Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: prostaglandin E2

28 The Effect of Endurance Training and Taxol Consumption on Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E2 Levels in the Liver Tissue of Mice with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firozi-Niyaki, Maryam Kamarlouei


Background: Herbs have a strong anti-cancer effect. Also, exercise is one of several lifestyle factors known to lower the risk of developing cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of endurance training and taxol on cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissue of mice with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 35 female C57 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=7 in each group): control (healthy), control (cancer), complement (cancer), training-supplementary (cancer) and training (cancer). The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin of the upper pelvis. The training group completed the endurance training protocol, which included 3 sessions per week, 50 minutes per session, at a speed of 14-18 m/s for six weeks. A dose of 60 mg/kg/day of pure taxol was injected intra peritoneally. The dependent variables of this study were measured 24 hours after the last training session by ELISA. Results: The results showed that the use of taxol and endurance training reduced the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the liver tissues of C57 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Induction of the cancerous tissue in mice with cervical cancer increases the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 and endurance training along with taxol may reduce these levels.

Keywords: cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2

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27 Punica granatum (Pomegranate) of a Libyan Variety Exhibits in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Potential

Authors: Lamees A. Ben Saad, Kah Hwi Kim, Chin Chew Quah, Mustafa Shahimi


Background: Punica granatum (pomegranate) was used as a traditional medicine in different parts of the world. It has been used in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions such as peptic ulcer. The numerous risks associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the treatment of pain and inflammation give rise to using medicinal herbs as alternative therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate pomegranate fraction (EtOAc) by determination of its inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxxgenase-2 (COX2) release from RAW264.7cells. Methods: The inhibitory effect of EtOAc was evaluated on (LPS) induced NO production, PGE2, and IL-6 quantified by immunoassay kit and prostaglandin E2 competitive ELISA kit. COX2 production is an in vitro indication of possible anti-inflammatory activity and was estimated by Western blotting. Results: EtOAc potentially inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin, and IL-6 production. With these findings, it was evident that the EtOAc could reduce the LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Western blotting. Conclusion: The results emphasize potential therapeutic applications of Punica granatum in the treatment of inflammation.

Keywords: inflammation, Punica granatum, cytotoxicity, cytokines

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26 Investigating Prostaglandin E2 and Intracellular Oxidative Stress Levels in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages upon Treatment with Strobilanthes crispus

Authors: Anna Pick Kiong Ling, Jia May Chin, Rhun Yian Koh, Ying Pei Wong


Background: Uncontrolled inflammation may cause serious inflammatory diseases if left untreated. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) is commonly used to inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes, thus, reduce inflammation. However, long term administration of NSAIDs leads to various complications. Medicinal plants are getting more attention as it is believed to be more compatible with human body. One of them is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus which has been traditionally claimed to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Nevertheless, its anti-inflammatory activities are yet to be scientifically documented. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of S. crispus by investigating its effects on intracellular oxidative stress and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Maximum Non-toxic Dose (MNTD) of methanol extract of both leaves and stems of S. crispus was first determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of S. crispus extracts at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD) on intracellular ROS as well as PGE2 levels in 1.0 µg/mL LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were then be measured using DCFH-DA and a competitive enzyme immunoassay kit, respectively. Results: The MNTD of leaf extract was determined as 700µg/mL while for stem was as low as 1.4µg/mL. When LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were subjected to the MNTD of S. crispus leaf extract, both intracellular ROS and PGE2 levels were significantly reduced. In contrast, stem extract at both MNTD and ½MNTD did not significantly reduce the PGE2 level, but significantly increased the intracellular ROS level. Conclusion: The methanol leaf extract of S. crispus may possess anti-inflammatory properties as it is able to significantly reduce the intracellular ROS and PGE2 levels of LPS-stimulated cells. Nevertheless, further studies such as investigating the interleukin, nitric oxide and cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels has to be conducted to further confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of S. crispus.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, natural products, prostaglandin E2, reactive oxygen species

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25 Effect of Synchronization Protocols on Serum Concentrations of Estrogen and Progesterone in Holstein Dairy Heifers

Authors: K. Shafiei, A. Pirestani, G. Ghalamkari, S. Safavipour


Use of GnRH or its agonists to increase conception rates should be based on an understanding of GnRH-induced biological effects on the reproductive-endocrine system. This effect may occur through GnRH-stimulated LH surge stimulating production of progesterone by corpus luteum.the aim of this study was to compare the effects on reproductive efficiency of a luteolytic dose of a synthetic prostaglandin Cloprostenol Sodium versus ainjectable progesterone and Luliberin- A on Follicle estrogen and progesterone levels.In this study, we used45 head of holstein dairy heifersin the three treatments, with 15 replicates per treatment were performed in random groups. all the heifers before the projects is began in two steps injection 3 mL CloprostenolSodium with an interval of 11 days been synchronized and 10 days later, second injection of prostaglandin was conducted after that we started below protocol:Control group (daily sodium chloride serum injection 1 cc), Group B: Day Zero, intramuscular injection of 15 mg Luliberin- A + every other day injection of 3 cc progesterone + day 7, injection of Cloprostenol Sodium+ day 9, injection of 15 mg Luliberin- A.Group C: similar to Grop B + daily injection of progesterone after that blood samples was collected and centrifuged.plasma were analysed by ELISA.the analysis of this study uses SPSS data software package and compared between the mean and LS Means LSD test at 5% significance level was used.The results of this study shows that maximum of progesterone plasma levels were in the control gruop (P ≥ 0.05).Therefore, daily injection of progesterone inhibit the growth CL. the most estrogen levels in plasma were in Group C (P ≥ 0.05) thus it can be concluded, rise in endogenous estrogen concentrations normally stimulates the preovulatory LH release in heifers.

Keywords: Luliberin- A, Cloprostenol Sodium, estrogen, progesterone, dairy heifers

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24 Effects of Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Activities of Cyclooxygenases and Levels of Prostaglandins E2 and F2 Alpha Metabolites in the Offspring of Rats with Streptozocin-Induced Diabetes

Authors: H. Y. Al-Matubsi, G. A. Oriquat, M. Abu-Samak, O. A. Al Hanbali, M. Salim


