Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 908

Search results for: forward osmosis

908 Synthesis and Performance of Polyamide Forward Osmosis Membrane for Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Removal

Authors: M. N. Abu Seman, L. M. Kei, M. A. Yusoff

Abstract:

Forward Osmosis (FO) polyamide thin-film composite membranes have been prepared by inter facial polymerization using commercial UF polyethersulfone as membrane support. Different inter facial polymerization times (10s, 30s and 60s) in the organic solution containing trimesoyl chloride (TMC) at constant m-phenylenediamine (MPD) concentration (2% w/v) were studied. The synthesized polyamide membranes then tested for treatment of natural organic matter (NOM) and compared to commercial Cellulose TriAcetate (CTA) membrane. It was found that membrane prepared with higher reaction time (30 s and 60 s) exhibited better membrane performance (flux and humic acid removal) over commercial CTA membrane.

Keywords: cellulose triacetate, forward osmosis, humic acid, polyamide

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907 Water Reclamation from Synthetic Winery Wastewater Using a Fertiliser Drawn Forward Osmosis System Evaluating Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic and Cellulose Triacetate Forward Osmosis Membranes

Authors: Robyn Augustine, Irena Petrinic, Claus Helix-Nielsen, Marshall S. Sheldon

Abstract:

This study examined the performance of two commercial forward osmosis (FO) membranes; an aquaporin (AQP) based biomimetic membrane, and cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane in a fertiliser is drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) system for the reclamation of water from synthetic winery wastewater (SWW) operated over 24 hr. Straight, 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ fertiliser solutions were evaluated as draw solutions in the FDFO system. The performance of the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA FO membranes were evaluated in terms of permeate water flux (Jw), reverse solute flux (Js) and percentage water recovery (Re). The average water flux and reverse solute flux when using 1 M KCl as a draw solution against controlled feed solution, deionised (DI) water, was 11.65 L/m²h and 3.98 g/m²h (AQP) and 6.24 L/m²h and 2.89 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. Using 1 M NH₄NO₃ as a draw solution yielded average water fluxes and reverse solute fluxes of 10.73 L/m²h and 1.31 g/m²h (AQP) and 5.84 L/m²h and 1.39 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. When using SWW as the feed solution and 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ as draw solutions, respectively, the average water fluxes observed were 8.15 and 9.66 L/m²h (AQP) and 5.02 and 5.65 L/m²h (CTA). Membrane water flux decline was the result of a combined decrease in the effective driving force of the FDFO system, reverse solute flux and organic fouling. Permeate water flux recoveries of between 84-98%, and 83-89% were observed for the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA membrane, respectively after physical cleaning by flushing was employed. The highest water recovery rate of 49% was observed for the 1 M KCl fertiliser draw solution with AQP-based biomimetic membrane and proved superior in the reclamation of water from SWW.

Keywords: aquaporin biomimetic membrane, cellulose triacetate membrane, forward osmosis, reverse solute flux, synthetic winery wastewater and water flux

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906 Recovery of Iodide Ion from TFT-LCD Wastewater by Forward Osmosis

Authors: Yu-Ting Chen, Shiao-Shing Chen, Hung-Te Hsu, Saikat Sinha Ray

Abstract:

Forward osmosis (FO) is a crucial technology with low operating pressure and cost for water reuse and reclamation. In Taiwan, with the advance of science and technology, thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD) based industries are growing exponentially. In the optoelectronic industry wastewater, the iodide is one of the valuable element; it is also used in the medical industry. In this study, it was intended to concentrate iodide by utilizing FO system and can be reused for TFT-LCD production. Cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes were used for all these FO experiments, and potassium iodide solution was used as the feed solution. It has been found that EDTA-2Na as draw solution at pH 8 produced high water flux and minimized salt leakage. The result also demonstrated that EDTA-2Na of concentration 0.6M could achieve the highest water flux (6.69L/m2 h). Additionally, from the recovered iodide ion from pH 3-8, the I- species was found to be more than 99%, whereas I2 was measured to be less than 1%. When potassium iodide solution was used from low to high concentration (1000 ppm to 10000 ppm), the iodide rejection was found to be than more 90%. Since, CTA membrane is negatively charged and I- is anionic in nature, so it will from electrostatic repulsion and hence there will be higher rejection. The overall performance demonstrates that recovery of concentrated iodide using FO system is a promising technology.

