Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: arsenic

121 Arsenic Speciation in Cicer arietinum: A Terrestrial Legume That Contains Organoarsenic Species

Authors: Anjana Sagar


Arsenic poisoned ground water is a major concern in South Asia. The arsenic enters the food chain not only through drinking but also by using arsenic polluted water for irrigation. Arsenic is highly toxic in its inorganic forms; however, organic forms of arsenic are comparatively less toxic. In terrestrial plants, inorganic form of arsenic is predominantly found; however, we found that significant proportion of organic arsenic was present in root and shoot of a staple legume, chickpea (Cicer arientinum L) plants. Chickpea plants were raised in pot culture on soils spiked with arsenic ranging from 0-70 mg arsenate per Kg soil. Total arsenic concentrations of chickpea shoots and roots were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) ranging from 0.76 to 20.26, and 2.09 to 16.43 µg g⁻¹ dry weight, respectively. Information on arsenic species was acquired by methanol/water extraction method, with arsenic species being analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ICP-MS. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was the only organic arsenic species found in amount from 0.02 to 3.16 % of total arsenic shoot concentration and 0 to 6.93 % of total arsenic root concentration, respectively. To investigate the source of the organic arsenic in chickpea plants, arsenic species in the rhizosphere of soils of plants were also examined. The absence of organic arsenic in soils would suggest the possibility of formation of DMA in plants. The present investigation provides useful information for better understanding of distribution of arsenic species in terrestrial legume plants.

Keywords: arsenic, arsenic speciation, dimethylarsinic acid, organoarsenic

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120 Effect of Arsenic Treatment on Element Contents of Sunflower, Growing in Nutrient Solution

Authors: Szilvia Várallyay, Szilvia Veres, Éva Bódi, Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács


The agricultural environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic elements, which means more and more threats. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic. Consequences of arsenic toxicity in the plant organism is decreases the weight of the roots, and causes discoloration and necrosis of leaves. The toxicity of arsenic depends on the quality and quantity of the arsenic specialization. The arsenic in the soil and in the plant presents as a most hazardous specialization. A dicotyledon plant were chosen for the experiment, namely sunflower. The sunflower plants were grown in nutrient solution in different As(III) levels. The content of As, P, Fe were measured from experimental plants, using by ICP-MS.Negative correlation was observed between the higher concentration of As(V) and As(III) in the nutrition solution and the content of P in the sunflower tissue. The amount of Fe was decreasing if we used a higher concentration of arsenic (30 mg kg-1). We can tell the conclusion that the arsenic had a negative effect on the sunflower tissue P and Fe content.

Keywords: arsenic, sunflower, ICP-MS, toxicity

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119 Bioremediation of Arsenic from Industrially Polluted Soil of Vatva, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Authors: C. Makwana, S. R. Dave


Arsenic is toxic to almost all living cells. Its contamination in natural sources affects the growth of microorganisms. The presence of arsenic is associated with various human disorders also. The attempt of this sort of study provides information regarding the performance of our isolated microorganisms in the presence of Arsenic, which have ample scope for bioremediation. Six isolates were selected from the polluted sample of industrial zone Vatva, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, out of which two were Thermophilic organisms. The thermophilic exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Bacillus was used for microbial enhance oil recovery (MEOR) and in the bio beneficiation. Inorganic arsenic primarily exists in the form of arsenate or arsenite. This arsenic resistance isolate was capable of transforming As +3 to As+5. This isolate would be useful for arsenic remediation standpoint from aquatic systems. The study revealed that the thermophilic microorganism was growing at 55 degree centigrade showed considerable remediation property. The results on the growth and enzyme catalysis would be discussed in response to Arsenic remediation.

Keywords: aquatic systems, thermophilic, exopolysacchride, arsenic

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
118 Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Arsenic-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat


The protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) was investigated in rats exposed to testicular injury induced by sodium arsenite (10mg/kg/day, orally, for two days). TQ treatment (10mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) was applied for five days, starting three day before arsenic administration. TQ significantly attenuated the arsenic-induced decreases of serum testosterone, and testicular reduced glutathione level, and significantly decreased the elevations of testicular malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels resulted from arsenic administration. Also, TQ ameliorated the arsenic-induced testicular tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, TQ decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. It was concluded that TQ may represent a potential candidate to protect against arsenic-induced testicular injury.

Keywords: thymoquinone, arsenic, testes, rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
117 Mulberry Leave: An Efficient and Economical Adsorbent for Remediation of Arsenic (V) and Arsenic (III) Contaminated Water

Authors: Saima Q. Memon, Mazhar I. Khaskheli


The aim of present study was to investigate the efficiency of mulberry leaves for the removal of both arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) from aqueous medium. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to optimize various parameters such as pH of metal ion solution, volume of sorbate, sorbent doze, and agitation speed and agitation time. Maximum sorption efficiency of mulberry leaves for As (III) and As (V) at optimum conditions were 2818 μg.g-1 and 4930 μg.g-1, respectively. The experimental data was a good fit to Freundlich and D-R adsorption isotherm. Energy of adsorption was found to be in the range of 3-6 KJ/mole suggesting the physical nature of process. Kinetic data followed the first order rate, Morris-Weber equations. Developed method was applied to remove arsenic from real water samples.

Keywords: arsenic removal, mulberry, adsorption isotherms, kinetics of adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
116 In vitro Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Human Keratinocytes

Authors: H. Bouaziz, M. Sefi, J. de Lapuente, M. Borras, N. Zeghal


Although arsenic trioxide has been the subject of toxicological research, in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies using relevant cell models and uniform methodology are not well elucidated. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by arsenic trioxide in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) using the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assays, respectively. Human keratinocytes were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide for 4 h prior to cytogenetic assessment. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that arsenic trioxide significantly reduced the viability of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing a IC50 value of 34.18 ± 0.6 µM. Data generated from the comet assay also indicated a significant dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in HaCaT cells associated with arsenic trioxide exposure. We observed a significant increase in comet tail length and tail moment, showing an evidence of arsenic trioxide -induced genotoxic damage in HaCaT cells. This study confirms that the comet assay is a sensitive and effective method to detect DNA damage caused by arsenic.