Background: Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) is an etiological factor for recurrent pregnancy loss and major congenital malformations in the offspring. Antioxidant therapy has been advocated to overcome the oxidant-antioxidant disequilibrium inherent in diabetes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the protective effect of lipoic acid (LA) on fetal outcome and to elucidate changes that may be involved in the mechanism(s) implicit diabetic fetopathy. Methods: Female rats were rendered hyperglycemic using streptozocin and then mated with normal male rat. Pregnant non-diabetic (group1; n=9; and group2; n=7) or pregnant diabetic (group 3; n=10; and group 4; n=8) rats were treated daily with either lipoic acid (LA) (30 mg/kg body weight; groups 2 and 4) or vehicle (groups 1 and 3) between gestational days 0 and 15. On day 15 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, and the fetuses, placentas and membranes dissected out of the uterine horns. Following morphological examination, the fetuses, placentas and membranes were homogenized, and used to measure cyclooxygenases (COX) activities and metabolisms of prostaglandin (PG) E2 (PGEM) and PGF2 (PGFM) levels. Maternal liver and plasma total glutathione levels were also determined. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with LA was found to significantly (P<0.05) reduce resorption rates in diabetic rats and increased mean fetal weight compared to diabetic group. Treatment of diabetic rats with LA leads to a significant (P<0.05) increase in liver and plasma total glutathione, in comparison with diabetic rats. Decreased levels of PGEM and elevated levels of PGFM in the fetuses, placentas and membranes were characteristic of experimental diabetic gestation associated with malformation. LA treatment to diabetic mothers failed to normalize levels of PGEM to the non-diabetic control rats. However, the levels of PGEM in malformed fetuses from LA-treated diabetic mothers was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in malformed fetuses from diabetic rats. Conclusions: We conclude that LA can reduce congenital malformations in the offspring of diabetic rats at day 15 of gestation. However, LA treatment did not completely prevent the occurrence of malformations, other factors, such as arachidonic acid deficiency and altered prostaglandin metabolismmay be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced congenital malformations.

Keywords: diabetes, lipoic acid, pregnancy, prostaglandins

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23 Effect of Sodium Arsenite Exposure on Pharmacodynamic of Meloxicam in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Prashantkumar Waghe, N. Prakash, N. D. Prasada, L. V. Lokesh, M. Vijay Kumar, Vinay Tikare


Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid with potent toxic effects. It is ubiquitous in the environment and released from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It has the potential to cause various health hazards in exposed populations. Arsenic exposure through drinking water is considered as one of the most serious global environmental threats including Southeast Asia. The aim of present study was to evaluate the modulatory role of subacute exposure to sodium (meta) arsenite on the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic responses mediated by meloxicam in rats. Rats were exposed to arsenic as sodium arsenite through drinking water for 28 days. A single dose of meloxicam (2 mg/kg b. wt.) was administered by oral gavage on the 29th day. The exact time of meloxicam administration depended on the type of test. Rats were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=6). Group I served as normal control and received arsenic free drinking water, while rats in group II were maintained similar to Group I but received meloxicam on 29th day. Groups III, IV and V were pre-exposed to arsenic through drinking water at 0.5, 5.0 and 50 ppm, respectively, for 28 days and was administered meloxicam next day and; pain and inflammation carried out by using formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced inflammatory model(s), respectively by using standard protocol. For assessment of antipyretic effects, one more additional group (Group VI) was taken and given LPS @ 1.8 mg/kg b. wt. for induction of pyrexia (LPS control). Higher dose of arsenic inhibited the meloxicam mediated antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic responses. Further, meloxicam inhibited the arsenic induced level of tumor necrosis factor-α, inetrleukin-1β, interleukin -6 and COX2 mediated prostaglandin E2 in hind paw muscle. These results suggest a functional antagonism of meloxicam by arsenic. This may relate to arsenic mediated local release of tumor necrosis factor-α, inetrleukin-1β, interleukin -6 releases COX2 mediated prostaglandin E2. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that sub-acute exposure to arsenic through drinking water aggravate pyrexia, inflammation and pain at environment relevant concentration and decrease the therapeutic efficacy of meloxicam at higher level of arsenite exposure. Thus, the observation made has clinical relevance in situations where animals are exposed to arsenite epidemic geographical locations.

Keywords: arsenic, analgesic activity, meloxicam, Wistar rats

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22 The Protective Effects of Naringenin on Iodoacetamide-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

Authors: Yomna T. Abdou, Hala F. Zaki, Sanaa A. Kenawy


Naringenin is a flavanone, a type of flavonoid, found in fruits such as grapefruit, oranges, and tomatoes, was found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of naringenin on iodoacetamide-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with sulfasalazine (300 mg/kg, p.o.) as standard anti-inflammatory drug or naringenin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days then UC was induced by intracolon administration of 0.1 ml (2%) iodoacetamide dissolved in 1% methylcelluose. One week later, animals were scarificed and the colonic tissues were dissected. Colon inflammation was evident by elevation in colon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme, prostaglandin- E2 (PG-E2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased colon lipoperoxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) depletion, elevated nitric oxide (NO) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with naringenin largely mitigated these alterations. The present study reinforces the hypothetical use of naringenin as an anti-inflammatory complement to conventional UC treatment and could be considered in the dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation and related disorders.

Keywords: iodoacetamide, naringenin, sulfasalazine, ulcerative colitis

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21 Ethanol Extract of Potentilla pradoxa Nutt Inhibits LPS-induced Inflammatory Responses via NF-κB and AP-1 Inactivation

Authors: Hae-Jun Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Kyung-Tae Lee


Potentilla species (Rosasease) have been used in traditional medicine to treat different ailment, disease or malady. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of NUTT (EPP) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages and septic mice. EPP suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, EPP reduced the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by downregulation of their promoter activities. EPP inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at production and mRNA levels. Molecularly, EPP attenuated the LPS-induced transcriptional activity, and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and this was associated with a decrease of translocation and phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB by inhibiting the inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) degradation and IκB kinase-α/β (IKK-α/β) phosphorylation. Furthermore, EPP suppressed the LPS-induced activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in nuclear. EPP also reduced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), such as p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK). In a sepsis model, pretreatment with EPP reduced the LPS-induced lethality. Collectively, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of EPP were associated with the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 activation, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis.

Keywords: anti-inflammation, activator protein-1, nuclear factor κB, Potentilla paradoxa Nutt

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20 Meld of Lactobacillus and Rangiferinus for Emendation of Endotoxemia in Alcoholic Liver Damage in Rats

Authors: Shukla Ila, Azmi Lubna, S. S. Gupta, Ch. V. Rao


Oxidative stress has been increasingly associated with the induction and progression of liver damage. The current study was conducted to record the effect of combination of Lactobacillus and Lichen rangiferinus extract (LRE + Lac) on the severity of injury in experimental alcoholic liver disease and how it affects plasma levels of prostaglandin E2, endotoxin, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4. Male Wistar rats were grouped into five comprising six animals in each group. Group 1 served as negative control. Groups 2-5 were administered 10% ethanol for six weeks. Group 3 was administered with extract (200 mg/kg), group 4 received the diet containing 10% ethanol plus a bolus of lactobacilli GG (1010 CFU), and group 5 animals were given silymarin along with alcohol and it served as positive control. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein content, γ-glutamyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase, oxidative stress markers, glutathione, malondialdehyde and glutathione reductase were determined using standard diagnostic kits. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also made. A positive relation was found between plasma endotoxin levels and degree of liver injury. The pathology records were also related positively with leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2. But a negative correlation was obtained with PgE2 levels. This study led us to hypothesize that the increased endotoxin levels modulate liver metabolism of eicosanoid, which gradually leads to liver injury. Endotoxemia increases leukotriene and thromboxane levels in plasma.