Keywords: draw solution, EDTA-2Na, forward osmosis, potassium iodide

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905 Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Prototype Designing of Potable Water System on Basis of Forward Osmosis

Authors: Ridhish Kumar, Sudeep Nadukkandy, Anirban Roy

Abstract:

The development of reverse osmosis happened in 1960. Along the years this technique has been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from seawater desalination to municipal water treatment. Forward osmosis (FO) is one of the foremost technologies for low energy consuming solutions for water purification. In this study, we have carried out a detailed analysis on selection, design, and pricing for a prototype of potable water system for purifying water in emergency situations. The portable and light purification system is envisaged to be driven by FO. This pouch will help to serve as an emergency water filtration device. The current effort employs a model to understand the interplay of permeability and area on the rate of purification of water from any impure source/brackish water. The draw solution for the FO pouch is considered to be a combination of salt and sugar such that dilution of the same would result in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) which is a boon for dehydrated patients. However, the effort takes an extra step to actually estimate the cost and pricing of designing such a prototype. While the mathematical model yields the best membrane (compositions are taken from literature) combination in terms of permeability and area, the pricing takes into account the feasibility of such a solution to be made available as a retail item. The product is envisaged to be a market competitor for packaged drinking water and ORS combination (costing around $0.5 combined) and thus, to be feasible has to be priced around the same range with greater margins in order to have a better distribution. Thus a proper business plan and production of the same has been formulated in order to be a feasible solution for unprecedented calamities and emergency situations.

Keywords: forward osmosis, water treatment, oral rehydration solution, prototype

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
904 Development of Ferric Citrate Complex Draw Solute and Its Application for Liquid Product Enrichment through Forward Osmosis

Authors: H. Li, L. Ji, J. Su

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Forward osmosis is an emerging technology for separation and has great potential in the concentration of liquid products such as protein, pharmaceutical, and natural products. In pharmacy industry, one of the very tough talks is to concentrate the product in a gentle way since some of the key components may lose bioactivity when exposed to heating or pressurization. Therefore, forward osmosis (FO), which uses inherently existed osmosis pressure instead of externally applied hydraulic pressure, is attractive for pharmaceutical enrichments in a much efficient and energy-saving way. Recently, coordination complexes have been explored as the new class of draw solutes in FO processes due to their bulky configuration and excellent performance in terms of high water flux and low reverse solute flux. Among these coordination complexes, ferric citrate complex with lots of hydrophilic groups and ionic species which make them good solubility and high osmotic pressure in aqueous solution, as well as its low toxicity, has received much attention. However, the chemistry of ferric complexation by citrate is complicated, and disagreement prevails in the literature, especially for the structure of the ferric citrate. In this study, we investigated the chemical reaction with various molar ratio of iron and citrate. It was observed that the ferric citrate complex (Fe-CA2) with molar ratio of 1:1 for iron and citrate formed at the beginning of the reaction, then Fecit would convert to ferric citrate complex at the molar ratio of 1:2 with the proper excess of citrate in the base solution. The structures of the ferric citrate complexes synthesized were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Fe-CA2 solutions exhibit osmotic pressures more than twice of that for NaCl solutions at the same concentrations. Higher osmotic pressure means higher driving force, and this is preferable for the FO process. Fe-CA2 and NaCl draw solutions were prepared with the same osmotic pressure and used in FO process for BSA protein concentration. Within 180 min, BSA concentration was enriched from 0.2 to 0.27 L using Fe-CA draw solutions. However, it was only increased from 0.20 to 0.22 g/L using NaCl draw solutions. A reverse flux of 11 g/m²h was observed for NaCl draw solutes while it was only 0.1 g/m²h for Fe-CA2 draw solutes. It is safe to conclude that Fe-CA2 is much better than NaCl as draw solute and it is suitable for the enrichment of liquid product.

Keywords: draw solutes, ferric citrate complex, forward osmosis, protein enrichment

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903 Recovery of Draw Solution in Forward Osmosis by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

Authors: Su-Thing Ho, Shiao-Shing Chen, Hung-Te Hsu, Saikat Sinha Ray

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Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology for direct and indirect potable water reuse application. However, successful implementation of FO is still hindered by the lack of draw solution recovery with high efficiency. Membrane distillation (MD) is a thermal separation process by using hydrophobic microporous membrane that is kept in sandwich mode between warm feed stream and cold permeate stream. Typically, temperature difference is the driving force of MD which attributed by the partial vapor pressure difference across the membrane. In this study, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system was used to recover diluted draw solution of FO. Na3PO4 at pH 9 and EDTA-2Na at pH 8 were used as the feed solution for MD since it produces high water flux and minimized salt leakage in FO process. At high pH, trivalent and tetravalent ions are much easier to remain at draw solution side in FO process. The result demonstrated that PTFE with pore size of 1 μm could achieve the highest water flux (12.02 L/m2h), followed by PTFE 0.45 μm (10.05 L/m2h), PTFE 0.1 μm (7.38 L/m2h) and then PP (7.17 L/m2h) while using 0.1 M Na3PO4 draw solute. The concentration of phosphate and conductivity in the PTFE (0.45 μm) permeate were low as 1.05 mg/L and 2.89 μm/cm respectively. Although PTFE with the pore size of 1 μm could obtain the highest water flux, but the concentration of phosphate in permeate was higher than other kinds of MD membranes. This study indicated that four kinds of MD membranes performed well and PTFE with the pore size of 0.45 μm was the best among tested membranes to achieve high water flux and high rejection of phosphate (99.99%) in recovery of diluted draw solution. Besides that, the results demonstrate that it can obtain high water flux and high rejection of phosphate when operated with cross flow velocity of 0.103 m/s with Tfeed of 60 ℃ and Tdistillate of 20 ℃. In addition to that, the result shows that Na3PO4 is more suitable for recovery than EDTA-2Na. Besides that, while recovering the diluted Na3PO4, it can obtain the high purity of permeate water. The overall performance indicates that, the utilization of DCMD is a promising technology to recover the diluted draw solution for FO process.