Keywords: arsenic trioxide, cytotoxixity, genotoxicity, HaCaT

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
115 Effects of Nitrogen and Arsenic on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Photosynthetic Pigments in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Mostafa Heidari


Nitrogen fertilization has played a significant role in increasing crop yield, and solving problems of hunger and malnutrition worldwide. However, excessive of heavy metals such as arsenic can interfere on growth and reduced grain yield. In order to investigate the effects of different concentrations of arsenic and nitrogen fertilizer on photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzyme activities in safflower (cv. Goldasht), a factorial plot experiment as randomized complete block design with three replication was conducted in university of Zabol. Arsenic treatment included: A1= control or 0, A2=30, A3=60 and A4=90 mg. kg-1 soil from the Na2HASO4 source and three nitrogen levels including W1=75, W2=150 and W3=225 kg.ha-1 from urea source. Results showed that, arsenic had a significant effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. By increasing arsenic levels from A1 to A4, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gayacol peroxidase (GPX) increased and catalase (CAT) was decreased. In this study, arsenic had no significant on chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid content. Nitrogen and interaction between arsenic and nitrogen treatment, except APX, had significant effect on CAT and GPX. The highest GPX activity was obtained at A4N3 treatment. Nitrogen increased the content of chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid.

Keywords: arsenic, physiological parameters, oxidative enzymes, nitrogen

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114 Protective Efficacy of Curcuma Aromatica Leaf Extract on Liver of Arsenic Intoxicated Albino Rats

Authors: Priya Bajaj, Baby Tabassum


Arsenic is a poisonous metalloid, naturally occurring in soil, air, rocks and ground water. This dreadful metalloid commonly exists as inorganic compound, arsenic trioxide. WHO permitted maximum limit for arsenic in water is 0.01 mg/L, but some affected areas show ground water level of arsenic up to 3 mg/L even. Ground water arsenic pollution has created a number of health problems, viz. keratosis, melanosis, lesions and even skin cancers. The key objective of our nested study was to characterize arsenic induced hepatotoxicity and to find out some herbal protection against it. For the purpose, we selected albino rat (Rattus norvegicus) as model for arsenic induced liver injury and wild turmeric (Curcuma aromatica) leaf extract as remedy for it. The study was performed at acute (1 day) and subacute (7, 14 & 21 days) levels. The LD50 estimated for arsenic trioxide was 14.98 mg/kg body weight. In our investigation, we observed a significant restoration of altered hepatic lipid, cholesterol, protein and glycogen contents as well as liver weight, body-weight and hepato-somatic index by Curcuma aromatica leaf extract before arsenic intoxication. The results reveal excellent protective efficacy of Curcuma aromatica leaf extract that further can be exploited in remediation programme in heavy metal affected areas.

Keywords: arsenic, Curcuma aromatica, glycogen, lipids

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
113 Preliminary Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Farmland Soils of Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State Nigeria

Authors: W. M. Buba, J. G. Nangbes, J. P. Butven


This research was undertaken to evolve community based awareness on the arsenic contamination from agricultural practices in Communities of Bokkos local government area. Contaminated farmland soil samples were collected from the surface for tailings and at various depths (50, 100, 150 cm intervals) in eight holes drilled in each farm at different locations using hand auger. A total of sixty- four (64) soil samples were collected from eight (8) different communities. A standard titrimetric method was applied for the determination of arsenic. It was found that the average concentration of arsenic in the surface soil (0-150cm) for the entire study areas was 0.0525mg/kg with range 0.0425 -0.0601mg/kg which is well above the recommended the soil to plant concentration guideline range of 2.3 – 4.3 x10-4 mg/kg value. This indicates that the arsenic concentration in the study areas does pose health risk for agricultural practices via potential bioaccumulation in plant food crops. However, some risks measures could follow the arsenic occurrence through direct exposure such as those resulting from the inhalation, oral or dermal intake of arsenic during agricultural practices and in the course of stay on the contaminated soil.

Keywords: agrochemicals, arsenic, bokkos, contamination, soil

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112 Effect of Different Arsenic Treatments on Root Growth of Sunflower Seedlings in Rhizobox Experiment

Authors: Szilvia Várallyay, Béla Kovács, Éva Bódi, Farzeneh Garousi, Szilvia Veres


Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring substance that can be present in soil, water and air. Vegetables, fruits, and other plants that grow in contaminated soils which are able to accumulate arsenic. Arsenic when presents in plant cells, has various negative physiological effects and when presents in soil will be inorgaic form, namely arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)). These two forms of arsenic disrupt plant metabolism by inhibiting its growth and these arsenic species has negative effect on nutrient uptake. A rhizobox experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of arsenite and arsenate on root growth of sunflower seedlings. Sunflower plants were grown in climatic room under irradiance of 300 µmol m-2 s-1, 16-h day and 8-h night photoperiod, day/night temperature of 25/20°C and relative humidity of 65-75%. We applied arsenic in form of arsenite (NaAsO2) and arsenate (KH2AsO4), respectively. The applied arsenic treatments was 0, 10, 30, 90 After disinfection, seeds were germinated between moist filter papers. Seedlings with 2-3 cm coleoptils were placed into rhizoboxes. In the rhizoboxes the growing and daily growing rhythm of roots of sunflower can be followed up, moreover possible phytotoxic symptoms of roots resulting from increasing arsenic can be seen. Weights of rhizoboxes were measured daily and also evaporated water added each day. The lengths of roots were measured daily until seedlings roots get at the end of the rhizoboxes. Negative correlation was observed between the higher concentration of arsenic in the soil and the growth of sunflower seedlings roots. The effect of arsenic toxicity was more considerable in 90 arsenic treatment than lower concentration. The same arsenite concentration causes slower growth in case of sunflower plant than the same arsenate concentration produced.