Keywords: lactobacillus, Lichen rangiferinus, endotoxemia, silymarin

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19 The Effects of Six Weeks Endurance Training and Aloe Vera on COX-2 and VEGF Levels in Mice with Breast Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the effects of six weeks endurance training and Aloe Vera on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and VEGF levels in mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (healthy), control (cancer), training (cancer), Aloe Vera (cancer) and Aloe Vera + training (cancer). Induction of breast cancer tumors were done in mice by planting method. The training program includes six weeks of swimming training was done in three sessions per week. Training time from 10 minutes on the first day increased to 60 minutes in second week, and by stabilizing this time, the water flow rate was increased from 7 to 15 liters per minute. 300 mg per kg body weight of Aloe Vera extract was injected into the peritoneal. Sampling was done 48 hours after the last exercise session. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures and Tukey test was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p<0.05 accepted. The results showed that induction of cancer cells significantly increased levels of COX-2 in aloe group and VEGF in training and Aloe Vera + training groups. The results suggest that swimming exercise and Aloe Vera can reduce levels of COX-2 and VEGF in mice with breast cancer.The results of this study, Induction of cancer cells significantly increased levels of COX-2 and MMP-9 in the control group compared with the cancer control group. The results suggest that Aloe Vera can probably inhibit the cyclooxygenase pathway and thus production of prostaglandin E2 decrease of arachidonic acid.

Keywords: endurance training, aloe vera, COX-2, VEGF

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18 Rebamipide Retards CCL4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis: A Role of PGE2

Authors: Alaa E. El-sisi, Sherin Zakaria


Rebamipide is an antiulcer drug with unique properties such as anti-inflammatory action. It induces endogenous prostaglandin e2 (PGE2). PGE2 is considered as a potent physiological suppressor of liver fibrosis. Aim of study: This study investigated the effect of rebamipide on hepatic fibrosis. Material and Method: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injections (IP) injection of CCl4 (0.45 mL/kg) in corn oil 1:5 twice a week for 4 weeks. Rats were divided into four groups as follow: Group 1 treated with CCL4 only, group 2 and 3 treated with CCL4 and rebamipide 60 mg/kg/day (group2) or 100 mg/kg/day (group3), and the fourth group was considered as control group and treated with vehicles. ALT, AST, and Bilirubin were assayed in serum. Antioxidant markers such as malondialdhyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and fibrotic markers such as hyaluronic acid (HA) and procollagen-III (procol-III) were evaluated in liver tissues. IL-10 as well as PGE2 were also assayed in liver tissues. Pathologic changes in the liver were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagen precipitation in liver tissues was visualized using masson trichrom stain. Results: Rebamipide inhibit CCL4 induced increase in ALT and AST significantly (p < 0.05). Rebamipide exerted an antioxidant effect as it inhibits CCL4 induced increased MDA level and decreased SOD activity. Fibrotic markers assay revealed that repamipide (60 or 100 mg/kg/day) decreased the level of procol-III and HA compared to CCl4 (p < 0.05). Oral administration of Rebamipide was associated with a significant increase (p < 0.05) of PGE2 and IL-10. Rebamipide especially at the dose of (100 mg/kg/day) restores liver histology structure and abolish collagen precipitation in liver tissues. Conclusion: Rebamipide retards hepatic fibrosis induced by CCL4 may be through the induction of PGE2 level.

Keywords: fibrotic markers, hepatic fibrosis, PGE2, rebamipide

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17 IL-33 Production in Murine Macrophages via PGE2-E Prostanoid Receptor 2/4 Signaling

Authors: Sachin K. Samuchiwal, Barbara Balestrieri, Amanda Paskavitz, Hannah Raff, Joshua A. Boyce


IL-33, a recently discovered member of the IL-1 cytokine family, binds to the TLR/IL1R super family receptor ST2 and induces type 2 immune responses. IL-33 is constitutively expressed in structural cells at barrier sites such as skin, lung, and intestine, and also inducibly expressed by hematopoietic cells including macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce de novo IL-33 expression, and also causes the production of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Because PGE2 can regulate macrophage functions through both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, the potential interplay of endogenous PGE2 on IL-33 production was explored. Bone-marrow derived murine macrophages (bmMF) that lack either mPGES-1 or EP2 receptor expression were stimulated with LPS in the absence or presence of exogenous PGE2 along with pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The study results demonstrate that endogenous PGE2 markedly enhances LPS-induced IL-33 production by bmMFs via EP2 receptors. Moreover, exogenous PGE2 can amplify LPS-induced IL-33 expression dominantly by EP2 and partly by EP4 receptors by a pathway involving cAMP and exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC), but not protein kinase A (PKA). Though both IL-33 production and PGE2 generation in response to LPS require activation of both p38 MAPK and NF-κB, PGE2 did not influence this activation. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that endogenous PGE2 signaling through EP2 and EP4 receptors is a prerequisite for LPS-induced IL-33 production in bmMFs and the underlying cAMP mediated pathway involves EPAC. Since IL-33 is a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine in various pathological disorders, this PGE2-EP2/EP4-cAMP mediated pathway can be exploited to intervene in IL-33 driven pathologies.

Keywords: bone marrow macrophages, EPAC, IL-33, PGE2

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16 Quantitative Detection of the Conformational Transitions between Open and Closed Forms of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (CYPOR) at the Membrane Surface in Different Functional States

Authors: Sara Arafeh, Kovriguine Evguine


Cytochromes P450 are enzymes that require a supply of electrons to catalyze the synthesis of steroid hormones, fatty acids, and prostaglandin hormone. Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (CYPOR), a membrane bound enzyme, provides these electrons in its open conformation. CYPOR has two cytosolic domains (FAD domain and FMN domain) and an N-terminal in the membrane. In its open conformation, electrons flow from NADPH, FAD, and finally to FMN where cytochrome P450 picks up these electrons. In the closed conformation, cytochrome P450 does not bind to the FMN domain to take the electrons. It was found that when the cytosolic domains are isolated, CYPOR could not bind to cytochrome P450. This suggested that the membrane environment is important for CYPOR function. This project takes the initiative to better understand the dynamics of CYPOR in its full length. Here, we determine the distance between specific sites in the FAD and FMN binding domains in CYPOR by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and Ultrafast TA spectroscopy with and without NADPH. The approach to determine these distances will rely on labeling these sites with red and infrared fluorophores. Mimic membrane attachment is done by inserting CYPOR in lipid nanodiscs. By determining the distances between the donor-acceptor sites in these domains, we can observe the open/closed conformations upon reducing CYPOR in the presence and absence of cytochrome P450. Such study is important to better understand CYPOR mechanism of action in various endosomal membranes including hepatic CYPOR which is vital in plasma cholesterol homeostasis. By investigating the conformational cycles of CYPOR, we can synthesize drugs that would be more efficient in affecting the steroid hormonal levels and metabolism of toxins catalyzed by Cytochrome P450.