Keywords: membrane distillation, forward osmosis, draw solution, recovery

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902 Performance of Osmotic Microbial Fuel Cell in Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation: A Critical Review

Authors: Shubhangi R. Deshmukh, Anupam B. Soni

Abstract:

Clean water and electricity are vital services needed in all communities. Bio-degradation of wastewater contaminants and desalination technologies are the best possible alternatives for the global shortage of fresh water supply. Osmotic microbial fuel cell (OMFC) is a versatile technology that uses microorganism (used for biodegradation of organic waste) and membrane technology (used for water purification) for wastewater treatment and energy generation simultaneously. This technology is the combination of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and forward osmosis (FO) processes. OMFC can give more electricity and clean water than the MFC which has a regular proton exchange membrane. FO gives many improvements such as high contamination removal, lower operating energy, raising high proton flux than other pressure-driven membrane technology. Lower concentration polarization lowers the membrane fouling by giving osmotic water recovery without extra cost. In this review paper, we have discussed the principle, mechanism, limitation, and application of OMFC technology reported to date. Also, we have interpreted the experimental data from various literature on the water recovery and electricity generation assessed by a different component of OMFC. The area of producing electricity using OMFC has further scope for research and seems like a promising route to wastewater treatment.

Keywords: forward osmosis, microbial fuel cell, osmotic microbial fuel cell, wastewater treatment

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901 Exergy Analysis of Reverse Osmosis for Potable Water and Land Irrigation

Authors: M. Sarai Atab, A. Smallbone, A. P. Roskilly

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A thermodynamic study is performed on the Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination process for brackish water. The detailed RO model of thermodynamics properties with and without an energy recovery device was built in Simulink/MATLAB and validated against reported measurement data. The efficiency of desalination plants can be estimated by both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. While the first law focuses on the quantity of energy, the second law analysis (i.e. exergy analysis) introduces quality. This paper used the Main Outfall Drain in Iraq as a case study to conduct energy and exergy analysis of RO process. The result shows that it is feasible to use energy recovery method for reverse osmosis with salinity less than 15000 ppm as the exergy efficiency increases twice. Moreover, this analysis shows that the highest exergy destruction occurs in the rejected water and lowest occurs in the permeate flow rate accounting 37% for 4.3% respectively.

Keywords: brackish water, exergy, irrigation, reverse osmosis (RO)

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900 Buoyancy Effects in Pressure Retarded Osmosis with Extremely High Draw Solution Concentration

Authors: Ivonne Tshuma, Ralf Cord-Ruwisch, Wendell Ela

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Water crisis is a world-wide problem because of population growth and climate change. Hence, desalination is a solution to water scarcity, which threatens the world. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most used technique for desalination; unfortunately, this process, usually requires high-pressure requirement hence requires a lot of energy about 3 – 5.5 KWhr/m³ of electrical energy. The pressure requirements of RO can be alleviated by the use of PRO (pressure retarded osmosis) to drive the RO process. This paper proposes a process of utilizing the energy directly from PRO to drive an RO process. The paper mostly analyses the PRO process parameters such as cross-flow velocity, density, and buoyancy and how these have an effect on PRO hence ultimately the RO process. The experimental study of the PRO with various feed solution concentrations and cross-flow velocities at fixed applied pressure with different orientations of the PRO cell was performed. The study revealed that without cross-flow velocity, buoyancy effects were observed but not with cross-flow velocity.

