Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 262

Search results for: physicians

262 Health Assessment and Disorders of External Respiration Function among Physicians

Authors: A. G. Margaryan

Abstract:

Aims and Objectives: Assessment of health status and detection disorders of external respiration functions (ERF) during preventative medical examination among physicians of Armenia. Subjects and Methods: Overall, fifty-nine physicians (17 men and 42 women) were examined and spirometry was carried out. The average age of the physicians was 50 years old. The studies were conducted on the Micromedical MicroLab 3500 Spirometer. Results: 25.4% among 59 examined physicians are overweight; 22.0% of them suffer from obesity. Two physicians are currently smokers. About half of the examined physicians (50.8%) at the time of examination were diagnosed with some diseases and had different health-related problems (excluding the problems related to vision and hearing). FVC was 2.94±0.1, FEV1 – 2.64±0.1, PEF – 329.7±19.9, and FEV1%/FVC – 89.7±1.3. Pathological changes of ERF are identified in 23 (39.0%) cases. 28.8% of physicians had first degree of restrictive disorders, 3.4% – first degree of combined obstructive/ restrictive disorders, 6.8% – second degree of combined obstructive/ restrictive disorders. Only three physicians with disorders of the ERF were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. There were no statistically significant changes in ERF depending on the severity of obesity (P> 0.05). Conclusion: The study showed the prevalence of ERF among physicians, observing mainly mild and moderate changes in ERF parameters.

Keywords: Armenia, external respiration function, health status, physicians

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261 Social Health and Adaptation of Armenian Physicians

Authors: A. G. Margaryan

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Ability of adaptation of the organism is considered as an important component of health in maintaining relative dynamic constancy of the hemostasis and functioning of all organs and systems. Among the various forms of adaptation (individual, species and mental), social adaptation of the organism has a particular role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective perception of social factors, social welfare and the level of adaptability of Armenian physicians. The survey involved 2,167 physicians (592 men and 1,575 women). According to the survey, most physicians (75.1%) were married. It was found that 88.6% of respondents had harmonious family relationships, 7.6% of respondents – tense relationships, and 1.0% – marginal relationships. The results showed that the average monthly salary with all premium payments amounted to 88 263.6±5.0 drams, and 16.7% of physicians heavily relied on the material support of parents or other relatives. Low material welfare was also confirmed by the analysis of the living conditions. Analysis of the results showed that the degree of subjective perception of social factors of different specialties averaged 11.3±3.1 points, which corresponds to satisfactory results (a very good result – 4.0 points). The degree of social adaptation of physicians on average makes 4.13±1.9 points, which corresponds to poor results (allowable less than 3.0 points). The distribution of the results of social adaptation severity revealed that the majority of physicians (58.6%) showed low social adaptation, average social adaptation is observed in 22.4% of the physicians and high adaptation – in only 17.4% of physicians. In conclusions, the findings of this study suggest that the degree of social adaptation of currently practicing physicians is low.

Keywords: physician's health, social adaptation, social factor, social health

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260 Attitude and Practice of Family Physicians in Giving Smoking Cessation Advice at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh

Authors: Mohammed Alateeq, Abdulaziz Alrshoud

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Objectives: To examine the attitude and practice of family physicians in giving smoking cessation advice at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh. Methods: Cross sectional study using validated self-reported questionnaire that distributed to all family physicians and primary health care doctors at the four main family medicine and primary health care centers, KAMC, Riyadh. Results: 73 physicians are contributed in this study. 28 (38.4%) physicians were from (KASHM ALAN) clinic, 26 (35.6%) physicians were from (UM ALHAMAM) Clinic. 13 (17.8%) physicians were from (ISKAN) clinic. 6 (8.2%) physicians were from the Employee Health Clinic. 73 (100%) of the target population agreed that giving brief smoking cessation advice is part of their duties. 67 (91.7%) agreed that Presence of hospital guidelines and special clinics for smoking cessation will encourage them to provide advice. Only 5 (6.84%) received training courses (1-4 weeks) in smoking cessation interventions. Conclusion: Most of the target population agreed that brief smoking cessation advice is part of their duties. Also, they agreed that Presence of hospital guidelines and special clinics for smoking cessation will encourage them to provide advice although most of them did not received a formal training in smoking cessation advice.

