Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: neuroinflammation

21 Human Brain Organoids-on-a-Chip Systems to Model Neuroinflammation

Authors: Feng Guo

Abstract:

Human brain organoids, 3D brain tissue cultures derived from human pluripotent stem cells, hold promising potential in modeling neuroinflammation for a variety of neurological diseases. However, challenges remain in generating standardized human brain organoids that can recapitulate key physiological features of a human brain. Here, this study presents a series of organoids-on-a-chip systems to generate better human brain organoids and model neuroinflammation. By employing 3D printing and microfluidic 3D cell culture technologies, the study’s systems enable the reliable, scalable, and reproducible generation of human brain organoids. Compared with conventional protocols, this study’s method increased neural progenitor proliferation and reduced heterogeneity of human brain organoids. As a proof-of-concept application, the study applied this method to model substance use disorders.

Keywords: human brain organoids, microfluidics, organ-on-a-chip, neuroinflammation

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20 Neuroprotective Effects of Gly-Pro-Glu-Thr-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg, a Peptide Isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. Protein Hydrolysate

Authors: Maria Del Carmen Millan-Linares, Ana Lemus Conejo, Rocio Toscano, Alvaro Villanueva, Francisco Millan, Justo Pedroche, Sergio Montserrat-De La Paz

Abstract:

GPETAFLR (Glycine-Proline-Glutamine-Threonine-Alanine-Phenylalanine-Leucine-Arginine) is a peptide isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate (LPH). Herein, the effect of this peptide was investigated in two different models of neuroinflammation: in the immortalized murine microglia cell line BV-2 and in a high-fat-diet-induced obesity mouse model. Methods and Results: Effects of GPETAFLR on neuroinflammation were evaluated by RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, and ELISA techniques. In BV-2 microglial cells, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) whereas GPETAFLR decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in BV2 microglial cells. M1 (CCR7 and iNOS) and M2 (Arg-1 and Ym-1) polarization markers results showed how the GPETAFLR octapeptide was able to decrease M1 polarization marker expression and increase the M2 polarization marker expression compared to LPS. Animal model results indicate that GPETAFLR has an immunomodulatory capacity, both decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in brain tissue. Polarization markers in the brain tissue were also modulated by GPETAFLR that decreased the pro-inflammatory expression (M1) and increased the anti-inflammatory expression (M2). Conclusion: Our results suggest that GPETAFLR isolated from LPH has significant potential for management of neuroinflammatory conditions and offer benefits derived from the consumption of Lupinus angustifolius L. in the prevention of neuroinflammatory-related diseases.

Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide, BV-2 cell line, neuroinflammation, cytokines, high-fat-diet

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19 The Role of Inflammasomes for aβ Microglia Phagocytosis in Alzheimer Disease

Authors: Francesca La Rosa , Marina Saresella, Mario Clerici, Michael Heneka

Abstract:

Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the modulation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Microglia, the main immune effector of the brain, are able to migrate to sites of Amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition to eliminate Aβ phagocytosis upon activation by multiple receptors: Toll like receptors and scavenger receptors. The issue of whether microglia are able to eliminate pathological lesions such as neurofibrillary tangles or senile plaques from AD brain still remains the matter of controversy. Recent data suggest that the Nod Like Receptor 3 (NLRP3), multiprotein inflammasome complexes, plays a role in AD, as its activation in the microglia by Aβ triggers. IL-1β is produced as a biologically inactive pro-form and requires caspase-1 for activation and secretion. Caspase-1 activity is controlled by inflammasomes. We investigate about the importance of inflammasomes complex in the Aβ phagocytosis and its degradation. The preliminary results of phagocytosis assay and immunofluorescent experiment on primary Microglia cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) an Aβ exposure show that a previous treatment with LPS reduce Aβ phagocytosis. Different results were obtained in Primary Microglia wild type, NLRP3 and ASC Knockout suggesting a real inflammasomes involvement in Alzheimer's pathology. Inflammasomes inactivation reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines prolonging the protective activity of microglia and Aβ clearance, featuring a typical microglia phenotype of the early stage of AD disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, innate immunity, neuroinflammation, NLRP3

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18 Modified Acetamidobenzoxazolone Based Biomarker for Translocator Protein Mapping during Neuroinflammation

Authors: Anjani Kumar Tiwari, Neelam Kumari, Anil Mishra

Abstract:

The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) previously called as peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is proven biomarker for variety of neuroinflammation. TSPO is tryptophane rich five transmembranal protein found on outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid synthesising and immunomodulatory cells. In case of neuronal damage or inflammation the expression level of TSPO get upregulated as an immunomodulatory response. By utilizing Benzoxazolone as a basic scaffold, series of TSPO ligands have been designed followed by their screening through in silico studies. Synthesis has been planned by employing convergent methodology in six high yielding steps. For the synthesized ligands the ‘in vitro’ assay was performed to determine the binding affinity in term of Ki. On ischemic rat brain, autoradiography studies were also carried to check the specificity and affinity of the designed radiolabelled ligand for TSPO.Screening was performed on the basis of GScore of CADD based schrodinger software. All the modified and better prospective compound were successfully carried out and characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, NMR and HRMS). In vitro binding assay showed best binding affinity Ki = 6.1+ 0.3 for TSPO over central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) Ki > 200. ARG studies indicated higher uptake of two analogues on the lesion side compared with that on the non-lesion side of ischemic rat brains. Displacement experiments with unlabelled ligand had minimized the difference in uptake between the two sides which indicates the specificity of the ligand towards TSPO receptor.

Keywords: TSPO, PET, imaging, Acetamidobenzoxazolone

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17 Cellular Senescence and Neuroinflammation Following Controlled Cortical Impact Traumatic Brain Injury in Juvenile Mice

Authors: Zahra F. Al-Khateeb, Shenel Shekerzade, Hasna Boumenar, Siân M. Henson, Jordi L. Tremoleda, A. T. Michael-Titus

Abstract:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and death in young adults and also increases the risk ofneurodegeneration. The mechanisms linking moderate to severe TBI to neurodegeneration are not known. It has been proposed that cellular senescence inductionpost-injury could amplify neuroinflammation and induce long-term changes. The impact of these processes after injury to an immature brain has not been characterised yet. We carried out a controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) in juvenile 1 month-old male CD1 mice. Animals were anesthetised and received a unilateral CCI injury. The sham group received anaesthesia and had a craniotomy. A naïve group had no intervention. The brain tissue was analysed at 5 days and 35 days post-injury using immunohistochemistry and markers for microglia, astrocytes, and senescence. Compared tonaïve animals, injured mice showed an increased microglial and astrocytic reaction early post-injury, as reflected in Iba1 and GFAP markers, respectively; the GFAP increase persisted in the later phase. The senescence analysis showed a significant increase inγH2AX-53BP1 nuclear foci, 8-oxoguanine, p19ARF, p16INK4a, and p53 expression in naïve vs. sham groups and naïve vs. CCI groups, at 5 dpi. At 35 days, the difference was no longer statistically significant in all markers. The injury induced a decrease p21 expression vs. the naïve group, at 35 dpi. These results indicate the induction of a complex senescence response after immature brain injury. Some changes occur early and may reflect the activation/proliferation of non-neuronal cells post-injury that had been hindered, whereas changes such as p21 downregulation may reflect a delayed response and pro-repair processes.

Keywords: cellular senescence, traumatic brain injury, brain injury, controlled cortical impact

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16 The Retinoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Fungal Ingredient 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalacetone through Inhibition of Retinal Müller and Microglial Activation

Authors: Yu-Wen Cheng, Jau-Der Ho, Liang-Huan Wu, Fan-Li Lin, Li-Huei Chen, Hung-Ming Chang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, George Hsiao

Abstract:

Retina glial activation and neuroinflammation have been confirmed to cause devastating responses in retinodegenerative diseases. The expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could be exerted as the crucial pathological factors in glaucoma- and blue light-induced retinal injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the retinoprotective effects and mechanisms of fungal ingredient 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) isolated from Phellinus linteus in the retinal glial activation and retinodegenerative animal models. According to the cellular studies, DBL significantly and concentration-dependently abrogated MMP-9 activation and expression in TNFα-stimulated retinal Müller (rMC-1) cells. We found the inhibitory activities of DBL were strongly through the STAT- and ERK-dependent pathways. Furthermore, DBL dramatically attenuated MMP-9 activation in the stimulated Müller cells exposed to conditioned media from LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. On the other hand, DBL strongly suppressed LPS-induced production of NO and ROS and expression of iNOS in microglia BV-2 cells. Consistently, the phosphorylation of STAT was substantially blocked by DBL in LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. In the evaluation of retinoprotective functions, the high IOP-induced scotopic electroretinographic (ERG) deficit and blue light-induced abnormal pupillary light response (PLR) were assessed. The deficit scotopic ERG responses markedly recovered by DBL in a rat model of glaucoma-like ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. DBL also reduced the aqueous gelatinolytic activity and retinal MMP-9 expression in high IOP-injured conditions. Additionally, DBL could restore the abnormal PLR and reduce retinal MMP-9 activation. In summary, DBL could ameliorate retinal neuroinflammation and MMP-9 activation by predominantly inhibiting STAT3 activation in the retinal Müller cells and microglia, which exhibits therapeutic potential for glaucoma and other retinal degenerative diseases.