Keywords: cross-flow velocity, pressure retarded osmosis, density, buoyancy

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899 An Approaching Index to Evaluate a forward Collision Probability

Authors: Yuan-Lin Chen

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This paper presents an approaching forward collision probability index (AFCPI) for alerting and assisting driver in keeping safety distance to avoid the forward collision accident in highway driving. The time to collision (TTC) and time headway (TH) are used to evaluate the TTC forward collision probability index (TFCPI) and the TH forward collision probability index (HFCPI), respectively. The Mamdani fuzzy inference algorithm is presented combining TFCPI and HFCPI to calculate the approaching collision probability index of the vehicle. The AFCPI is easier to understand for the driver who did not even have any professional knowledge in vehicle professional field. At the same time, the driver’s behavior is taken into account for suiting each driver. For the approaching index, the value 0 is indicating the 0% probability of forward collision, and the values 0.5 and 1 are indicating the 50% and 100% probabilities of forward collision, respectively. The AFCPI is useful and easy-to-understand for alerting driver to avoid the forward collision accidents when driving in highway.

Keywords: approaching index, forward collision probability, time to collision, time headway

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898 Osmotic Dehydration of Fruit Slices in Concentrated Sugar Solution

Authors: Neda Amidi Fazli, Farid Amidi Fazli

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Enriched fruits by minerals provide minerals which are needed to human body the minerals are used by body cells for daily activities. This paper indicates the result of mass transfer in fruit slices in 55% sucrose syrup in presence of calcium and phosphorus ions. Osmosis agent 55% (w/w) was prepared by solving sucrose in deionized water and adding calcium or phosphorus in 1 and 2% concentration. Dry matter, solid gain, water loss as well as weight reduction were calculated. Results showed that by increasing of calcium concentration in osmosis solution solid gain, water loss and weight reduction were increased in short experiment time in kiwi fruit but the parameters decreased in long experiment time by concentration increasing and rise of calcium concentration caused decrease of osmosis parameters in banana. In the case of phosphorus, increasing of ion concentration had adverse effect on all treatments, this may be due to different osmosis force that is created by two types of ions. The mentioned parameters decreased in all treatments by increasing of ion concentration. Highest mass transfer in kiwi fruit occurs when 1% calcium solution applied for 60 minutes, values obtained for solid gain, water loss and weight reduction were 42.60, 51.97, and 9.37 respectively. In the case of banana, when 2% phosphorus concentration was applied as osmosis agent for 60 minutes highest values for solid gain, water loss and weight reduction obtained as 21, 25.84, and 4.84 respectively.

Keywords: calcium, concentration, osmotic dehydration, phosphorus

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897 Low Energy Technology for Leachate Valorisation

Authors: Jesús M. Martín, Francisco Corona, Dolores Hidalgo

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Landfills present long-term threats to soil, air, groundwater and surface water due to the formation of greenhouse gases (methane gas and carbon dioxide) and leachate from decomposing garbage. The composition of leachate differs from site to site and also within the landfill. The leachates alter with time (from weeks to years) since the landfilled waste is biologically highly active and their composition varies. Mainly, the composition of the leachate depends on factors such as characteristics of the waste, the moisture content, climatic conditions, degree of compaction and the age of the landfill. Therefore, the leachate composition cannot be generalized and the traditional treatment models should be adapted in each case. Although leachate composition is highly variable, what different leachates have in common is hazardous constituents and their potential eco-toxicological effects on human health and on terrestrial ecosystems. Since leachate has distinct compositions, each landfill or dumping site would represent a different type of risk on its environment. Nevertheless, leachates consist always of high organic concentration, conductivity, heavy metals and ammonia nitrogen. Leachate could affect the current and future quality of water bodies due to uncontrolled infiltrations. Therefore, control and treatment of leachate is one of the biggest issues in urban solid waste treatment plants and landfills design and management. This work presents a treatment model that will be carried out "in-situ" using a cost-effective novel technology that combines solar evaporation/condensation plus forward osmosis. The plant is powered by renewable energies (solar energy, biomass and residual heat), which will minimize the carbon footprint of the process. The final effluent quality is very high, allowing reuse (preferred) or discharge into watercourses. In the particular case of this work, the final effluents will be reused for cleaning and gardening purposes. A minority semi-solid residual stream is also generated in the process. Due to its special composition (rich in metals and inorganic elements), this stream will be valorized in ceramic industries to improve the final products characteristics.

Keywords: forward osmosis, landfills, leachate valorization, solar evaporation

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896 Portable Water Treatment for Flood Resilience

Authors: Alireza Abbassi Monjezi, Mohammad Hasan Shaheed

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Flood, caused by excessive rainfall, monsoon, cyclone and tsunami is a common disaster in many countries of the world especially sea connected low-lying countries. A stand-alone self-powered water filtration module for decontamination of floodwater has been designed and modeled. A combination forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system powered by solar photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) energy is investigated which could overcome the main barriers to water supply for remote areas and ensure off-grid filtration. The proposed system is designed to be small scale and portable to provide on-site potable water to communities that are no longer themselves mobile nor can be reached quickly by the aid agencies. FO is an osmotically driven process that uses osmotic pressure gradients to drive water across a controlled pore membrane from a feed solution (low osmotic pressure) to a draw solution (high osmotic pressure). This drops the demand for high hydraulic pressures and therefore the energy demand. There is also a tendency for lower fouling, easier fouling layer removal and higher water recovery. In addition, the efficiency of the PVT unit will be maximized through freshwater cooling which is integrated into the system. A filtration module with the capacity of 5 m3/day is modeled to treat floodwater and provide drinking water. The module can be used as a tool for disaster relief, particularly in the aftermath of flood and tsunami events.

