Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: pharmacist

38 Factor Influencing Pharmacist Engagement and Turnover Intention in Thai Community Pharmacist: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

Authors: T. Nakpun, T. Kanjanarach, T. Kittisopee

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Turnover of community pharmacist can affect continuity of patient care and most importantly the quality of care and also the costs of a pharmacy. It was hypothesized that organizational resources, job characteristics, and social supports had direct effect on pharmacist turnover intention, and indirect effect on pharmacist turnover intention via pharmacist engagement. This research aimed to study influencing factors on pharmacist engagement and pharmacist turnover intention by testing the proposed structural hypothesized model to explain the relationship among organizational resources, job characteristics, and social supports that effect on pharmacist turnover intention and pharmacist engagement in Thai community pharmacists. A cross sectional study design with self-administered questionnaire was conducted in 209 Thai community pharmacists. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling technique with analysis of a moment structures AMOS program. The final model showed that only organizational resources had significant negative direct effect on pharmacist turnover intention (β =-0.45). Job characteristics and social supports had significant positive relationship with pharmacist engagement (β = 0.44, and 0.55 respectively). Pharmacist engagement had significant negative relationship with pharmacist turnover intention (β = - 0.24). Thus, job characteristics and social supports had significant negative indirect effect on turnover intention via pharmacist engagement (β =-0.11 and -0.13, respectively). The model fit the data well (χ2/ degree of freedom (DF) = 2.12, the goodness of fit index (GFI)=0.89, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.94 and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07). This study can be concluded that organizational resources were the most important factor because it had direct effect on pharmacist turnover intention. Job characteristics and social supports were also help decrease pharmacist turnover intention via pharmacist engagement.

Keywords: community pharmacist, influencing factor, turnover intention, work engagement

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37 Continuance Commitment of Retail Pharmacist in a Labor Shortage: Results from the Questionnaire Survey

Authors: Shigeaki Mishima

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Pharmacist labor shortage has become a long-term problem in Japan. This paper discusses the relationship between organizational commitment and pharmacists' organizational behavior in the context of labor shortage. Based on a multidimensional view of organizational commitment, effective commitment and continuous commitment are measured. It is suggested that the continuous commitment has a unique impact on withholding information behavior. We also discuss the impact of labor supply and demand on continuous commitment of retail pharmacist.

Keywords: organizational commitment, pharmacist, labor shortage, professional

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36 Computer Assisted Strategies Help to Pharmacist

Authors: Komal Fizza

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All around the world in every field professionals are taking great support from their computers. Computer assisted strategies not only increase the efficiency of the professionals but also in case of healthcare they help in life-saving interventions. The background of this current research is aimed towards two things; first to find out if computer assisted strategies are useful for Pharmacist for not and secondly how much these assist a Pharmacist to do quality interventions. Shifa International Hospital is a 500 bedded hospital, and it is running Antimicrobial Stewardship, during their stewardship rounds pharmacists observed that a lot of wrong doses of antibiotics were coming at times those were being overlooked by the other pharmacist even. So, with the help of MIS team the patients were categorized into adult and peads depending upon their age. Minimum and maximum dose of every single antibiotic present in the pharmacy that could be dispensed to the patient was developed. These were linked to the order entry window. So whenever pharmacist would type any order and the dose would be below or above the therapeutic limit this would give an alert to the pharmacist. Whenever this message pop-up this was recorded at the back end along with the antibiotic name, pharmacist ID, date, and time. From 14th of January 2015 and till 14th of March 2015 the software stopped different users 350 times. Out of this 300 were found to be major errors which if reached to the patient could have harmed them to the greater extent. While 50 were due to typing errors and minor deviations. The pilot study showed that computer assisted strategies can be of great help to the pharmacist. They can improve the efficacy and quality of interventions.

Keywords: antibiotics, computer assisted strategies, pharmacist, stewardship

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35 Social Media as a Tool for Medication Adherence and Personal Health Management

Authors: Huang Wei-Chi, Li Wei, Yu Tien-Chieh

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Medication adherence is crucial for treatment success. Adherence problem is common in patients with polypharmacy, especially in the geriatric population who are vulnerable to multiple chronic conditions but averagely less knowledgeable about diseases and medications. In order to help patients take medications appropriately and enhance the understanding of diseases or medications, a Line official account named e-Pharmacist was designed. The line is a popular freeware app with the highest penetration rate (95.7%) in Taiwan. The interface of e-Pharmacist is user-friendly for easy-to-read and convenient operating. Differ from other medication adherence apps, users just added e-Pharmacist as a LINE friend without installing any more apps and the drug lists were automatically downloaded from the personal electronic medical records with security permission. Over and above medication reminder, several additional capabilities were set up and engaged in the platform of e-Pharmacist including prescription refill reservation, laboratory examination consultation, medical appointment registration, and “Daily Health Log” where patients can record and track data of blood pressure/blood sugar and daily meals for self-health management as well as can share the important information to clinical professionals when seeking medical help. Additionally, a Line chatbot was utilized to provide tailored medicine information for the individual user. From July 2020 to March 2022, around 3000 patients added e-pharmacist as Line friends. Every day more than 1500 patients receive messages from e-pharmacist to notify them to take medicine. Thanks to the e-pharmacist alert system and Chatbot, the low-compliance patients (defined by Program on Adherence to Medication, PAM) significantly dropped from 36% to 6%, whereas the high-compliance patients dramatically increased from 13% to 77%. The user satisfaction is 98%. In brief, an e-pharmacist is not only a medication reminder but also a tailored personal assistant with value-added service for health management.

Keywords: e-pharmacist, self-health management, medication reminder, value-added service

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
34 Evaluation of the Standard Practice of Availability of Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Community Pharmacies