Keywords: glaucoma, blue light, DBL, retinal Müller cell, MMP-9, STAT, Microglia, iNOS, ERG, PLR

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15 Antioxidative, Anticholinesterase and Anti-Neuroinflammatory Properties of Malaysian Brown and Green Seaweeds

Authors: Siti Aisya Gany, Swee Ching Tan, Sook Yee Gan

Abstract:

Diminished antioxidant defense or increased production of reactive oxygen species in the biological system can result in oxidative stress which may lead to various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Microglial activation also contributes to the progression of AD by producing several pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been reported to be possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD. In addition, the cholinergic hypothesis postulates that memory impairment in patient with AD is also associated with the deficit of cholinergic function in the brain. Although a number of drugs have been approved for the treatment of AD, most of these synthetic drugs have diverse side effects and yield relatively modest benefits. Marine algae have great potential in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications as they are valuable sources of bioactive properties such as anti-coagulation, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory. Hence, this study aimed to provide an overview of the properties of Malaysian seaweeds (Padina australis, Sargassum polycystum and Caulerpa racemosa) in inhibiting oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and cholinesterase enzymes. All tested samples significantly exhibit potent DPPH and moderate Superoxide anion radical scavenging ability (P<0.05). Hexane and methanol extracts of S. polycystum exhibited the most potent radical scavenging ability with IC50 values of 0.1572 ± 0.004 mg/ml and 0.8493 ± 0.02 for DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Hexane extract of C. racemosa gave the strongest superoxide radical inhibitory effect (IC50 of 0.3862± 0.01 mg/ml). Most seaweed extracts significantly inhibited the production of cytokine (IL-6, IL-1 β, TNFα) and NO in a concentration-dependent manner without causing significant cytotoxicity to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia cells (P<0.05). All extracts suppressed cytokine and NO level by more than 80% at the concentration of 0.4mg/ml. In addition, C. racemosa and S. polycystum also showed anti-acetylcholinesterase activities with the IC50 values ranging from 0.086-0.115 mg/ml. Moreover, C. racemosa and P. australis were also found to be active against butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values ranging from 0.118-0.287 mg/ml.

Keywords: anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative, neuroinflammation, seaweeds

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14 Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Efficacy of Equol, against Lipopolysaccharide Activated Microglia and Its Neurotoxicity

Authors: Lalita Subedi, Jae Kyoung Chae, Yong Un Park, Cho Kyo Hee, Lee Jae Hyuk, Kang Min Cheol, Sun Yeou Kim

Abstract:

Neuroinflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and neurodegenerative disease. Estrogens are neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in neurodegenerative disease models. Due to the long term side effects of estrogens, researches have been focused on finding an effective phytoestrogens for biological activities. Daidzein present in soybeans and its active metabolite equol (7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman) bears strong antioxidant and anticancer showed more potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role in neuroinflammatory model confirmed its in vitro activity with molecular mechanism through NF-κB pathway. Three major CNS cells Microglia (BV-2), Astrocyte (C6), Neuron (N2a) were used to find the effect of equol in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), MAPKs signaling proteins, apoptosis related proteins by western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured by the Gries method and ELISA, respectively. Cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were also measured in the conditioned medium of LPS activated cells with or without equol. Equol inhibited the NO production, PGE-2 production and expression of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated microglial cells at a dose dependent without any cellular toxicity. At the same time Equol also showed promising effect in modulation of MAPK’s and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression with significant inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokine like interleukin -6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α). Additionally, it inhibited the LPS activated microglia-induced neuronal cell death by downregulating the apoptotic phenomenon in neuronal cells. Furthermore, equol increases the production of neurotrophins like NGF and increase the neurite outgrowth as well. In conclusion the natural daidzein metabolite equol are more active than daidzein, which showed a promising effectiveness as an anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective agent via downregulating the LPS stimulated microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis. This work was supported by Brain Korea 21 Plus project and High Value-added Food Technology Development Program 114006-4, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Keywords: apoptosis, equol, neuroinflammation, phytoestrogen

