Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: macrophage

56 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristic Acid through Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

Authors: Hyun Ji Hyun, Hyo Sun Suh, Min Kook Kim, Yong Chan Kwon, Byung-Mu Lee

Abstract:

Scope: This study is focused on the effect of myristic acid on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Methods and results: For the experiment, RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line was used. Results showed that treatment with myristic acid can attenuate LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, myristic acid significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory mediators and down-regulating UVB-induced intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, myristic acid reduced the expression of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκB-α and ERK, JNK, and p38 pathways by inhibiting phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that the myristic acid could reduce LPS-induced inflammation. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) through the Encouragement Program for The Industries of Economic Cooperation Region

Keywords: anti-inflammation, myristic acid, ROS, ultraviolet light

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
55 Novel Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Macrophage Phenotypic Polarization

Authors: Mansi Srivastava, Uzma Saqib, Adnan Naim, Anjali Roy, Dongfang Liu, Deepak Bhatnagar, Ravinder Ravinder, Mirza S. Baig

Abstract:

Macrophages polarize to proinflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 states with distinct physiological functions. This transition within the M1 to M2 phenotypes decides the nature, duration, and severity of an inflammatory response. However, inspite of a substantial understanding of the fate of these phenotypes, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We have investigated the role of Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) mediated regulation of Activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor in macrophages as a critical effector of macrophage phenotypic change. Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a group of dimeric transcription factors composed of jun, Fos, and ATF family proteins. We determined that NOS1-derived nitric oxide (NO) facilitate Fos and jun interaction which induces IL12 & IL23 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of NOS1 inhibits Fos and jun interaction but increases ATF2 and Fos dimerization. Switching of Fos and jun dimer to ATF2 and jun dimerization switches phenotype from IL–12high IL-23high IL-10low to IL–12low IL-23lowIL-10high phenotype, respectively. Together, these findings highlight a key role of the TLR4-NOS1-AP1 signaling axis in regulating macrophage polarization.

Keywords: inflammation, macrophage, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines, activator protein 1 (AP-1), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1)

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54 Immunomodulatory Effect of Deer Antler Extract

Authors: Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Hye Kyung Kim

Abstract:

Velvet antler (VA), the immature antlers of male deer, is traditionally used for thousands of years in Asian countries, such as Korea, China, Taiwan, and Mongolia. It has been considered to improve immune system and physical strength. The goal of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of deer antler velvet using in vitro system. In the first step, the effects of VA (70% ethanol extract) on the proliferation of splenocytes, bone marrow cell, and macrophages were determined. Next, the effect of VA on the production of nitric oxide and phagocytic activity in macrophage were measured. The results showed that VA treatment increased concanavalin-A stimulated splenocyte, bone marrow cells, and macrophage proliferation in a dose dependent manner. VA at 50 and 100 ug/mL concentrations significantly enhanced the concanavalin-A stimulated splenocyte proliferation by 8.8% and 18.5%, respectively. The proliferation of bone marrow cells, isolated from 5wk-old ICR mice, were increased by 25.2% and 46.5% by 50 and 100 ug/mL VA treatment. RAW 264.7 cell proliferation reached peak value at 50 ug/mL of VA treatment exhibiting 108% of the basal value. Nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 macrophage cells was slightly reduced by VA treatment but was not statistically significant. Moreover, the phagocytic activity of macrophages was enhanced by VA treatment. These results indicate that VA is effective in immune system.

Keywords: deer antler, splenocyte, bone marrow cells, macrophage proliferation, phagocytosis

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53 Polymorphisms of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Susceptibility to Endometriosis

Authors: Z. Chekini, P. Afsharian, F. Ramezanali, A. A. Akhlaghi, R. Aflatoonian

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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that involves in pathophysiological events of endometriosis. We aimed to evaluate the association between mRNA expression levels and polymorphisms of MIF in endometriosis. Seventy endometriosis patients and 70 volunteer fertile women were recruited. RFLP was applied to determine -173G/C polymorphism. ORF polymorphisms and -794(CATT)5-8 were detected by sequencing. Q-PCR was used for expression study of 14 ectopic tissues of patients. Homozygote of CATT5 was observed only in controls. The CATT5/G haplotype related to controls (p=0.094, OR=0.61). Expression level of MIF with -794(CATT)6,7/-173GC was significantly more than the other haplotypes (p=0.00). We identified four SNPs including: +254rs2096525 (p=0.843), +626rs33958703 (p=0.029), +656rs2070766 (p=0.703) and +509rs182012324 (p=1.00). In conclusion, increased repeat of CATT and presence of C allele in promoter of MIF were significantly associated with mRNA level in patients. It seems that +509rs182012324 and +626rs33958703 SNPs were significantly correlated with susceptibility to endometriosis.

Keywords: endometriosis, haplotype, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, polymorphism

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52 Protective Effect of hsa-miR-124 against to Bacillus anthracis Toxins on Human Macrophage Cells

Authors: Ali Oztuna, Meral Sarper, Deniz Torun, Fatma Bayrakdar, Selcuk Kilic, Mehmet Baysallar

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Bacillus anthracis is one of the biological agents most likely to be used in case of bioterrorist attack as well as being the cause of anthrax. The bacterium's major virulence factors are the anthrax toxins and an antiphagocytic polyglutamic capsule. TEM8 (ANTXR1) and CMG2 (ANTXR2) are ubiquitously expressed type I transmembrane proteins, and ANTXR2 is the major receptor for anthrax toxins. MicroRNAs are 21-24 bp small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by base pairing with the 3' UTR (untranslated regions) of their target mRNAs resulting in mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. MicroRNAs contribute to regulation of most biological processes and influence numerous pathological states like infectious disease. In this study, post-exposure (toxins) protective effect of the hsa-miR-124-3p against Bacillus anthracis was examined. In this context, i) THP-1 and U937 cells were differentiated to MΦ macrophage, ii) miRNA transfection efficiencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and qPCR, iii) protection against Bacillus anthracis toxins were investigated by XTT, cAMP ELISA and MEK2 cleavage assays. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant SBAG-218S467.

Keywords: ANTXR2, hsa-miR-124-3p, MΦ macrophage, THP-1, U937

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51 The Aminoguanidine Reduced NO Synthase Activity and Infiltration of Macrophages in Inflammation Induced by LPS in Rats

Authors: Hakim Chayeb

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Macrophages (Mo) play an essential role in host defense against pathogens. These inflammatory cells contain a large group of inducible enzymes such as NO synthase (NOS). This study was conducted to characterize experimentally induced inflammation in vivo by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and a potent inducer of macrophage. Except control rats, all rats received different doses of LPS intra-peritoneally. The involvement of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and constitutive (cNOS ) in the modulation of the inflammatory response was studied by treating the rats with L-NAME (non-selective NOS inhibitor) or aminoguanidine (AG inhibitor of iNOS). Inhibitors were injected 24 hours before LPS administration. The results showed that esterase activity (a marker of macrophage infiltration) which is induced by LPS is reduced by AG, was potentiated by treatment with L-NAME in tissue homogenates of the liver, kidney and spleen. Meanwhile, the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) induced by LPS were reduced with AG and are completely inhibited with L-NAME in the tissues studied. NO concentrations and plasma transaminase levels have undergone remarkable increases in rats treated with LPS alone. However, the AG significantly reduced these rates. Our results highlighted the role of NO synthase inhibitors in reducing of inflammatory responses that characterize many infectious diseases.