Authors: Udaykumar R., M. S. Ganachari

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In order to engage community pharmacies in Tuberculosis care, a survey has been conducted in Belgaum city, Karnataka state, India. After the survey divided into two groups one is control group and another one is intervention group. One is dispensing of anti-tuberculosis drugs, and another one is non-availability of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Those community pharmacists who are voluntarily interesting for becoming DOTS (Directly observed treatment short course) provider and RNTCP (Revised national tuberculosis control programme) objectives. Structured training is conducted for community pharmacist who are dispensing anti-tuberculosis drugs. The training module includes record maintaining, reporting to the RNTCP, Medication adherence etc. In case of non-availability of anti-tuberculosis drugs, the district RNTCP has been given training for community pharmacist by providing free of drugs to the community pharmacies. So, community pharmacies can dispense anti-tuberculosis drugs to the patients. The target of this study is Private community pharmacies. A simple random sampling method is used and 550 private community pharmacy shops has been involved in Belgaum city of Karnataka state, India. Significance of the Study: This study mainly focused on training of DOTS (Directly observed treatment short course) to the private community pharmacist. Indian Govt. Considers Private Providers as Assets for TB Control and Care to Achieve National Strategic Plan for TB Elimination 2017-2025. The Govt. has not fully tapped the Potential of Private Pharmacies to Fight TB. Providing DOTS as per patient’s convenience through community DOT Providers with periodic monitoring may reduce the treatment Default. We explore RNTCP objectives interventions that can have directly managed by private community pharmacy shop. Objectives: Survey of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Community pharmacy shop in Belgaum city. Interested community pharmacist who are willing to become DOTS (Directly observed treatment short course) Provider. Major Findings:Most of the community pharmacist are dispensing anti-tuberculosis drugs without having knowledge of DOTS therapy and RNTCP objectives. No community pharmacist is aware of RNTCP and Tuberculosis burden in India. Most of the Pharmacist agreed to come for RNTCP Training module for the community pharmacist. Some of the community pharmacist not dispensing anti-tuberculosis drugs and they agreed to become official DOTS provider. Concluding Statement: Awareness of role of community pharmacist on tuberculosis control and care has been neglected. More than 50% of tuberculosis patients seeking treatments from privatesector. In this study finds the major gap between government and private sector on tuberculosis treatment.

Keywords: community pharmacist, directly observed treatment short course(DOTS), revised national tuberculosis control programme (RNTCP), private pharmacies, anti-tuberculosis drugs

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33 Inpatient Drug Related Problems and Pharmacist Intervention at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in South India: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Bollu Mounica

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Background: Nowadays drug related problems were seen very commonly within the health care practice. These could result in the medication errors, adverse events, drug interactions and harm to patients. Pharmacist has an identified role in minimizing and preventing such type of problems. Objectives: To detect the incidence of drug related problems for the hospitalized patient, and to analyze the clinical pharmacist interventions performed during the review of prescription orders of the general medicine, psychiatry, surgery, pediatrics, gynaecology units of a large tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, observational and interventional study. The analysis took place daily with the following parameters: dose, rate of administration, presentation and/or dosage form, presence of inappropriate/unnecessary drugs, necessity of additional medication, more proper alternative therapies, presence of relevant drug interactions, inconsistencies in prescription orders, physical-chemical incompatibilities/solution stability. From this evaluation, the drug therapy problems were classified, as well as the resulting clinical interventions. For a period starting November 2012 until December 2014, the inpatient medication charts and orders were identified and rectified by ward and practicing clinical pharmacists within the inpatient pharmacy services in a tertiary care teaching hospital on routine daily activities. Data was collected and evaluated. The causes of this problem were identified. Results: A total of 360 patients were followed. Male (71.66%) predominance was noted over females (28.33%). Drug related problems were more commonly seen in patients aged in between 31-60. Most of the DRP observed in the study resulted from the dispensing errors (26.11%), improper drug selection (17.22%), followed by untreated indications (14.4%) Majority of the clinical pharmacist recommendations were on need for proper dispensing (26.11%), and drug change (18.05%). Minor significance of DRPs were noted high (41.11 %), whereas (35.27 %) were moderate and (23.61 %) were major. The acceptance rate of intervening clinical pharmacist recommendation and change in drug therapy was found to be high (86.66%). Conclusion: Our study showed that the prescriptions reviewed had some drug therapy problem and the pharmacist interventions have promoted positive changes needed in the prescriptions. In this context, routine participation of clinical pharmacists in clinical medical rounds facilitates the identification of DRPs and may prevent their occurrence.

Keywords: drug related problems, clinical pharmacist, drug prescriptions, drug related problems, intervention

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32 Monitoring Prolong Use of Intravenous Antibiotics: Antimicrobial Stewardship

Authors: Komal Fizza

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Irrational and non-judicious use of antibiotics pave the way for an upsurge in antibiotic resistance, diminished effectiveness of different therapeutic regimens and as well as impounding effect on disease management leading to further morbidities. In the backdrop of this the current research is aimed to assess whether antimicrobial prescribing is in accordance with the Infectious Disease Society of America Guidelines in hospitalized patients at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad is a 500 bed hospital. With the help of MIS team a form wad developed that gave the information about medical records number, name of the patient, day of start of antibiotic, the day antibiotic is supposed to be stopped and as well as the diagnosis of the patient. A ward pharmacist was employed to generate this report on a daily basis. The therapeutic regiment was reviewed by the pharmacist by monitoring the clinical progress, laboratory report and diagnosis. On the basis of this information, pharmacist made suggestions and forwarded to the hospital doctors responsible for prescribing antibiotics. If desired, changes were made regularly. In the current research our main focus was to implement this action and therefore, started monitoring patients who were on antibiotic regimens for more than 10-15 days. We took this initiative since November, 2013. At the start of the program a maximum 19 patients/day were reported to be on antibiotic regimen for more than 10-15 days. After the implementation of the initiative, the number of patients was decreased to fifteen patients per day in December, further decreased to 7 in the month of January and 9 and 6 in February and March respectively. The average patient census was 350. The current pilot study highlighted the role of pharmacist in initiating antibiotic stewardship programs in hospital settings.

Keywords: stewardship, antibiotics, resistance, clinical process

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31 Investigating the Relationship between Service Quality and Amount of Violations in Community Pharmacies with Their Type of Ownership

Authors: Afshin Azari, Farzad Peiravian, Nazila Yousefi

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Introduction: Community pharmacies have been always played an important role in public health. Therefore, having a decent service provided by these pharmacies is of paramount importance for the healthcare system. The issue of pharmacy ownership and its possible impact on the quality of services and amount of violations has been argued for many years, and there are different opinions around this debate. Since, so far, no scientific research has been performed to investigate this issue in Iran, this study aimed to examine the differences between these two types of pharmacies ownership in terms of violations and service quality. Method: This study investigates the impact of two different kinds of pharmacy ownership (pharmacists and non-pharmacist’s ownership) on the pharmacies’ amount of violations and services quality. Pharmacies’ amount of violations was examined using “pharmacy inspection reports” between September 2018 and September 2019, in their distinguishable categories: minor, major and critical violations. Then, service quality was examined using a questionnaire from the perspective of pharmacy customers. Results: Considering violations, there was no evidence to prove a significant relationship between critical violations and major violations with the type of pharmacy ownership. However, in minor violations, the average of violations was higher in pharmacies owned by pharmacists in comparison to their non-pharmacist owned counterparts. Regarding service quality, the results showed that there is no significant relationship between the quality of service and the type of pharmacy ownership. Discussion and Conclusion: In this study, no significant relationship was found between the amount of violations and the type of pharmacy ownership. This could indicate that the pharmacy ownership would not influence the rate of violations. Considering that more inspections have been carried out in non-pharmacist owned pharmacies, it can be concluded that these pharmacies are more under control, and in fact, this monitoring has reduced violations in these pharmacies. The quality of services in the two types of pharmacies were not significantly different from each other, and this shows that non-pharmacist-owned pharmacies also try to maintain the desired level of service in competition with their competitors.