Keywords: advice, attitude, cessation, family physicians, smoking

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259 Role of Pakistani Physicians in the Pharmacotherapy of Obesity

Authors: Sadia Suri Kashif, Raheeda Fatima, Maqsood Ahmed Khan

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Purpose of the study: The objective of this research was to determine the perception of Pakistani physicians (whether primary care, specialists or residents) in Karachi, being one of the largest and highly populated cities of Pakistan, regarding clinical approaches towards diet, exercise, and therapy in obese patients. This research determines their understanding of obesity and employability of obesity management in their daily practices. Research methodology: This is a questionnaire-based survey. A minimum of 300 questionnaires (N=300) were distributed and filled by practicing physicians in a random selection of medical setups in Karachi. Randomly 246 physicians responded to the survey. The survey tested their views regarding weight management, importance of general awareness and their strategies to control weight. Results: In the first part of survey the physicians responded to almost 66% regarding the seriousness of obesity management with advising diet modification, physical exercise and decreasing calorie intake; 57% failed to employ Body Mass Index and Waist Hip Ratio as weight measurement tools in their daily practice; 50% disagreed on using pharmacotherapy as an option; 67% were not sure about the proper dosage and indication of anti-obesity medication while almost same disagreed on using surgical options for management of obesity; 83.3% physicians agreed on the increased obesity pandemic in Pakistan. Conclusion: The findings indicate that there is a gap between awareness and knowledge among Pakistani practicing physicians regarding pharmacotherapy for obesity. There is a need to frequently update latest guidelines to help manage this condition, which is becoming more prevalent in our country day by day. Physicians should be obligated to use updated knowledge for managing obesity.

Keywords: obesity, physicians, BMI, weight management, obesity awareness

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258 Primary Care Physicians in Urgent Care Centres of the United Kingdom

Authors: Mohammad Ansari, Ahmed Ismail, Satinder Mann

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Overcrowding in Emergency departments (ED) of United Kingdom has become a common problem. Urgent Care centres were developed nearly a decade ago to reduce pressure on EDs. Unfortunately, the development of Urgent Care centres has failed to produce the projected effects. It was thought that nearly 40% patients attending ED would go to Urgent Care centres and these would be staffed by Primary care Physicians. Data reveals that no more than 20% patients were seen by Primary Care Physicians even when the Urgent Care Centre was based in the ED. This study was carried out at the ED of George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton, UK where the Urgent Care centre was based in the ED and employed Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma for nearly one year. This was then followed by a Primary Care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number of patients seen during these periods and the cost-effectiveness of the service.We randomly selected a week of patients seen by Primary Care Physicians with special interest in Trauma and by Primary Care Physicians and the Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number and type of patients seen during these two periods. Nearly 38% patients were seen by Primary care Physician with special interest in Trauma, whilst only 14.3% patients were seen by the Primary care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. The Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma were paid less. Our study confirmed that unless Primary Care Physicians are able to treat minor trauma and interpret x-rays, the urgent care service is not going to be cost effective. Numerous previous studies have shown that 15 to 20% patients attending ED can be treated by Primary Care Physicians who do not require any investigations for their management. It is advantageous to have Urgent Care Centres within the ED because if the patient deteriorates they can be transferred to ED. We recommend that the Urgent care Centres should be a part of ED. Our study shows that Urgent care Centres in the ED can be helpful and cost effective if staffed by either senior Emergency Physicians or Primary Care Physicians with special interest and experience in the management of minor trauma.

Keywords: urgent care centres, primary care physician, advanced nurse practitioner, trauma

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257 Influenza Vaccine Uptake Among Tunisian Physicians in the 2018-2019 Influenza Season

Authors: Ines Cherif, Ghassen Kharroubi, Leila Bouabid, Adel Gharbi, Aicha Boukthir, Margaret Mccarron, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Afif Ben Salah, Jihene Bettaieb