Keywords: aminoguanidine, esterase, LPS, L-NAME, macrophage, nitric oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
50 Immunolabeling of TGF-β during Muscle Regeneration

Authors: K. Nikovics, D. Riccobono, M. Oger, H. Morin, L. Barbier, T. Poyot, X. Holy, A. Bendahmane, M. Drouet, A. L. Favier

Abstract:

Muscle regeneration after injury (as irradiation) is of great importance. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Cytokines are believed to play fundamental role in the different stages of muscle regeneration. They are secreted by many cell populations, but the predominant producers are macrophages and helper T cells. On the other hand, it has been shown that adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell (ASC) injection could improve muscle regeneration. Stem cells probably induce the coordinated modulations of gene expression in different macrophage cells. Therefore, we investigated the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression of different cytokines occurring upon stem cells loading. Muscle regeneration was studied in an irradiated muscle of minipig animal model in presence or absence of ASC treatment (irradiated and treated with ASCs, IRR+ASC; irradiated not-treated with ASCs, IRR; and non-irradiated no-IRR). We characterized macrophage populations by immunolabeling in the different conditions. In our study, we found mostly M2 and a few M1 macrophages in the IRR+ASC samples. However, only few M2b macrophages were noticed in the IRR muscles. In addition, we found intensive fibrosis in the IRR samples. With in situ hybridization and immunolabeling, we analyzed the cytokine expression of the different macrophages and we showed that M2d macrophage are the most abundant in the IRR+ASC samples. By in situ hybridization, strong expression of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) was observed in the IRR+ASC but very week in the IRR samples. But when we analyzed TGF-β level with immunolabeling the expression was very different: many M2 macrophages showed week expression in IRR+ASC and few cells expressing stronger level in IRR muscles. Therefore, we investigated the MMP expressions in the different muscles. Our data showed that the M2 macrophages of the IRR+ASC muscle expressed MMP2 proteins. Our working hypothesis is that MMP2 expression of the M2 macrophages can decrease fibrosis in the IRR+ASC muscle by capturing TGF-β.

Keywords: adipose tissue derived stromal/stem cell, cytokine, macrophage, muscle regeneration

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49 Prednisone and Its Active Metabolite Prednisolone Attenuate Lipid Accumulation in Macrophages

Authors: H. Jeries, N. Volkova, C. G. Iglesias, M. Najjar, M. Rosenblat, M. Aviram, T. Hayek

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Background: Synthetic forms of glucocorticoids (e.g., prednisone, prednisolone) are anti-inflammatory drugs which are widely used in clinical practice. The role of glucocorticoids (GCs) in cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation is still unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effects of prednisone or its active metabolite, prednisolone, on macrophage oxidative stress and lipid metabolism using in-vivo, ex-vivo and in-vitro systems. Methods: The in-vivo study included C57BL/6 mice which were intraperitoneally injected with prednisone or prednisolone (5mg/kg) for 4 weeks, followed by lipid metabolism analyses in the mice aorta, and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM). In the ex-vivo study, we analyzed the effect of serum samples obtained from 9 healthy volunteers before or after treatment with oral prednisone (20mg for 5 days), on J774A.1 macrophage atherogenicity. In-vitro studies were conducted using J774A.1 macrophages, human monocyte derived macrophages (HMDM) and fibroblasts. Cells were incubated with increasing concentrations (0-200 ng/ml) of prednisone or prednisolone, followed by determination of cellular oxidative status, triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism. Results: Prednisone or prednisolone treatment resulted in a significant reduction in triglycerides and mainly in cholesterol cellular accumulation in MPM or in J774A.1 macrophages incubated with human serum. Similar resulted were noted in HMDM or in J774A.1 macrophages which were directly incubated with the GCs. These effects were associated with GCs inhibitory effect on triglycerides and cholesterol biosynthesis rates, throughout downregulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1) expression, and of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP2) and HMGCR expression, respectively. In parallel to prednisone or prednisolone induced reduction in macrophage triglyceride content, paraoxonase 2 (PON2) expression was significantly upregulated. GCs-induced reduction of cellular triglyceride and cholesterol mass was mediated by the GCs receptors on macrophages since the GCs receptor antagonist (RU 486) abolished these effects. In fibroblasts, unlike macrophages, prednisone or prednisolone showed no anti-atherogenic effects. Conclusions: Prednisone or prednisolone are anti-atherogenic since they protected macrophages from lipid accumulation and foam cell formation.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, cholesterol, foam cell, macrophage, prednisone, prednisolone, triglycerides

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48 Mitochondrial Apolipoprotein A-1 Binding Protein Promotes Repolarization of Inflammatory Macrophage by Repairing Mitochondrial Respiration

Authors: Hainan Chen, Jina Qing, Xiao Zhu, Ling Gao, Ampadu O. Jackson, Min Zhang, Kai Yin

Abstract:

Objective: Editing macrophage activation to dampen inflammatory diseases by promoting the repolarization of inflammatory (M1) macrophages to anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages is highly associated with mitochondrial respiration. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial apolipoprotein A-1 binding protein (APOA1BP) was essential for the cellular metabolite NADHX repair to NADH, which is necessary for the mitochondrial function. The exact role of APOA1BP in the repolarization of M1 to M2, however, is uncertain. Material and method: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with LPS (10 ng/ml) or/and IL-4 (100 U/ml) for 24 hours. Biochemical parameters of oxidative phosphorylation and M1/M2 markers were analyzed after overexpression of APOA1BP in cells. Results: Compared with control and IL-4-exposed M2 cells, APOA1BP was downregulated in M1 macrophages. APOA1BP restored the decline in mitochondrial function to improve metabolic and phenotypic reprogramming of M1 to M2 macrophages. Blocking oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin blunts the effects of APOA1BP on M1 to M2 repolarization. Mechanistically, LPS triggered the hydration of NADH and increased its hydrate NADHX which inhibit cellular NADH dehydrogenases, a key component of electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation. APOA1BP decreased the level of NADHX via converting R-NADHX to biologically useful S-NADHX. The mutant of APOA1BP aspartate188, the binding site of NADHX, fail to repair oxidative phosphorylation, thereby preventing repolarization. Conclusions: Restoring mitochondrial function by increasing mitochondrial APOA1BP might be useful to improve the reprogramming of inflammatory macrophages into anti-inflammatory cells to control inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: inflammatory diseases, macrophage repolarization, mitochondrial respiration, apolipoprotein A-1 binding protein, NADHX, NADH