Keywords: conformational cycle of CYPOR, cytochrome P450, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, FAD domain, FMN domain, FRET, Ultrafast TA Spectroscopy

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15 Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Hormones and Factors Involved in Murine Ovulation

Authors: Leila Karshenas, Hamidreza Khodaei, Behnaz Mahdavi


Ovulation is a physiologic process with an inflammatory response that depends on a coordinated activity of gonadotropins and steroid hormones, as well as inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, leptin, nitric oxide (NO), etc. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in dairy products, beef and lamb. There is strong evidence that dietary CLA affects mediators involved in ovulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of dietary CLA on systemic and local hormones and factors involved in ovulation. In this case-control study, 80 (50±2-day old) female mice were randomly divided into four groups (C as the controls and T1, T2 and T3 as the treatment groups). There were four replicates in each group and there were five mice in every replicate (20 mice, in total). The mice in the control group were fed with no CLA in their diet but the ones in the treatment group received 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5g/kg of CLA (replacing corn oil in the diet), respectively for 120 days. Later on, blood samples were obtained from the tails of animals that displayed estrus signs and estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), LH, FSH, NO, leptin and TNFα were measured. Furthermore, the effects of CLA on the ovarian production of prostaglandins (PGs) and NO were investigated. The data were analyzed by SAS software.CLA significantly decreased serum levels of FSH (p<0.05), LH, estradiol, NO, leptin and TNFα (p<0.01). In addition, CLA decreased progesterone levels but this effect was statistically insignificant. The significantly negative effects of CLA were seen on the ovarian production of PGE2 and PGF2α (p<0.01).It seems that CLA may play an effective role in reducing the ovulation rate in mice as CLA adversely affected female reproduction and it had negative effects on systemic and local hormones involved in ovulation.

Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid, nitric oxide, ovary, ovulation, prostaglandin, gonadotropin

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14 Influence of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Hormones of Axis of Female Reproduction System Involved in Ovulation Process

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Ali Daryabeigi Zand


Ovulation is a physiologic process with an inflammatory response that depends on a coordinated activity of gonadotropins and steroid hormones, and inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, leptin, nitric oxide (NO), etc. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in dairy products, beef, and lamb. There is strong evidence that dietary CLA affects mediators involved in ovulation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of various doses of dietary CLA on systemic and local hormones and parameters involved in ovulation. In this case-control research, 80 (50 ± 2-day old) female mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (C as control treatment and T1, T2 and T3 are considered as the treatment groups). There were four replicates in each group, and there were five mice in every replicate (20 mice, in total). The mice in the control group were fed with no CLA in their diet, but the ones in the treatment group received 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5g/kg of CLA (replacing corn oil in the diet), respectively for four months. After that, blood samples were obtained from the tails of animals that displayed estrus signs and estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), LH, FSH, NO, leptin and TNFα were measured. In addition, the impacts of CLA on the ovarian production of prostaglandins (PGs) and NO were studied. The data were analyzed by SAS software. CLA considerably decreased serum levels of FSH (p < 0.05), LH, estradiol, NO, leptin and TNFα (p < 0.01). In addition, CLA decreased progesterone levels, but this effect was statistically not significant. The significantly adverse effects of CLA were observed in the ovarian production of PGE2 and PGF2α (p < 0.01). It seems that CLA may play an important role in reducing the ovulation rate in mice as CLA negatively affected female reproduction and it had adverse effects on systemic and local hormones involved in ovulation.

Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid, nitric oxide, ovary, ovulation, prostaglandin, gonadotropin

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13 In vivo Activity of Pathogenic Bacteria on Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Padam Kant, Ch. V. Rao


Gastric ulcer is a major global health threat, and it is the leading cause of stomach cancer death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori bacteriumis the most important etiologic factor for gastric ulcer. This infection is highly pervasive in South Asian developing countries, especially in India, Nepal, Srilanka etc. due to diversification in geographic area. Pathophysiology of gastric mucosal damage associated with non-invasive bacterium has not justified in detail, but it leads to change in histopathology, immunochemistry of the gastric and duodenal reason of host. The mechanism responsible for bacteria tissue tropism and mucosal damage in stomach variance during the disease is not clearly described and understood scientifically in treatment and control of pathogenic organisms. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against aggression by pathogens. 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one and 1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde are polyphenolic compound obtained from popular Indian medicinal plants ghavpatta (ArgeriaspeciosaLinn.f) andBael (Aeglemarmelos) have long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. They have promising effects on ulcer, as detailed investigation has made in our laboratory. Therefore, the aim of present study is to explore membrane –dependent morphogenesis of H. pylori and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death. Based on this we analyzed immune gene expression in stomach of experimental animals with H. pylori, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(q RT-PCR). This revealed rapid induction of prostaglandin, interferon I (INF-I), interferon II (INF-II) and INF-I associated genes in the infected animal. Ultrastructural changes associated with H. pylori will be taken for advanced studies. This investigation shows that the biomarkers eradicate H. pylori bacterium caused gastric ulcer which is a major risk factor for gastric cancer.

Keywords: gastric ulcer, Helicobacter pylori, immunochemistry, polyphenols

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12 Development of Ketorolac Tromethamine Encapsulated Stealth Liposomes: Pharmacokinetics and Bio Distribution

Authors: Yasmin Begum Mohammed


Ketorolac tromethamine (KTM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to prostaglandin related inhibitory effect of drug. It is a non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor. The drug is currently used orally and intramuscularly in multiple divided doses, clinically for the management arthritis, cancer pain, post-surgical pain, and in the treatment of migraine pain. KTM has short biological half-life of 4 to 6 hours, which necessitates frequent dosing to retain the action. The frequent occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, peptic ulceration, and renal failure lead to the development of other drug delivery strategies for the appropriate delivery of KTM. The ideal solution would be to target the drug only to the cells or tissues affected by the disease. Drug targeting could be achieved effectively by liposomes that are biocompatible and biodegradable. The aim of the study was to develop a parenteral liposome formulation of KTM with improved efficacy while reducing side effects by targeting the inflammation due to arthritis. PEG-anchored (stealth) and non-PEG-anchored liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique followed by extrusion cycle and characterized for in vitro and in vivo. Stealth liposomes (SLs) exhibited increase in percent encapsulation efficiency (94%) and 52% percent of drug retention during release studies in 24 h with good stability for a period of 1 month at -20°C and 4°C. SLs showed about maximum 55% of edema inhibition with significant analgesic effect. SLs produced marked differences over those of non-SL formulations with an increase in area under plasma concentration time curve, t₁/₂, mean residence time, and reduced clearance. 0.3% of the drug was detected in arthritic induced paw with significantly reduced drug localization in liver, spleen, and kidney for SLs when compared to other conventional liposomes. Thus SLs help to increase the therapeutic efficacy of KTM by increasing the targeting potential at the inflammatory region.

