Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: neuroscience

73 Understanding Consumer Behaviors by Using Neuromarketing Tools and Methods

Authors: Tabrej Khan

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Neuromarketing can refer to the commercial application of neuroscience technologies and insights to drive business further. On the other side, consumer neuroscience can be seen as the academic use of neuroscience to better understand marketing effects on consumer behavior. Consumer Neuroscience and Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary effort between economics, psychology, and neuroscience and information technology. Traditional methods are using survey, interviews, focus group people are overtly and consciously reporting on their experience and thoughts. The unconscious side of customer behavior is largely unmeasured in the traditional methods. Neuroscience has a potential to understand the unconscious part. Through this paper, we are going to present specific results of selected tools and methods that are used to understand consumer behaviors.

Keywords: neuromarketing, neuroscience, consumer behaviors, tools

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72 The Facilitators and Barriers to the Implementation of Educational Neuroscience: Teachers’ Perspectives

Authors: S. Kawther, C. Marshall

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Educational neuroscience has the intention of transforming research findings of the underpinning neural processes of learning to educational practices. A main criticism of the field, hitherto, is that less focus has been put on studying the in-progress practical application of these findings. Therefore, this study aims to gain a better understanding of teachers’ perceptions of the practical application and utilization of brain knowledge. This was approached by investigating the answer to 'What are the facilitators and barriers for bringing research from neuroscience to bear on education?'. Following a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 teachers who had a proficient course in educational neuroscience. Thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed data applying Braun & Clark’s steps. Findings emerged with four main themes: time, knowledge, teacher’s involvement, and system. These themes revealed that some effective brain-based practices are being engaged in by the teachers. However, the lack of guidance and challenges regarding this implementation were also found. This study discusses findings in light of the development of educational neuroscience implementation.

Keywords: brain-based, educational neuroscience, neuroeducation, neuroscience-informed

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
71 A Holistic Approach of Cross-Cultural Management with Insight from Neuroscience

Authors: Mai Nguyen-Phuong-Mai

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This paper incorporates insight from various models, studies and disciplines to construct a framework called the Inverted Pyramid Model. It is argued that such a framework has several advantages: (1) it reduces the shortcomings of the problem-focused approach that dominates the mainstream theories of cross-cultural management. With contributing insight from neuroscience, it suggests that training in business cross-cultural awareness should start with potential synergy emerged from differences instead of the traditional approach that focuses on the liability of foreigners and negative consequences of cultural distance. (2) The framework supports a dynamic and holistic way of analyzing cultural diversity by analyzing four major cultural units (global, national, organizational and group culture). (3) The framework emphasizes the role of individuals –an aspect of culture that is often ignored or regarded as a non-issue in the traditional approach. It is based on the notion that people don’t do business with a country, but work (in)directly with a unique person. And it is at this individual level that culture is made, personally, dynamically, and contextually. Insight from neuroscience provides significant evidence that a person can develop a multicultural mind, confirm and contradict, follow and reshape a culture, even when (s)he was previously an outsider to this culture. With this insight, the paper proposes a revision of the old adage (Think global – Act local) and change it into Think global – Plan local – Act individual.

Keywords: static–dynamic paradigm, cultural diversity, multicultural mind, neuroscience

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
70 Embodied Cognition as a Concept of Educational Neuroscience and Phenomenology

Authors: Elham Shirvani-Ghadikolaei

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In this paper, we examine the connection between the human mind and body within the framework of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology. We study the role of this connection in designing more efficient learning environments, alongside the findings in physical recognition and educational neuroscience. Our research shows the interplay between the mind and the body in the external world and discusses its implications. Based on these observations, we make suggestions as to how the educational system can benefit from taking into account the interaction between the mind and the body in educational affairs.

Keywords: educational neurosciences, embodied cognition, pedagogical neurosciences, phenomenology

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69 A Positive Neuroscience Perspective for Child Development and Special Education

Authors: Amedeo D'Angiulli, Kylie Schibli

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Traditionally, children’s brain development research has emphasized the limitative aspects of disability and impairment, electing as an explanatory model the classical clinical notions of brain lesion or functional deficit. In contrast, Positive Educational Neuroscience (PEN) is a new approach that emphasizes strengths and human flourishing related to the brain by exploring how learning practices have the potential to enhance neurocognitive flexibility through neuroplastic overcompensation. This mini-review provides an overview of PEN and shows how it links to the concept of neurocognitive flexibility. We provide examples of how the present concept of neurocognitive flexibility can be applied to special education by exploring examples of neuroplasticity in the learning domain, including: (1) learning to draw in congenitally totally blind children, and (2) music training in children from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PEN encourages educators to focus on children’s strengths by recognizing the brain’s capacity for positive change and to incorporate activities that support children’s individual development.