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47 Library Screening and Evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ketol-Acid Reductoisomerase Inhibitors

Authors: Vagolu S. Krishna, Shan Zheng, Estharla M. Rekha, Luke W. Guddat, Dharmarajan Sriram

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to human health. This due to the fact that current drug treatments are less than optimal as well as the rising occurrence of multi drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of the etiological agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt). Given the wide-spread significance of this disease, we have undertaken a design and evaluation program to discover new anti-TB drug leads. Here, our attention is focused on ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), the second enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. Importantly, this enzyme is present in bacteria but not in humans, making it an attractive proposition for drug discovery. In the present work, we used high-throughput virtual screening to identify seventeen potential inhibitors of KARI using the Birla Institute of Technology and Science in-house database. Compounds were selected based on high docking scores, which were assigned as the result of favourable interactions between the compound and the active site of KARI. The Ki values for two leads, compounds 14 and 16 are 3.71 and 3.06 µM, respectively for Mt KARI. To assess the mode of binding, 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations for these two compounds in association with Mt KARI were performed and showed that the complex was stable with an average RMSD of less than 2.5 Å for all atoms. Compound 16 showed an MIC of 2.06 ± 0.91 µM and a 1.9 fold logarithmic reduction in the growth of Mt in an infected macrophage model. The two compounds exhibited low toxicity against murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines. Thus, both compounds are promising candidates for development as an anti-TB drug leads.

Keywords: ketol-acid reductoisomerase, macrophage, molecular docking and dynamics, tuberculosis

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46 Identifying the Host Substrates for the Mycobacterial Virulence Factor Protein Kinase G

Authors: Saha Saradindu, Das Payel, Somdeb BoseDasgupta

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Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacteria tuberculosis is a dreadful disease and more so with the advent of extreme and total drug-resistant species. Mycobacterial pathogenesis is an ever-changing paradigm from phagosome maturation block to phagosomal escape into macrophage cytosol and finally acid tolerance and survival inside the lysosome. Mycobacteria are adept at subverting the host immune response by highjacking host cell signaling and secreting virulence factors. One such virulence factor is a ser/thr kinase; Protein kinase G (PknG), which is known to prevent phagosome maturation. The host substrates of PknG, allowing successful pathogenesis still remain an enigma. Hence we carried out a comparative phosphoproteomic screen and identified a number of substrates phosphorylated by PknG. We characterized some of these substrates in vivo and in vitro and observed that PknG mediated phosphorylation of these substrates leads to reduced TNFa production as well as decreased response to TNFa induced macrophage necroptosis, thus enabling mycobacterial survival and proliferation.

Keywords: mycobacteria, Protein kinase G, phosphoproteomics, necroptosis

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45 Mannose-Functionalized Lipopolysaccharide Nanoparticles for Macrophage-Targeted Dual Delivery of Rifampicin and Isoniazid

Authors: Mumuni Sumaila, Viness Pillay, Yahya E. Choonara, Pradeep Kumar, Pierre P. Kondiah

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Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious challenge to public health globally, despite every effort put together to curb the disease. Current TB therapeutics available have proven to be inefficient due to a multitude of drawbacks that range from serious adverse effects/drug toxicity to inconsistent bioavailability, which ultimately contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant TB. An effective ‘cargo’ system designed to cleverly deliver therapeutic doses of anti-TB drugs to infection sites and in a sustained-release manner may provide a better therapeutic choice towards winning the war against TB. In the current study, we investigated mannose-functionalized lipopolysaccharide hybrid nanoparticles for safety and efficacy towards macrophage-targeted simultaneous delivery of the two first-line anti-TB drugs, rifampicin (RF) and isoniazid (IS). RF-IS-loaded lipopolysaccharide hybrid nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent injection technique (SIT), incorporating soy lecithin (SL) and low molecular weight chitosan (CS) as the lipid and polysaccharide components, respectively. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles were obtained through the reaction of the aldehyde group of mannose with free amine functionality present at the surface of the nanoparticles. The functionalized nanocarriers were spherical with average particle size and surface charge of 107.83 nm and +21.77 mV, respectively, and entrapment efficiencies (EE) were 53.52% and 69.80% for RF and IS, respectively. FTIR spectrum revealed high-intensity bands between 1663 cm⁻¹ and 1408 cm⁻¹ wavenumbers (absent in non-functionalized nanoparticles), which could be attributed to the C=N stretching vibration produced by the formation of Schiff’s base (–N=CH–) during the mannosylation reaction. In vitro release studies showed a sustained-release profile for RF and IS, with less than half of the total payload released over a 48-hour period. The nanocarriers were biocompatible and safe, with more than 80% cell viability achieved when incubated with RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations 30 to 500 μg/mL over a 24-hour period. Cellular uptake studies (after a 24-hour incubation period with the murine macrophage cells, RAW 264.7) revealed a 13- and a 9-fold increase in intracellular accumulation of RF and IS, respectively, when compared with the unformulated RF+IS solution. A 6- and a 3-fold increase in intracellular accumulation of RF and IS, respectively, were observed when compared with the non-functionalized nanoparticles. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy images showed nanoparticle internalization and accumulation within the RAW 264.7 cells, which was more significant in the mannose-functionalized system compared to the non-functionalized nanoparticles. The overall results suggested that the fabricated mannose-functionalized lipopolysaccharide nanoparticles are a safe and promising platform for macrophage-targeted delivery of anti-TB therapeutics. However, in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies are required to further substantiate the therapeutic efficacy of the nanosystem.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis therapeutics, hybrid nanosystem, lipopolysaccharide nanoparticles, macrophage-targeted delivery

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44 A Mathematical Analysis of a Model in Capillary Formation: The Roles of Endothelial, Pericyte and Macrophages in the Initiation of Angiogenesis

Authors: Serdal Pamuk, Irem Cay

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Our model is based on the theory of reinforced random walks coupled with Michealis-Menten mechanisms which view endothelial cell receptors as the catalysts for transforming both tumor and macrophage derived tumor angiogenesis factor (TAF) into proteolytic enzyme which in turn degrade the basal lamina. The model consists of two main parts. First part has seven differential equations (DE’s) in one space dimension over the capillary, whereas the second part has the same number of DE’s in two space dimensions in the extra cellular matrix (ECM). We connect these two parts via some boundary conditions to move the cells into the ECM in order to initiate capillary formation. But, when does this movement begin? To address this question we estimate the thresholds that activate the transport equations in the capillary. We do this by using steady-state analysis of TAF equation under some assumptions. Once these equations are activated endothelial, pericyte and macrophage cells begin to move into the ECM for the initiation of angiogenesis. We do believe that our results play an important role for the mechanisms of cell migration which are crucial for tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we estimate the long time tendency of these three cells, and find that they tend to the transition probability functions as time evolves. We provide our numerical solutions which are in good agreement with our theoretical results.