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Healthcare workers' flu vaccination prevents influenza disease among both patients and caregivers. We aimed in this study to assess influenza vaccine (IV) coverage in 2018-2019 among Tunisian physicians and to determine factors associated with IV receipt. A cross sectional study was carried out in Tunisian primary and secondary health care facilities in the 2018-2019 influenza season. Physicians with direct patient contact were recruited according to a self-weighted multistage sampling. Data were collected through a face to face questionnaire containing questions on knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding IV. Bivariate analysis was used in order to determine factors associated with IV receipt. A total of 167 physicians were included in the study with a mean age of 48.2 ± 7.7 years and a sex-ratio (M: F) of 0.37. Among participants, 15.1% (95% CI: [9.7%-20.3%]) were vaccinated against influenza in the 2018-2019 influenza season. Bivariate analysis revealed that previous flu immunization in the four years preceding the 2018-2019 influenza season (OR=32.3; p < 10-3), belief that vaccinating healthcare workers may reduce work absenteeism (OR=4.7, p=0.028), belief that flu vaccine should be mandatory to healthcare workers (OR=3.3, p=0.01) and high confidence towards IV efficacy in preventing influenza among caregivers (OR= 4.5, p=0.01) were associated with a higher IV receipt in 2018-2019 among physicians. Less than one fifth of Tunisian physicians were vaccinated against influenza in 2018-2019. Higher vaccine uptake was related to a higher belief in vaccine efficacy in preventing influenza disease among both patients and caregivers. This underscores the need for periodic educational campaigns to raise physicians' awareness about IV efficacy. The switch to an IV mandatory policy should also be considered.

Keywords: influenza vaccine, physicians, Tunisia, vaccination uptake

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256 An Exploratory Study on the Level of Awareness and Common Barriers of Physicians on Overweight and Obesity Management in Bangladesh

Authors: Kamrun Nahar Koly, Saimul Islam

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Overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a leading risk factor for morbidity throughout the world. In a country like Bangladesh where under nutrition and overweight both co-exist at the same time, but this issue has been underexplored as expected. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and identify the barriers of the physicians regarding overweight and obesity management on an urban hospital of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. A simple cross sectional study was conducted at two selected government and two private hospital to assess the knowledge, attitude and common barriers regarding overweight and obesity management among healthcare professionals. One hundred and fifty five physicians were surveyed. A standard questionnaire was constructed in local language and interview was administrated. Among the 155 physicians, majority 53 (34.20%) were working on SMC, 36 (23.20%) from DMC, 33 (21.30%) were based on SSMC and the rest 33 (21.30%) were from HFRCMH. Mean age of the study physicians were 31.88±5.92. Majority of the physicians 80 (51.60%) were not able to answer the correct prevalence of obesity but also a substantial number of them 75(48.40%) could mark the right answer. Among the physicians 150 (96.77%) reported BMI as a diagnostic index for overweight and obesity, where as 43 (27.74%) waist circumference, 30 (19.35%) waist hip ratio and 26 (16.77%) marked mid-arm circumference. A substantial proportion 71 (46.70%) of the physicians thought that they do not have much to do controlling weight problem in Bangladesh context though it has been opposed by 42 (27.60%) of the physicians and 39(25.70%) was neutral to comment. The majority of them 147 (96.1%) thought that a family based education program would be beneficial followed by 145 (94.8%) physicians mentioned about raising awareness among mothers as she is the primary caregiver. The idea of a school based education program will also help to early intervene referred by 142 (92.8%) of the physicians. Community based education program was also appreciated by 136 (89.5%) of the physicians. About 74 (47.7%) of them think that the patients still lack in motivation to maintain their weight properly at the same time too many patients to deal with can be a barrier as well assumed by 73 (47.1%) of them. Lack of national policy or management guideline can act as an obstacle told by 60 (38.7%) of the physicians. The relationship of practicing as a part of the general examination and chronic disease management was statistically significant (p<0.05) with physician occupational status. As besides, perceived barriers like lack of parents support, lack of a national policy was statistically significant (p<0.05) with physician occupational status. For the young physician, more training programme will be needed to transform their knowledge and attitude into practice. However, several important barriers interface for the physician treatment efforts and need to address.

Keywords: obesity management, physician, awareness, barriers, Bangladesh

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255 Drug and Poison Information Centers: An Emergent Need of Health Care Professionals in Pakistan