Keywords: arsenic, rhizobox experiment, sunflower, root growth

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111 A Comparison of the Adsorption Mechanism of Arsenic on Iron-Modified Nanoclays

Authors: Michael Leo L. Dela Cruz, Khryslyn G. Arano, Eden May B. Dela Pena, Leslie Joy Diaz


Arsenic adsorbents were continuously being researched to ease the detrimental impact of arsenic to human health. A comparative study on the adsorption mechanism of arsenic on iron modified nanoclays was undertaken. Iron intercalated montmorillonite (Fe-MMT) and montmorillonite supported zero-valent iron (ZVI-MMT) were the adsorbents investigated in this study. Fe-MMT was produced through ion-exchange by replacing the sodium intercalated ions in montmorillonite with iron (III) ions. The iron (III) in Fe-MMT was later reduced to zero valent iron producing ZVI-MMT. Adsorption study was performed by batch technique. Obtained data were fitted to intra-particle diffusion, pseudo-first order, and pseudo-second-order models and the Elovich equation to determine the kinetics of adsorption. The adsorption of arsenic on Fe-MMT followed the intra-particle diffusion model with intra-particle rate constant of 0.27 mg/g-min0.5. Arsenic was found to be chemically bound on ZVI-MMT as suggested by the pseudo-second order and Elovich equation. The derived pseudo-second order rate constant was 0.0027 g/mg-min with initial adsorption rate computed from the Elovich equation was 113 mg/g-min.

Keywords: adsorption mechanism, arsenic, montmorillonite, zero valent iron

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110 Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil and Recovery of Valuable Arsenic Products

Authors: Valentine C. Eze, Adam P. Harvey


Contamination of groundwater and soil by heavy metals and metalloids through anthropogenic activities and natural occurrence poses serious environmental challenges globally. A possible solution to this problem is through phytoremediation of the contaminants using hyper-accumulating plants. Conventional phytoremediation treats the contaminated hyper-accumulator biomass as a waste stream which adds no value to the heavy metal(loid)s decontamination process. This study investigates strategies for remediation of soil contaminated with arsenic and the extractive chemical routes for recovery of arsenic and phosphorus from the hyper-accumulator biomass. Pteris cretica ferns species were investigated for their uptake of arsenic from soil containing 200 ± 3ppm of arsenic. The Pteris cretica ferns were shown to be capable of hyper-accumulation of arsenic, with maximum accumulations of about 4427 ± 79mg to 4875 ± 96mg of As per kg of the dry ferns. The arsenic in the Pteris cretica fronds was extracted into various solvents, with extraction efficiencies of 94.3 ± 2.1% for ethanol-water (1:1 v/v), 81.5 ± 3.2% for 1:1(v/v) methanol-water, and 70.8 ± 2.9% for water alone. The recovery efficiency of arsenic from the molybdic acid complex process 90.8 ± 5.3%. Phosphorus was also recovered from the molybdic acid complex process at 95.1 ± 4.6% efficiency. Quantitative precipitation of Mg₃(AsO₄)₂ and Mg₃(PO₄)₂ occurred in the treatment of the aqueous solutions of arsenic and phosphorus after stripping at pH of 8 – 10. The amounts of Mg₃(AsO₄)₂ and Mg₃(PO₄)₂ obtained were 96 ± 7.2% for arsenic and 94 ± 3.4% for phosphorus. The arsenic nanoparticles produced from the Mg₃(AsO₄)₂ recovered from the biomass have the average particles diameter of 45.5 ± 11.3nm. A two-stage reduction process – a first step pre-reduction of As(V) to As(III) with L-cysteine, followed by NaBH₄ reduction of the As(III) to As(0), was required to produced arsenic nanoparticles from the Mg₃(AsO₄)₂. The arsenic nanoparticles obtained are potentially valuable for medical applications, while the Mg₃(AsO₄)₂ could be used as an insecticide. The phosphorus contents of the Pteris cretica biomass was recovered as phosphomolybdic acid complex and converted to Mg₃(PO₄)₂, which could be useful in productions of fertilizer. Recovery of these valuable products from phytoremediation biomass would incentivize and drive commercial industries’ participation in remediation of contaminated lands.

Keywords: phytoremediation, Pteris cretica, hyper-accumulator, solvent extraction, molybdic acid process, arsenic nanoparticles

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109 Evaluation of Arsenic Removal in Soils Contaminated by the Phytoremediation Technique

Authors: V. Ibujes, A. Guevara, P. Barreto


Concentration of arsenic represents a serious threat to human health. It is a bioaccumulable toxic element and is transferred through the food chain. In Ecuador, values of 0.0423 mg/kg As are registered in potatoes of the skirts of the Tungurahua volcano. The increase of arsenic contamination in Ecuador is mainly due to mining activity, since the process of gold extraction generates toxic tailings with mercury. In the Province of Azuay, due to the mining activity, the soil reaches concentrations of 2,500 to 6,420 mg/kg As whereas in the province of Tungurahua it can be found arsenic concentrations of 6.9 to 198.7 mg/kg due to volcanic eruptions. Since the contamination by arsenic, the present investigation is directed to the remediation of the soils in the provinces of Azuay and Tungurahua by phytoremediation technique and the definition of a methodology of extraction by means of analysis of arsenic in the system soil-plant. The methodology consists in selection of two types of plants that have the best arsenic removal capacity in synthetic solutions 60 μM As, a lower percentage of mortality and hydroponics resistance. The arsenic concentrations in each plant were obtained from taking 10 ml aliquots and the subsequent analysis of the ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) equipment. Soils were contaminated with synthetic solutions of arsenic with the capillarity method to achieve arsenic concentration of 13 and 15 mg/kg. Subsequently, two types of plants were evaluated to reduce the concentration of arsenic in soils for 7 weeks. The global variance for soil types was obtained with the InfoStat program. To measure the changes in arsenic concentration in the soil-plant system, the Rhizo and Wenzel arsenic extraction methodology was used and subsequently analyzed with the ICP-OES (optima 8000 Pekin Elmer). As a result, the selected plants were bluegrass and llanten, due to the high percentages of arsenic removal of 55% and 67% and low mortality rates of 9% and 8% respectively. In conclusion, Azuay soil with an initial concentration of 13 mg/kg As reached the concentrations of 11.49 and 11.04 mg/kg As for bluegrass and llanten respectively, and for the initial concentration of 15 mg/kg As reached 11.79 and 11.10 mg/kg As for blue grass and llanten after 7 weeks. For the Tungurahua soil with an initial concentration of 13 mg/kg As it reached the concentrations of 11.56 and 12.16 mg/kg As for the bluegrass and llanten respectively, and for the initial concentration of 15 mg/kg As reached 11.97 and 12.27 mg/kg Ace for bluegrass and llanten after 7 weeks. The best arsenic extraction methodology of soil-plant system is Wenzel.