Keywords: angiogenesis, capillary formation, mathematical analysis, steady-state, transition probability function

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43 Mannosylated Oral Amphotericin B Nanocrystals for Macrophage Targeting: In vitro and Cell Uptake Studies

Authors: Rudra Vaghela, P. K. Kulkarni

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The aim of the present research was to develop oral Amphotericin B (AmB) nanocrystals (Nc) grafted with suitable ligand in order to enhance drug transport across the intestinal epithelial barrier and subsequently, active uptake by macrophages. AmB Nc were prepared by liquid anti-solvent precipitation technique (LAS). Poloxamer 188 was used to stabilize the prepared AmB Nc and grafted with mannose for actively targeting M cells in Peyer’s patches. To prevent shedding of the stabilizer and ligand, N,N’-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) was used as a cross-linker. The prepared AmB Nc were characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release and cell uptake studies using caco-2 cells. The particle size of stabilized AmB Nc grafted with WGA was in the range of 287-417 nm with negative zeta potential between -18 to -25 mV. XRD studies revealed crystalline nature of AmB Nc. SEM studies revealed that ungrafted AmB Nc were irregular in shape with rough surface whereas, grafted AmB Nc were found to be rod-shaped with smooth surface. In vitro drug release of AmB Nc was found to be 86% at the end of one hour. Cellular studies revealed higher invasion and uptake of AmB Nc towards caco-2 cell membrane when compared to ungrafted AmB Nc. Our findings emphasize scope on developing oral delivery system for passively targeting M cells in Peyer’s patches.

Keywords: leishmaniasis, amphotericin b nanocrystals, macrophage targeting, LAS technique

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42 The Role of Leukocyte-Derived IL-10 on Postoperative ileus and Intestinal Macrophage Differentiation in Mice

Authors: Kathy Stein, Mariola Lysson, Anja Schmidt, Beatrix Schumak, Sabine Specht, Hicham Bouabe, Jürgen Heesemann, Axel Roers, Joerg C. Kalff, Sven Wehner

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Objective: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication of abdominal surgery. Monocyte infiltration is a hallmark of POI. The polarization of macrophages/monocytes in this process is not well understood. We aimed to investigate if and how M2 macrophage/monocyte differentiation is involved in POI pathogenesis. Design: POI was induced by intestinal manipulation (IM). C57Bl/6, CCR2-/-, IL-10 reporter (ITIB), IL-10-/- and LysMcre/IL-10fl/fl mice underwent IM. At various points in time leukocyte influx, gene and protein expression of cytokines, chemokines and M2 differentiation markers and intestinal motility were analyzed. Results: IM induced the postoperative expression of the M2 markers Arginase-1 and YM-1, predominantly in F4/80+Ly6C+ monocytes. Gene expression analyses indicated an IL-10-dependent, IL-4-independent M2 polarization of these monocytes. IL-10 dependency of M2 differentiation was confirmed in IL-10 deficient mice. Leukocytes, in the order of infiltrating monocytes, neutrophils, and resident macrophages were the main IL-10 producers during POI. IL-10 producing monocytes as well as M2 marker expression were almost absent in CCR2-deficient mice. However, postoperative IL-10 expression was not altered in CCR2-/- mice. The loss of M2 polarized monocytes neither protected CCR2-/- mice from nor affected resolution of POI. In contrast, IL-10 deficiency reduced postoperative neutrophil numbers and ameliorated POI. IL-10Ra expression was strongly induced in neutrophils but not in monocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that IL-10 counteracts POI resolution by activating IL-10Ra-expressing neutrophils in the late phase of disease while IL-10-dependent M2 differentiation is not pivotal to POI manifestation and resolution.

Keywords: interleukin-10, macrophages, neutrophils, postoperative ileus

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41 The Protective Role of Decoy Receptor 3 Analogue on Rat Steatotic Liver against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Blocking M1/Th1 Polarization and Multiple Upstream Pathogenic Cascades

Authors: Tzu-Hao Li, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Han-Chieh Lin, Ying-Ying Yang

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TNF superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and macrophage (M1)/kupffer cells (KC) polarization are important in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) liver injury in animals with hepatic steatosis (HS). Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a common upstream inhibitor of the above-mentioned pathogenic cascades. The study evaluated whether modulation of these DcR3-related cascades was able to protect steatotic liver from IR injury. Serum and hepatic DcR3 levels were lower in patients and animals with HS. Accordingly, the effects of pharmacologic and genetic DcR3 replacement on the IR-related pathogenic changes were measured. Significantly, DcR3 replacement protected IR-Zucker(HS) rats and IR-DcR3-Tg(HS) mice from IR liver injury. The beneficial effects of DcR3 replacement were accompanied by decreased serum/hepatic TNF, soluble TNF-like cytokine 1A (TL1A), Fas ligand (Fas-L) and LIGHT, T-helper-cell-1 cytokine (INF) levels, neutrophil infiltration, M1 polarization, neutrophil-macrophage/KC-T-cell interaction, hepatocyte apoptosis and improved hepatic microcirculatory failure among animals with IR-injured steatotic livers. Additionally, TL1A, Fas-L, LIGHT and TLR4/NFB signals were found to mediate the DcR3-related protective effects of steatotic livers from IR injury. Using multimodal in vivo and in vitro approaches, we found that DcR3 was a potential agent to protect steatotic livers from IR injury by simultaneous blocking the multiple IR injury-related pathogenic changes.

Keywords: Decoy 3 receptor, ischemia-reperfusion injury, M1 polarization, TNF superfamily

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40 Surface Thermodynamics Approach to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M-TB) – Human Sputum Interactions

Authors: J. L. Chukwuneke, C. H. Achebe, S. N. Omenyi

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This research work presents the surface thermodynamics approach to M-TB/HIV-Human sputum interactions. This involved the use of the Hamaker coefficient concept as a surface energetics tool in determining the interaction processes, with the surface interfacial energies explained using van der Waals concept of particle interactions. The Lifshitz derivation for van der Waals forces was applied as an alternative to the contact angle approach which has been widely used in other biological systems. The methodology involved taking sputum samples from twenty infected persons and from twenty uninfected persons for absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet visible Spectrophotometer. The variables required for the computations with the Lifshitz formula were derived from the absorbance data. The Matlab software tools were used in the mathematical analysis of the data produced from the experiments (absorbance values). The Hamaker constants and the combined Hamaker coefficients were obtained using the values of the dielectric constant together with the Lifshitz equation. The absolute combined Hamaker coefficients A132abs and A131abs on both infected and uninfected sputum samples gave the values of A132abs = 0.21631x10-21Joule for M-TB infected sputum and Ã132abs = 0.18825x10-21Joule for M-TB/HIV infected sputum. The significance of this result is the positive value of the absolute combined Hamaker coefficient which suggests the existence of net positive van der waals forces demonstrating an attraction between the bacteria and the macrophage. This however, implies that infection can occur. It was also shown that in the presence of HIV, the interaction energy is reduced by 13% conforming adverse effects observed in HIV patients suffering from tuberculosis.