Authors: Asif Khaliq, Sayeeda A. Sayed

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The drug information centers provide drug related information to the requesters that include physicians, pharmacist, nurses and other allied health care professionals. The International Pharmacist Federation (FIP) describes basic functions of a drug and poison information centers as drug evaluation, therapeutic counseling, pharmaceutical advice, research, pharmaco-vigilence and toxicology. Continuous advancement in the field of medicine has expanded the medical literature, which has increased demand of a drug and poison information center for the guidance, support and facilitation of physicians. The objective of the study is to determine the need of drug and poison information centers in public and private hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted during July 2013 to April 2014 using a self-administered, multi-itemed questionnaire. Non Probability Convenient sampling was used to select the study participants. A total of 307 physicians from public and private hospitals of Karachi participated in the study. The need for 24/7 Drug and poison information center was highlighted by 92 % of physicians and 67% physicians suggested opening a drug information center at the hospital. It was reported that 70% physicians take at least 15 minutes for searching the information about the drug while managing a case. Regarding the poisoning case management, 52% physicians complaint about the unavailability of medicines in hospitals; and mentioned the importance of medicines for safe and timely management of patients. Although 73% physicians attended continued medical education (CME) sessions, 92 % physicians insisted on the need of 24/7 Drug and poison information center. The scarcity of organized channel for obtaining the information about drug and poisons is one of the most crucial problems for healthcare workers in Pakistan. The drug and poison information center is an advisory body that assists health care professional and patients in provision of appropriate drug and hazardous substance information. Drug and poison information center is one of the integral needs for running an effective health care system. Provision of a 24 /7 drug information centers with specialized staff offer multiple benefits to the hospitals while reducing treatment delays, addressing awareness gaps of all stakeholders and ensuring provision of quality health care.

Keywords: drug and poison information centers, Pakistan, physicians, public and private hospitals

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254 Assessing Professionalism, Communication, and Collaboration among Emergency Physicians by Implementing a 360-Degree Evaluation

Authors: Ahmed Al Ansari, Khalid Al Khalifa

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Objective: Multisource feedback (MSF), also called the 360-Degree evaluation is an evaluation process by which questionnaires are distributed amongst medical peers and colleagues to assess physician performance from different sources other than the attending or the supervising physicians. The aim of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate a 360-Degree process in assessing emergency physicians trainee in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Method: The study was undertaken in Bahrain Defense Force Hospital which is a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Thirty emergency physicians (who represent the total population of the emergency physicians in our hospital) were assessed in this study. We developed an instrument modified from the Physician achievement review instrument PAR which was used to assess Physician in Alberta. We focused in our instrument to assess professionalism, communication skills and collaboration only. To achieve face and content validity, table of specification was constructed and a working group was involved in constructing the instrument. Expert opinion was considered as well. The instrument consisted of 39 items; were 15 items to assess professionalism, 13 items to assess communication skills, and 11 items to assess collaboration. Each emergency physicians was evaluated with 3 groups of raters, 4 Medical colleague emergency physicians, 4 medical colleague who are considered referral physicians from different departments, and 4 Coworkers from the emergency department. Independent administrative team was formed to carry on the responsibility of distributing the instruments and collecting them in closed envelopes. Each envelope was consisted of that instrument and a guide for the implementation of the MSF and the purpose of the study. Results: A total of 30 emergency physicians 16 males and 14 females who represent the total number of the emergency physicians in our hospital were assessed. The total collected forms is 269, were 105 surveys from coworkers working in emergency department, 93 surveys from medical colleague emergency physicians, and 116 surveys from referral physicians from different departments. The total mean response rates were 71.2%. The whole instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis (KMO = 0.967; Bartlett test significant, p<0.00). Factor analysis showed that the data on the questionnaire decomposed into three factors which counted for 72.6% of the total variance: professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the instrument full scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98). The generalizability coefficients (Ep2) were 0.71 for the surveys. Conclusions: Based on the present results, the current instruments and procedures have high reliability, validity, and feasibility in assessing emergency physicians trainee in the emergency room.

Keywords: MSF system, emergency, validity, generalizability

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253 Pharmaceutical Evaluation of Five Different Generic Brands of Prednisolone

Authors: Asma A. Ben Ahmed, Hajer M. Alborawy, Alaa A. Mashina, Pradeep K. Velautham, Abdulmonem Gobassa, Emhemmed Elgallal, Mohamed N. El Attug

Abstract:

Generic medicines are those where patent protection has expired, and which may be produced by manufacturers other than the innovator company. Use of generic medicines has been increasing in recent years, primarily as a cost saving measure in healthcare provision. Generic medicines are typically 20 – 90 % cheaper than originator equivalents. Physicians often continue to prescribe brand-name drugs to their patients even when less expensive pharmacologically equivalent generic drugs are available. Because generics are less expensive than their brand-name counterparts, the cost-savings to the patient is not the only factor that physicians consider when choosing between generic and brand-name drugs. Unfortunately Physicians in general and Libyan Physicians in particular tend to prescribe brand-name drugs, even without evidence of their therapeutic superiority, because neither they nor their insured patients bear these drugs’ increased cost with respect to generic substitutes. This study is to compare the quality of five different prednisolone tablets of the same strength from different companies under different trade names: Julphar, October pharma, Akums, Actavis, Pfizer compared them with pure prednisolone reference (BPCRS).