Keywords: neurocognitive development, positive educational neuroscience, sociocultural approach, special education

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68 Individual Differences in Affective Neuroscience Personality Traits Predict Several Dimensions of Psychological Wellbeing. A Cross-Sectional Study in Healthy Subjects

Authors: Valentina Colonnello, Paolo Maria Russo

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Decades of cross-species affective neuroscience research by Panksepp and others have identified basic evolutionarily preserved subcortical emotional systems that humans share with mammals and many vertebrates. These primary emotional systems encode unconditional affective responses and contribute to the development of personality traits throughout ontogenesis and interactions with the environment. The Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) measures individual differences in affective personality traits associated with the basic emotional systems of CARE, PLAY, SEEKING, SADNESS, FEAR, and ANGER, along with Spirituality, which is a more cognitively and socially refined expression of affectivity. Though the ANPS’s power to predict human psychological distress has been documented, to the best of our knowledge, its predictive power for psychological wellbeing has not been explored. This study therefore investigates the relationship between affective neuroscience traits and psychological wellbeing facets. Because the emotional systems are thought to influence cognitively-mediated mental processes about the self and the world, understanding the relationship between affective traits and psychological wellbeing is particularly relevant to understanding the affective dimensions of health. In a cross-sectional study, healthy participants (n = 402) completed the ANPS and the Psychological Wellbeing scale. Multiple regressions revealed that each facet of wellbeing was explained by two to four affective traits, and each trait was significantly related to at least one aspect of wellbeing. Specifically, SEEKING predicted all the wellbeing facets, except for positive relations; CARE predicted personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life, and self-acceptance; PLAY and, inversely, ANGER predicted positive relations; SADNESS inversely predicted autonomy, while FEAR inversely predicted purpose in life. SADNESS and FEAR inversely predicted environmental mastery and self-acceptance. Finally, Spirituality predicted personal growth, positive relations, and self-acceptance. These findings are the first to show the relationship between affective neuroscience personality traits and psychological wellbeing. They also call attention to the distinctive role of FEAR and PANIC traits in psychological wellbeing facets, thereby complementing or even overcoming the traditional personality approach to neuroticism as a global trait.

Keywords: affective neuroscience, individual differences, personality, wellbeing

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67 Neuron Imaging in Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

Authors: Sandy Bao, Yankang Bao

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The understanding of information that is being processed in the brain, especially in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), has been proven challenging for modern neuroscience and for researchers with a focus on how neurons process signals and images. In this paper, we are proposing a method to image process different colors within different layers of LGN, that is, green information in layers 4 & 6 and red & blue in layers 3 & 5 based on the surface dimension of layers. We take into consideration the images in LGN and visual cortex, and that the edge detected information from the visual cortex needs to be considered in order to return back to the layers of LGN, along with the image in LGN to form the new image, which will provide an improved image that is clearer, sharper, and making it easier to identify objects in the image. Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) simulation is performed, and results show that the clarity of the output image has significant improvement.

Keywords: lateral geniculate nucleus, matrix laboratory, neuroscience, visual cortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
66 Educational Practices and Brain Based Language Learning

Authors: Dur-E- Shahwar

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Much attention has been given to ‘bridging the gap’ between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain a better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning approach, focusing on boundary-spanning actors, boundary objects, and boundary work. In 26 semi-structured interviews, neuroscientists and education professionals were asked about their perceptions in regard to the gap between science and practice and the role they play in creating, managing, and disrupting this boundary. Neuroscientists and education professionals often hold conflicting views and expectations of both brain-based learning and of each other. This leads us to argue that there are increased prospects for a neuro-scientifically informed learning practice if science and practice work together as equal stakeholders in developing and implementing neuroscience research.

Keywords: language learning, explore, educational practices, mentalist, practice

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65 Brain Networks and Mathematical Learning Processes of Children

Authors: Felicitas Pielsticker, Christoph Pielsticker, Ingo Witzke

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Neurological findings provide foundational results for many different disciplines. In this article we want to discuss these with a special focus on mathematics education. The intention is to make neuroscience research useful for the description of cognitive mathematical learning processes. A key issue of mathematics education is that students often behave as if their mathematical knowledge is constructed in isolated compartments with respect to the specific context of the original learning situation; supporting students to link these compartments to form a coherent mathematical society of mind is a fundamental task not only for mathematics teachers. This aspect goes hand in hand with the question if there is such a thing as abstract general mathematical knowledge detached from concrete reality. Educational Neuroscience may give answers to the question why students develop their mathematical knowledge in isolated subjective domains of experience and if it is generally possible to think in abstract terms. To address these questions, we will provide examples from different fields of mathematics education e.g. students’ development and understanding of the general concept of variables or the mathematical notion of universal proofs. We want to discuss these aspects in the reflection of functional studies which elucidate the role of specific brain regions in mathematical learning processes. In doing this the paper addresses concept formation processes of students in the mathematics classroom and how to support them adequately considering the results of (educational) neuroscience.

Keywords: brain regions, concept formation processes in mathematics education, proofs, teaching-learning processes

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64 All-or-None Principle and Weakness of Hodgkin-Huxley Mathematical Model

Authors: S. A. Sadegh Zadeh, C. Kambhampati

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Mathematical and computational modellings are the necessary tools for reviewing, analysing, and predicting processes and events in the wide spectrum range of scientific fields. Therefore, in a field as rapidly developing as neuroscience, the combination of these two modellings can have a significant role in helping to guide the direction the field takes. The paper combined mathematical and computational modelling to prove a weakness in a very precious model in neuroscience. This paper is intended to analyse all-or-none principle in Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model. By implementation the computational model of Hodgkin-Huxley model and applying the concept of all-or-none principle, an investigation on this mathematical model has been performed. The results clearly showed that the mathematical model of Hodgkin-Huxley does not observe this fundamental law in neurophysiology to generating action potentials. This study shows that further mathematical studies on the Hodgkin-Huxley model are needed in order to create a model without this weakness.

