patients could be understood well by families and friends, 20.2% patients could only talk with family, and 9% patients had difficulty to be understood. Moreover, the 57% patients did not need a second surgery, but in 43% patients voice was made clear by a second surgery. In this study, we demonstrated that the rehabilitation program after voice reconstruction with ileocolon flap for post-laryngectomy patients is important because the anatomical structure is different from the normal larynx.

Keywords: post-laryngectomy, ileocolon flap, rehabilitation, voice reconstruction

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232 Detection of Image Blur and Its Restoration for Image Enhancement

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad

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Image restoration in the process of communication is one of the emerging fields in the image processing. The motion analysis processing is the simplest case to detect motion in an image. Applications of motion analysis widely spread in many areas such as surveillance, remote sensing, film industry, navigation of autonomous vehicles, etc. The scene may contain multiple moving objects, by using motion analysis techniques the blur caused by the movement of the objects can be enhanced by filling-in occluded regions and reconstruction of transparent objects, and it also removes the motion blurring. This paper presents the design and comparison of various motion detection and enhancement filters. Median filter, Linear image deconvolution, Inverse filter, Pseudoinverse filter, Wiener filter, Lucy Richardson filter and Blind deconvolution filters are used to remove the blur. In this work, we have considered different types and different amount of blur for the analysis. Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ration (PSNR) are used to evaluate the performance of the filters. The designed system has been implemented in Matlab software and tested for synthetic and real-time images.

Keywords: image enhancement, motion analysis, motion detection, motion estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 177