Keywords: biodistribution, ketorolac tromethamine, stealth liposomes, thin film hydration technique

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11 Inhibitory Effect of Coumaroyl Lupendioic Acid on Inflammation Mediator Generation in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

Authors: Rayhana Begum, Manju Sharma


Careya arborea Roxb. belongs to the Lecythidaceae family, is traditionally used in tumors, anthelmintic, bronchitis, epileptic fits, astringents, inflammation, an antidote to snake-venom, skin disease, diarrhea, dysentery with bloody stools, dyspepsia, ulcer, toothache, and ear pain. The present study was focused on investigating the anti-arthritic effect of coumaroyl lupendioic acid, a new lupane-type triterpene from Careya arborea stem bark in the chronic inflammatory model and further assessing its possible mechanism on the modulation of inflammatory biomarkers. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (5 mg/ml of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis) into the subplantar region of the left hind paw. Treatment with coumaroyl lupendioic acid (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) and reference drugs (indomethacin and dexamethasone at the dose of 5 mg/kg, p.o.) were started on the day of induction and continued up to 28 days. The progression of arthritis was evaluated by measuring paw volume, tibio tarsal joint diameters, and arthritic index. The effect of coumaroyl lupendioic acid (CLA) on the production PGE₂, NO, MPO, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 on serum level as well as inflamed paw tissue were also assessed. In addition, ankle joints and spleen were collected and prepared for histological examination. CLA in inflamed rats resulted in significant amelioration of paw edema, tibio-tarsal joint swelling and arthritic score as compared to CFA control group. The results indicated that CLA treated groups markedly decreased the levels of inflammatory mediators (PGE₂, NO, MPO and NF-κB levels) and down-regulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in paw tissue homogenates as well as in serum. However, the more pronounced effect was observed in the inflamed paw tissue homogenates. CLA also revealed a protective effect to the tibio-tarsal joint cartilage and spleen. These results suggest that coumaroyl lupendioic acid inhibits inflammation may be through the suppression of the cascade of proinflammatory mediators via the down-regulation of NF-ҡB.

Keywords: complete Freund’s adjuvant , Coumaroyl lupendioic acid, pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2

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10 Antioxidative, Anticholinesterase and Anti-Neuroinflammatory Properties of Malaysian Brown and Green Seaweeds

Authors: Siti Aisya Gany, Swee Ching Tan, Sook Yee Gan


Diminished antioxidant defense or increased production of reactive oxygen species in the biological system can result in oxidative stress which may lead to various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Microglial activation also contributes to the progression of AD by producing several pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been reported to be possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD. In addition, the cholinergic hypothesis postulates that memory impairment in patient with AD is also associated with the deficit of cholinergic function in the brain. Although a number of drugs have been approved for the treatment of AD, most of these synthetic drugs have diverse side effects and yield relatively modest benefits. Marine algae have great potential in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications as they are valuable sources of bioactive properties such as anti-coagulation, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory. Hence, this study aimed to provide an overview of the properties of Malaysian seaweeds (Padina australis, Sargassum polycystum and Caulerpa racemosa) in inhibiting oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and cholinesterase enzymes. All tested samples significantly exhibit potent DPPH and moderate Superoxide anion radical scavenging ability (P<0.05). Hexane and methanol extracts of S. polycystum exhibited the most potent radical scavenging ability with IC50 values of 0.1572 ± 0.004 mg/ml and 0.8493 ± 0.02 for DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Hexane extract of C. racemosa gave the strongest superoxide radical inhibitory effect (IC50 of 0.3862± 0.01 mg/ml). Most seaweed extracts significantly inhibited the production of cytokine (IL-6, IL-1 β, TNFα) and NO in a concentration-dependent manner without causing significant cytotoxicity to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia cells (P<0.05). All extracts suppressed cytokine and NO level by more than 80% at the concentration of 0.4mg/ml. In addition, C. racemosa and S. polycystum also showed anti-acetylcholinesterase activities with the IC50 values ranging from 0.086-0.115 mg/ml. Moreover, C. racemosa and P. australis were also found to be active against butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values ranging from 0.118-0.287 mg/ml.

Keywords: anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative, neuroinflammation, seaweeds

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9 Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Efficacy of Equol, against Lipopolysaccharide Activated Microglia and Its Neurotoxicity

Authors: Lalita Subedi, Jae Kyoung Chae, Yong Un Park, Cho Kyo Hee, Lee Jae Hyuk, Kang Min Cheol, Sun Yeou Kim


Neuroinflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and neurodegenerative disease. Estrogens are neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in neurodegenerative disease models. Due to the long term side effects of estrogens, researches have been focused on finding an effective phytoestrogens for biological activities. Daidzein present in soybeans and its active metabolite equol (7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman) bears strong antioxidant and anticancer showed more potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role in neuroinflammatory model confirmed its in vitro activity with molecular mechanism through NF-κB pathway. Three major CNS cells Microglia (BV-2), Astrocyte (C6), Neuron (N2a) were used to find the effect of equol in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), MAPKs signaling proteins, apoptosis related proteins by western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured by the Gries method and ELISA, respectively. Cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were also measured in the conditioned medium of LPS activated cells with or without equol. Equol inhibited the NO production, PGE-2 production and expression of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated microglial cells at a dose dependent without any cellular toxicity. At the same time Equol also showed promising effect in modulation of MAPK’s and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression with significant inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokine like interleukin -6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α). Additionally, it inhibited the LPS activated microglia-induced neuronal cell death by downregulating the apoptotic phenomenon in neuronal cells. Furthermore, equol increases the production of neurotrophins like NGF and increase the neurite outgrowth as well. In conclusion the natural daidzein metabolite equol are more active than daidzein, which showed a promising effectiveness as an anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective agent via downregulating the LPS stimulated microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis. This work was supported by Brain Korea 21 Plus project and High Value-added Food Technology Development Program 114006-4, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Keywords: apoptosis, equol, neuroinflammation, phytoestrogen

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8 Cell Adhesion, Morphology and Cytokine Expression of Synoviocytes Can Be Altered on Different Nano-Topographic Oxidized Silicon Nanosponges

Authors: Hung-Chih Hsu, Pey-Jium Chang, Ching-Hsein Chen, Jer-Liang Andrew Yeh


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disorder in rehabilitation clinic. The main characteristics include joint pain, localized tenderness and enlargement, joint effusion, cartilage destruction, loss of adhesion of perichondrium, synovium hyperplasia. Synoviocytes inflammation might be a cause of local tenderness and effusion. Inflammation cytokines might also play an important role in joint pain, cartilage destruction, decrease adhesion of perichondrium to the bone. Treatments of osteoarthritis include non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAID), glucosamine supplementation, hyaluronic acid, arthroscopic debridement, and total joint replacement. Total joint replacement is commonly used in patients with severe OA who failed respond to pharmacological treatment. However, some patients received surgery had serious adverse events, including instability of the implants due to insufficient adhesion to the adjacent bony tissue or synovial inflammation. We tried to develop ideal nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges by using with various chemicals to produce thickness difference in nanometers in order to study more about the cell-environment interactions in vitro like the alterations of cell adhesion, morphology, extracellular matrix secretions in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Cytokines studies like growth factor, reactive oxygen species, reactive inflammatory materials (Like nitrous oxide and prostaglandin E2), extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation enzymes, and synthesis of collagen will also be observed and discussed. Extracellular and intracellular expression transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) will be studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The degradation of ECM will be observed by the bioactivity ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase by ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). When rabbit synoviocytes were cultured on these nano-topographic structures, they demonstrate better cell adhesion rate, decreased expression of MMP-2,9 and PGE2, and increased expression of TGF-β when cultured in nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges than in the planar oxidized silicon ones. These results show cell behavior, cytokine production can be influenced by physical characteristics from different nano-topographic structures. Our study demonstrates the possibility of manipulating cell behavior in these nano-topographic biomaterials.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, synoviocyte, oxidized silicon surfaces, reactive oxygen species