Keywords: flood resilience, membrane desalination, portable water treatment, solar energy

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895 Design of a Small Mobile PV Driven RO Water Desalination Plant to be Deployed at the North West Coast of Egypt

Authors: Hosam A. Shawky, Amr A. Abdel Fatah, Moustafa M. S. Abo ElFad, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar

Abstract:

Water desalination projects based on reverse osmosis technology are being introduced in Egypt to combat drinking water shortage in remote areas. Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination is a pressure driven process. This paper focuses on the design of an integrated brackish water and seawater RO desalination and solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology. A small Mobile PV driven RO desalination plant prototype without batteries is designed and tested. Solar-driven reverse osmosis desalination can potentially break the dependence of conventional desalination on fossil fuels, reduce operational costs, and improve environmental sustainability. Moreover, the innovative features incorporated in the newly designed PV-RO plant prototype are focusing on improving the cost effectiveness of producing drinkable water in remote areas. This is achieved by maximizing energy yield through an integrated automatic single axis PV tracking system with programmed tilting angle adjustment. An autonomous cleaning system for PV modules is adopted for maximizing energy generation efficiency. RO plant components are selected so as to produce 4-5 m3/day of potable water. A basic criterion in the design of this PV-RO prototype is to produce a minimum amount of fresh water by running the plant during peak sun hours. Mobility of the system will provide potable water to isolated villages and population as well as ability to provide good drinking water to different number of people from any source that is not drinkable.

Keywords: design, reverse osmosis, photovoltaic, energy, desalination, Egypt

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894 Max-Entropy Feed-Forward Clustering Neural Network

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu

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The outputs of non-linear feed-forward neural network are positive, which could be treated as probability when they are normalized to one. If we take Entropy-Based Principle into consideration, the outputs for each sample could be represented as the distribution of this sample for different clusters. Entropy-Based Principle is the principle with which we could estimate the unknown distribution under some limited conditions. As this paper defines two processes in Feed-Forward Neural Network, our limited condition is the abstracted features of samples which are worked out in the abstraction process. And the final outputs are the probability distribution for different clusters in the clustering process. As Entropy-Based Principle is considered into the feed-forward neural network, a clustering method is born. We have conducted some experiments on six open UCI data sets, comparing with a few baselines and applied purity as the measurement. The results illustrate that our method outperforms all the other baselines that are most popular clustering methods.

Keywords: feed-forward neural network, clustering, max-entropy principle, probabilistic models

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893 Application of a Submerged Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor Hybrid System for High-Strength Wastewater Treatment and Phosphorus Recovery

Authors: Ming-Yeh Lu, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu

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Recently, anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) has been widely utilized, which combines anaerobic biological treatment process and membrane filtration, that can be present an attractive option for wastewater treatment and water reuse. Conventional AnMBR is having several advantages, such as improving effluent quality, compact space usage, lower sludge yield, without aeration and production of energy. However, the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the AnMBR permeate was negligible which become the biggest disadvantage. In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology that utilizes osmotic pressure as driving force to extract clean water without additional external pressure. The pore size of FO membrane is kindly mentioned the pore size, so nitrogen or phosphorus could effectively improve removal of nitrogen or phosphorus. Anaerobic bioreactor with FO membrane (AnOMBR) can retain the concentrate organic matters and nutrients. However, phosphorus is a non-renewable resource. Due to the high rejection property of FO membrane, the high amount of phosphorus could be recovered from the combination of AnMBR and FO. In this study, development of novel submerged anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from wastewater was evaluated. A laboratory-scale AnOMBR utilizes cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with effective membrane area of 130 cm² was fully submerged into a 5.5 L bioreactor at 30-35℃. Active layer-facing feed stream orientation was utilized, for minimizing fouling and scaling. Additionally, a peristaltic pump was used to circulate draw solution (DS) at a cross flow velocity of 0.7 cm/s. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄) solution was used as DS. Microfiltration membrane periodically extracted about 1 L solution when the TDS reaches to 5 g/L to recover phosphorus and simultaneous control the salt accumulation in the bioreactor. During experiment progressed, the average water flux was achieved around 1.6 LMH. The AnOMBR process show greater than 95% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nearly 100% of total phosphorous whereas only partial removal of ammonia, and finally average methane production of 0.22 L/g sCOD was obtained. Therefore, AnOMBR system periodically utilizes MF membrane extracted for phosphorus recovery with simultaneous pH adjustment. The overall performance demonstrates that a novel submerged AnOMBR system is having potential for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastewater, and hence, the new concept of this system can be used to replace for conventional AnMBR in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic treatment, forward osmosis, phosphorus recovery, membrane bioreactor