Keywords: all-or-none, computational modelling, mathematical model, transmembrane voltage, action potential

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63 Teaching Neuroscience from Neuroscience: an Approach Based on the Allosteric Learning Model, Pathfinder Associative Networks and Teacher Professional Knowledge

Authors: Freddy Rodriguez Saza, Erika Sanabria, Jair Tibana

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Currently, the important role of neurosciences in the professional training of the physical educator is known, highlighting in the teaching-learning process aspects such as the nervous structures involved in the adjustment of posture and movement, the neurophysiology of locomotion, the process of nerve impulse transmission, and the relationship between physical activity, learning, and cognition. The teaching-learning process of neurosciences is complex, due to the breadth of the contents, the diversity of teaching contexts required, and the demanding ability to relate concepts from different disciplines, necessary for the correct understanding of the function of the nervous system. This text presents the results of the application of a didactic environment based on the Allosteric Learning Model in morphophysiology students of the Faculty of Military Physical Education, Military School of Cadets of the Colombian Army (Bogotá, Colombia). The research focused then, on analyzing the change in the cognitive structure of the students on neurosciences. Methodology. [1] The predominant learning styles were identified. [2] Students' cognitive structure, core concepts, and threshold concepts were analyzed through the construction of Pathfinder Associative Networks. [3] Didactic Units in Neuroscience were designed to favor metacognition, the development of Executive Functions (working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control) that led students to recognize their errors and conceptual distortions and to overcome them. [4] The Teacher's Professional Knowledge and the role of the assessment strategies applied were taken into account, taking into account the perspective of the Dynamizer, Obstacle, and Questioning axes. In conclusion, the study found that physical education students achieved significant learning in neuroscience, favored by the development of executive functions and by didactic environments oriented with the predominant learning styles and focused on increasing cognitive networks and overcoming difficulties, neuromyths and neurophobia.

Keywords: allosteric learning model, military physical education, neurosciences, pathfinder associative networks, teacher professional knowledge

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62 The Neuroscience Dimension of Juvenile Law Effectuates a Comprehensive Treatment of Youth in the Criminal System

Authors: Khushboo Shah

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Categorical bans on the death penalty and life-without-parole sentences for juvenile offenders in a growing number of countries have established a new era in juvenile jurisprudence. This has been brought about by integration of the growing knowledge in cognitive neuroscience and appreciation of the inherent differences between adults and adolescents over the last ten years. This evolving understanding of being a child in the criminal system can be aptly reflected through policies that incorporate the mitigating traits of youth. First, the presentation will delineate the structures in cognitive neuroscience and in particular, focus on the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, and the basal ganglia. These key anatomical structures in the brain are linked to three mitigating adolescent traits—an underdeveloped sense of responsibility, an increased vulnerability to negative influences, and transitory personality traits—that establish why juveniles have a lessened culpability. The discussion will delve into the details depicting how an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex results in the heightened emotional angst, high-energy and risky behavior characteristic of the adolescent time period or how the amygdala, the emotional center of the brain, governs different emotional expression resulting in why teens are susceptible to negative influences. Based on this greater understanding, it is incumbent that policies adequately reflect the adolescent physiology and psychology in the criminal system. However, it is important to ensure that these views are appropriately weighted while considering the jurisprudence for the treatment of children in the law. To ensure this balance is appropriately stricken, policies must incorporate the distinctive traits of youth in sentencing and legal considerations and yet refrain from the potential fallacies of absolving a juvenile offender of guilt and culpability. Accordingly, three policies will demonstrate how these results can be achieved: (1) eliminate housing of juvenile offenders in the adult prison system, (2) mandate fitness hearings for all transfers of juveniles to adult criminal court, and (3) use the post-disposition review as a type of rehabilitation method for juvenile offenders. Ultimately, this interdisciplinary approach of science and law allows for a better understanding of adolescent psychological and social functioning and can effectuate better legal outcomes for juveniles tried as adults.

Keywords: criminal law, Juvenile Justice, interdisciplinary, neuroscience

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61 Teaching Children about Their Brains: Evaluating the Role of Neuroscience Undergraduates in Primary School Education