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13 Innate Immune Dysfunction in Niemann Pick Disease Type C

Authors: Stephanie Newman

Abstract:

Niemann-Pick Type C disease is a rare, usually fatal lysosomal storage disorder. Although clinically characterized by progressive neurodegeneration, there is also evidence of altered innate immune responses such as neuroinflammation that promote disease progression. We have initiated an investigation into whether phagocytosis, an important innate immune activity and the process by which particles are ingested is defective in NPC. Using an in vitro assay, we have shown that NPC macrophages have a deficiency in the phagocytosis of different particles. We plan to investigate the mechanistic basis for impaired phagocytosis, the contribution that this deficiency makes to disease pathology, and whether therapies that have shown in vivo benefit are able to restore phagocytic activity.

Keywords: Niemann Pick Disease C, phagocytosis, innate immunity, lysosomal storage disorder

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12 The Role of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Mediator in BV2 Microglial Cells

Authors: Nootchanat Mairuae, Walaiporn Tongjaroenbuangam, Chalisa Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn, Poonlarp Cheepsunthorn

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effect, the anti-inflammatory effects, and the molecular mechanisms of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The BV2 cells were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of okra. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 was detected by Western blot assay. Treatment of BV2 microglia cells with okra was found to significantly suppress the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator NO as well as ROS compared to untreated cells. The levels of LPS-induced NF-kB p65 phosphorylation were significantly decreased following okra treatment too. These results show that okra exerts anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the NF-κB pathway. This suggests okra might be a valuable agent for treatment of anti-neuroinflammatory diseases mediated by microglial cells.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Linn, microglia, neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen spicy

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11 Inflammatory Alleviation on Microglia Cells by an Apoptotic Mimicry

Authors: Yi-Feng Kao, Huey-Jine Chai, Chin-I Chang, Yi-Chen Chen, June-Ru Chen

Abstract:

Microglia is a macrophage that resides in brain, and overactive microglia may result in brain neuron damage or inflammation. In this study, the phospholipids was extracted from squid skin and manufactured into a liposome (SQ liposome) to mimic apoptotic body. We then evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of SQ liposome on mouse microglial cell line (BV-2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. First, the major phospholipid constituents in the squid skin extract were including 46.2% of phosphatidylcholine, 18.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine, 7.7% of phosphatidylserine, 3.5% of phosphatidylinositol, 4.9% of Lysophosphatidylcholine and 19.3% of other phospholipids by HPLC-UV analysis. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the squid skin extract were 11.8 and 28.7%, respectively. The microscopic images showed that microglia cells can engulf apoptotic cells or SQ-liposome. In cell based studies, there was no cytotoxicity to BV-2 as the concentration of SQ-liposome was less than 2.5 mg/mL. The LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were significant suppressed (P < 0.05) by pretreated 0.03~2.5mg/ml SQ liposome. Oppositely, the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion were enhanced (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SQ-liposome possess anti-inflammatory properties on BV-2 and may be a good strategy for against neuro-inflammatory disease.

Keywords: apoptotic mimicry, neuroinflammation, microglia, squid processing by-products

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10 Design and Preliminary Evaluation of Benzoxazolone-Based Agents for Targeting Mitochondrial-Located Translocator Protein

Authors: Nidhi Chadha, A. K. Tiwari, Marilyn D. Milton, Anil K. Mishra

Abstract:

Translocator protein (18 kDa) TSPO is highly expressed during microglia activation in neuroinflammation. Although a number of PET ligands have been developed for the visualization of activated microglia, one of the advantageous approaches is to develop potential optical imaging (OI) probe. Our study involves computational screening, synthesis and evaluation of TSPO ligand through various imaging modalities namely PET/SPECT/Optical. The initial computational screening involves pharmacophore modeling from the library designing having oxo-benzooxazol-3-yl-N-phenyl-acetamide groups and synthesis for visualization of efficacy of these compounds as multimodal imaging probes. Structure modeling of monomer, Ala147Thr mutated, parallel and anti-parallel TSPO dimers was performed and docking analysis was performed for distinct binding sites. Computational analysis showed pattern of variable binding profile of known diagnostic ligands and NBMP via interactions with conserved residues along with TSPO’s natural polymorphism of Ala147→Thr, which showed alteration in the binding affinity due to considerable changes in tertiary structure. Preliminary in vitro binding studies shows binding affinity in the range of 1-5 nm and selectivity was also certified by blocking studies. In summary, this skeleton was found to be potential probe for TSPO imaging due to ease in synthesis, appropriate lipophilicity and reach to specific region of brain.