Keywords: quality control, pharmaceutical analysis, generic medicines, prednisolone

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252 Survey of Neonatologists’ Burnout on a Neonatal Surgical Unit: Audit Study from Cairo University Specialized Pediatric Hospital

Authors: Mahmoud Tarek, Alaa Obeida, Mai Magdy, Khalid Hussein, Aly Shalaby

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Background: More doctors are complaining of burnout than before, Burnout is a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by the doctor’s lifestyle, unfortunately, Medical errors are also more likely in those suffering from burnout and these may result in malpractice suits. Methodology: It is a retrospective audit of burnout response on all neonatologists over a 9 months period. We gathered data using burnout questionnaire, it was obtained from 23 physicians, the physicians divided into 5 categories according to the final score of the 28 questions in the questionnaire. Category 1 with score from 28-38 with almost no work stress, category 2 with score (38-50) who express a low amount of job related stress, category 3 with score (51-70) with moderate amount of stress, category 4 with score (71-90) those express a high amount of job stress and begun to burnout, category 5 with score (91 and above) who are under a dangerous amount of stress and advanced stage of burnout. Results: 33 neonatologists have received the questionnaire, 23 responses were sent back with a response rate of 69.6%. The results showed that 61% of physicians fall in category 4, 31% of the physician in category 5, while 8% of physicians equally distributed between category 2 and 3 (4% each of them). On the other hand, there is no physician present in category 1. Conclusion: Burnout is prevalent in SNICUs, So interventions to minimize burnout prevalence may be of greater importance as this may be reflected indirectly on medical conditions of the patients and physicians, efforts should be done to decrease this high rate of burnout.

Keywords: Cairo, work overload, exhaustion, surgery, neonatal ICU

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251 Definition, Barriers to and Facilitators of Moral Distress as Perceived by Neonatal Intensive Care Physicians

Authors: M. Deligianni, P. Voultsos, E. Tsamadou

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Background/Introduction: Moral distress is a common occurrence for health professionals working in neonatal critical care. Despite a growing number of critically ill neonatal and pediatric patients, only a few articles related to moral distress as experienced by neonatal physicians have been published over the last years. Objectives/Aims: The aim of this study was to define and identify barriers to and facilitators of moral distress based on the perceptions and experiences of neonatal physicians working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This pilot study is a part of a larger nationwide project. Methods: A multicenter qualitative descriptive study using focus group methodology was conducted. In-depth interviews lasting 45 to 60 minutes were audio-recorded. Once data were transcribed, conventional content analysis was used to develop the definition and categories, as well as to identify the barriers to and facilitators of moral distress. Results: Participants defined moral distress broadly in the context of neonatal critical care. A wide variation of definitions was displayed. The physicians' responses to moral distress included different feelings and other situations. The overarching categories that emerged from the data were patient-related, family-related, and physician-related factors. Moreover, organizational factors may constitute major facilitators of moral distress among neonatal physicians in NICUs. Note, however, that moral distress may be regarded as an essential component to caring for neonates in critical care. The present study provides further insight into the moral distress experienced by physicians working in Greek NICUs. Discussion/Conclusions: Understanding how neonatal and pediatric critical care nurses define moral distress and what contributes to its development is foundational to developing targeted strategies for mitigating the prevalence of moral distress among neonate physicians in the context of NICUs.