Keywords: absorbance, dielectric constant, hamaker coefficient, lifshitz formula, macrophage, mycobacterium tuberculosis, van der waals forces

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39 Fabrication of Ligand Coated Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for Synergistic Treatment of Autoimmune Disease

Authors: Asiya Mahtab, Sushama Talegaonkar

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The research is aimed at developing targeted lipid-based nanocarrier systems of chondroitin sulfate (CS) to deliver an antirheumatic drug to the inflammatory site in arthritic paw. Lipid-based nanoparticle (TEF-lipo) was prepared by using a thin-film hydration method. The coating of prepared drug-loaded nanoparticles was done by the ionic interaction mechanism. TEF-lipo and CS-coated lipid nanoparticle (CS-lipo) were characterized for mean droplet size, zeta potential, and surface morphology. TEF-lipo and CS-lipo were further subjected to in vitro cell line studies on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage, U937, and MG 63 cell lines. The pharmacodynamic study was performed to establish the effectiveness of the prepared lipid-based conventional and targeted nanoparticles in comparison to pure drugs. Droplet size and zeta potential of TEF-lipo were found to be 128. 92 ± 5.42 nm and +12.6 ± 1.2 mV. It was observed that after the coating of TEF-lipo with CS, particle size increased to 155.6± 2.12 nm and zeta potential changed to -10.2± 1.4mV. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the nanovesicles were uniformly dispersed and detached from each other. Formulations followed sustained release pattern up to 24 h. Results of cell line studies ind icated that CS-lipo formulation showed the highest cytotoxic potential, thereby proving its enhanced ability to kill the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage and U937 cells when compared with other formulations. It is clear from our in vivo pharmacodynamic results that targeted nanocarriers had a higher inhibitory effect on arthritis progression than nontargeted nanocarriers or free drugs. Results demonstrate that this approach will provide effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, and CS served as a potential prophylactic against the advancement of cartilage degeneration.

Keywords: adjuvant induced arthritis, chondroitin sulfate, rheumatoid arthritis, teriflunomide

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38 The Interplay between Autophagy and Macrophages' Polarization in Wound Healing: A Genetic Regulatory Network Analysis

Authors: Mayada Mazher, Ahmed Moustafa, Ahmed Abdellatif

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Background: Autophagy is a eukaryotic, highly conserved catabolic process implicated in many pathophysiologies such as wound healing. Autophagy-associated genes serve as a scaffolding platform for signal transduction of macrophage polarization during the inflammatory phase of wound healing and tissue repair process. In the current study, we report a model for the interplay between autophagy-associated genes and macrophages polarization associated genes. Methods: In silico analysis was performed on 249 autophagy-related genes retrieved from the public autophagy database and gene expression data retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO); GSE81922 and GSE69607 microarray data macrophages polarization 199 DEGS. An integrated protein-protein interaction network was constructed for autophagy and macrophage gene sets. The gene sets were then used for GO terms pathway enrichment analysis. Common transcription factors for autophagy and macrophages' polarization were identified. Finally, microRNAs enriched in both autophagy and macrophages were predicated. Results: In silico prediction of common transcription factors in DEGs macrophages and autophagy gene sets revealed a new role for the transcription factors, HOMEZ, GABPA, ELK1 and REL, that commonly regulate macrophages associated genes: IL6,IL1M, IL1B, NOS1, SOC3 and autophagy-related genes: Atg12, Rictor, Rb1cc1, Gaparab1, Atg16l1. Conclusions: Autophagy and macrophages' polarization are interdependent cellular processes, and both autophagy-related proteins and macrophages' polarization related proteins coordinate in tissue remodelling via transcription factors and microRNAs regulatory network. The current work highlights a potential new role for transcription factors HOMEZ, GABPA, ELK1 and REL in wound healing.

Keywords: autophagy related proteins, integrated network analysis, macrophages polarization M1 and M2, tissue remodelling

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37 Inactivation of Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase Induces the Phenotypic Switch of Smooth Muscle Cells and Aggravates the Development of Atherosclerotic Lesions

Authors: Miao Zhang, Limin Liu, Feng Zhi, Panpan Niu, Mengya Yang, Xuemei Zhu, Ying Diao, Jun Wang, Ying Zhao

Abstract:

Background and Aims: Clinical studies have demonstrated that serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activities positively correlate with the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of SSAO inactivation on the development of atherosclerosis. Methods: Female LDLr knockout (KO) mice were given the Western-type diet for 6 and 9 weeks to induce the formation of early and advanced lesions, and semicarbazide (SCZ, 0.125%) was added into the drinking water to inactivate SSAO in vivo. Results: Despite no impact on plasma total cholesterol levels, abrogation of SSAO by SCZ not only resulted in the enlargement of both early (1.5-fold, p=0.0043) and advanced (1.8-fold, p=0.0013) atherosclerotic lesions, but also led to reduced/increased lesion contents of macrophages/smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (macrophage: ~0.74-fold, p=0.0002(early)/0.0016(advanced); SMC: ~1.55-fold, p=0.0003(early) /0.0001(advanced)), respectively. Moreover, SSAO inactivation inhibited the migration of circulating monocytes into peripheral tissues and reduced the amount of circulating Ly6Chigh monocytes (0.7-fold, p=0.0001), which may account for the reduced macrophage content in lesions. In contrast, the increased number of SMCs in lesions of SCZ-treated mice is attributed to an augmented synthetic vascular SMC phenotype switch as evidenced by the increased proliferation of SMCs and accumulation of collagens in vivo. Conclusion: SSAO inactivation by SCZ promotes the phenotypic switch of SMCs and the development of atherosclerosis. The enzymatic activity of SSAO may thus represent a potential target in the prevention and/or treatment of atherosclerosis.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, phenotype switch of smooth muscle cells, SSAO/VAP-1, semicarbazide

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36 The Influence of Polysaccharide Isolated from Morinda citrifolia Fruit to the Growth of Vero, He-La and T47D Cell Lines against Doxorubicin in vitro