Keywords: blue grass, llanten, phytoremediation, soil of Azuay, soil of Tungurahua, synthetic arsenic solution

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108 The Trial Using Bio-Product for Reducing Arsenic Heavy Metal in Soil in Grow Organic Vegetables

Authors: Nittaya Nokham, Nattaphon Kamon, Pipatpong Pimkhot, Pedcharada Yusuk


Testing efficacy of a bio-product (bp) to reduce amount of arsenic was carried out in soil which were used for cultivation of organic vegetables, at Watchan Royal Project Development Center, Kulayaniwattana district, Chiang Mai. The test consists of 6 treatments e.g. Tr.1) Control: To underlie the planting pits (pp)with compost; Tr.2) Using bp: To underlie thepp with compost mixed with (+) bp at 100 g/pit; Tr.3) Using bp: To underlie the pp with compost + bp at 100 g/pit and to spray the vegetables with bp at 2 l/20 l of water, once a week; Tr.4) Using bp: To spread the compost bp on the planting area at 3 kg/1 m2 ; Tr.5) Using bp: To spread the compost + bp on the planting area at 3 kg/1 m2and to spray vegetables with bp at 2 l/20 l of water; Tr.6) Using bp: To spray vegetables with bp at 2 l/20 l of water. Result showed that after first trial of pointed cabbage cultivation, only Tr.6 had a small reduction of arsenic; while the others had higher amount of the metal. After second trial of growing red oak leaf, Tr.6 had more reduction of arsenic while Tr.5 and Tr.3 had less reduction compared to Tr.6 but more reduction than the others. In the third trial of growing mustard, very small reduction could be found on Tr.6 and Tr.5 but more reduction in Tr.3. For the fourth (last) trial with cos romaine lettuce: Tr.6, Tr.5 showed most reduction of arsenic to about half of the original amount. So, it can be concluded that this bio-product can help reducing arsenic when using this product by spraying the bp to vegetables at concentration of 2 l/20 l of water once week (Tr.6), or using the bio-product mixed with compost to spread on the planting area at 3 kg/1 m2 together with spraying the product (Tr.5). The results obtained from continuous planting 4 kinds of vegetables at the same area. The amount of arsenic found in roots and stem is very small in the 4 vegetables.

Keywords: organic vegetables, bio-product, arsenic, soil

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107 Bacillus licheniformis sp. nov. PS-6, an Arsenic Tolerance Bacterium with Biotransforming Potential Isolated from Sediments of Pichavaram Mangroves of South India

Authors: Padmanabhan D, Kavitha S


The purpose of the study is to investigate arsenic resistance ability of indigenous microflora and its ability to utilize arsenic species form containing water source. PS-6 potential arsenic tolerance bacterium was screened from thirty isolates from Pichavaram Mangroves of India having tolerance to grow up to 1000 mg/l of As (V) and 800 mg/l of As (III) and arsenic utilization ability of 98 % of As (V) and 97% of As (III) with initial concentration of 3-5 mg/l within 48 hrs. Optimum pH and temperature was found to be ~7-7.4 and 37°C. Active growth of PS-6 in minimal salt media (MSB) helps in cost effective biomass production. Dry weight analysis of PS-6 has shown significant difference in biomass when exposed to As (III) and As (V). Protein level study of PS-6 after exposing to As (V) and As (III) shown modification in total protein concentration and variation in SDS-PAGE pattern. PS-6 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis based on partially sequenced of 16S rRNA using NCBI Blast. Further investigation will help in using this potential bacterium as a well-grounded source for urgency.

Keywords: arsenite, arsenate, Bacillus licheniformis, utilization

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106 Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water Is Associated with Dyslipidemia in Pregnancy

Authors: Begum Rokeya, Rahelee Zinnat, Fatema Jebunnesa, Israt Ara Hossain, A. Rahman


Background and Aims: Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem, and the exposure may increase dyslipidemia and cerebrovascular diseases mortalities, most likely through causing atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of lipid metabolism, atherosclerosis formation, arsenic exposure and impact in pregnancy is still unclear. Recent epidemiological evidences indicate close association between inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water and Dyslipidemia. However, the exact mechanism of this arsenic-mediated increase in atherosclerosis risk factors remains enigmatic. We explore the association of the effect of arsenic on serum lipid profile in pregnant subjects. Methods: A total 200 pregnant mother screened in this study from arsenic exposed area. Our study group included 100 exposed subjects were cases and 100 Non exposed healthy pregnant were controls requited by a cross-sectional study. Clinical and anthropometric measurements were done by standard techniques. Lipidemic status was assessed by enzymatic endpoint method. Urinary As was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and adjusted with specific gravity and Arsenic exposure was assessed by the level of urinary arsenic level > 100 μg/L was categorized as arsenic exposed and < 100 μg/L were categorized as non-exposed. Multivariate logistic regression and Student’s t - test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure both were significantly higher in the Arsenic exposed pregnant subjects compared to the Non-exposed group (p<0.001). Arsenic exposed subjects had 2 times higher chance of developing hypertensive pregnancy (Odds Ratio 2.2). In parallel to the findings in Ar exposed subjects showed significantly higher proportion of triglyceride and total cholesterol and low density of lipo protein when compare to non- arsenic exposed pregnant subjects. Significant correlation of urinary arsenic level was also found with SBP, DBP, TG, T chol and serum LDL-Cholesterol. On multivariate logistic regression showed urinary arsenic had a positive association with DBP, SBP, Triglyceride and LDL-c. Conclusion: In conclusion, arsenic exposure may induce dyslipidemia like atherosclerosis through modifying reverse cholesterol transport in cholesterol metabolism. For decreasing atherosclerosis related mortality associated with arsenic, preventing exposure from environmental sources in early life is an important element.