Keywords: pharmacy ownership, quality of service, violation, community pharmacy

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30 Impact of Pharmacist-Led Care on Glycaemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised-Controlled Trial

Authors: Emmanuel A. David, Rebecca O. Soremekun, Roseline I. Aderemi-Williams

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Background: The complexities involved in the management of diabetes mellitus require a multi-dimensional, multi-professional collaborative and continuous care by health care providers and a substantial self-care by the patients in order to achieve desired treatment outcomes. The effect of pharmacists’ care in the management of diabetes in resource-endowed nations is well documented in literature, but randomised-controlled assessment of the impact of pharmacist-led care among patients with diabetes in resource-limited settings like Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa countries is scarce. Objective: To evaluate the impact of Pharmacist-led care on glycaemic control in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, using a randomised-controlled study design Methods: This study employed a prospective randomised controlled design, to assess the impact of pharmacist-led care on glycaemic control of 108 poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 200 clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were purposively selected using fasting blood glucose ≥ 7mmol/L and tested for long term glucose control using Glycated haemoglobin measure. One hundred and eight (108) patients with ≥ 7% Glycated haemoglobin were recruited for the study and assigned unique identification numbers. They were further randomly allocated to intervention and usual care groups using computer generated random numbers, with each group containing 54 subjects. Patients in the intervention group received pharmacist-structured intervention, including education, periodic phone calls, adherence counselling, referral and 6 months follow-up, while patients in usual care group only kept clinic appointments with their physicians. Data collected at baseline and six months included socio-demographic characteristics, fasting blood glucose, Glycated haemoglobin, blood pressure, lipid profile. With an intention to treat analysis, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compared median change from baseline in the primary outcome (Glycated haemoglobin) and secondary outcomes measure, effect size was computed and proportion of patients that reached target laboratory parameter were compared in both arms. Results: All enrolled participants (108) completed the study, 54 in each study. Mean age was 51±11.75 and majority were female (68.5%). Intervention patients had significant reduction in Glycated haemoglobin (-0.75%; P<0.001; η2 = 0.144), with greater proportion attaining target laboratory parameter after 6 months of care compared to usual care group (Glycated haemoglobin: 42.6% vs 20.8%; P=0.02). Furthermore, patients who received pharmacist-led care were about 3 times more likely to have better glucose control (AOR 2.718, 95%CI: 1.143-6.461) compared to usual care group. Conclusion: Pharmacist-led care significantly improved glucose control in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and should be integrated in the routine management of diabetes patients, especially in resource-limited settings.

Keywords: glycaemic control , pharmacist-led care, randomised-controlled trial , type 2 diabetes mellitus

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29 Impact of Clinical Pharmacist Intervention in Improving Drug Related Problems in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Aneena Suresh, C. S. Sidharth

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Drug related problems (DRPs) are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and end stage patients undergoing hemodialysis. To treat the co-morbid conditions of the patients, more complex therapeutic regimen is required, and it leads to development of DRPs. So, this calls for frequent monitoring of the patients. Due to the busy work schedules, physicians are unable to deliver optimal care to these patients. Addition of a clinical pharmacist in the team will improve the standard of care offered to CKD patients by minimizing DRPs. In India, the role of clinical pharmacists in the improving the health outcomes in CKD patients is poorly recognized. Therefore, this study is conducted to put an insight on the role of clinical pharmacist in improving Drug Related Problems in patients with chronic kidney disease, thereby helping them to achieve desired therapeutic outcomes in the patients. A prospective interventional study was conducted for a year in a 620 bedded tertiary care hospital in India. Data was collected using an unstructured questionnaire, medication charts, etc. DRPs were categorized using Hepler and Strand classification. Relationships between the age, weight, GFR, average no of medication taken, average no of comorbidities, and average length of hospital days with the DRPs were identified using Mann Whitney U test. The study population primarily constituted of patients above the age of 50 years with a mean age of 59.91±13.59. Our study showed that 25% of the population presented with DRPs. On an average, CKD patients are prescribed at least 8 medications for the treatment in our study. This explains the high incidence of drug interactions in patients suffering from CKD (45.65%). The least common DRPs in our study were found to be sub therapeutic dose (2%) and adverse drug reactions (2%). Out of this, 60 % of the DRPs were addressed successfully. In our study, there is an association between the DRPs with the average number of medications prescribed, the average number of comorbidities, and the length of the hospital days with p value of 0.022, 0.004, and 0.000, respectively. In the current study, 86% of the proposed interventions were accepted, and 41 % were implemented by the physician, and only 14% were rejected. Hence, it is evident that clinical pharmacist interventions will contribute significantly to diminish the DRPs in CKD patients, thereby decreasing the economic burden of healthcare costs and improving patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, clinical pharmacist, drug related problem, intervention

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28 Community Pharmacist's Perceptions Towards Generic Drugs in Algeria

Authors: M. Y. Achouri, O. A. Alleg, M. C. L. Moulai, M. A. Selka

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This study aims to assess the perception and attitudes of community pharmacists in Sidi-Bel-Abbes (Algeria) towards generic drugs. This is a descriptive cross-sectional prospective survey and quantitative, conducted over a period of two months from April to May 2014. The target population consisted of 118 pharmacists practicing in pharmacies in Sidi-Bel-Abbes. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire consisting of thirteen (13) items. Fifty six (67%) of community pharmacists in the town of Sidi-Bel-Abbes in the survey believe that generics have a lower quality compared to brand name medicines Only 42% of respondents viewed locally manufactured generic medicines as equal in quality compared to the imported generic medicines, and 63% believe that the generics substitution has led to change the relationship between a pharmacist and patient. In order to promote the practice of generic medicines in Algeria, an educational program should be implemented.