Keywords: critical care, moral distress, neonatal physician, neonatal intensive care unit, NICU

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250 Awareness of Drug Interactions among Physicians at Governmental Health Centers in Bahrain

Authors: Yasin I. Tayem, Jamil Ahmed, Mahmood Bahzad, Abdullah Alnama, Fahad Al Asfoor, Mahmood A. Jalil, Mohammed Radhi, Ahmed Alenezi, Khalid A. J. Al-Khaja

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Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent a significant cause of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The rate of DDIs is rapidly increasing worldwide with the increasing proportion of ageing population and frequent requirement of polypharmacy-prescription of multiple drugs to treat comorbidities. Prescribing physicians are responsible for checking their prescriptions for the presence and severity of DDIs. However, since a large number of new drugs are approved and marketed every year, new interactions between medications are increasingly reported. Consequently, it is no longer practical for physicians to rely only upon their previous knowledge of medicine to avoid potential DDIs. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of physicians working at primary healthcare centers in Bahrain towards DDIs and how they manage them during their practice. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, physicians working at all governmental primary healthcare centers in Bahrain were invited to voluntarily, privately and anonymously respond to a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire aims to assess their self-reported knowledge of DDIs and how they check for them in their practice. The participants were requested to provide socio demographic data and information related to their attitudes towards DDIs including strategies they employ for detecting and managing them, and their awareness of drugs which commonly cause DDIs. At the end of the questionnaire, an open-ended item was added to allow participants to further add any comment. Findings and Conclusions: The study is going on currently, and the results and conclusions will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: awareness, drug interactions, health centres, physicians

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249 Euthanasia in Dementia Cases: An Interview Study of Dutch Physicians' Experiences

Authors: J. E. Appel, R. N. Bouwmeester, L. Crombach, K. Georgieva, N. O’Shea, T. I. van Rijssel, L. Wingens

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The Netherlands has a unique and progressive euthanasia law. Even people with advanced neurodegenerative diseases, like dementia, can request euthanasia when an Advanced Euthanasia Directive (AED) was written. Although the law sets some guidelines, in practice many complexities occur. Especially doctors experience difficult situations, as they have to decide whether euthanasia is justified. Research suggests that this leads to an emotional burden for them, due to feelings of isolation, fear of prosecution, as well as pressures from patient, family, or society. Existing literature, however, failed to address problems arising in dementia cases in particular, as well as possible sources of support. In order to investigate these issues, semi-structured in-depth interviews with 20 Dutch general practitioners and elderly care physicians will be conducted. Results are expected to be obtained by the end of December 2017.

Keywords: dementia, euthanasia, general practitioners, elderly care physicians, palliative care

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248 Effect of “Evidence Based Diabetes Management” Educational Sessions on Primary Care Physicians

Authors: Surjeet Bakshi, Surabhi Sharma

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Objective: To assess the impact of educational sessions by reputed regional faculties on knowledge of primary care physicians on evidence based diabetes management methods and practice. Study Design: Retrospective pre-post intervention study. Methodology: Nine cities in Kerala from August to October, 2012 were selected for the study. 125 MBBS doctors participated in the study. 11 regional faculties provided six educational sessions throughout the period. Validated questionnaires were used to evaluate the knowledge of the participants on evidence based diabetes management methods before and after the intervention. Results: The mean score on pre-test was 8 and the mean score on post-test was 9. A paired t-test was conducted on participant’s pre- and post test score and the results were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Even though the general attitude to and level of knowledge of diabetes management is good among the primary care physicians in India, there do exist some knowledge gaps which might influence their future practices when it comes to counselling and information on diabetes management methods. In the present study, the performance and awareness level of the participants have expressively improved among primary care physicians. There is a significant improvement in the test score and the training conducted. It seems that if such study programmes are included in the students study programme, it will give higher score in the knowledge and attitude towards diabetes management.

Keywords: diabetes, management, primary care physicians, evidence base, improvement score, knowledge

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247 Resilience and Mindfulness as Individual Resources Building Communication Skills for Physicians

Authors: Malgorzata Sekulowicz, Krystyna Boron-Krupinska, Paulina Morga, Blazej Cieslik

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Burnout is highly prevalent in health care employees, especially in physicians. It significantly reduces the efficiency of these employees, which can have negative consequences for both physicians and patients. Resilience and mindfulness enhancing positive emotions, leading to sustainable development and personal commitment, can have a significant impact on burnout. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between burnout symptoms and mindfulness and resilience among physicians. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among seventy-four polish physicians. Participants filled out the following psychometric tools: the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Areas of Work-Life Survey (AWS), International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), the Resilience Assessment Scale (SPP-25) and the Mini-COPE Inventory. The relationship between burnout and resilience and mindfulness was assessed with path analysis. Analyzing the relationship between MBI-HSS components and mindfulness, a significant negative correlation of the FFMQ score with emotional exhaustion (-0.50, p < 0.05) and depersonalization (-0.43, p < 0.05) and a positive correlation with personal accomplishment (0.50, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Analyzing resilience, a statistically significant relationship of SPP-25 with all tested components of MBI-HSS was demonstrated: emotional exhaustion (-0.54, p < 0.05), depersonalization (-0.31, p < 0.05) and personal accomplishment (0.35, p < 0.05). In the group of medical doctors, the higher the level of mindfulness and resilience, the lower the risk of burnout. Furthermore, the more frequently used active coping strategies (planning, acceptance), the lower the risk of burnout, while the use of passive, evasive strategies increases the risk of burnout. It may be worth considering implementing mindfulness intervention to effectively manage burnout symptoms in this group.