Keywords: Arsenic Exposure, Dyslipidemia, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Serum lipid profile

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105 Amelioration of Arsenic and Mercury Induced Vasoconstriction by Eugenol, Linalool and Carvone

Authors: Swati Kundu, Seemi Farhat Basir, Luqman A. Khan


Acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and mercury is known to produce vasoconstriction. Pathways involved in this hypercontraction and their relative contribution are not understood. In this study, we measure agonist-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta exposed to arsenic and mercury aorta and delineate pathways mediating this effect. PE-induced hypercontraction of 37% and 32% was obtained with 25 µM As(III) and 6 nM Hg(II), respectively. Isometric contraction measurements in the presence of apocynin, verapamil and sodium nitroprusside indicates that the major cause of increased contraction is reactive oxygen species and depletion of nitric oxide. Calcium influx plays a minor role in both arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction. In the unexposed aorta, eugenol causes relaxation by inhibiting ROS and elevating NO, linalool by blocking voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) and elevating NO, and carvone by blocking calcium influx through VDDC. Since arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction is mediated by increased ROS and depletion of nitric oxide, we hypothesize that molecules which neutralize ROS or elevate NO will be better ameliorators. In line with this argument, we find eugenol to be the best ameliorator of arsenic and mercury hypercontraction followed by linalool and carvone.

Keywords: carvone, eugenol, linalool, mercury

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104 Evaluation of Arsenic Removal in Synthetic Solutions and Natural Waters by Rhizofiltration

Authors: P. Barreto, A. Guevara, V. Ibujes


In this study, the removal of arsenic from synthetic solutions and natural water from Papallacta Lagoon was evaluated, by using the rhizofiltration method with terrestrial and aquatic plant species. Ecuador is a country of high volcanic activity, that is why most of water sources come from volcanic glaciers. Therefore, it is necessary to find new, affordable and effective methods for treating water. The water from Papallacta Lagoon shows levels from 327 µg/L to 803 µg/L of arsenic. The evaluation for the removal of arsenic began with the selection of 16 different species of terrestrial and aquatic plants. These plants were immersed to solutions of 4500 µg/L arsenic concentration, for 48 hours. Subsequently, 3 terrestrial species and 2 aquatic species were selected based on the highest amount of absorbed arsenic they showed, analyzed by plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and their best capacity for adaptation into the arsenic solution. The chosen terrestrial species were cultivated from their seed with hydroponics methods, using coconut fiber and polyurethane foam as substrates. Afterwards, the species that best adapted to hydroponic environment were selected. Additionally, a control of the development for the selected aquatic species was carried out using a basic nutrient solution to provide the nutrients that the plants required. Following this procedure, 30 plants from the 3 types of species selected were exposed to a synthetic solution with levels of arsenic concentration of 154, 375 and 874 µg/L, for 15 days. Finally, the plant that showed the highest level of arsenic absorption was placed in 3 L of natural water, with arsenic levels of 803 µg/L. The plant laid in the water until it reached the desired level of arsenic of 10 µg/L. This experiment was carried out in a total of 30 days, in which the capacity of arsenic absorption of the plant was measured. As a result, the five species initially selected to be used in the last part of the evaluation were: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), clover (Trifolium), blue grass (Poa pratensis), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and miniature aquatic fern (Azolla). The best result of arsenic removal was showed by the water hyacinth with a 53,7% of absorption, followed by the blue grass with 31,3% of absorption. On the other hand, the blue grass was the plant that best responded to the hydroponic cultivation, by obtaining a germination percentage of 97% and achieving its full growth in two months. Thus, it was the only terrestrial species selected. In summary, the final selected species were blue grass, water hyacinth and miniature aquatic fern. These three species were evaluated by immersing them in synthetic solutions with three different arsenic concentrations (154, 375 and 874 µg/L). Out of the three plants, the water hyacinth was the one that showed the highest percentages of arsenic removal with 98, 58 and 64%, for each one of the arsenic solutions. Finally, 12 plants of water hyacinth were chosen to reach an arsenic level up to 10 µg/L in natural water. This significant arsenic concentration reduction was obtained in 5 days. In conclusion, it was found that water hyacinth is the best plant to reduce arsenic levels in natural water.

Keywords: arsenic, natural water, plant species, rhizofiltration, synthetic solutions

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103 Development of a Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor Based on Carbon Dots and Graphitic Carbon Nitride for the Detection of 2-Chlorophenol and Arsenic

Authors: Theo H. G. Moundzounga


Arsenic and 2-chlorophenol are priority pollutants that pose serious health threats to humans and ecology. An electrochemical sensor, based on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C₃N₄) and carbon dots (CDs), was fabricated and used for the determination of arsenic and 2-chlorophenol. The g-C₃N₄/CDs nanocomposite was prepared via microwave irradiation heating method and was dropped-dried on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS) were used for the characterization of structure and morphology of the nanocomposite. Electrochemical characterization was done by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochemical behaviors of arsenic and 2-chlorophenol on different electrodes (GCE, CDs/GCE, and g-C₃N₄/CDs/GCE) was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results demonstrated that the g-C₃N₄/CDs/GCE significantly enhanced the oxidation peak current of both analytes. The analytes detection sensitivity was greatly improved, suggesting that this new modified electrode has great potential in the determination of trace level of arsenic and 2-chlorophenol. Experimental conditions which affect the electrochemical response of arsenic and 2-chlorophenol were studied, the oxidation peak currents displayed a good linear relationship to concentration for 2-chlorophenol (R²=0.948, n=5) and arsenic (R²=0.9524, n=5), with a linear range from 0.5 to 2.5μM for 2-CP and arsenic and a detection limit of 2.15μM and 0.39μM respectively. The modified electrode was used to determine arsenic and 2-chlorophenol in spiked tap and effluent water samples by the standard addition method, and the results were satisfying. According to the measurement, the new modified electrode is a good alternative as chemical sensor for determination of other phenols.

Keywords: electrochemistry, electrode, limit of detection, sensor

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102 Hepatotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in Adult Mice and Their Progeny

Authors: Bouaziz H., Soudania N., Essafia M., Ben Amara I., Hakim A., Jamoussi K., Zeghal Km, Zeghal N.


In this investigation, we have evaluated the effects of arsenic trioxide on hepatic function in pregnant and lactating Swiss albino mice and their suckling pups. Experiments were carried out on female mice given 175 ppm As2O3 in their drinking water from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Our results showed a significant decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride in As2O3 treated mice and their pups. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased plasma total alkaline phosphatase activity suggested the presence of cholestasis. Transaminase activities as well as lactate deshydrogenase activity in plasma, known as biomarkers of hepatocellular injury, were elevated indicating hepatic cells’damage after treatment with As2O3. Exposure to arsenic led to an increase of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and in glutathione.