Authors: Ediati Budi Cahyono, Triana Hertiani, Nauval Arrazy Asawimanda, Wahyu Puji Pratomo

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Background: Doxorubicin is widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug despite having many side effects. It may cause macrophage dysfunction and decreasing proliferation of lymphocyte. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit which has rich of polysaccharide content has potential as antitumor and immunostimulant effect. The isolation of polysaccharide from Noni fruit has been optimized according to four different methods based on macrophage and lymphocyte activities. We found the highest polysaccharide content from one of the four methods isolation. A method of polysaccharide isolation which has the highest immunostimulant effect was used for further observation as co-chemotherapy. The aim of the study: was to evaluate the isolated polysaccharide from the method of choice as co-chemotherapy of doxorubicin for the growth of Vero, He-La, and T47D cell lines in vitro. The method: in vitro growth assay of Vero, He-La, and T47D cell lines was done using MTT-reduction method, and apoptosis test was done by double staining method to evaluate the induction apoptotic effect of the combination. Every group was treated with doxorubicin and isolated polysaccharide from method of choice with 4 variances of concentrations (25 µg/ml, 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml and 200 µg/ml) a long with negative control (doxorubicin only) and normal control (without doxorubicin or polysaccharide administration). Results: The combination of polysaccharide fraction in the concentration of 100μg/ml with 2μmol of doxorubicin against He-La and T47D cell lines influenced the highest cytotoxic effect by suppressing cell viability comparing with doxorubicin only. The combination of polysaccharide fraction in the concentration of 100μg/ml with 2μmol of doxorubicin-induced apoptotic effect the He-La cell line comparing with doxorubicin only. The result of the study: it can be concluded that the combination of polysaccharide fraction and doxorubicin effect more selective toward He-La and T47D cell lines than to Vero cell line. It can be suggested isolated polysaccharide from the method of choice has co-chemotherapy activity against doxorubicin.

Keywords: polysaccharide, noni fruit, doxorubicin, cancer cell lines, vero cell line

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35 Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA)-Differentiated THP-1 Monocytes as a Validated Microglial-Like Model in Vitro

Authors: Amelia J. McFarland, Andrew K. Davey, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie

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Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system (CNS), contributing to both innate and adaptive immune response, and brain homeostasis. Activation of microglia occurs in response to a multitude of pathogenic stimuli in their microenvironment; this induces morphological and functional changes, resulting in a state of acute neuroinflammation which facilitates injury resolution. Adequate microglial function is essential for the health of the neuroparenchyma, with microglial dysfunction implicated in numerous CNS pathologies. Given the critical role that these macrophage-derived cells play in CNS homeostasis, there is a high demand for microglial models suitable for use in neuroscience research. The isolation of primary human microglia, however, is both difficult and costly, with microglial activation an unwanted but inevitable result of the extraction process. Consequently, there is a need for the development of alternative experimental models which exhibit morphological, biochemical and functional characteristics of human microglia without the difficulties associated with primary cell lines. In this study, our aim was to evaluate whether THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes would display microglial-like qualities following an induced differentiation, and, therefore, be suitable for use as surrogate microglia. To achieve this aim, THP-1 human peripheral blood monocytes from acute monocytic leukaemia were differentiated with a range of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) concentrations (50-200 nM) using two different protocols: a 5-day continuous PMA exposure or a 3-day continuous PMA exposure followed by a 5-day rest in normal media. In each protocol and at each PMA concentration, microglial-like cell morphology was assessed through crystal violet staining and the presence of CD-14 microglial / macrophage cell surface marker. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (055: B5) was then added at a range of concentrations from 0-10 mcg/mL to activate the PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Functional microglial-like behavior was evaluated by quantifying the release of prostaglandin (PG)-E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α using mediator-specific ELISAs. Furthermore, production of global reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined fluorometrically using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2-DA) respectively. Following PMA-treatment, it was observed both differentiation protocols resulted in cells displaying distinct microglial morphology from 10 nM PMA. Activation of differentiated cells using LPS significantly augmented IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 release at all LPS concentrations under both differentiation protocols. Similarly, a significant increase in DCFH-DA and DAF-2-DA fluorescence was observed, indicative of increases in ROS and NO production. For all endpoints, the 5-day continuous PMA treatment protocol yielded significantly higher mediator levels than the 3-day treatment and 5-day rest protocol. Our data, therefore, suggests that the differentiation of THP-1 human monocyte cells with PMA yields a homogenous microglial-like population which, following stimulation with LPS, undergo activation to release a range of pro-inflammatory mediators associated with microglial activation. Thus, the use of PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells represents a suitable microglial model for in vitro research.

Keywords: differentiation, lipopolysaccharide, microglia, monocyte, neuroscience, THP-1

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34 Therapeutic Effects of Guar Gum Nanoparticles in Oxazolone-Induced Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Nandita Ghosh, Shinjini Mitra, Ena Ray Banerjee

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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic disease of the skin, involving itchy, reddish, and scaly lesions. It mainly affects children and has a high prevalence in developing countries. The AD may occur due to environmental or genetic factors. There is no permanent cure for the AD. Currently, all therapeutic strategies involve methods to simply alleviate the symptoms, and include lotions and corticosteroids, which have adverse effects. Use of phytochemicals and natural products has not yet been exploited fully. The particle used in this study is derived from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, an edible polysaccharide with a galactomannan component. The mannose component mainly increases its specificity towards cellular uptake by mannose receptors, highly expressed by the macrophage. The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of guar gum nanoparticles (GN) in vitro and in vivo in the AD. To assess the wound healing capacity of the guar gum nanoparticle (GN), we first treated adherent NIH3T3 cells, with a scratch injury, with GN. GN successfully healed the wound caused by the scratch. In the in vivo experiment, Balb/c mice ear were topically treated with oxazolone (oxa) to induce AD and then were topically treated with GN. The ear thickness was increased significantly till day 28 on the treatment of Oxa. The GN application showed a significant decrease in the thickness as assessed on day 28. The total cell count of skin cells showed fold increase when treated with oxa, was again decreased on topical application of GN on the affected skin. The eosinophil count, as assessed by Giemsa staining was also increased when treated with oxa, GN application led to a significant decrease. The IgE level was assessed in the serum samples which showed that GN helped in restoring the alleviated IgE level. The T helper cells and the macrophage population showed increased percentage when treated with oxa, the GN application. This was examined by flow cytometry. The H&E staining of the ear tissue showed epidermal thickness in the oxa treated mice, GN application showed reduced cellular filtration followed by epidermal thickness. Thus our assays showed that GN was successful in alleviating the disease caused by Oxa when administered topically.