Keywords: generic drugs, perception, attitudes, community pharmacists

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27 Evaluation of the Level of Knowledge about Probiotics amongst Community Pharmacy Staff in Jordan

Authors: Feras Darwish Elhajji, Alberto Berardi, Manal Ayyash, Iman Basheti

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The concept of the use of probiotics for humans now has been known for decades however, their intake by the Jordanian population seems to be less common when compared to population in the developed countries. Community pharmacy is the main supplier of probiotics, however, after conducting an extensive literature review, not any published research article could be found talking about the role, knowledge, and practice of the pharmacists in the area of probiotics. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge about probiotics and their dispensing practice in community pharmacies in Jordan. Community pharmacy staff (pharmacists and technicians) in Amman and north of Jordan were randomly selected to complete an anonymous questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. Ethical approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. The questionnaire included the following sections: demographics, knowledge and perceptions about probiotics, and role of the pharmacist Pharmacists and technicians were visited and interviewed in 281 community pharmacies. Asking about probiotics, 90.4% of them said that they know what probiotics are, although only 29.5% agreed that pharmacy staff in Jordan have good knowledge about probiotics, and 88.3% agreed that pharmacy staff in Jordan need more training and knowledge about probiotics. Variables that were significantly related to knowledge about probiotics were being a pharmacist (ρ= 0.012), area of the community pharmacy (ρ= 0.019), and female staff (ρ= 0.031) after conducting logistic regression statistical analysis. More than two-thirds of the participants thought that probiotics are classified as dietary supplements by Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA). Of those who knew probiotics, the majority of them – 76.8% and 91.7% – agreed that probiotics are effective and safe, respectively. Believing in efficacy of the probiotics was significantly associated with answering their use to be with or after antibiotic administration and to increase normal flora gut population (ρ= 0.007). Efficacy was also significantly associated with recommending probiotics to consumers by the pharmacist (ρ< 0.001) and by the doctor (ρ= 0.041). At the same time, the concept of safety was mainly associated with their use for flatulence and gases (ρ= 0.048). Level of knowledge about probiotics and their uses, efficacy and safety amongst community pharmacy staff in Jordan is found to be good. However, this level can be raised in the future, especially knowledge about uses of probiotics.

Keywords: community pharmacy, Jordan, prebiotics, probiotics

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26 Evaluating the Knowledge and Skill of Final Year Pharmacy Students in Maternal and Child Health at a University in South Africa

Authors: E. O. Egieyeh, N. Butler, R. Coetzee, M. Van Huyssteen, A. Bheekie

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Background: High rate of maternal and child mortality is a global concern. Nationally, it constitutes one of South Africa’s quadruple burdens of diseases. Pharmacists have a crucial role in maternal and child health care delivery and as such should be equipped with adequate knowledge and skill required to contribute to maternal and child well-being. The International Pharmaceutical Federation statement of policy (2013) outlines pharmacist-led interventions in accordance with the World Health Organisation’s interventions in maternal, new-born and child health care. The South African Pharmacy Council’s guideline on Good Pharmacy Practice (2010) also stipulates the minimum standards required to participate in reproductive, maternal and child care. Pharmacy schools are obliged to train pharmacy students to meet priority health needs of the population so that graduates are ‘fit for purpose’. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and skill of final year pharmacy students at a university in South Africa to determine their preparedness to contribute effectively to maternal and child health care. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, non-randomized baseline study was conducted among the final year students at the School of Pharmacy. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed in sections to assess knowledge of contraception, maternal and child health directed at the primary care level and framed within the scope of practice required of an entry-level generalist pharmacist. Participants’ skill in infant growth assessment was assessed in a section of the questionnaire in a written format. Participants ticked the topics they had been exposed to on a curriculum content assessment tool which was not graded. A pilot study examined the clarity and suitability of question items, and duration to complete the questionnaire. A score of 50% in each section of the questionnaire indicated a pass. The questionnaire was delivered in campus lecture venue. Results: Of the 102 students in final year, 53 (52%) students consented to participate in the study. Only 13.2% of participants scored above 50% in each section. Forty five (85%) participants scored above 50% in the contraception section while 40 (75%) scored less than 50% in the skills assessment. Less than half (45.3%) of the participants had a total score above 50%. Being a parent or working part-time as pharmacist assistance did not have any influence on the performance of the participants. Evaluation of participants’ curriculum content exposure showed differences in exposure to the various topics. Exposure to contraception teaching received the most recognition. Conclusion: Maternal and child health curriculum content should be reviewed at the university to enhance the knowledge and skill of pharmacy graduates.

Keywords: final year pharmacy students, knowledge and skill, maternal and child health, South Africa

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25 Community Pharmacist's Perceptions, Attitude and Role in Oral Health Promotion and Diseases Prevention

Authors: Bushra Alghamdi, Alla Alsharif, Hamzah Aljohani, Saba Kassim

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Introduction: Collaborative work has always been acknowledged as a fundamental concept in delivering oral health care. Aim: This study aimed to assess the perception and attitude of pharmacists in oral health promotion and to determine the confident levels of pharmacists in delivering advice on oral health problems. Methods: An observational cross-sectional survey, using self-administered anonymous questionnaires, was conducted between March and April 2017. The study recruited a convenience sample of registered community pharmacists who were working in local private pharmaceutical stores in the urban area of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A preliminary descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Thirty-five pharmacists have completed the surveys. All participants were males, with a mean age of 35.5 ( ± 6.92) years. Eighty-six percent of the participants reported that pharmacists should have a role in oral health promotion. Eighty percent have reported adequate level of confident when giving advice on most of the common oral health problems that include; oral health related risk behaviors such as tobacco cessation (46%), bleeding gums (63%) and sensitive teeth (60%). However, higher percentages of pharmacists have reported low confident levels when giving advice in relation to specific domain of dentistry, such as lost dental fillings (57%), loose crowns (60%), trauma to teeth (40%), denture-related problems (51%) and oral cancer (6.9%). Conclusion: Community pharmacists recognized their potential role in promoting oral health in KSA. Community pharmacists had varying levels of ability and confidence to offer support for oral health. The study highlighted that inner professional collaboration between pharmacists and dental care healthcare should be enhanced.