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892 Margin-Based Feed-Forward Neural Network Classifiers

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu

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Margin-Based Principle has been proposed for a long time, it has been proved that this principle could reduce the structural risk and improve the performance in both theoretical and practical aspects. Meanwhile, feed-forward neural network is a traditional classifier, which is very hot at present with a deeper architecture. However, the training algorithm of feed-forward neural network is developed and generated from Widrow-Hoff Principle that means to minimize the squared error. In this paper, we propose a new training algorithm for feed-forward neural networks based on Margin-Based Principle, which could effectively promote the accuracy and generalization ability of neural network classifiers with less labeled samples and flexible network. We have conducted experiments on four UCI open data sets and achieved good results as expected. In conclusion, our model could handle more sparse labeled and more high-dimension data set in a high accuracy while modification from old ANN method to our method is easy and almost free of work.

Keywords: Max-Margin Principle, Feed-Forward Neural Network, classifier, structural risk

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891 Decode and Forward Cooperative Protocol Enhancement Using Interference Cancellation

Authors: Siddeeq Y. Ameen, Mohammed K. Yousif

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Cooperative communication systems are considered to be a promising technology to improve the system capacity, reliability and performances over fading wireless channels. Cooperative relaying system with a single antenna will be able to reach the advantages of multiple antenna communication systems. It is ideally suitable for the distributed communication systems; the relays can cooperate and form virtual MIMO systems. Thus the paper will aim to investigate the possible enhancement of cooperated system using decode and forward protocol. On decode and forward an attempt to cancel or at least reduce the interference instead of increasing the SNR values is achieved. The latter can be achieved via the use group of relays depending on the channel status from source to relay and relay to destination respectively. In the proposed system, the transmission time has been divided into two phases to be used by decode and forward protocol. The first phase has been allocated for the source to transmit its data whereas the relays and destination nodes are in receiving mode. On the other hand, the second phase is allocated for the first and second groups of relay nodes to relay the data to the destination node. Simulations results have shown an improvement in performance is achieved compared to the conventional decode and forward in terms of BER and transmission rate.

Keywords: cooperative systems, decode and forward, interference cancellation, virtual MIMO

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890 Systematic and Simple Guidance for Feed Forward Design in Model Predictive Control

Authors: Shukri Dughman, Anthony Rossiter

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This paper builds on earlier work which demonstrated that Model Predictive Control (MPC) may give a poor choice of default feed forward compensator. By first demonstrating the impact of future information of target changes on the performance, this paper proposes a pragmatic method for identifying the amount of future information on the target that can be utilised effectively in both finite and infinite horizon algorithms. Numerical illustrations in MATLAB give evidence of the efficacy of the proposal.

Keywords: model predictive control, tracking control, advance knowledge, feed forward

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889 Energy Balance Routing to Enhance Network Performance in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Baraneedaran, Deepak Singh, Kollipara Tejesh

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The wireless sensors network has been an active research area over the y-ear passed. Due to the limited energy and communication ability of sensor nodes, it seems especially important to design a routing protocol for WSNs so that sensing data can be transmitted to the receiver effectively, an energy-balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor (FAF-EBRM) is proposed in this paper. In FAF-EBRM, the next-hop node is selected according to the awareness of link weight and forward energy density. A spontaneous reconstruction mechanism for Local topology is designed additionally. In this experiment, FAF-EBRM is compared with LEACH and EECU, experimental results show that FAF-EBRM outperforms LEACH and EECU, which balances the energy consumption, prolongs the function lifetime and guarantees high Qos of WSN.