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7 Use of Misoprostol in Pregnancy Termination in the Third Trimester: Oral versus Vaginal Route

Authors: Saimir Cenameri, Arjana Tereziu, Kastriot Dallaku


Introduction: Intra-uterine death is a common problem in obstetrical practice, and can lead to complications if left to resolve spontaneously. The cervix is unprepared, making inducing of labor difficult. Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue, inexpensive, and is presented valid thanks to its ability to bring about changes in the cervix that lead to the induction of uterine contractions. Misoprostol is quickly absorbed when taken orally, resulting in high initial peak serum concentrations compared with the vaginal route. The vaginal misoprostol peak serum concentration is not as high and demonstrates a more gradual serum concentration decline. This is associated with many benefits for the patient; fast induction of labor; smaller doses; and fewer side effects (dose-depended). Mostly it has been used the regime of 50 μg/4 hour, with a high percentage of success and limited side effects. Objective: Evaluation of the efficiency of the use of oral and vaginal misoprostol in inducing labor, and comparing it with its use not by a previously defined protocol. Methods: Participants in this study included patients at U.H.O.G. 'Koco Gliozheni', Tirana from April 2004-July 2006, presenting with an indication for inducing labor in the third trimester for pregnancy termination. A total of 37 patients were randomly admitted for birth inducing activity, according to protocol (26), oral or vaginal protocol (10 vs. 16), and a control group (11), not subject to the protocol, was created. Oral or vaginal misoprostol was administered at a dose of 50 μg/4 h, while the fourth group participants were treated individually by the members of the medical staff. The main result of interest was the time between induction of labor to birth. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the average age, parity, women weight, gestational age, Bishop's score, the size of the uterus and weight of the fetus between the four groups in the study. The Fisher exact test was used to compare day-stay and causes in the four groups. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the time of the expulsion and the number of doses between oral and vaginal group. For all statistical tests used, the value of P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The four groups were comparable with regard to woman age and weight, parity, abortion indication, Bishop's score, fetal weight and the gestational age. There was significant difference in the percentage of deliveries within 24 hours. The average time from induction to birth per route (vaginal, oral, according to protocol and not according to the protocol) was respectively; 10.43h; 21.10h; 15.77h, 21.57h. There was no difference in maternal complications in groups. Conclusions: Use of vaginal misoprostol for inducing labor in the third trimester for termination of pregnancy appears to be more effective than the oral route, and even more to uses not according to the protocols approved before, where complications are greater and unjustified.

Keywords: inducing labor, misoprostol, pregnancy termination, third trimester

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6 Gastro-Protective Actions of Melatonin and Murraya koenigii Leaf Extract Combination in Piroxicam Treated Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Syed Benazir Firdaus, Debosree Ghosh, Aindrila Chattyopadhyay, Kuladip Jana, Debasish Bandyopadhyay


Gastro-toxic effect of piroxicam, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has restricted its use in arthritis and similar diseases. The present study aims to find if a combination of melatonin and Murraya koenigii leaf extract therapy can protect against piroxicam induced ulcerative damage in rats. For this study, rats were divided into four groups namely control group where rats were orally administered distilled water, only combination treated group, piroxicam treated group and combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Each group of rats consisted of six animals. Melatonin at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight and antioxidant rich Murraya koenigii leaf extract at a dose of 50 mg /kg body weight were successively administered at 30 minutes interval one hour before oral administration of piroxicam at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to Wistar rats in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. The rats of the animal group which was only combination treated were administered both the drugs respectively without piroxicam treatment whereas the piroxicam treated animal group was administered only piroxicam at 30mg/kg body weight without any pre-treatment with the combination. Macroscopic examination along with histo-pathological study of gastric tissue using haemotoxylin-eosin staining and alcian blue dye staining showed protection of the gastric mucosa in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Determination of adherent mucus content biochemically and collagen content through Image J analysis of picro-sirius stained sections of rat gastric tissue also revealed protective effects of the combination in piroxicam mediated toxicity. Gelatinolytic activity of piroxicam was significantly reduced by pre-administration of the drugs which was well exhibited by the gelatin zymography study of the rat gastric tissue. Mean ulcer index determined from macroscopic study of rat stomach reduced to a minimum (0±0.00; Mean ± Standard error of mean and number of animals in the group=6) indicating the absence of ulcer spots on pre-treatment of rats with the combination. Gastro-friendly prostaglandin (PGE2) which otherwise gets depleted on piroxicam treatment was also well protected when the combination was pre-administered in the rats prior to piroxicam treatment. The requirement of the individual drugs in low doses in this combinatorial therapeutic approach will possibly minimize the cost of therapy as well as it will eliminate the possibility of any pro-oxidant side effects on the use of high doses of antioxidants. Beneficial activity of this combination therapy in the rat model raises the possibility that similar protective actions might be also observed if it is adopted by patients consuming NSAIDs like piroxicam. However, the introduction of any such therapeutic approach is subject to future studies in human.

Keywords: gastro-protective action, melatonin, Murraya koenigii leaf extract, piroxicam

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5 The Hidden Mechanism beyond Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Potent in vivo and in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Shahira M. Ezzat, Marwa I. Ezzat, Mona M. Okba, Esther T. Menze, Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim, Shahnas O. Mohamed


Background: In order to decrease the burden of the high cost of synthetic drugs, it is important to focus on phytopharmaceuticals. The aim of our study was to search for the mechanism of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) anti-inflammatory potential and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Methods: Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated by assessment of rat paw oedema after carrageenan injection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), certain inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, INFr, MCP-1MIP, RANTES, and Nox) levels and MPO activity in the paw edema exudates were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was also determined. Histopathological alterations of paw tissues were scored. Results: All the tested extracts showed significant (p < 0.1) anti-inflammatory activities. The highest percentage of heat induced albumin denaturation (66%) was exhibited by the 50% ethanol (250 μg/ml). The 70 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) were more potent as membrane stabilizers (34.5 and 37%, respectively) than diclofenac (33%). The 80 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) showed maximum protease inhibition (56%). The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for the AE. It showed more significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125 μg/ml). Fractionation of AE yielded four main fractions (Fr I-IV) which showed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory. Purification of Fr-III and IV led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G2 (62.5 ug/ml), G1 (250 ug/ml), and G8 (250 ug/ml) exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in all studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw oedema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction (60%) of PGE2 production. The AE at different doses (at 25-200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers except for IL-1α. AE (at 25 mg/kg) is superior to indomethacin in reduction of IL-1β. Treatment of animals with the AE (100, 200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES levels, and MPO activity by about (31, 57 and 32% ) (65, 60 and 57%) (27, 41 and 28%) (23, 32 and 23%) (66, 67 and 67%) respectively. AE at 100 and 200 mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NOₓ level and in increasing the TAC. Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and oedema after administration of AE (200 mg/kg) prior to carrageenan. Conclusion: Ginger anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophils activation as well as negatively affecting monocyte and leukocyte migration. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and replenished the total antioxidant capacity. We strongly recommend future investigations of ginger in the potential signal transduction pathways.