Keywords: community, oral health, promotion, pharmacist

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24 The Role of Pharmacist in The Community: A Study of Methanol Toxicity Disaster in Tripoli Libya During March 2013

Authors: Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Mahmud H. Arhima, Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Ebtisam A. Benomran, Salsabeela Elmezwghi, Aram Elhatan, Nafesa Elgusbi

Abstract:

Mass poisonings with methanol are rare but occur regularly both in developed and in non-developing countries. As a result of the tragedy that happened in the city of Tripoli Libya in March during year 2013 a number of patients were admitted to Tripoli Medical Center and Tripoli Central Hospital suffering from poisoning following ingestion of methanol by mistake. Our aims have been formulated to collect Information about those cases as much as we can from the archiving departments from the two hospitals including the number of cases that had been admitted, recovered patients and died victims. This retrospective study was planned to find out the reasons which allow those patients to drink methanol in our Muslim community and also the role of pharmacist to prevent such a disaster that claimed the lives of many people. During this tragedy 291 ospitalized patients their ages between 16-32 years old were admitted to both hospitals, total number of died 189 (121 at Tripoli medical center) and (68 at Tripoli central hospital), demographic data also shows that most of them are male (97%) and (3% female), about 4% of the patients foreigners and 96% were Libyans. There were a lot of obstacles and poor facilities at the time of patient admission as recognized in many cases including lack of first line of treatment. The morbidity was high due to the lack of antidote and availability of dialysis machines at this two main hospitals in Tripoli also according to survey done to the medical staff and also a random number of medical students shows about 28% have no idea about the first aid procedure used for methanol poisoning cases and this due to the absence of continuing education for all medical staff through the establishment of training courses on first aid, rapid diagnosis of poisoning and follow the written procedures to dealing with such cases.

Keywords: ethanol, fomepizole, methanol, poisoning

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23 Evaluation of Adequacy of Caspofungin Prescription in a Tunisian Hospital Cohort

Authors: Mariem Meddeb Sidhom, Souhayel Hedfi, Rjaibia Houda, Mehdi Dridi, Mohamed Ali Yousfi, Sâadia Gargouri

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Considering the important increase in costs of caspofungin treatments and ahead the evolution of its indication, pharmacy department was prompted to realize a review of the adequacy of prescriptions in the medical intensive care units (ICU). A retrospective observational study was conducted in Tunis military hospital concerning ICU prescriptions of caspofungin from 2008 until 2013. A pharmacist had returned to the patient’s medical records to collect data and to the microbiology department for parasitological results. The adequacy of prescriptions was evaluated by a pharmacist and an infectiologist parasitologist, referring to predefined scale of criteria resuming the indications of the marketing authorization (MA) and grade AI-AII of the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Sixty two ICU patients have been treated with caspofungin during the period of study; however, 8 files were lost. Thus, 54 patients were included in the study having received 55 prescriptions of caspofungin. Males were a majority with 64.8% of the population. Mean age was 51 years. Caspofungin was indicated in accordance with the IDSA recommendations in 43.6% of the cases. The most case of non respect to the guidelines was the indication of caspofungin as empirical treatment in non neutropenic patients. Caspofungin was utilized as a first line treatment in 9 cases where it was possible to give fluconazole first, as germs were fluconazole- sensitive. Caspofungin was indicated in 2 patients with good renal function and in which nor amphotericin B, liposomal ampho B neither itraconazole had been previously used, as indicates the MA. The posology of caspofungin was respected in all prescriptions with a loading dose of 70 mg in the first day and a maintenance dose of 50 mg daily. Seven patients had received a daily dose of 70 mg, the recommended dose for people weighing more than 80 Kg. Caspofungin prescriptions are far to be adequately done. There is a clear need of optimization in indicating this molecule and that must be done in collaboration between the pharmacy department, the ICUs and parasitology department.

Keywords: caspofungin, prescription, intensive care units, marketing authorization, Tunisian hospital cohort

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22 Drug and Poison Information Centers: An Emergent Need of Health Care Professionals in Pakistan

Authors: Asif Khaliq, Sayeeda A. Sayed

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The drug information centers provide drug related information to the requesters that include physicians, pharmacist, nurses and other allied health care professionals. The International Pharmacist Federation (FIP) describes basic functions of a drug and poison information centers as drug evaluation, therapeutic counseling, pharmaceutical advice, research, pharmaco-vigilence and toxicology. Continuous advancement in the field of medicine has expanded the medical literature, which has increased demand of a drug and poison information center for the guidance, support and facilitation of physicians. The objective of the study is to determine the need of drug and poison information centers in public and private hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted during July 2013 to April 2014 using a self-administered, multi-itemed questionnaire. Non Probability Convenient sampling was used to select the study participants. A total of 307 physicians from public and private hospitals of Karachi participated in the study. The need for 24/7 Drug and poison information center was highlighted by 92 % of physicians and 67% physicians suggested opening a drug information center at the hospital. It was reported that 70% physicians take at least 15 minutes for searching the information about the drug while managing a case. Regarding the poisoning case management, 52% physicians complaint about the unavailability of medicines in hospitals; and mentioned the importance of medicines for safe and timely management of patients. Although 73% physicians attended continued medical education (CME) sessions, 92 % physicians insisted on the need of 24/7 Drug and poison information center. The scarcity of organized channel for obtaining the information about drug and poisons is one of the most crucial problems for healthcare workers in Pakistan. The drug and poison information center is an advisory body that assists health care professional and patients in provision of appropriate drug and hazardous substance information. Drug and poison information center is one of the integral needs for running an effective health care system. Provision of a 24 /7 drug information centers with specialized staff offer multiple benefits to the hospitals while reducing treatment delays, addressing awareness gaps of all stakeholders and ensuring provision of quality health care.

Keywords: drug and poison information centers, Pakistan, physicians, public and private hospitals

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21 Developing a SOA-Based E-Healthcare Systems

Authors: Hend Albassam, Nouf Alrumaih

Abstract:

Nowadays we are in the age of technologies and communication and there is no doubt that technologies such as the Internet can offer many advantages for many business fields, and the health field is no execution. In fact, using the Internet provide us with a new path to improve the quality of health care throughout the world. The e-healthcare offers many advantages such as: efficiency by reducing the cost and avoiding duplicate diagnostics, empowerment of patients by enabling them to access their medical records, enhancing the quality of healthcare and enabling information exchange and communication between healthcare organizations. There are many problems that result from using papers as a way of communication, for example, paper-based prescriptions. Usually, the doctor writes a prescription and gives it to the patient who in turn carries it to the pharmacy. After that, the pharmacist takes the prescription to fill it and give it to the patient. Sometimes the pharmacist might find difficulty in reading the doctor’s handwriting; the patient could change and counterfeit the prescription. These existing problems and many others heighten the need to improve the quality of the healthcare. This project is set out to develop a distributed e-healthcare system that offers some features of e-health and addresses some of the above-mentioned problems. The developed system provides an electronic health record (EHR) and enables communication between separate health care organizations such as the clinic, pharmacy and laboratory. To develop this system, the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is adopted as a design approach, which helps to design several independent modules that communicate by using web services. The layering design pattern is used in designing each module as it provides reusability that allows the business logic layer to be reused by different higher layers such as the web service or the website in our system. The experimental analysis has shown that the project has successfully achieved its aims toward solving the problems related to the paper-based healthcare systems and it enables different health organization to communicate effectively. It implements four independent modules including healthcare provider, pharmacy, laboratory and medication information provider. Each module provides different functionalities and is used by a different type of user. These modules interoperate with each other using a set of web services.