Keywords: TSPO, molecular modeling, imaging, docking

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9 A Retrospective Study to Evaluate Verbal Scores of Autistic Children Who Received Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Authors: Tami Peterson

Abstract:

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been hypothesized as an effective treatment for increasing verbal language skills in individuals on the autism spectrum. A child’s ability to effectively communicate with peers, parents, and caregivers impacts their level of independence and quality of personal relationships. This retrospective study will compare the speech development of participants aged 2-17 years that received 40 sessions of HBOT at 2.0 ATA to those who had not. Both groups will have a verbal assessment every six months. There were 31 subjects in the HBO group and 32 subjects in the non-HBO group. The statistical analysis will focus on whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy made a significant difference in Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) or Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) results. The evidence demonstrates a strong correlation between HBOT and an increased change from baseline verbal scores compared to the control group, even in difficult to grasp areas such as spontaneous vocalization. We suggest this is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Neuroinflammation causes hypoperfusion of critical central nervous system areas responsible for the symptoms described within the autism spectrum, such as problems with thought processing, memory, and speech. Decreasing the inflammation allows the brain to function properly, which results in improved verbal scores for the participants that underwent HBOT.

Keywords: assessment of basic language and learning skills, autism spectrum disorder, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program

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8 Understanding Inhibitory Mechanism of the Selective Inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 Complex by Molecular Modeling Studies

Authors: Amir Zeb, Shailima Rampogu, Minky Son, Ayoung Baek, Sang H. Yoon, Keun W. Lee

Abstract:

Neurotoxic insults activate calpain, which in turn produces truncated p25 from p35. p25 forms hyperactivated Cdk5/p25 complex, and thereby induces severe neuropathological aberrations including hyperphosphorylated tau, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and neuronal death. Inhibition of Cdk5/p25 complex alleviates aberrant phosphorylation of tau to mitigate AD pathology. PHA-793887 and Roscovitine have been investigated as selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 with IC50 values 5nM and 160nM, respectively, but their mechanistic studies remain unknown. Herein, computational simulations have explored the binding mode and interaction mechanism of PHA-793887 and Roscovitine with Cdk5/p25. Docking results suggested that PHA-793887 and Rsocovitine have occupied the ATP-binding site of Cdk5 and obtained highest docking (GOLD) score of 66.54 and 84.03, respectively. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation demonstrated that PHA-793887 and Roscovitine established stable RMSD of 1.09 Å and 1.48 Å with Cdk5/p25, respectively. Profiling of polar interactions suggested that each inhibitor formed hydrogen bonds (H-bond) with catalytic residues of Cdk5 and could remain stable throughout the molecular dynamics simulation. Additionally, binding free energy calculation by molecular mechanics/Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) suggested that PHA-793887 and Roscovitine had lowest binding free energies of -150.05 kJ/mol and -113.14 kJ/mol, respectively with Cdk5/p25. Free energy decomposition demonstrated that polar energy by H-bond between the Glu81 of Cdk5 and PHA-793887 is the essential factor to make PHA-793887 highly selective towards Cdk5/p25. Overall, this study provided substantial evidences to explore mechanistic interactions of the selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25 and could be used as fundamental considerations in the development of structure-based selective inhibitors of Cdk5/p25.

Keywords: Cdk5/p25 inhibition, molecular modeling of Cdk5/p25, PHA-793887 and roscovitine, selective inhibition of Cdk5/p25

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7 Silymarin Reverses Scopolamine-Induced Memory Deficit in Object Recognition Test in Rats: A Behavioral, Biochemical, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

Authors: Salma A. El-Marasy, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam, Omar A. Ahmed-Farid

Abstract:

Dementia is characterized by impairments in memory and other cognitive abilities. This study aims to elucidate the possible ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia using the object recognition test (ORT). The study was extended to demonstrate the role of cholinergic activity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes in the anti-amnestic effect of silymarin in demented rats. Wistar rats were pretreated with silymarin (200, 400, 800 mg/kg) or donepezil (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 consecutive days. Dementia was induced after the last drug administration by a single intraperitoneal dose of scopolamine (16 mg/kg). Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses were then performed. Rats pretreated with silymarin counteracted scopolamine-induced non-spatial working memory impairment in the ORT and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), restored gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) contents in the cortical and hippocampal brain homogenates. Silymarin dose-dependently reversed scopolamine-induced histopathological changes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that silymarin dose-dependently mitigated protein expression of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in the brain cortex and hippocampus. All these effects of silymarin were similar to that of the standard anti-amnestic drug, donepezil. This study reveals that the ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia in rats using the ORT maybe in part mediated by, enhancement of cholinergic activity, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as mitigation in brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes.

Keywords: dementia, donepezil, object recognition test, rats, silymarin, scopolamine

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6 SUMOylation Enhances Nurr1/1a Mediated Transactivation in a Neuronal Cell Type

Authors: Jade Edey, Andrew Bennett, Gareth Hathway

Abstract:

Nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (also known as Nurr1 or NR4A2) is an orphan nuclear receptor which plays a vital role in the development, survival and maintenance of dopaminergic (DA) neurons particularly in the substantia nigra (SN). Increasing research has investigated Nurr1’s additional role within microglia and astrocytes where it has been suggested to act as a negative regulator of inflammation; potentially offering neuroprotection. Considering both DA neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are commonly accepted constituents of Parkinson’s Disease (PD), understanding the mechanisms by which Nurr1 regulates inflammatory processes could provide an attractive therapeutic target. Nurr1 regulates inflammation via a transrepressive mechanism possibly dependent upon SUMOylation. In addition, Nurr1 can transactivate numerous genes involved in DA synthesis, such as Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH). A C-terminal splice variant of Nurr1, Nurr-1a, has been reported in both neuronal and glial cells. However, research into its transcriptional activity is minimal. We employed in vitro methods such as SUMO-Pulldown experiments alongside Luciferase reporter assays to investigate the SUMOylation status and transactivation capabilities of Nurr1 and Nurr-1a respectively. The SUMO-Pulldown assay demonstrated Nurr-1a undergoes significantly more SUMO modification than its full-length variant. Consequently, despite having less transcriptional activation than Nurr1, Nurr1a may play a more prominent role in repression of microglial inflammation. Contrary to published literature we also identified that SUMOylation enhances transcriptional activation by Nurr1 and Nurr1a. SUMOylation-dependent increases in Nurr1 and Nurr1a transcriptional activation were only evident in neuronal SHSY5Y cells but not in HEK293 cells. This research provides novel insight into the regulation of Nurr-1a and indicates differential effects of SUMOylation dependent regulation in neuronal and inflammatory cells.

Keywords: nuclear receptors, Parkinson’s disease, inflammation, transcriptional regulation

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5 Investigation of Ameliorative Effect of a Polyphenolic Compound of Green Tea Extract against Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Sandeep Goyal, Sandeep Saluja

Abstract:

Natural antioxidants have major role in maintenance of health. Green tea extract principally contains epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), as its abundant antioxidant constituent. Green tea is consumed daily worldwide as antioxidant to combat CNS diseases and has traditional importance also. EGCG has neuroprotective potential in various animal models of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer’s disease etc. but its exact mechanism has not been ruled out. The present study has been designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and mitochondrial modulating mechanism of neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against rodent model of rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease (PD). The behavioural alterations were assessed by using open field test apparatus, Chatilon’s grip strength test apparatus and elevated plus maze for determining the locomotor activity, grip strength and cognition respectively. Biochemically, various parameters to assess oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurochemical estimations were performed on rat brain homogenates. A histological examination of rat brain striatum was done to check the neurodegeneration. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) at 10 & 20 mg/kg, were investigated for their neuroprotective potential along with levodopa as a standard agent. Minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, was administered alone and in combination with EGCG. EGCG and minocycline produced ameliorative effect against rotenone induced PD like symptoms by significantly reduced behavioral, biochemical and histological alterations. Results of our study reveal the neuroprotective effect of EGCG and minocycline against rotenone induced PD. Results of our study indicate that EGCG exerted neuroprotective effect against rotenone induced PD via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and mitochondrial modulating mechanisms and substantiate its previously reported and traditional claims for its use in CNS diseases.