Keywords: anti-lipoxygenase activity, inflammatory markers, 1-dehydro-6-gingerol, 6-shogaol

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4 COVID-19: Potential Effects of Nutritional Factors on Inflammation Relief

Authors: Maryam Nazari


COVID-19 is a respiratory disease triggered by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, that has reached pandemic status today. Acute inflammation and immune cells infiltration into lung injuries result in multi-organ failure. The presence of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with systemic inflammation derived from COVID-19 may exacerbate the patient's situation and increase the risk for adverse effects and mortality. This pandemic is a novel situation and the scientific community at this time is looking for vaccines or drugs to treat the pathology. One of the biggest challenges is focused on reducing inflammation without compromising the correct immune response of the patient. In this regard, addressing the nutritional factors should not be overlooked not only as a matter of avoiding the presence of NCDs with severe infections but also as an adjunctive way to modulate the inflammatory status of the patients. Despite the pivotal role of nutrition in modifying immune response, due to the novelty of the COVID-19 disease, information about the effects of specific dietary agents is limited in this area. From the macronutrients point of view, protein deficiency (quantity or quality) has negative effects on the number of functional immunoglobulins and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). High biological value proteins or some amino acids like arginine and glutamine are well known for their ability to augment the immune system. Among lipids, fish oil has the ability to inactivate enveloped viruses, suppress pro-inflammatory prostaglandin production and block platelet-activating factors and their receptors. In addition, protectin D1, which is an Omega-3 PUFAs derivation, is a novel antiviral drug. So it seems that these fatty acids can reduce the severity and/or improve recovery of patients with COVID-19. Carbohydrates with lower glycemic index and fibers are associated with lower levels of inflammatory cytokines (CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6). Short-Chain Fatty acids not only exert a direct anti-inflammatory effect but also provide appropriate gut microbial, which is important in gastrointestinal issues related to COVID-19. From the micronutrients point of view, Vitamins A, C, D, E, iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium and copper play a vital role in the maintenance of immune function. Inadequate status in these nutrients may result in decreased resistance against COVID-19 infection. There are specific bioactive compounds in the diet that interact with the ACE2 receptor, which is the gateway for SARS and SARS-CoV-2, and thus controls the viral infection. Regarding this, the potential benefits of probiotics, resveratrol (a polyphenol found in grape), oleoylethanolamide (derived from oleic acid), and natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists in foodstuffs (like curcumin, pomegranate, hot pepper) are suggested. Yet, it should be pointed out that most of these results have been reported in animal models and further human studies are needed to be verified.

Keywords: Covid-19, inflammation, nutrition, dietary agents

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3 Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA)-Differentiated THP-1 Monocytes as a Validated Microglial-Like Model in Vitro

Authors: Amelia J. McFarland, Andrew K. Davey, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie


Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system (CNS), contributing to both innate and adaptive immune response, and brain homeostasis. Activation of microglia occurs in response to a multitude of pathogenic stimuli in their microenvironment; this induces morphological and functional changes, resulting in a state of acute neuroinflammation which facilitates injury resolution. Adequate microglial function is essential for the health of the neuroparenchyma, with microglial dysfunction implicated in numerous CNS pathologies. Given the critical role that these macrophage-derived cells play in CNS homeostasis, there is a high demand for microglial models suitable for use in neuroscience research. The isolation of primary human microglia, however, is both difficult and costly, with microglial activation an unwanted but inevitable result of the extraction process. Consequently, there is a need for the development of alternative experimental models which exhibit morphological, biochemical and functional characteristics of human microglia without the difficulties associated with primary cell lines. In this study, our aim was to evaluate whether THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes would display microglial-like qualities following an induced differentiation, and, therefore, be suitable for use as surrogate microglia. To achieve this aim, THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes from acute monocytic leukaemia were differentiated with a range of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) concentrations (50-200 nM) using two different protocols: a 5-day continuous PMA exposure or a 3-day continuous PMA exposure followed by a 5-day rest in normal media. In each protocol and at each PMA concentration, microglial-like cell morphology was assessed through crystal violet staining and the presence of CD-14 microglial / macrophage cell surface marker. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (055: B5) was then added at a range of concentrations from 0-10 mcg/mL to activate the PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Functional microglial-like behavior was evaluated by quantifying the release of prostaglandin (PG)-E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α using mediator-specific ELISAs. Furthermore, production of global reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined fluorometrically using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2-DA) respectively. Following PMA-treatment, it was observed both differentiation protocols resulted in cells displaying distinct microglial morphology from 10 nM PMA. Activation of differentiated cells using LPS significantly augmented IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 release at all LPS concentrations under both differentiation protocols. Similarly, a significant increase in DCFH-DA and DAF-2-DA fluorescence was observed, indicative of increases in ROS and NO production. For all endpoints, the 5-day continuous PMA treatment protocol yielded significantly higher mediator levels than the 3-day treatment and 5-day rest protocol. Our data, therefore, suggests that the differentiation of THP-1 human monocyte cells with PMA yields a homogenous microglial-like population which, following stimulation with LPS, undergo activation to release a range of pro-inflammatory mediators associated with microglial activation. Thus, the use of PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells represents a suitable microglial model for in vitro research.

Keywords: differentiation, lipopolysaccharide, microglia, monocyte, neuroscience, THP-1

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2 Chemopreventive Efficacy of Andrographolide in Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Model Using Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) as Endpoint Marker

Authors: Maryam Hajrezaie, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Nazia Abdul Majid, Hapipa Mohd Ali, Pouya Hassandarvish, Maryam Zahedi Fard