Keywords: e-health, services oriented architecture (SOA), web services, interoperability

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20 Method for Improving Antidepressants Adherence in Patients with Depressive Disorder: Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Juntip Kanjanasilp, Ratree Sawangjit, Kanokporn Meelap, Kwanchanok Kruthakool

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Depression is a common mental health disorder. Antidepressants are effective pharmacological treatments, but most patients have low medication adherence. This study aims to systematic review and meta-analysis what method increase the antidepressants adherence efficiently and improve clinical outcome. Systematic review of articles of randomized controlled trials obtained by a computerized literature search of The Cochrane, Library, Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Education search, Web of Science and ThaiLIS (28 December 2017). Twenty-three studies were included and assessed the quality of research by ROB 2.0. The results reported that printing media improved in number of people who had medication adherence statistical significantly (p= 0.018), but education, phone call, and program utilization were no different (p=0.172, p=0.127, p=0.659). There was no significant difference in pharmacist’s group, health care team’s group and physician’s group (p=0.329, p=0.070, p=0.040). Times of intervention at 1 month and 6 months improved medication adherence significantly (p= 0.0001, p=0.013). There was significantly improved adherence in single intervention (p=0.027) but no different in multiple interventions (p=0.154). When we analyzed medication adherence with the mean score, no improved adherence was found, not relevant with who gives the intervention and times to intervention. However, the multiple interventions group was statistically significant improved medication adherence (p=0.040). Phone call and the physician’s group were statistically significant improved clinical outcomes in number of improved patients (0.025 and 0.020, respectively). But in the pharmacist’s group and physician’s group were not found difference in the mean score of clinical outcomes (p=0.993, p=0.120, respectively). Times to intervention and number of intervention were not significant difference than usual care. The overall intervention can increase antidepressant adherence, especially the printing media, and the appropriate timing of the intervention is at least 6 months. For effective treatment, the provider should have experience and expert in caring for patients with depressive disorders, such as a psychiatrist. Medical personnel should have knowledge in caring for these patients also.

Keywords: depression, medication adherence, clinical outcomes, systematic review, meta-analysis

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19 Pill-Box Dispenser as a Strategy for Therapeutic Management: A Qualitative Evaluation

Authors: Bruno R. Mendes, Francisco J. Caldeira, Rita S. Luís

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Population ageing is directly correlated to an increase in medicine consumption. Beyond the latter and the polymedicated profile of elderly, it is possible to see a need for pharmacotherapeutic monitoring due to cognitive and physical impairment. In this sense, the tracking, organization and administration of medicines become a daily challenge and the pill-box dispenser system a solution. The pill-box dispenser (system) consists in a small compartmentalized container to unit dose organization, which means a container able to correlate the patient’s prescribed dose regimen and the time schedule of intake. In many European countries, this system is part of pharmacist’s role in clinical pharmacy. Despite this simple solution, therapy compliance is only possible if the patient adheres to the system, so it is important to establish a qualitative and quantitative analysis on the perception of the patient on the benefits and risks of the pill-box dispenser as well as the identification of the ideal system. The analysis was conducted through an observational study, based on the application of a standardized questionnaire structured with the numerical scale of Likert (5 levels) and previously validated on the population. The study was performed during a limited period of time and under a randomized sample of 188 participants. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions: 6 background measures and 16 specific measures. The standards for the final comparative analysis were obtained through the state-of-the-art on the subject. The study carried out using the Likert scale afforded a degree of agreement and discordance between measures (Sample vs. Standard) of 56,25% and 43,75%, respectively. It was concluded that the pill-box dispenser has greater acceptance among a younger population, that was not the initial target of the system. However, this allows us to guarantee a high adherence in the future. Additionally, it was noted that the cost associated with this service is not a limiting factor for its use. The pill-box dispenser system, as currently implemented, demonstrates an important weakness regarding the quality and effectiveness of the medicines, which is not understood by the patient, revealing a significant lack of literacy when it concerns with medicine area. The characteristics of an ideal system remain unchanged, which means that the size, appearance and availability of information in the pill-box continue to be indispensable elements for the compliance with the system. The pill-box dispenser remains unsuitable regarding container size and the type of treatment to which it applies. Despite that, it might be a future standard for clinical pharmacy, allowing a differentiation of the pharmacist role, as well as a wider range of applications to other age groups and treatments.

Keywords: clinical pharmacy, medicines, patient safety, pill-box dispenser

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18 Healthcare Professionals' Perspectives on Warfarin Therapy at Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR

Authors: Vanlounni Sibounheuang, Wanarat Anusornsangiam, Pattarin Kittiboonyakun, Chanthanom Manithip

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In worldwide, one of the most common use of oral anticoagulant is warfarin. Its margin between therapeutic inhibition of clot formation and bleeding complications is narrow. Mahosot Hospital, warfarin clinic had not been established yet. The descriptive study was conducted by investigating drug-related problems of outpatients using warfarin, the value of the international normalized ratio (INR) higher than normal ranges (25.40 % of the total 272 outpatients) were mostly identified at Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. This result led to the present study conducting qualitative interviews in order to help establish a warfarin clinic at Mahosot Hospital for the better outcomes of patients using warfarin. The purpose of this study was to explore perspectives of healthcare professional providing services for outpatients using warfarin. The face to face, in-depth interviews were undertaken among nine healthcare professionals (doctor=3, nurse=3, pharmacist=3) working at out-patient clinic, Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. The interview guides were developed, and they were validated by the experts in the fields of qualitative research. Each interview lasted approximately 20 minutes. Three major themes emerged; healthcare professional’s experiences of current practice problems with warfarin therapy, healthcare professionals’ views of medical problems related to patients using warfarin, and healthcare professionals’ perspectives on ways of service improvement. All healthcare professionals had the same views that it’s difficult to achieve INR goal for individual patients because of some important patient barriers especially lack of knowledge about to use warfarin properly and safety, patients not regularly follow-up due to problems with transportations and financial support. Doctors and nurses agreed to have a pharmacist running a routine warfarin clinic and provided counselling to individual patients on the following points: how to take drug properly and safety, drug-drug and food-drug interactions, common side effects and how to manage them, lifestyle modifications. From the interviews, some important components of the establishment of a warfarin clinic included financial support, increased human resources, improved the system of keeping patients’ medical records, short course training for pharmacists. This study indicated the acceptance of healthcare professionals on the important roles of pharmacists and the feasibility of setting up warfarin clinic by working together with the multidisciplinary health care team in order to help improve health outcomes of patients using warfarin at Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR.