Authors: Clea Southall

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Many children leave primary school having formed preconceptions about their relationship with science. Thus, primary school represents a critical window for stimulating scientific interest in younger children. Engagement relies on the provision of hands-on activities coupled with an ability to capture a child’s innate curiosity. This requires children to perceive science topics as interesting and relevant to their everyday life. Teachers and pupils alike have suggested the school curriculum be tailored to help stimulate scientific interest. Young children are naturally inquisitive about the human body; the brain is one topic which frequently engages pupils, although it is not currently included in the UK primary curriculum. Teaching children about the brain could have wider societal impacts such as increasing knowledge of neurological disorders. However, many primary school teachers do not receive formal neuroscience training and may feel apprehensive about delivering lessons on the nervous system. This is exacerbated by a lack of educational neuroscience resources. One solution is for undergraduates to form partnerships with schools - delivering engaging lessons and supplementing teacher knowledge. The aim of this project was to evaluate the success of a short lesson on the brain delivered by an undergraduate neuroscientist to primary school pupils. Prior to entering schools, semi-structured online interviews were conducted with teachers to gain pedagogical advice and relevant websites were searched for neuroscience resources. Subsequently, a single lesson plan was created comprising of four hands-on activities. The activities were devised in a top-down manner, beginning with learning about the brain as an entity, before focusing on individual neurons. Students were asked to label a ‘brain map’ to assess prior knowledge of brain structure and function. They viewed animal brains and created ‘pipe-cleaner neurons’ which were later used to depict electrical transmission. The same session was delivered by an undergraduate student to 570 key stage 2 (KS2) pupils across five schools in Leeds, UK. Post-session surveys, designed for teachers and pupils respectively, were used to evaluate the session. Children in all year groups had relatively poor knowledge of brain structure and function at the beginning of the session. When asked to label four brain regions with their respective functions, older pupils labeled a mean of 1.5 (± 1.0) brain regions compared to 0.8 (± 0.96) for younger pupils (p=0.002). However, by the end of the session, 95% of pupils felt their knowledge of the brain had increased. Hands-on activities were rated most popular by pupils and were considered the most successful aspect of the session by teachers. Although only half the teachers were aware of neuroscience educational resources, nearly all (95%) felt they would have more confidence in teaching a similar session in the future. All teachers felt the session was engaging and that the content could be linked to the current curriculum. Thus, a short fifty-minute session can successfully enhance pupils’ knowledge of a new topic: the brain. Partnerships with an undergraduate student can provide an alternative method for supplementing teacher knowledge, increasing their confidence in delivering future lessons on the nervous system.

Keywords: education, neuroscience, primary school, undergraduate

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60 A Survey and Theory of the Effects of Various Hamlet Videos on Viewers’ Brains

Authors: Mark Pizzato

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How do ideas, images, and emotions in stage-plays and videos affect us? Do they evoke a greater awareness (or cognitive reappraisal of emotions) through possible shifts between left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical networks? To address these questions, this presentation summarizes the research of various neuroscientists, especially Bernard Baars and others involved in Global Workspace Theory, Matthew Lieberman in social neuroscience, Iain McGilchrist on left and right cortical functions, and Jaak Panksepp on the subcortical circuits of primal emotions. Through such research, this presentation offers an ‘inner theatre’ model of the brain, regarding major hubs of neural networks and our animal ancestry. It also considers recent experiments, by Mario Beauregard, on the cognitive reappraisal of sad, erotic, and aversive film clips. Finally, it applies the inner-theatre model and related research to survey results of theatre students who read and then watched the ‘To be or not to be’ speech in 8 different video versions (from stage and screen productions) of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Findings show that students become aware of left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical brain functions—and shifts between them—through staging and movie-making choices in each of the different videos.

Keywords: cognitive reappraisal, Hamlet, neuroscience, Shakespeare, theatre

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59 The Use of Network Tool for Brain Signal Data Analysis: A Case Study with Blind and Sighted Individuals

Authors: Cleiton Pons Ferreira, Diana Francisca Adamatti

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Advancements in computers technology have allowed to obtain information for research in biology and neuroscience. In order to transform the data from these surveys, networks have long been used to represent important biological processes, changing the use of this tools from purely illustrative and didactic to more analytic, even including interaction analysis and hypothesis formulation. Many studies have involved this application, but not directly for interpretation of data obtained from brain functions, asking for new perspectives of development in neuroinformatics using existent models of tools already disseminated by the bioinformatics. This study includes an analysis of neurological data through electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, using the Cytoscape, an open source software tool for visualizing complex networks in biological databases. The data were obtained from a comparative case study developed in a research from the University of Rio Grande (FURG), using the EEG signals from a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) with 32 eletrodes prepared in the brain of a blind and a sighted individuals during the execution of an activity that stimulated the spatial ability. This study intends to present results that lead to better ways for use and adapt techniques that support the data treatment of brain signals for elevate the understanding and learning in neuroscience.

Keywords: neuroinformatics, bioinformatics, network tools, brain mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
58 Carl Wernicke and the Origin of Neurolinguistics in Breslau: A Case Study in the Domain of the History of Linguistics