Keywords: energy balance, forward-aware factor (FAF), forward energy density, link weight, network performance

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888 Mitigating Biofouling on Reverse Osmosis Membranes: Applying Greener Preservatives to Biofilm Treatment

Authors: Anna Curtin, Matthew Thibodeau, Heather Buckley

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Water scarcity is characterized by a lack of access to clean and affordable drinking water, as well as water for hygienic and economic needs. The amount of people effected by water scarcity is expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change, population growth, and pollution, amongst other things. In response, scientists are pursuing cost effective drinking water treatment methods, often with a focus on alternative water sources. Desalination of seawater via reverse osmosis is one promising alternative method. Desalination of seawater via reverse osmosis, however, is limited significantly by biofouling of the filtration membrane. Biofouling is the buildup of microorganisms in a biofilm at the water-membrane interface. It clogs the membrane, decreasing the efficiency of filtration, consequently increasing operational and maintenance costs. Although effective, existing chemical treatment methods can damage the membrane, decreasing the lifespan of the membrane; create antibiotic resistance; and cause harm to humans and the environment if they pass through the membrane into the permeate. The current project focuses on applying safer preservatives used in home and personal care products to RO membranes to investigate the biofouling treatment efficacy. Currently, many of these safer preservatives have only been tested on cells in planktonic phase in suspension cultures, not on cells in biofilms. The results of suspension culture tests are not applicable to biofouling scenarios because organisms in planktonic phase in suspension cultures exhibit different morphological, chemical, and metabolic characteristics than those in a biofilm. Testing antifoulant efficacy of safer preservatives on biofilms will provide more applicable results to biofouling on RO membranes. To do this, biofilms will be grown on 96-well-plates and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) and log-reductions will be calculated for various safer preservatives. Results from these tests will be used to guide doses for tests of safer preservatives in a bench-scale RO system.

Keywords: reverse osmosis, biofouling, preservatives, antimicrobial, safer alternative, green chemistry

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887 The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach

Authors: Neda Dekamei, Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Masoumeh Bigdeli

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Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.

Keywords: backward running, balance, plantar flexion, pre seniors

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
886 Co-Integrated Commodity Forward Pricing Model

Authors: F. Boudet, V. Galano, D. Gmira, L. Munoz, A. Reina

Abstract:

Commodities pricing needs a specific approach as they are often linked to each other and so are expectedly doing their prices. They are called co-integrated when at least one stationary linear combination exists between them. Though widespread in economic literature, and even if many equilibrium relations and co-movements exist in the economy, this principle of co-movement is not developed in derivatives field. The present study focuses on the following problem: How can the price of a forward agreement on a commodity be simulated, when it is co-integrated with other ones? Theoretical analysis is developed from Gibson-Schwartz model and an analytical solution is given for short maturities contracts and under risk-neutral conditions. The application has been made to crude oil and heating oil energy commodities and result confirms the applicability of proposed method.

Keywords: co-integration, commodities, forward pricing, Gibson-Schwartz

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885 The Energy Efficient Water Reuse by Combination of Nano-Filtration and Capacitive Deionization Processes

Authors: Youngmin Kim, Jae-Hwan Ahn, Seog-Ku Kim, Hye-Cheol Oh, Bokjin Lee, Hee-Jun Kang

Abstract:

The high energy consuming processes such as advanced oxidation and reverse osmosis are used as a reuse process. This study aims at developing an energy efficient reuse process by combination of nanofiltration (NF) and capacitive deionization processes (CDI) processes. Lab scale experiments were conducted by using effluents from a wastewater treatment plant located at Koyang city in Korea. Commercial NF membrane (NE4040-70, Toray Ltd.) and CDI module (E40, Siontech INC.) were tested in series. The pollutant removal efficiencies were evaluated on the basis of Korean water quality criteria for water reuse. In addition, the energy consumptions were also calculated. As a result, the hybrid process showed lower energy consumption than conventional reverse osmosis process even though its effluent did meet the Korean standard. Consequently, this study suggests that the hybrid process is feasible for the energy efficient water reuse.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, energy efficient process, nanofiltration, water reuse

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884 Valuation of Caps and Floors in a LIBOR Market Model with Markov Jump Risks

Authors: Shih-Kuei Lin

Abstract:

The characterization of the arbitrage-free dynamics of interest rates is developed in this study under the presence of Markov jump risks, when the term structure of the interest rates is modeled through simple forward rates. We consider Markov jump risks by allowing randomness in jump sizes, independence between jump sizes and jump times. The Markov jump diffusion model is used to capture empirical phenomena and to accurately describe interest jump risks in a financial market. We derive the arbitrage-free model of simple forward rates under the spot measure. Moreover, the analytical pricing formulas for a cap and a floor are derived under the forward measure when the jump size follows a lognormal distribution. In our empirical analysis, we find that the LIBOR market model with Markov jump risk better accounts for changes from/to different states and different rates.