Keywords: antioxidant status, arsenic trioxide, hepatotoxicity, mice, oxidative stress

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101 Increased Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes of Newborns in Arsenic Exposed- Women with Gestational Diabetes

Authors: Tania Mannan, Rahelee Zinnat, Fatema Jebunnesa, Israt Ara Hossain


Background: Exposure to arsenic has known toxic effects but the effect on pregnancy outcomes is not as widely documented especially in women with diabetes. Growing evidence has suggested a potential role of arsenic exposure in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of urinary arsenic (UAs) with birth outcomes in GDM subjects. Methods: Under an observational cross-sectional design a total of 263 GDM subjects (age in years, M±SD, 21±3.7) residing in an arsenic affected area of Bangladesh, were subjected to a 2 sample OGTT at the third trimester of gestation. Among them, 73 GDM and 190 non-GDM subjects enrolled in this study. Clinical and anthropometric measurements were done by standard techniques. Degree of chronic arsenic exposure was assessed by the level of UAs level. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, GDM was diagnosed and neonatal outcomes using APGAR (Activity Pulse Grimace Appearance Respirations) Score, birth weight and size were assessed by a specialist obstetrician. Serum glucose was measured by the Glucose Oxidase method and UAs level was determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. Result: Out of the 263 pregnant women, 28% developed GDM. Urinary Arsenic was significantly higher in the GDM as compared to the non-GDM group [UAs, µg/l, M±SD (range), 204.2±67.0 (67.0-377.0) vs 77.3±38.1 (22.0-99.0), p < 0.001]. Activity Pulse Grimace Appearance Respirations Score of the neonates from GDM mothers was significantly lower compared to the neonates from non-GDM mothers [APGAR Score, M±SD, 4.7±0.8 vs. 6.4±0.7, p<0.001]. Pearson’s correlation analysis in GDM subjects revealed that UA levels were found to have a significant positive correlation with both fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels (p < 0.001) and (p < 0.001) respectively. Again, a significant inverse correlation of UAs with birth weight and size was observed (p < 0.001). The APGAR Score of the neonates were found to have a significant negative correlation (p < 0.001) with UAs level. Conclusion: The effect of chronic arsenic exposure is associated with glucose intolerance during pregnancy and it also adversely affects birth outcomes. The study suggests further research on the impact of total arsenic exposure on pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: APGAR score, arsenic exposure, birth outcome, gestational diabetes mellitus,

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100 Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Gangetic Jharkhand, India: Risk Implications for Human Health and Sustainable Agriculture

Authors: Sukalyan Chakraborty


Arsenic contamination in groundwater has been a matter of serious concern worldwide. Globally, arsenic contaminated water has caused serious chronic human diseases and in the last few decades the transfer of arsenic to human beings via food chain has gained much attention because food represents a further potential exposure pathway to arsenic in instances where crops are irrigated with high arsenic groundwater, grown in contaminated fields or cooked with arsenic laden water. In the present study, the groundwater of Sahibganj district of Jharkhand has been analysed to find the degree of contamination and its probable associated risk due to direct consumption or irrigation. The present study area comprising of three blocks, namely Sahibganj, Rajmahal and Udhwa in Sahibganj district of Jharkhand state, India, situated in the western bank of river Ganga has been investigated for arsenic contamination in groundwater, soil and crops predominantly growing in the region. Associated physicochemical parameters of groundwater including pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation reduction potential (ORP), ammonium, nitrate and chloride were assessed to understand the mobilisation mechanism and chances of arsenic exposure from soil to crops and further into the food chain. Results suggested the groundwater to be dominantly Ca-HCO3- type with low redox potential and high total dissolved solids load. Major cations followed the order of Ca ˃ Na ˃ Mg ˃ K. The concentration of major anions was found in the order of HCO3− > Cl− > SO42− > NO3− > PO43− varied between 0.009 to 0.20 mg L-1. Fe concentrations of the groundwater samples were below WHO permissible limit varying between 54 to 344 µg L-1. Phosphate concentration was high and showed a significant positive correlation with arsenic. As concentrations ranged from 7 to 115 µg L-1 in premonsoon, between 2 and 98 µg L-1 in monsoon and 1 to 133µg L-1 in postmonsoon season. Arsenic concentration was found to be much higher than the WHO or BIS permissible limit in majority of the villages in the study area. Arsenic was also seen to be positively correlated with iron and phosphate. PCA results demonstrated the role of both geological condition and anthropogenic inputs to influence the water quality. Arsenic was also found to increase with depth up to 100 m from the surface. Calculation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects of the arsenic concentration in the communities exposed to the groundwater for drinking and other purpose indicated high risk with an average of more than 1 in a 1000 population. Health risk analysis revealed high to very high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk for adults and children in the communities dependent on groundwater of the study area. Observation suggested the groundwater to be considerably polluted with arsenic and posing significant health risk for the exposed communities. The mobilisation mechanism of arsenic also could be identified from the results suggesting reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides due to high phosphate concentration from agricultural input arsenic release from the sediments along river Ganges.

Keywords: arsenic, physicochemical parameters, mobilisation, health effects

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99 Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Relation to Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water in Liberia: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of Ensuring Clean Water and Sanitation

Authors: Victor Emery David Jr., Jiang Wenchao, Daniel Mmereki, Yasinta John


The fundamentals of public health are access to safe and clean drinking water. The presence of arsenic and other contaminants in drinking water leads to the potential risk to public health and the environment particularly in most developing countries where there’s inadequate access to safe and clean water and adequate sanitation. Liberia has taken steps to improve its drinking water status so as to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target of ensuring clean water and effective sanitation but there is still a lot to be done. The Sustainable Development Goals are a United Nation initiative also known as transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. It contains seventeen goals with 169 targets to be met by respective countries. Liberia is situated within in the gold belt region where there exist the presence of arsenic and other contaminants in the underground water due to mining and other related activities. While there are limited or no epidemiological studies conducted in Liberia to confirm illness or death as a result of arsenic contamination in Liberia, it remains a public health concern. This paper assesses the drinking water quality, the presence of arsenic in groundwater/drinking water in Liberia, and proposes strategies for mitigating contaminants in drinking water and suggests options for improvement with regards to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of ensuring clean water and effective sanitation in Liberia by 2030.