Keywords: allergen, inflammation, nanodrug, wound

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33 Determination of the Toxicity of a Lunar Dust Simulant on Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in vitro

Authors: Agatha Bebbington, Terry Tetley, Kathryn Hadler

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Background: Astronauts will set foot on the Moon later this decade, and are at high risk of lunar dust inhalation. Freshly-fractured lunar dust produces reactive oxygen species in solution, which are known to cause cellular damage and inflammation. Cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release was measured in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (cells that line the gas-exchange zone of the lung) exposed to a lunar dust simulant, LMS-1. It was hypothesised that freshly-fractured LMS-1 would result in increased cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release, owing to the angular morphology and high reactivity of fractured particles. Methods: A human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cell line (TT1) and a human macrophage-like cell line (THP-1) were exposed to 0-200μg/ml of unground, aged-ground, and freshly-ground LMS-1 (screened at <22μm). Cell viability, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, IL-8) were assessed using MMT, LDH, and ELISA assays, respectively. LMS-1 particles were characterised for their size, surface area, and morphology before and after grinding. Results: Exposure to LMS-1 particles did not result in overt cytotoxicity in either TT1 epithelial cells or THP-1 macrophage-like cells. A dose-dependent increase in IL-8 release was observed in TT1 cells, whereas THP-1 cell exposure, even at low particle concentrations, resulted in increased IL-8 release. Both cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory responses were most marked and significantly greater in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to freshly-fractured LMS-1. Discussion: LMS-1 is a novel lunar dust simulant; this is the first study to determine its toxicological effects on respiratory cells in vitro. An increased inflammatory response in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to ground LMS-1 suggests that low particle size, increased surface area, and angularity likely contribute to toxicity. Conclusions: Evenlow levels of exposure to LMS-1 could result in alveolar inflammation. This may have pathological consequences for astronauts exposed to lunar dust on future long-duration missions. Future research should test the effect of low-dose, intermittent lunar dust exposure on the respiratory system.

Keywords: lunar dust, LMS-1, lunar dust simulant, long-duration space travel, lunar dust toxicity

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32 The Second Generation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Afatinib Controls Inflammation by Regulating NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

Authors: Shujun Xie, Shirong Zhang, Shenglin Ma

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Background: Chronic inflammation might lead to many malignancies, and inadequate resolution could play a crucial role in tumor invasion, progression, and metastases. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial shows that IL-1β inhibition with canakinumab could reduce incident lung cancer and lung cancer mortality in patients with atherosclerosis. The process and secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β are controlled by the inflammasome. Here we showed the correlation of the innate immune system and afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Murine Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and THP-1 were used to check the effect of afatinib on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. The assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome was check by co-immunoprecipitation of NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS)-cross link of ASC. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis and Alum-induced peritonitis were conducted to confirm that afatinib could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients before or after taking afatinib were used to check that afatinib inhibits inflammation in NSCLC therapy. Results: Our data showed that afatinib could inhibit the secretion of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner in macrophage. Moreover, afatinib could inhibit the maturation of IL-1β and caspase-1 without affecting the precursors of IL-1β and caspase-1. Next, we found that afatinib could block the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome and the ASC speck by blocking the interaction of the sensor protein NLRP3 and the adaptor protein ASC. We also found that afatinib was able to alleviate the LPS-induced sepsis in vivo. Conclusion: Our study found that afatinib could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophage, providing new evidence that afatinib could target the innate immune system to control chronic inflammation. These investigations will provide significant experimental evidence in afatinib as therapeutic drug for non-small cell lung cancer or other tumors and NLRP3-related diseases and will explore new targets for afatinib.

Keywords: inflammasome, afatinib, inflammation, tyrosine kinase inhibitor

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31 Understanding the Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 in Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake by Macrophages and Implication in Atherosclerosis Progression

Authors: Anjali Roy, Mirza S. Baig

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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of lipid rich plaque enriched with necrotic core, modified lipid accumulation, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, leucocytes and macrophages. Macrophage foam cells play a critical role in the occurrence and development of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque. Foam cells are the fat-laden macrophages in the initial stage atherosclerotic lesion formation. Foam cells are an indication of plaque build-up, or atherosclerosis, which is commonly associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke as a result of arterial narrowing and hardening. The mechanisms that drive atherosclerotic plaque progression remain largely unknown. Dissecting the molecular mechanism involved in process of macrophage foam cell formation will help to develop therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. To investigate the mechanism, we studied the role of nitric oxide synthase 1(NOS1)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Using confocal microscopy, we found that incubation of macrophages with NOS1 inhibitor, TRIM (1-(2-Trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole) or L-NAME (N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) prior to LDL treatment significantly reduces the LDL uptake by BMDM. Further, addition of NO donor (DEA NONOate) in NOS1 inhibitor treated macrophages recovers the LDL uptake. Our data strongly suggest that NOS1 derived NO regulates LDL uptake by macrophages and foam cell formation. Moreover, we also checked proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression through real time PCR in BMDM treated with LDL and copper oxidized LDL (OxLDL) in presences and absences of inhibitor. Normal LDL does not evoke cytokine expression whereas OxLDL induced proinflammatory cytokine expression which significantly reduced in presences of NOS1 inhibitor. Rapid NOS-1-derived NO and its stable derivative formation act as signaling agents for inducible NOS-2 expression in endothelial cells, leading to endothelial vascular wall lining disruption and dysfunctioning. This study highlights the role of NOS1 as critical players of foam cell formation and would reveal much about the key molecular proteins involved in atherosclerosis. Thus, targeting NOS1 would be a useful strategy in reducing LDL uptake by macrophages at early stage of disease and hence dampening the atherosclerosis progression.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, NOS1, inflammation, oxidized LDL

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30 Molecular Characterization of Arginine Sensing Response in Unravelling Host-Pathogen Interactions in Leishmania

Authors: Evanka Madan, Madhu Puri, Dan Zilberstein, Rohini Muthuswami, Rentala Madhubala