Keywords: perspectives, healthcare professional, warfarin therapy, Mahosot Hospital

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17 Officinal Quality Assurance: Investigation near the Pharmacists Dispensary at Oran- Algeria

Authors: S. Boulenouar, A. Boukli Hacene, S. Brahmi

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Quality is an old concept but which recently became omnipresent in the society. It is a pledge of the well done job and therefore the satisfaction of the customer. Now, dispensing pharmacies seem to be held away from this approach. Officinal staff is called to dispense drugs. However this essential function is rarely studied and taken into account. To contribute to the good use of medicines and to reduce the dangers, it is important to consider the dispensation of drugs practised in the pharmacies. It is a both descriptive and retrospective study .The descriptive part is to conduct a survey near to the dispensary pharmacists. The retrospective section concentrates on the analysis of medicine prescriptions dispensed to patients. Following the survey that we carried out near the pharmacists of dispensary of the town of Oran, it appears that in majority, they are not inclined, by themselves, to take up the challenge of quality at the dispensary. The approach requires time and a motivation that pharmacists do not have for the moment. Efforts are still needed on the part of pharmacists, but also of authorities and organizations in charge of quality in the dispensary. At the end of this work, it seems to us that the implementation of a quality approach is part of our reflection on the added value of the pharmacist of dispensary in the drug chain.

Keywords: customer satisfaction, dispensary, dispensing of the drug, quality approach

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16 Management of Therapeutic Anticancer at Oran Teaching Hospital, Algeria

Authors: S. Boulenouar, M. Sefir, M. Benahmed

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All facilities need medication and other pharmaceuticals for their operation. Management and supply is therefore to provide the different services of the facility goods and services in required quantity and quality. The permanent availability of drugs in the facilities is very difficult because most face many difficulties at the inventory management and drug supplies. Therefore, it is necessary for each health facility to know the causes for the malfunction of its management system to cope with them. It is in this context that we have undertaken to conduct this study to know the causes which should be taken into consideration by the concerned authorities to carry out their mission, which is to provide quality health care for the population. In terms of financial resources, the budget for medicines represents a significant part of the budget of the pharmacy. Our study shows that the share of the hospital budget reserved for the drugs procurement represent on average 70% of the budget of the pharmacy. The results show a state of lack of anticancer drugs at Oran teaching hospital. The analysis of the management process allowed us to know the level that the problem of stock-outs of anti-cancer drugs is at. Suggestions were made to that effect to improve the availability for these products and to respond better to the needs of patients.

Keywords: anticancer drugs, health care facility, budget, hospital pharmacist, hospital service

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15 Evaluation of Medication Errors in Outpatient Pharmacies: Electronic Prescription System vs. Paper System

Authors: Mera Ababneh, Sayer Al-Azzam, Karem Alzoubi, Abeer Rababa'h

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Background: Medication errors are among the most common medical errors. Their occurrences result in patient’s mortality, morbidity, and additional healthcare costs. Continuous monitoring and detection is required. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare medication errors in outpatient’s prescriptions in two different hospitals (paper system vs. electronic system). Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study conducted in two major hospitals; King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) and Princess Bassma Teaching Hospital (PBTH) over three months period. Data collection was conducted by two trained pharmacists at each site. During the study period, medication prescriptions and dispensing procedures were screened for medication errors in both participating centers by two trained pharmacist. Results: In the electronic prescription hospital, 2500 prescriptions were screened in which 631 medication errors were detected. Prescription errors were 231 (36.6%), and dispensing errors were 400 (63.4%) of all errors. On the other side, analysis of 2500 prescriptions in paper-based hospital revealed 3714 medication errors, of which 288 (7.8%) were prescription errors, and 3426 (92.2%) were dispensing errors. A significant number of 2496 (67.2%) were inadequately and/or inappropriately labeled. Conclusion: This study provides insight for healthcare policy makers, professionals, and administrators to invest in advanced technology systems, education, and epidemiological surveillance programs to minimize medication errors.

Keywords: medication errors, prescription errors, dispensing errors, electronic prescription, handwritten prescription

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14 Investigation of Chronic Drug Use Due to Chronic Diseases in Patients Admitted to Emergency Department

Authors: Behcet Al, Şener Cindoruk, Suat Zengin, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Mehmet Mustafa Sunar, Hatice Eroglu, Cuma Yildirim

Abstract:

Objective: In present study we aimed to investigate the chronic drug use due to chronic diseases in patients admitted to emergency department. Materials-Methods: 144 patients who applied to emergency department (ED) of medicine school of Gaziantep University between June 2013 and September 2013 with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs were included. Information about drugs used by patients were recorded. Results: Of patients, half were male, half were female, and the mean age was 58 years. The first three common diseases were diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery diseases. Of patients, %79.2 knew their illness. Fifty patients began to use drug within three months, 36 patient began to use within the last one year. While 42 patients brought all of their drugs with themselves, 17 patients brought along a portion of drugs. While three patients stopped their medication completely, 125 patients received medication on a regular basis. Fifty-two patient described the drugs with names, 13 patients described with their colors, 3 patients described by grammes, 45 patients described with the size of the tablet and 13 patients could not describe the drugs. Ninety-two patients explained which kind of drugs were used for each diseases, 17 patient explained partly, and 35 patients had no idea. Hundred patients received medication by themselves, 44 patients medications were giving by their relatives and med carers. Of medications, 140 were written by doctors directly, three medication were given by pharmacist; and one patient bought the drug by himself. For 11 patients the drugs were not harmonious to their diseases. Fifty-one patients admitted to the ED two times within last week, and 73 admitted two times within last month. Conclusion: The majority of patients with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs know their diseases and use the drugs in order, but do not have enough information about their medication.