Keywords: arsenic, action plan, contaminants, environment, groundwater, sustainable development goals (SDGs), Monrovia, Liberia, public health, drinking water

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98 Arsenic Removal by Membrane Technology, Adsorption and Ion Exchange: An Environmental Lifecycle Assessment

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Paula Saavalainen, Kumudini V. Marathe, Riitta L. Keiski, Ganapati D. Yadav


Co-contamination of groundwaters by arsenic in different forms is often observed around the globe. Arsenic is introduced into the waters by several mechanisms and different technologies are proposed and practiced for effective removal. The assessment of three prominent technologies, namely, adsorption, ion exchange and nanofiltration was carried out in this study based on lifecycle methodology. The life of the technologies was divided into two stages: cradle to gate (C-G) and gate to gate (G-G), in order to find out the impacts in different categories of environmental burdens, human health and resource consumption. Life cycle inventory was estimated by use of models and design equations concerning with the different technologies. Regeneration was considered for each technology and over the course of its full lifetime. The impact values of adsorption technology for the C-G stage are greater by thousand times (103) and million times (106) compared to ion exchange and nanofiltration technologies, respectively. The impact of G-G stage of the lifecycle is the major contributor of the impact for all the 3 technologies due to electricity consumption during the operation. Overall, the ion Exchange technology fares well in this study of removal of As (V) only.

Keywords: arsenic, nanofiltration, lifecycle assessment, membrane technology

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97 Effect of Sodium Arsenite Exposure on Pharmacodynamic of Meloxicam in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Prashantkumar Waghe, N. Prakash, N. D. Prasada, L. V. Lokesh, M. Vijay Kumar, Vinay Tikare


Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid with potent toxic effects. It is ubiquitous in the environment and released from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It has the potential to cause various health hazards in exposed populations. Arsenic exposure through drinking water is considered as one of the most serious global environmental threats including Southeast Asia. The aim of present study was to evaluate the modulatory role of subacute exposure to sodium (meta) arsenite on the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic responses mediated by meloxicam in rats. Rats were exposed to arsenic as sodium arsenite through drinking water for 28 days. A single dose of meloxicam (2 mg/kg b. wt.) was administered by oral gavage on the 29th day. The exact time of meloxicam administration depended on the type of test. Rats were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=6). Group I served as normal control and received arsenic free drinking water, while rats in group II were maintained similar to Group I but received meloxicam on 29th day. Groups III, IV and V were pre-exposed to arsenic through drinking water at 0.5, 5.0 and 50 ppm, respectively, for 28 days and was administered meloxicam next day and; pain and inflammation carried out by using formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced inflammatory model(s), respectively by using standard protocol. For assessment of antipyretic effects, one more additional group (Group VI) was taken and given LPS @ 1.8 mg/kg b. wt. for induction of pyrexia (LPS control). Higher dose of arsenic inhibited the meloxicam mediated antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic responses. Further, meloxicam inhibited the arsenic induced level of tumor necrosis factor-α, inetrleukin-1β, interleukin -6 and COX2 mediated prostaglandin E2 in hind paw muscle. These results suggest a functional antagonism of meloxicam by arsenic. This may relate to arsenic mediated local release of tumor necrosis factor-α, inetrleukin-1β, interleukin -6 releases COX2 mediated prostaglandin E2. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that sub-acute exposure to arsenic through drinking water aggravate pyrexia, inflammation and pain at environment relevant concentration and decrease the therapeutic efficacy of meloxicam at higher level of arsenite exposure. Thus, the observation made has clinical relevance in situations where animals are exposed to arsenite epidemic geographical locations.

Keywords: arsenic, analgesic activity, meloxicam, Wistar rats

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96 Ameliorative Effect of Curcuma Longa against Arsenic Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Charles Foster Rats

Authors: Shazia Naheed Akhter, Rekha Kumari


An estimated 70 million population are exposed to arsenic poisoning in India in recent times. Arsenic contamination in the groundwater has caused serious health hazards among the exposed population. In Bihar, the first district was Bhojpur, where arsenic causing health issues were reported in 2002. Presently, there are 18 districts that are reported arsenic poisoning in the groundwater. The exposed population is firstly diseased with various symptoms such as skin manifestations, loss of appetite, constipation, hormonal disorders, etc. The long duration exposure has led to cause infertility in the male subjects. The present study thus aims to develop the antidote against arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity in animal models. The study was carried out on Charles Foster Rats after the approval from Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. A total of n=18 rats (12 weeks old) of an average weight of 160 ± 20 g were used for the study. The study group included n=6 control and n= 12 treated with sodium arsenite orally at the dose of 8mg/Kg b.w daily for 40 days. The n= 6 animals were dissected and the rest n=6 was administered orally with Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract at the dose of 600mg/Kg b.w per day for 40 days. At the end of the entire experiment, all the animals were dissected out and their reproductive organs were taken out, especially epididymis for sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm mortality, sperm morphology. The blood samples were collected for the hormonal assay (testosterone and luteinizing hormone), as well as for hematological and biochemical analysis. The study showed a high magnitude of degeneration in the reproductive organs of the rats in the arsenic-treated group. There were degenerative fluctuations in the sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm mortality, sperm morphology and in the hormonal parameters, as well as in the hematological and biochemical parameters in the arsenic-treated rats. But, after the administration of Curcuma longa, there was significant amelioration in all these parameters. Therefore, the present study shows that Curcuma longa plays a vital role to combat arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity.