Authors: Aneta Daniel

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The subject of the study is the exploration of the origins and dynamics of the development of language studies, which have been labelled as neurolinguistics. It is worth mentioning that the origins of neurolinguistics are to be found in the research conducted by German scientists before the Second World War in Breslau Universität (presently Wroclaw). The dominant figure in these studies was professor Carl Wernicke, whose students continued and creatively developed projects of their master within this area. Professor Carl Wernicke, a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist, and neuropathologist, is primarily known for his influential research on aphasia. His research, as well as those conducted by professor Paul Broca, has led to breakthroughs in the location of brain functions, particularly speech. Years later the theses of the pioneers of cognitive neurology (Carl Wernicke and Paul Broca) were developed by other neurolinguists. The main objective of the investigation is the reconstruction of the group of scientists –the students of Carl Wernicke– who contributed to the development of neurolinguistics. The scholars were mainly neurologists and psychiatrists and dealt with the branch of science that had not been named neurolinguistics at that time. The profiles of the scholars will be analysed and presented as the members of the group of researchers who have contributed to the breakthroughs in psychology and neuroscience. The research material consists of archival records documenting the research of professor Carl Wernicke and the researchers from Breslau (presently Wroclaw) which is one of the fastest growing cities in Europe. In 1870, when Carl Wernicke became the medical doctor, Breslau was full of cultural events: festivals and circus shows were held in the city center. Today we can come back to these events due to 'Breslauer Zeitung (1870)', which precisely describes all the events that took place on particular days. It is worth noting that those were the beginnings of antisemitism in Breslau. Many theses and articles that have survived in the libraries in Wroclaw and all over the world contribute to the development of neuroscience. The history of research on the brain and speech analysis, including the history of psychology and neuroscience, areas from which neurolinguistics is derived, will be presented.

Keywords: Aphasia, brain injury, Carl Wernicke, language, neurolinguistics

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57 The Latency-Amplitude Binomial of Waves Resulting from the Application of Evoked Potentials for the Diagnosis of Dyscalculia

Authors: Maria Isabel Garcia-Planas, Maria Victoria Garcia-Camba

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Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have allowed a step forward in perceiving the processes involved in learning from the point of view of the acquisition of new information or the modification of existing mental content. The evoked potentials technique reveals how basic brain processes interact to achieve adequate and flexible behaviours. The objective of this work, using evoked potentials, is to study if it is possible to distinguish if a patient suffers a specific type of learning disorder to decide the possible therapies to follow. The methodology used, is the analysis of the dynamics of different areas of the brain during a cognitive activity to find the relationships between the different areas analyzed in order to better understand the functioning of neural networks. Also, the latest advances in neuroscience have revealed the existence of different brain activity in the learning process that can be highlighted through the use of non-invasive, innocuous, low-cost and easy-access techniques such as, among others, the evoked potentials that can help to detect early possible neuro-developmental difficulties for their subsequent assessment and cure. From the study of the amplitudes and latencies of the evoked potentials, it is possible to detect brain alterations in the learning process specifically in dyscalculia, to achieve specific corrective measures for the application of personalized psycho pedagogical plans that allow obtaining an optimal integral development of the affected people.

Keywords: dyscalculia, neurodevelopment, evoked potentials, Learning disabilities, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
56 Taleb's Complexity Theory Concept of 'Antifragility' Has a Significant Contribution to Make to Positive Psychology as Applied to Wellbeing

Authors: Claudius Peter Van Wyk

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Given the increasingly manifest phenomena, as described in complexity theory, of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA), Taleb's notion of 'antifragility, has a significant contribution to make to positive psychology applied to wellbeing. Antifragility is argued to be fundamentally different from the concepts of resiliency; as the ability to recover from failure, and robustness; as the ability to resist failure. Rather it describes the capacity to reorganise in the face of stress in such a way as to cope more effectively with systemic challenges. The concept, which has been applied in disciplines ranging from physics, molecular biology, planning, engineering, and computer science, can now be considered for its application in individual human and social wellbeing. There are strong correlations to Antonovsky's model of 'salutogenesis' in which an attitude and competencies are developed of transforming burdening factors into greater resourcefulness. We demonstrate, from the perspective of neuroscience, how technology measuring nervous system coherence can be coupled to acquired psychodynamic approaches to not only identify contextual stressors, utilise biofeedback instruments for facilitating greater coherence, but apply these insights to specific life stressors that compromise well-being. Employing an on-going case study with BMW South Africa, the neurological mapping is demonstrated together with 'reframing' and emotional anchoring techniques from neurolinguistic programming. The argument is contextualised in the discipline of psychoneuroimmunology which describes the stress pathways from the CNS and endocrine systems and their impact on immune function and the capacity to restore homeostasis.

Keywords: antifragility, complexity, neuroscience, psychoneuroimmunology, salutogenesis, volatility

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55 The Role of Executive Functions and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership: A Neuropsychological Perspective

Authors: Chrysovalanto Sofia Karatosidi, Dimitra Iordanoglou

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The overlap of leadership skills with personality traits, beliefs, values, and the integration of cognitive abilities, analytical and critical thinking skills into leadership competencies raises the need to segregate further and investigate them. Hence, the domains of cognitive functions that contribute to leadership effectiveness should also be identified. Organizational cognitive neuroscience and neuroleadership can shed light on the study of these critical leadership skills. As the first part of our research, this pilot study aims to explore the relationships between higher-order cognitive functions (executive functions), trait emotional intelligence (EI), personality, and general cognitive ability in leadership. Twenty-six graduate and postgraduate students were assessed on neuropsychological tests that measure important aspects of executive functions (EF) and completed self-reported questionnaires about trait EI, personality, leadership styles, and leadership effectiveness. Specifically, we examined four core EF—fluency (phonemic and semantic), information updating and monitoring, working memory, and inhibition of prepotent responses. Leadership effectiveness was positively associated with phonemic fluency (PF), which involves mental flexibility, in turn, an increasingly important ability for future leaders in this rapidly changing world. Transformational leadership was positively associated with trait EI, extraversion, and openness to experience, a result that is following previous findings. The relationship between specific EF constructs and leadership effectiveness emphasizes the role of higher-order cognitive functions in the field of leadership as an individual difference. EF brings a new perspective into leadership literature by providing a direct, non-invasive, scientifically-valid connection between brain function and leadership behavior.