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The extensive interaction between the host and pathogen metabolic networks decidedly shapes the outcome of infection. Utilization of arginine by the host and pathogen is critical for determining the outcome of pathogenic infection. Infections with L. donovani, an intracellular parasite, will lead to an extensive competition of arginine between the host and the parasite donovani infection. One of the major amino acid (AA) sensing signaling pathways in mammalian cells are the mammalian target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1, as a sensor of nutrient, controls numerous metabolic pathways. Arginine is critical for mTORC1 activation. SLC38A9 is the arginine sensor for the mTORC1, being activated during arginine sufficiency. L. donovani transport arginine via a high-affinity transporter (LdAAP3) that is rapidly up-regulated by arginine deficiency response (ADR) in intracellular amastigotes. This study, to author’s best knowledge, investigates the interaction between two arginine sensing systems that act in the same compartment, the lysosome. One is important for macrophage defense, and the other is essential for pathogen virulence. We hypothesize that the latter modulates lysosome arginine to prevent host defense response. The work presented here identifies an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in regulating the expression of SLC38A9-mTORC1 pathway, and consequently, their function in L. donovani infected THP-1 cells cultured in 0.1 mM and 1.5 mM arginine. It was found that in physiological levels of arginine (0.1 mM), infecting THP-1 with Leishmania leads to increased levels of SLC38A9 and mTORC1 via an increase in the expression of RagA. However, the reversal was observed with LdAAP3 mutants, reflecting the positive regulatory role of LdAAP3 on the host SLC38A9. At the molecular level, upon infection, mTORC1 and RagA were found to be activated at the surface of phagolysosomes which was found to form a complex with phagolysosomal localized SLC38A9. To reveal the relevance of SLC38A9 under physiological levels of arginine, endogenous SLC38A9 was depleted and a substantial reduction in the expression of host mTORC1, its downstream active substrate, p-P70S6K1 and parasite LdAAP3, was observed, thereby showing that silencing SLC38A9 suppresses ADR. In brief, to author’s best knowledge, these results reveal an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in manipulating SLC38A9 arginine sensing in host macrophages. Our study indicates that intra-macrophage survival of L. donovani depends on the availability and transport of extracellular arginine. An understanding of the sensing pathway of both parasite and host will open a new perspective on the molecular mechanism of host-parasite interaction and consequently, as a treatment for Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: arginine sensing, LdAAP3, L. donovani, mTORC1, SLC38A9, THP-1

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29 Pharmacological Mechanisms of an Indolic Compound in Chemoprevention of Colonic Acf Formation in Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Cancer Rat Model and Cell Lines

Authors: Nima Samie, Sekaran Muniandy, Zahurin Mohamed, M. S. Kanthimathi

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Although number of indole containing compounds have been reported to have anticancer properties in vitro but only a few of them show potential as anticancer compounds in vivo. The current study was to evaluate the mechanism of cytotoxicity of selected indolic compound in vivo and in vitro. In this context, we determined the potency of the compound in the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. HT-29, WiDr, CCD-18Co, human monocyte/macrophage CRL-9855, and B lymphocyte CCL-156 cell lines were used to determine the IC50 of the compound using the MTT assay. Analysis of apoptosis was carried out using immunofluorescence, acridine orange/ propidium iodide double staining, Annexin-V-FITC assay, evaluation of the translocation of NF-kB, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity, quenching of reactive oxygen species content, measurement of LDH release, caspase-3/-7, -8 and -9 assays and western blotting. The cell cycle arrest was examined using flowcytometry and gene expression was assessed using qPCR array. Results displayed a potent suppressive effect on HT-29 and WiDr after 24 h of treatment with IC50 value of 2.52±0.34 µg/ml and 2.13±0.65 µg/ml respectively. This cytotoxic effect on normal, monocyte/macrophage and B-cells was insignificant. Dipping in the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria indicated induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by the compound. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase-9 and 3/7. The compound was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-kB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and up-regulation of glutathione reductase, based on excessive ROS production were also observed. These findings were further investigated for inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci in male rats. Rats were divided in to 5 groups: vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of compounds for 10 weeks. Administration of compound suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4%. The results also showed that treatment with the compound significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. The outcome of this study suggest sthat the indolic compound is a potent anti-cancer agent against colon cancer and can be further evaluated by animal trial.

Keywords: indolic compound, chemoprevention, crypt, azoxymethane, colon cancer

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28 Polysulfide as Active ‘Stealth’ Polymers with Additional Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Farah El Mohtadi, Richard d'Arcy, Nicola Tirelli

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Since 40 years, poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been the gold standard in biomaterials and drug delivery, because of its combination of chemical and biological inertness. However, the possibility of its breakdown under oxidative conditions and the demonstrated development of anti-PEG antibodies highlight the necessity to develop carriers based on materials with increased stability in a challenging biological environment. Here, we describe the synthesis of polysulfide via anionic ring-opening polymerization. In vitro, the synthesized polymer was characterized by low toxicity and a level of complement activation (in human plasma) and macrophage uptake slightly lower than PEG and poly (2‐methyl-2‐oxazoline) (PMOX), of a similar size. Importantly, and differently from PEG, on activated macrophages, the synthesized polymer showed a strong and dose-dependent ROS scavenging activity, which resulted in the corresponding reduction of cytokine production. Therefore, the results from these studies show that polysulfide is highly biocompatible and are potential candidates to be used as an alternative to PEG for various applications in nanomedicine.

Keywords: PEG, low toxicity, ROS scavenging, biocompatible

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27 The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Stem Cell Factor Levels in Serum of Adolescent and Young Adults with Mood Disorders: A Two Year Follow-Up Study

Authors: Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager, Maria Skibinska, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Natalia Lepczynska, Pawel Kapelski, Joanna Pawlak, Joanna Hauser

Abstract:

Introduction: Inflammation and cytokines have emerged as a promising target in mood disorders research; however there are still very limited numbers of study regarding inflammatory alterations among adolescents and young adults with mood disorders. The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) are the pleiotropic cytokines which may play an important role in mood disorders pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of these factors in serum of adolescent and young adults with mood disorders compared to healthy controls. Subjects: We involved 79 patients aged 12-24 years in 2-year follow-up study with a primary diagnosis of mood disorders: bipolar disorder (BP) and unipolar disorder with BP spectrum. Study group includes 23 males (mean age 19.08, SD 3.3) and 56 females (18.39, SD 3.28). Control group consisted 35 persons: 7 males (20.43, SD 4.23) and 28 females (21.25, SD 2.11). Clinical diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were assessed using Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (SCID) in young adults respectively. Clinical assessment includes evaluation of clinical factors and symptoms severity (rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale). Clinical and biological evaluations were made at control visits respectively at baseline (week 0), euthymia (at month 3 or 6) and after 12 and 24 months. Methods: Serum protein concentration was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) method. Human MIF and SCF DuoSet ELISA kits were used. In the analyses non-parametric tests were used: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman’s ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman correlation. We defined statistical significance as p < 0.05. Results: Comparing MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania at baseline and euthymia (at month 3 or 6) we did not find any statistical differences. At baseline patients with age above 18 years old had decreased MIF level compared to patients younger than 18 years. MIF level at baseline positively correlated with age (p=0.004). Positive correlations of SCF level at month 3 and 6 with depression or mania occurrence at month 24 (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively) was detected. Strong correlations between MIF and SCF levels at baseline (p=0.0005) and month 3 (p=0.03) were observed. Discussion: Our results did not show any differences in MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania and euthymia in young patients. Further studies on larger groups are recommended. Grant was founded by National Science Center in Poland no 2011/03/D/NZ5/06146.

Keywords: cytokines, MIF, mood disorders, SCF

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