Keywords: arbitrage-free, cap and floor, Markov jump diffusion model, simple forward rate model, volatility smile, EM algorithm

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883 Implemented Cascade with Feed Forward by Enthalpy Balance Superheated Steam Temperature Control for a Boiler with Distributed Control System

Authors: Kanpop Saion, Sakreya Chitwong

Abstract:

Control of superheated steam temperature in the steam generation is essential for the efficiency safety and increment age of the boiler. Conventional cascade PID temperature control in the super heater is known to be efficient to compensate disturbance. However, the complex of thermal power plant due to nonlinearity, load disturbance and time delay of steam of superheater system is bigger than other control systems. The cascade loop with feed forward steam temperature control with energy balance compensator using thermodynamic model has been used for the compensation the complex structure of superheater. In order to improve the performance of steam temperature control. The experiment is implemented for 100% load steady and load changing state. The cascade with feed forward with energy balance steam temperature control has stabilized the system as well.

Keywords: cascade with feed forward, boiler, superheated steam temperature control, enthalpy balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
882 Heat Transfer and Turbulent Fluid Flow over Vertical Double Forward-Facing Step

Authors: Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, Hussein Togun, M. K. A. Ariffin, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, N. M. Adam, S. Masuri

Abstract:

Numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow over vertical double forward facing step were presented. The k-w model with finite volume method was employed to solve continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Different step heights were adopted for range of Reynolds number varied from 10000 to 40000, and range of temperature varied from 310K to 340 K. The straight side of duct is insulated while the side of double forward facing step is heated. The result shows augmentation of heat transfer due to the recirculation region created after and before steps. Effect of step length and Reynolds number observed on increase of local Nusselt number particularly at recirculation regions. Contour of streamline velocity is plotted to show recirculation regions after and before steps. Numerical simulation in this paper done by used ANSYS Fluent 14.

Keywords: turbulent flow, double forward, heat transfer, separation flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
881 Scorbot-ER 4U Using Forward Kinematics Modelling and Analysis

Authors: D. Maneetham, L. Sivhour

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Robotic arm manipulators are widely used to accomplish many kinds of tasks. SCORBOT-ER 4u is a 5-degree of freedom (DOF) vertical articulated educational robotic arm, and all joints are revolute. It is specifically designed to perform pick and place task with its gripper. The pick and place task consists of consideration of the end effector coordinate of the robotic arm and the desired position coordinate in its workspace. This paper describes about forward kinematics modeling and analysis of the robotic end effector motion through joint space. The kinematics problems are defined by the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space. Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) model is used in order to model the robotic links and joints with 4x4 homogeneous matrix. The forward kinematics model is also developed and simulated in MATLAB. The mathematical model is validated by using robotic toolbox in MATLAB. By using this method, it may be applicable to get the end effector coordinate of this robotic arm and other similar types to this arm. The software development of SCORBOT-ER 4u is also described here. PC-and EtherCAT based control technology from BECKHOFF is used to control the arm to express the pick and place task.

Keywords: forward kinematics, D-H model, robotic toolbox, PC- and EtherCAT-based control

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
880 Application of Forward Contract and Crop Insurance as Risk Management Tools of Agriculture: A Case Study in Bangladesh

Authors: M. Bokhtiar Hasan, M. Delowar Hossain, Abu N. M. Wahid

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The principal aim of the study is to find out a way to effectively manage the agricultural risks like price volatility, weather risks, and fund shortage. To hedge price volatility, farmers sometimes make contracts with agro-traders but fail to protect themselves effectively due to not having legal framework for such contracts. The study extensively reviews existing literature and find evidence that the majority studies either deal with price volatility or weather risks. If we could address these risks through a single model, it would be more useful to both the farmers and traders. Intrinsically, the authors endeavor in this regard, and the key contribution of this study basically lies in it. Initially, we conduct a small survey aspiring to identify the shortcomings of existing contracts. Later, we propose a model encompassing forward and insurance contracts together where forward contract will be used to hedge price volatility and insurance contract will be used to protect weather risks. Contribution/Originality: The study adds to the existing literature through proposing an integrated model comprising of forward contract and crop insurance which will support both farmers and traders to cope with the agricultural risks like price volatility, weather hazards, and fund shortage. JEL Classifications: O13, Q13

Keywords: agriculture, forward contract, insurance contract, risk management, model

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879 Study on the Efficient Routing Algorithms in Delay-Tolerant Networks

Authors: Si-Gwan Kim

Abstract:

In Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN), there may not exist an end-to-end path between source and destination at the time of message transmission. Employing ‘Store Carry and Forward’ delivery mechanism for message transmission in such networks usually incurs long message delays. In this paper, we present the modified Binary Spray and Wait (BSW) routing protocol that enhances the performance of the original one. Our proposed algorithm adjusts the number of forward messages depending on the number of neighbor nodes. By using beacon messages periodically, the number of neighbor nodes can be managed. The simulation using ONE simulator results shows that our modified version gives higher delivery ratio and less latency as compared to BSW.

Keywords: delay tolerant networks, store carry and forward, one simulator, binary spray and wait

Procedia PDF Downloads 52