Keywords: cognitive neuroscience, emotional intelligence, executive functions, leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
54 Damasio Concept of Homeostasis as a Useful Discourse for Architecture

Authors: Andrea Macruz

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Theories studied in architecture are scientifically proved through rigorous methodology, along with contemporary neuroscience studies. This paper discusses the role of homeostasis through the lens of the neuroscientist Antonio Damasio and its potential relation to architecture and design. Damasio's research demonstrated the importance of affect in social cognition and decision-making. Besides all his research, Damasio's Homeostasis Theory might be the most useful for design discourse. For him, homeostasis is a state in which human physiology is maintained within a range that allows for survival and flourishing, mainly defined as a self-regulating process by which an organism can maintain internal stability while adjusting to changing internal and external conditions, resulting in well-being. The understanding of physiological regulation has evolved from the Greek idea of body humors, through Claude Bernard's "milieu intérieur", to Walter Cannon's formulation of the concept of "homeostasis. This evolution was important to the homeostasis concept. However, these views of homeostasis do not usually conjure up the fact that there are two kinds of control of internal milieu parameters. The first one is the traditional one: a non-conscious form of physiological control which operates automatically without awareness or deliberation on the part of the organism. There is a second, additional regulatory system in humans and most animals that can be conscious and involves feelings of the simplest variety, also known as homeostatic feelings. Feelings are the main contribution of Damasio to homeostasis theories. It is important to understand what homeostatic sensations are and how they function because how we feel can start to serve as homeostatic guides. The traditional concept of homeostasis doesn't capture the depth of the notion and the range of situations in which it can be applied to biological systems. This paper aims to take a broader look at homeostasis, according to Damasio's theory. It comprises systems in which the presence of conscious and deliberative minds, both individually and in social groupings, allows for the establishment of additional regulatory mechanisms aimed at creating balanced and thus survivable living states. This essay proposes that design can be an example of such regulating mechanism and that information about human homeostasis could be useful in studying this field. It raises some questions such as: to what extent can design be seen as an extension of ourselves, acting as psychic stabilizers? It discusses how the reality of human homeostasis expands the views on preferences and rational choice and how designers can use feedback to create projects with greater intelligence and performance. It pins emotions and feelings as basic forms of cognition and affirms their importance in well-being. The relevance of the body's homeostasis and emotional reactivity in our brain is becoming increasingly evident in neuroscience yet difficult to incorporate into the design fields; therefore, this paper offers a unique opportunity as a line of research inquiry. Discussing homeostasis theory and laying a methodology to apply in design offers pragmatic insight into how this can contribute to the built environment in a way that privileges design and outcome.

Keywords: Antonio Damasio, architecture, emotion, homeostasis, neuroscience

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53 Changing Emphases in Mental Health Research Methodology: Opportunities for Occupational Therapy

Authors: Jeffrey Chase

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Historically the profession of Occupational Therapy was closely tied to the treatment of those suffering from mental illness; more recently, and especially in the U.S., the percentage of OTs identifying as working in the mental health area has declined significantly despite the estimate that by 2020 behavioral health disorders will surpass physical illnesses as the major cause of disability worldwide. In the U.S. less than 10% of OTs identify themselves as working with the mentally ill and/or practicing in mental health settings. Such a decline has implications for both those suffering from mental illness and the profession of Occupational Therapy. One reason cited for the decline of OT in mental health has been the limited research in the discipline addressing mental health practice. Despite significant advances in technology and growth in the field of neuroscience, major institutions and funding sources such as the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) have noted that research into the etiology and treatment of mental illness have met with limited success over the past 25 years. One major reason posited by NIMH is that research has been limited by how we classify individuals, that being mostly on what is observable. A new classification system being developed by NIMH, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoc), has the goal to look beyond just descriptors of disorders for common neural, genetic, and physiological characteristics that cut across multiple supposedly separate disorders. The hope is that by classifying individuals along RDoC measures that both reliability and validity will improve resulting in greater advances in the field. As a result of this change NIH and NIMH will prioritize research funding to those projects using the RDoC model. Multiple disciplines across many different setting will be required for RDoC or similar classification systems to be developed. During this shift in research methodology OT has an opportunity to reassert itself into the research and treatment of mental illness, both in developing new ways to more validly classify individuals, and to document the legitimacy of previously ill-defined and validated disorders such as sensory integration.

Keywords: global mental health and neuroscience, research opportunities for ot, greater integration of ot in mental health research, research and funding opportunities, research domain criteria (rdoc)

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52 Network Analysis and Sex Prediction based on a full Human Brain Connectome

Authors: Oleg Vlasovets, Fabian Schaipp, Christian L. Mueller

Abstract:

we conduct a network analysis and predict the sex of 1000 participants based on ”connectome” - pairwise Pearson’s correlation across 436 brain parcels. We solve the non-smooth convex optimization problem, known under the name of Graphical Lasso, where the solution includes a low-rank component. With this solution and machine learning model for a sex prediction, we explain the brain parcels-sex connectivity patterns.