Keywords: antioxidants, neurotoxicity, rotenone, EGCG

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4 Neuroprotective Effect of Chrysin on Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy in Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and TLR-4/NF-κB Pathway

Authors: S. A. El-Marasy, S. A. El Awdan, R. M. Abd-Elsalam

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of chrysin on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic encephalopathy in rats. Also, the effect of chrysin on motor impairment, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis and histopathological damage was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into five groups. The first group received the vehicle (distilled water) for 21 days and is considered as normal group. While the second one received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days during the third week of the experiment to induce HE and is considered as control group. The other three groups were orally administered chrysin for 21 days (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and starting from day 17; rats received intraperitoneal dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were assessed. Chrysin reversed TAA-induced motor coordination in rotarod test, cognitive deficits in object recognition test (ORT) and attenuated serum ammonia, hepatic liver enzymes, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) brain contents. Chrysin administration also reduced Toll-4 receptor (TLR-4) gene expression, caspase-3 protein expression, hepatic necrosis and astrocyte swelling. This study depicts that chrysin exerted neuroprotective effect in TAA-induced HE rats, evidenced by improvement of cognitive deficits, motor incoordination and histopathological changes such as astrocyte swelling and vacuolization; hallmarks in HE, via reducing hyperammonemia, ameliorating hepatic function, in addition to its anti-oxidant, inactivation of TLR-4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, and anti-apoptotic effects.

Keywords: chrysin, hepatic encephalopathy, oxidative stress, rats, thioacetamide, TLR4/NF-κB pathway

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3 Microglia Activation in Animal Model of Schizophrenia

Authors: Esshili Awatef, Manitz Marie-Pierre, Eßlinger Manuela, Gerhardt Alexandra, Plümper Jennifer, Wachholz Simone, Friebe Astrid, Juckel Georg

Abstract:

Maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from maternal viral infection during pregnancy is a known risk factor for schizophrenia. The neural mechanisms by which maternal infections increase the risk for schizophrenia remain unknown, although the prevailing hypothesis argues that an activation of the maternal immune system induces changes in the maternal-fetal environment that might interact with fetal brain development. It may lead to an activation of fetal microglia inducing long-lasting functional changes of these cells. Based on post-mortem analysis showing an increased number of activated microglial cells in patients with schizophrenia, it can be hypothesized that these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis and may actively be involved in gray matter loss observed in such patients. In the present study, we hypothesize that prenatal treatment with the inflammatory agent Poly(I:C) during embryogenesis at contributes to microglial activation in the offspring, which may, therefore, represent a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and underlines the need for new pharmacological treatment options. Pregnant rats were treated with intraperitoneal injections a single dose of Poly(I:C) or saline on gestation day 17. Brains of control and Poly(I:C) offspring, were removed and into 20-μm-thick coronal sections were cut by using a Cryostat. Brain slices were fixed and immunostained with ba1 antibody. Subsequently, Iba1-immunoreactivity was detected using a secondary antibody, goat anti-rabbit. The sections were viewed and photographed under microscope. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed increases in microglia cell number in the prefrontal cortex, in offspring of poly(I:C) treated-rats as compared to the controls injected with NaCl. However, no significant differences were observed in microglia activation in the cerebellum among the groups. Prenatal immune challenge with Poly(I:C) was able to induce long-lasting changes in the offspring brains. This lead to a higher activation of microglia cells in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region critical for many higher brain functions, including working memory and cognitive flexibility. which might be implicated in possible changes in cortical neuropil architecture in schizophrenia. Further studies will be needed to clarify the association between microglial cells activation and schizophrenia-related behavioral alterations.

Keywords: Microglia, neuroinflammation, PolyI:C, schizophrenia

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2 Depressive-Like Behavior in a Murine Model of Colorectal Cancer Associated with Altered Cytokine Levels in Stress-Related Brain Regions

Authors: D. O. Miranda, L. R. Azevedo, J. F. C. Cordeiro, A. H. Dos Santos, S. F. Lisboa, F. S. Guimarães, G. S. Bisson

Abstract:

Background: The Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. The prevalence of psychiatric-disorders among CRC patients, mainly depression, is high, resulting in impaired quality of life and side effects of primary treatment. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines at tumor microenvironment is a feature of CRC and the literature suggests that those mediators could contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the ability of tumor-associated biological processes to affect the central nervous system (CNS) has only recently been explored in the context of symptoms of depression and is still not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that depressive-like behavior in an experimental model of CCR induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was correlated to proinflammatory profile in the periphery and in the brain. Methods: Colorectal carcinogenesis was induced in adult C57BL/6 mice (n=12) by administration of MNNG (5mg/kg, 0.1ml/intrarectal instillation) 2 times a week, for 2 week. Control group (n=12) received saline (0.1ml/intrarectal instillation). Eight weeks after beginning of MNNG administration animals were submitted to the forced swim test (FST) and the sucrose preference test for evaluation, respectively, of depressive- and anhedonia-like behaviors. After behavioral evaluation, the colon was collected and brain regions dissected (cortex-C, striatum-ST and hippocampus-HIP) for posterior evaluation of cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and CX3CL1) by ELISA. Results: MNNG induced depressive-like behavior, represented by increased immobility time in the FST (Student t test, p < 0.05) and lower sucrose preference (Student t test, p < 0.05). Moreover, there were increased levels of IL-1β, IL-17 and CX3CL1 in the colonic tissue (Student t test, p < 0.05) and in the brain (IL-1 β in the ST and HIP, Student t test, p < 0.05; IL-17 and CX3CL1 in the C and HIP, p < 0.05). IL-10 levels, in contrast, were decreased in both the colon (p < 0.05) and the brain (C and HIP, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results obtained in the present work support the notion that tumor growth induces neuroinflammation in stress-related brain regions and depressive-like behavior, which could be related to the high incidence of depression in colorectal carcinogenesis. This work have important clinical and research implications, taken into account that cytokine levels may be a marker promissory for the developing depression in CRC patients. New therapeutic strategies to assist in alleviating mental suffering in cancer patients might result from a better understanding of the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of depression in these subjects.

Keywords: cytokines, brain, depression, colorectal cancer

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1 Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA)-Differentiated THP-1 Monocytes as a Validated Microglial-Like Model in Vitro

Authors: Amelia J. McFarland, Andrew K. Davey, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie

Abstract:

Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system (CNS), contributing to both innate and adaptive immune response, and brain homeostasis. Activation of microglia occurs in response to a multitude of pathogenic stimuli in their microenvironment; this induces morphological and functional changes, resulting in a state of acute neuroinflammation which facilitates injury resolution. Adequate microglial function is essential for the health of the neuroparenchyma, with microglial dysfunction implicated in numerous CNS pathologies. Given the critical role that these macrophage-derived cells play in CNS homeostasis, there is a high demand for microglial models suitable for use in neuroscience research. The isolation of primary human microglia, however, is both difficult and costly, with microglial activation an unwanted but inevitable result of the extraction process. Consequently, there is a need for the development of alternative experimental models which exhibit morphological, biochemical and functional characteristics of human microglia without the difficulties associated with primary cell lines. In this study, our aim was to evaluate whether THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes would display microglial-like qualities following an induced differentiation, and, therefore, be suitable for use as surrogate microglia. To achieve this aim, THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes from acute monocytic leukaemia were differentiated with a range of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) concentrations (50-200 nM) using two different protocols: a 5-day continuous PMA exposure or a 3-day continuous PMA exposure followed by a 5-day rest in normal media. In each protocol and at each PMA concentration, microglial-like cell morphology was assessed through crystal violet staining and the presence of CD-14 microglial / macrophage cell surface marker. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (055: B5) was then added at a range of concentrations from 0-10 mcg/mL to activate the PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Functional microglial-like behavior was evaluated by quantifying the release of prostaglandin (PG)-E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α using mediator-specific ELISAs. Furthermore, production of global reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined fluorometrically using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2-DA) respectively. Following PMA-treatment, it was observed both differentiation protocols resulted in cells displaying distinct microglial morphology from 10 nM PMA. Activation of differentiated cells using LPS significantly augmented IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 release at all LPS concentrations under both differentiation protocols. Similarly, a significant increase in DCFH-DA and DAF-2-DA fluorescence was observed, indicative of increases in ROS and NO production. For all endpoints, the 5-day continuous PMA treatment protocol yielded significantly higher mediator levels than the 3-day treatment and 5-day rest protocol. Our data, therefore, suggests that the differentiation of THP-1 human monocyte cells with PMA yields a homogenous microglial-like population which, following stimulation with LPS, undergo activation to release a range of pro-inflammatory mediators associated with microglial activation. Thus, the use of PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells represents a suitable microglial model for in vitro research.

Keywords: differentiation, lipopolysaccharide, microglia, monocyte, neuroscience, THP-1

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