Background: Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world and is the third leading cause of death among cancers in both males and females. The incidence of colon cancer is ranked fourth among all cancers but varies in different parts of the world. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic compounds capable of inducing biological mechanisms necessary to preserve genomic fidelity. Andrographolide is the major labdane diterpenoidal constituent of the plant Andrographis paniculata (family Acanthaceae), used extensively in the traditional medicine. Extracts of the plant and their constituents are reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities of therapeutic importance. Laboratory animal model studies have provided evidence that Andrographolide play a role in inhibiting the risk of certain cancers. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of the Andrographolide in the AOM induced rat model. Methods: To evaluate inhibitory properties of andrographolide on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), five groups of 7-week-old male rats were used. Group 1 (control group) were fed with 10% Tween 20 once a day, Group 2 (cancer control) rats were intra-peritoneally injected with 15 mg/kg Azoxymethan, Gropu 3 (drug control) rats were injected with 15 mg/kg azoxymethan and 5-Flourouracil, Group 4 and 5 (experimental groups) were fed with 10 and 20 mg/kg andrographolide each once a day. After 1 week, the treatment group rats received subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane, 15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for 2 weeks. Control rats were continued on Tween 20 feeding once a day and experimental groups 10 and 20 mg/kg andrographolide feeding once a day for 8 weeks. All rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after the azoxymethane treatment. Colons were evaluated grossly and histopathologically for ACF. Results: Administration of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg andrographolide were found to be effectively chemoprotective, as evidenced microscopily and biochemically. Andrographolide suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 40% to 60%, respectively, when compared with control group. Pre-treatment with andrographolide, significantly reduced the impact of AOM toxicity on plasma protein and urea levels as well as on plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities. Grossly, colorectal specimens revealed that andrographolide treatments decreased the mean score of number of crypts in AOM-treated rats. Importantly, rats fed andrographolide showed 75% inhibition of foci containing four or more aberrant crypts. The results also showed a significant increase in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) activities and a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Histologically all treatment groups showed a significant decrease of dysplasia as compared to control group. Immunohistochemical staining showed up-regulation of Hsp70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that Andrographolide reduce the number of ACF. According to these data, Andrographolide might be a promising chemoprotective activity, in a model of AOM-induced in ACF.

Keywords: chemopreventive, andrographolide, colon cancer, aberrant crypt foci (ACF)

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1 Glycyrrhizic Acid Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Bovine Fibroblast-Like Synoviocyte, Invasion through Suppression of TLR4/NF-κB-Mediated Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression

Authors: Hosein Maghsoudi


Rheumatois arthritis (RA) is progressive inflammatory autoimmune diseases that primarily affect the joints, characterized by synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration, deformed and painful joints, which can lead tissue destruction, functional disability systemic complications, and early dead and socioeconomic costs. The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, but genetic and environmental factors are contributory and the prognosis is guarded. However, advances in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease have fostered the development of new therapeutics, with improved outcomes. The current treatment strategy, which reflects this progress, is to initiate aggressive therapy soon after diagnosis and to escalate the therapy, guided by an assessment of disease activity, in pursuit of clinical remission. The pathobiology of RA is multifaceted and involves T cells, B cells, fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLSc) and the complex interaction of many pro-inflammatory cytokine. Novel biologic agents that target tumor necrosis or interlukin (IL)-1 and Il-6, in addition T- and B-cells inhibitors, have resulted in favorable clinical outcomes in patients with RA. Despite this, at least 30% of RA patients are résistance to available therapies, suggesting novel mediators should be identified that can target other disease-specific pathway or cell lineage. Among the inflammatory cell population that might participated in RA pathogenesis, FLSc are crucial in initiaing and driving RA in concert of cartilage and bone by secreting metalloproteinase (MMPs) into the synovial fluid and by direct invasion into extracellular matrix (ECM), further exacerbating joint damage. Invasion of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSc) is critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid-arthritis. The metalloproteinase (MMPs) and activator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor- κB pthway play a critical role in RA-FLS invasion induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study aimed to explore the anti-invasion activity of Glycyrrhizic Acid as a pharmacologically safe phytochemical agent with potent anti-inflammatory properties on IL-1beta and TNF-alpha signalling pathways in Bovine fibroblast-like synoviocyte ex- vitro, on LPS-stimulated bovine FLS migration and invasion as well as MMP expression and explored the upstream signal transduction. Results showed that Glycyrrhizic Acid suppressed LPS-stimulated bovine FLS migration and invasion by inhibition MMP-9 expression and activity. In addition our results revealed that Glycyrrhizic Acid inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppression the nbinding activity of NF- κB in the MMP-9 promoter pathway. The extract of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) has been widely used for many centuries in the traditional Chinese medicine as native anti-allergic agent. Glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpenoidsaponin, extracted from the roots of licorice is the most effective compound for inflammation and allergic diseases in human body. The biological and pharmacological studies revealed that GL possesses many pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and liver protective effects, and the biological effects, such as induction of cytokines (interferon-γ and IL-12), chemokines as well as extrathymic T and anti-type 2 T cells. GL is known in the traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory effect, which is originally described by Finney in 1959. The mechanism of the GL-induced anti-inflammatory effect is based on different pathways of the GL-induced selective inhibition of the prostaglandin E2 production, the CK-II- mediated activation of both GL-binding lipoxygenas (gbLOX; 17) and PLA2, an anti-thrombin action of GL and production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS; GL exerts liver protection properties by inhibiting PLA2 or by the hydroxyl radical trapping action, leading to the lowering of serum alanine and aspartate transaminase levels. The present study was undertaken to examine the possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory properties GL on IL-1beta and TNF-alpha signalling pathways in bovine fibroblast-like synoviocyte ex-vivo, on LPS-stimulated bovine FLS migration and invasion as well as MMP expression and explored the upstream signal transduction. Our results clearly showed that treatment of bovine fibroblast-like synoviocyte with GL suppressed LPS-induced cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, it revealed that GL inhibited the transcription activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the binding activity of NF-κB in the MM-9 promoter. MMP-9 is an important ECM-degrading enzyme and overexpression of MMPs in important of RA-FLSs. LPS can stimulate bovine FLS to secret MMPs, and this induction is regulated at the transcription and translational levels. In this study, LPS treatment of bovine FLS caused an increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. The increase in MMP-9 expression and secretion was inhibited by ex- vitro. Furthermore, these effects were mimicked by MMP-9 siRNA. These result therefore indicate the the inhibition of LPS-induced bovine FLS invasion by GL occurs primarily by inhibiting MMP-9 expression and activity. Next we analyzed the functional significance of NF-κB transcription of MMP-9 activation in Bovine FLSs. Results from EMSA showed that GL suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB binding to the MMP-9 promotor, as NF-κB regulates transcriptional activation of multiple inflammatory cytokines, we predicted that GL might target NF-κB to suppress MMP-9 transcription by LPS. Myeloid differentiation-factor 88 (MyD88) and TIR-domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) are critical proteins in the LPS-induced NF-κB and apoptotic signaling pathways, GL inhibited the expression of TLR4 and MYD88. These results demonstrated that GL suppress LPS-induced MMP-9 expression through the inhibition of the induced TLR4/NFκB signaling pathway. Taken together, our results provide evidence that GL exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibition LPS-induced bovine FLSs migration and invasion, and the mechanisms may involve the suppression of TLR4/NFκB –mediated MMP-9 expression. Although further work is needed to clarify the complicated mechanism of GL-induced anti-invasion of bovine FLSs, GL might be used as a further anti-invasion drug with therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disease such as RA.

Keywords: glycyrrhizic acid, bovine fibroblast-like synoviocyte, tlr4/nf-κb, metalloproteinase-9

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