Keywords: network analysis, neuroscience, machine learning, optimization

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51 The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Consumer Behaviour: Reviewing Recent Research

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

In the first decade of the twenty-first century, advanced imaging techniques began to be applied for neuroscience research. The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the most important and most used research techniques for the investigation of emotions, because of its ease to observe the brain areas that oxygenate when performing certain tasks. In this research, we make a review about the main research carried out on the influence of the emotions in the decision-making process that is exposed by using the fMRI.

Keywords: decision making, emotions, fMRI, consumer behaviour

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50 Universality and Synchronization in Complex Quadratic Networks

Authors: Anca Radulescu, Danae Evans

Abstract:

The relationship between a network’s hardwiring and its emergent dynamics are central to neuroscience. We study the principles of this correspondence in a canonical setup (in which network nodes exhibit well-studied complex quadratic dynamics), then test their universality in biological networks. By extending methods from discrete dynamics, we study the effects of network connectivity on temporal patterns, encapsulating long-term behavior into the rich topology of network Mandelbrot sets. Then elements of fractal geometry can be used to predict and classify network behavior.

Keywords: canonical model, complex dynamics, dynamic networks, fractals, Mandelbrot set, network connectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
49 Application of Neuroscience in Aligning Instructional Design to Student Learning Style

Authors: Jayati Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Teaching is a very dynamic profession. Teaching Science is as much challenging as Learning the subject if not more. For instance teaching of Chemistry. From the introductory concepts of subatomic particles to atoms of elements and their symbols and further presenting the chemical equation and so forth is a challenge on both side of the equation Teaching Learning. This paper combines the Neuroscience of Learning and memory with the knowledge of Learning style (VAK) and presents an effective tool for the teacher to authenticate Learning. The model of ‘Working Memory’, the Visio-spatial sketchpad, the central executive and the phonological loop that transforms short-term memory to long term memory actually supports the psychological theory of Learning style i.e. Visual –Auditory-Kinesthetic. A closer examination of David Kolbe’s learning model suggests that learning requires abilities that are polar opposites, and that the learner must continually choose which set of learning abilities he or she will use in a specific learning situation. In grasping experience some of us perceive new information through experiencing the concrete, tangible, felt qualities of the world, relying on our senses and immersing ourselves in concrete reality. Others tend to perceive, grasp, or take hold of new information through symbolic representation or abstract conceptualization – thinking about, analyzing, or systematically planning, rather than using sensation as a guide. Similarly, in transforming or processing experience some of us tend to carefully watch others who are involved in the experience and reflect on what happens, while others choose to jump right in and start doing things. The watchers favor reflective observation, while the doers favor active experimentation. Any lesson plan based on the model of Prescriptive design: C+O=M (C: Instructional condition; O: Instructional Outcome; M: Instructional method). The desired outcome and conditions are independent variables whereas the instructional method is dependent hence can be planned and suited to maximize the learning outcome. The assessment for learning rather than of learning can encourage, build confidence and hope amongst the learners and go a long way to replace the anxiety and hopelessness that a student experiences while learning Science with a human touch in it. Application of this model has been tried in teaching chemistry to high school students as well as in workshops with teachers. The response received has proven the desirable results.

Keywords: working memory model, learning style, prescriptive design, assessment for learning

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48 Postmodern Communication Through Semiology

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

Abstract:

This paper takes a semiological approach to show, that the meaning is not located in the art object nor it is exclusively in the mind of the perceiver, but rather lies in the relationship of the two. The ultimate intention of making art is to be presented and perceived by subjective human beings. But there will be as many different interpretations of the art presented to them, as they are individuals in the audience. To support this claim, the latest research from neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and Neo-Darwinism is used. This paper draws on Richard Dawkins’ concept of memes as one of the main tools for explaining how differences get created within various socio-cultural environments. Analyzing pitfalls of the modernist worldview, the author proposes postmodern methods as more efficient ways of understanding today’s complexities in the art, culture, and the world. Deconstructing how these differences have come about, presents a possibility for the transgression of the opposing and many times adamant viewpoints.

Keywords: semiology, music, meme, postmodern

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47 Comparison of Spiking Neuron Models in Terms of Biological Neuron Behaviours

Authors: Fikret Yalcinkaya, Hamza Unsal

Abstract:

To understand how neurons work, it is required to combine experimental studies on neural science with numerical simulations of neuron models in a computer environment. In this regard, the simplicity and applicability of spiking neuron modeling functions have been of great interest in computational neuron science and numerical neuroscience in recent years. Spiking neuron models can be classified by exhibiting various neuronal behaviors, such as spiking and bursting. These classifications are important for researchers working on theoretical neuroscience. In this paper, three different spiking neuron models; Izhikevich, Adaptive Exponential Integrate Fire (AEIF) and Hindmarsh Rose (HR), which are based on first order differential equations, are discussed and compared. First, the physical meanings, derivatives, and differential equations of each model are provided and simulated in the Matlab environment. Then, by selecting appropriate parameters, the models were visually examined in the Matlab environment and it was aimed to demonstrate which model can simulate well-known biological neuron behaviours such as Tonic Spiking, Tonic Bursting, Mixed Mode Firing, Spike Frequency Adaptation, Resonator and Integrator. As a result, the Izhikevich model has been shown to perform Regular Spiking, Continuous Explosion, Intrinsically Bursting, Thalmo Cortical, Low-Threshold Spiking and Resonator. The Adaptive Exponential Integrate Fire model has been able to produce firing patterns such as Regular Ignition, Adaptive Ignition, Initially Explosive Ignition, Regular Explosive Ignition, Delayed Ignition, Delayed Regular Explosive Ignition, Temporary Ignition and Irregular Ignition. The Hindmarsh Rose model showed three different dynamic neuron behaviours; Spike, Burst and Chaotic. From these results, the Izhikevich cell model may be preferred due to its ability to reflect the true behavior of the nerve cell, the ability to produce different types of spikes, and the suitability for use in larger scale brain models. The most important reason for choosing the Adaptive Exponential Integrate Fire model is that it can create rich ignition patterns with fewer parameters. The chaotic behaviours of the Hindmarsh Rose neuron model, like some chaotic systems, is thought to be used in many scientific and engineering applications such as physics, secure communication and signal processing.

Keywords: Izhikevich, adaptive exponential integrate fire, Hindmarsh Rose, biological neuron behaviours, spiking neuron models

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46 Challenging Weak Central Coherence: An Exploration of Neurological Evidence from Visual Processing and Linguistic Studies in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Jessica Scher Lisa, Eric Shyman

Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder that is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction (i.e. deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, nonverbal communicative behaviors, and establishing/maintaining social relationships), as well as by the presence of repetitive behaviors and perseverative areas of interest (i.e. stereotyped or receptive motor movements, use of objects, or speech, rigidity, restricted interests, and hypo or hyperactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment). Additionally, diagnoses of ASD require the presentation of symptoms in the early developmental period, marked impairments in adaptive functioning, and a lack of explanation by general intellectual impairment or global developmental delay (although these conditions may be co-occurring). Over the past several decades, many theories have been developed in an effort to explain the root cause of ASD in terms of atypical central cognitive processes. The field of neuroscience is increasingly finding structural and functional differences between autistic and neurotypical individuals using neuro-imaging technology. One main area this research has focused upon is in visuospatial processing, with specific attention to the notion of ‘weak central coherence’ (WCC). This paper offers an analysis of findings from selected studies in order to explore research that challenges the ‘deficit’ characterization of a weak central coherence theory as opposed to a ‘superiority’ characterization of strong local coherence. The weak central coherence theory has long been both supported and refuted in the ASD literature and has most recently been increasingly challenged by advances in neuroscience. The selected studies lend evidence to the notion of amplified localized perception rather than deficient global perception. In other words, WCC may represent superiority in ‘local processing’ rather than a deficit in global processing. Additionally, the right hemisphere and the specific area of the extrastriate appear to be key in both the visual and lexicosemantic process. Overactivity in the striate region seems to suggest inaccuracy in semantic language, which lends itself to support for the link between the striate region and the atypical organization of the lexicosemantic system in ASD.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, neurology, visual processing, weak coherence

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45 The Postcognitivist Era in Cognitive Psychology

Authors: C. Jameke

Abstract:

During the cognitivist era in cognitive psychology, a theory of internal rules and symbolic representations was posited as an account of human cognition. This type of cognitive architecture had its heyday during the 1970s and 80s, but it has now been largely abandoned in favour of subsymbolic architectures (e.g. connectionism), non-representational frameworks (e.g. dynamical systems theory), and statistical approaches such as Bayesian theory. In this presentation I describe this changing landscape of research, and comment on the increasing influence of neuroscience on cognitive psychology. I then briefly review a few recent developments in connectionism, and neurocomputation relevant to cognitive psychology, and critically discuss the assumption made by some researchers in these frameworks that higher-level aspects of human cognition are simply emergent properties of massively large distributed neural networks

Keywords: connectionism, emergentism, postocgnitivist, representations, subsymbolic archiitecture

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44 Analysis of iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neuron Susceptibility to Influenza and Excitotoxicity in Non-Affective Psychosis

Authors: Jamileh Ahmed, Helena Hernandez, Gabriel De Erausquin

Abstract:

H1N1 virus susceptibility of iPSC-derived DA neurons from schizophrenia patients and controls will compared. C57/BL-6 fibroblasts were reprogrammed into iPSCs using a lenti-viral vector containing SOKM genes. Pluripotency verification with the AP assay and immunocytochemistry ensured iPSC presence. The experimental outcome of ISPCs from DA neuron differentiation will be discussed in the Results section. Fibroblasts from patients and controls will be reprogrammed into iPSCs using a sendai-virus vector containing SOKM. IPSCs will be characterized using the AP assay, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. IPSCs will then be differentiated into DA neurons. Gene methylation will be compared for both groups with custom-designed microarrays.

Keywords: schizophrenia, iPSCs, stem cells, neuroscience

Procedia PDF Downloads 339