Keywords: sodium arsenite, Charles foster rats, ethanolic rhizome extract of curcuma longa, male reproductive toxicity, amelioration

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95 Investigation on Natural Pollution Sources to Arsenic in around of Hashtrood City, East Azerbayjan Province

Authors: Azita Behbahaninia


Soil and surface and ground waters pollution to arsenic (As) due to its high potential for food cycle entrance, has high risk for human safety. Also, this pollution can cause quality and quantity decreasing of agricultural products or some lesions in farm animals that due to low knowledge, its reason is unknown, but can relate to As pollution. This study was conducted to investigate level of soil and water pollution by As in Hashtrood city. Based on the region’s information, the surface and ground waters, soil, river sediments, and rock were sampled and analyzed for physico-chemical and As in lab. There are significant differences for mean contents between As in the samples and crust. The maximum levels of As were observed in fly ash sample. Consequently, As pollution was related to geogenic and volcanic eruptions in this region. These mechanisms are diagnosed as As pollution in the region: As release for the rock units, As sorption by oxide minerals in aerobic and acidic to neutral conditions, desorption from oxide surfaces with pH increasing, increasing of As concentration in solution, and consequently pollution.

Keywords: arsenic, flyash, groundwater, soil

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94 Metal (Loids) Speciation Using HPLC-ICP-MS Technique in Klodnica River, Upper Silesia, Poland

Authors: Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla


The work allowed gaining knowledge about redox and speciation changes of As, Cr, and Sb ionic forms in Klodnica River water. This kind of studies never has been conducted in this region of Poland. In study optimized and validated previously HPLC-ICP-MS methods for determination of As, Sb and Cr was used. Separation step was done using high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with ion-exchange column followed by ICP-MS spectrometer detector. Preliminary studies included determination of the total concentration of As, Sb and Cr, pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity of the water samples. The study was conducted monthly from March to August 2014, at six points on the Klodnica River. The results indicate that exceeded at acceptable concentration of total Cr and Sb was observed in Klodnica River and we should qualify Klodnica River waters below the second purity class. In Klodnica River waters dominates oxidized antimony and arsenic forms, as well as the two forms of chromium Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Studies have also shown the methyl derivative of arsenic's presence.

Keywords: antimony, arsenic, chromium, HPLC-ICP-MS, river water, speciation

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93 Plasma Selenium Concentration and Polymorphism of Selenoprotein and Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yu-Mei Hsueh, Cheng-Shiuan Tsai, Chao-Yuan Huang


Prostate Cancer (PC) is a malignant tumor originated in prostate and is a second common male’s cancer in the world. Incidence of PC in Asia countries, have still been rising over the past few decades. As an antioxidant, selenium can slow down prostate cancer tumor progression, but the association between plasma selenium levels and risk of aggressive prostate cancer may be modified by different genotype of selenoprotein. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between plasma selenium, polymorphism of selenoprotein, urinaty total arsenic, and prostate cancer. Two hundred ninety five pathologically-confirmed cases of PC and 295 cancer-free controls were individually matched to case subjects by age (± 5 years) were recruited from Department of Urology of National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and Taipei Medical University Hospital. Personal interview and biospeciment of urine and blood collection from participants were conducted by well-trained interviewers after participants’ informed consent was obtained. Plasma selenium was measured by an inductively coupled plasma mass. Urinary arsenic concentration was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of SEPP1rs3797310 and SEP15 rs5859 were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The higher plasma selenium was the lower OR of PC with a dose-response relationship. Prostate cancer patients with high plasma selenium had low tumor stage and grade. Participants carried SEPP1rs3797310 CT+TT genotype compared to those with CC genotype had a lower OR of PC in crude model; then this relationship was disappeared after confounder was adjusted. Prostate cancer patients with high urinary total arsenic concentration had high tumor stage and grade. Urinary total arsenic concentration was significantly positively related with plasma selenium and prostate specific antigen concentration. Participants with lower plasma selenium concentration and higher urinary total arsenic concentration compared to those with higher plasma selenium concentration and lower urinary total arsenic concentration had a higher OR of PC with a dose-response relationship.

Keywords: prostate cancer, plasma selenium concentration, urinary arsenic concentration, prostate specific antigen

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92 Natural Mexican Zeolite Modified with Iron to Remove Arsenic Ions from Water Sources

Authors: Maritza Estela Garay-Rodriguez, Mirella Gutierrez-Arzaluz, Miguel Torres-Rodriguez, Violeta Mugica-Alvarez


Arsenic is an element present in the earth's crust and is dispersed in the environment through natural processes and some anthropogenic activities. Naturally released into the environment through the weathering and erosion of sulphides mineral, some activities such as mining, the use of pesticides or wood preservatives potentially increase the concentration of arsenic in air, water, and soil. The natural arsenic release of a geological material is a threat to the world's drinking water sources. In aqueous phase is found in inorganic form, as arsenate and arsenite mainly, the contamination of groundwater by salts of this element originates what is known as endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorizes the inorganic As within group I, as a substance with proven carcinogenic action for humans. It has been found the presence of As in groundwater in several countries such as Argentina, Mexico, Bangladesh, Canada and the United States. Regarding the concentration of arsenic in drinking water according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establish maximum concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹. In Mexico, in some states as Hidalgo, Morelos and Michoacán concentrations of arsenic have been found in bodies of water around 1000 μg L⁻¹, a concentration that is well above what is allowed by Mexican regulations with the NOM-127- SSA1-1994 that establishes a limit of 25 μg L⁻¹. Given this problem in Mexico, this research proposes the use of a natural Mexican zeolite (clinoptilolite type) native to the district of Etla in the central valley region of Oaxaca, as an adsorbent for the removal of arsenic. The zeolite was subjected to a conditioning with iron oxide by the precipitation-impregnation method with 0.5 M iron nitrate solution, in order to increase the natural adsorption capacity of this material. The removal of arsenic was carried out in a column with a fixed bed of conditioned zeolite, since it combines the advantages of a conventional filter with those of a natural adsorbent medium, providing a continuous treatment, of low cost and relatively easy to operate, for its implementation in marginalized areas. The zeolite was characterized by XRD, SEM/EDS, and FTIR before and after the arsenic adsorption tests, the results showed that the modification methods used are adequate to prepare adsorbent materials since it does not modify its structure, the results showed that with a particle size of 1.18 mm, an initial concentration of As (V) ions of 1 ppm, a pH of 7 and at room temperature, a removal of 98.7% was obtained with an adsorption capacity of 260 μg As g⁻¹ zeolite. The results obtained indicated that the conditioned zeolite is favorable for the elimination of arsenate in water containing up to 1000 μg As L⁻¹ and could be suitable for removing arsenate from pits of water.

Keywords: adsorption, arsenic, iron conditioning, natural zeolite

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