Keywords: chronic disease, drug use, emergency department, medication

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13 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, adherence, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist, Jordan

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12 Achieving Appropriate Use of Antibiotics through Pharmacists’ Intervention at Practice Point: An Indian Study Report

Authors: Parimalakrishnan Sundararjan, Madheswaran Murugan, Dhanya Dharman, Yatindra Kumar, Sudhir Singh Gangwar, Guru Prasad Mohanta

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Antibiotic resistance AR is a global issue, India started to redress the issues of antibiotic resistance late and it plans to have: active surveillance of microbial resistance and promote appropriate use of antibiotics. The present study attempted to achieve appropriate use of antibiotics through pharmacists’ intervention at practice point. In a quasi-experimental prospective cohort study, the cases with bacteremia from four hospitals were identified during 2015 and 2016 for intervention. The pharmacists centered intervention: active screening of each prescription and comparing with the selection of antibiotics with susceptibility of the bacteria. Wherever irrationality noticed, it was brought to the notice of the treating physician for making changes. There were two groups: intervention group and control group without intervention. The active screening and intervention in 915 patients has reduced therapeutic regimen time in patients with bacteremia. The intervention group showed the decreased duration of hospital stay 3.4 days from 5.1 days. Further, multivariate modeling of patients who were in control group showed that patients in the intervention group had a significant decrease in both duration of hospital stay and infection-related mortality. Unlike developed countries, pharmacists are not active partners in patient care in India. This unique attempt of pharmacist’ invention was planned in consultation with hospital authorities which proved beneficial in terms of reducing the duration of treatment, hospital stay, and infection-related mortality. This establishes the need for a collaborative decision making among the health workforce in patient care at least for promoting rational use of antibiotics, an attempt to combat resistance.

Keywords: antibiotics resistance, intervention, bacteremia, multivariate modeling

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11 Study on the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of Patients with Hypertension in Aseer Hospital, Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ayesha Siddiqua

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Background: Hypertension is a silent killer disease and a common risk factor for considerable morbidity and mortality. Its effects can be seen on the organs like Heart; Brain; Kidneys. In Saudi Arabia, hypertension affects a sizeable enough proportion of the population, with a prevalence of 27.9% in urban and 22.4 in rural population. Despite these features, the magnitude and epidemiological characteristics of this disease have been rarely studied in Saudi Arabia. To fill this gap, we conducted a survey in Abha to study the KAP of hypertension. KAP study shows what people know about certain things, their feelings and behavior towards the disease management. An improvement in the Knowledge and Attitudes towards disease management can reform the kinds of practices which are followed. Objectives: To assess the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of patients who suffer from Hypertension. To improve the Quality of life of patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample size of 130 Hypertensive patients of both the genders enrolled by simple random sampling technique admitted in the Aseer Central Hospital of Abha during the period from October 2016 to December 2016. Results: Altogether 130 hypertensive patients were enrolled in this study with equal no. of Males and Females. Most of the respondents were aged between 18-40 years (45%). On assessing the KAP of the patients, we found that the Knowledge and Attitude score was good but the Practice scores were moderate in both the genders. Conclusion: Our study concludes that a significant proportion of hypertensive patients show less Practice towards the disease management which can lead to severe complications in time being and also result in damage of other vital organs. So there is a need of intense educational intervention for the patients which can be done by Patient counselling by the clinical pharmacist. Strategies to modify lifestyle which help in control of hypertension can include providing leaflets as well as direct educational programs.

Keywords: Attitude, hypertension, Knowledge, practices

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10 Establishment of an Information Platform Increases Spontaneous Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions

Authors: Pei-Chun Chen, Chi-Ting Tseng, Lih-Chi Chen, Kai-Hsiang Yang

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Introduction: The pharmacist is responsible for encouraging adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting. In a local center in Northern Taiwan, promotion and rewarding of ADR reporting have continued for over six years but failed to bring significant changes. This study aims to find a solution to increase ADR reporting. Research question or hypothesis: We hypothesized that under-reporting is due to the inconvenience of the reporting system. Reports were made conventionally through printed sheets. We proposed that reports made per month will increase if they were computerized. Study design: An ADR reporting platform was established in April 2015, before which was defined as the first stage of this study (January-March, 2015) and after which the second stage. The third stage commenced in November, 2015, after adding a reporting module to physicians prescription system. ADRs could be reported simultaneously when documenting drug allergies. Methods: ADR report rates during the three stages of the study were compared. Effects of the information platform on reporting were also analyzed. Results: During the first stage, the number of ADR reports averaged 6 per month. In the second stage, the number of reports per month averaged 1.86. Introducing the information platform had little effect on the monthly number of ADR reports. The average number of reports each month during the third stage of the study was 11±3.06, with 70.43% made electronically. Reports per month increased significantly after installing the reporting module in November, 2015 (P<0.001, t-test). In the first two stages, 29.03% of ADR reports were made by physicians, as compared to 70.42% of cases in the third stage of the study. Increased physician reporting possibly account for these differences. Conclusion: Adding a reporting module to the prescription system significantly increased ADR reporting. Improved accessibility is likely the cause. The addition of similar modules to computer systems of other healthcare professions may be considered to encourage spontaneous ADR reporting.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, regional hospital, prescription system

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9 Involvement of Community Pharmacists in Public Health Services in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Mona Almanasef, Dalia Almaghaslah, Geetha Kandasamy, Rajalakshimi Vasudevan, Sadia Batool

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Background: Community pharmacists are one of the most accessible healthcare practitioners worldwide and their services are used by a large proportion of the population. Expanding the roles of community pharmacists could contribute to reducing pressure on general health practice and other areas of health services. This research aimed to evaluate the contribution of community pharmacists in the provision of public health services and to investigate the perceived barriers to the provision of these services in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This study followed a cross-sectional design using an online anonymous self-administered questionnaire. The study took place in the Asir region, Saudi Arabia, between September 2019 and February 2020. A convenience sampling strategy was used to select and recruit the study participants. The questionnaire was adapted from previous research and involved three sections: demographics, involvement in public health services and barriers to practicing public health roles. Results: The total number of respondents was 193. The proportion of respondents who reported that they were “very involved” or “involved” in each service was 61.7% for weight management, 60.6% for sexual health, 57.5% for healthy eating, 53.4% for physical activity promotion, 51.3% for dental health, 46.1% for smoking cessation, 39.4% for screening for diabetes, 35.7% for screening for hypertension, 31.1% for alcohol dependence and drug misuse counseling, 30.6% for screening for dyslipidaemia, and 21.8% for vaccination and immunization. Most of the barriers in the current research were rated as having low relevance to the provision of public health services. Conclusion: Findings in the current research suggest that community pharmacists in the Asir region have varying levels of involvement in public health roles. Further research needs to be undertaken to understand the barriers to the provision of public health services and what strategies would be beneficial for enhancing the public health role of community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: community pharmacist, public health, Asir region, Saudi Arabia

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