Keywords: burnout, medical doctors, mindfulness, physicians, resilience

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246 Motivational Interviewing as a Framework for Coaching Physicians through ACGME Milestones

Authors: Michael Olson

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The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) in the U.S. has established core competencies and milestones for family physicians in residency training programs. These competencies are intended to guide preceptors as they work with physician trainees toward independent practice. This conceptual paper describes a framework for coaching trainees toward these milestones using motivational interviewing as an evidence-based approach. The main objective of applying the motivational interviewing framework to the residency training setting is to facilitate clinical behavior change that meets higher level competencies/rubric. This is a work in progress and there is no manuscript/paper prepared to date. A conceptual paper/framework will be completed by the conference deadline. This is based on a separate but related development of work we have completed and published elsewhere.

Keywords: coaching, motivational interviewing, physicians, competencies

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245 Attitude and Knowledge of Primary Health Care Physicians and Local Inhabitants about Leishmaniasis and Sandfly in West Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Randa M. Ali, Naguiba F. Loutfy, Osama M. Awad

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Background: Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease, affecting 88 countries, it is estimated that about 350 million people are at risk of leishmaniasis. Overall prevalence is 12 million people with annual mortality of about 60,000. Annual incidence is 1,500,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) worldwide and half million cases of visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess primary health care physicians knowledge (PHP) and attitude about leishmaniasis and to assess awareness of local inhabitants about the disease and its vector in four areas in west Alexandria, Egypt. Methods: This study was a cross sectional survey that was conducted in four PHC units in west Alexandria. All physicians currently working in these units during the study period were invited to participate in the study, only 20 PHP completed the questionnaire. 60 local inhabitant were selected randomly from the four areas of the study, 15 from each area; Data was collected through two different specially designed questionnaires. Results: 11(55%) percent of the physicians had satisfactory knowledge, they answered more than 9 (60%) questions out of a total 14 questions about leishmaniasis and sandfly. The second part of the questionnaire is concerned with attitude of the primary health care physicians about leishmaniasis, 17 (85%) had good attitude and 3 (15%) had poor attitude. The second questionnaire showed that the awareness of local inhabitants about leishmaniasis and sandly as a vector of the disease is poor and needs to be corrected. Most of the respondents (90%) had not heard about leishmaniasis, Only 3 (5%) of the interviewed inhabitants said they know sandfly and its role in transmission of leishmaniasis. Conclusions: knowledge and attitudes of physicians are acceptable. However, there is, room for improvement and could be done through formal training courses and distribution of guidelines. In addition to raising the awareness of primary health care physicians about the importance of early detection and notification of cases of lesihmaniasis. Moreover, health education for raising awareness of the public regarding the vector and the disease is necessary because related studies have demonstrated that if the inhabitants do not perceive mosquitoes to be responsible for diseases such as malaria they do not take enough measures to protect themselves against the vector.

Keywords: leishmaniasis, PHP, knowledge, attitude, local inhabitants

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244 Obligation, the Shifting Nature of Physician-Patient Relationship, and the Basic Healthcare Reform in Mainland China

Authors: Jia Liu

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This article explores the shifting nature of physician-patient relationship in mainland China. Specifically, it takes the physician-patient relationship during the barefoot doctor program in 1968-1978, the marketization of healthcare services in 1978-2002, and the healthcare reform in 2003-2020 as three typical historical periods, illustrating how the nature of the physician-patient relationship has changed over time in mainland China. Drawing on recent jurisprudential literature that emphasizes the roles and functions done by and through obligation rather than right, it explores how the obligations of physicians and patients along with the implementation of informed consent, marketization of the healthcare system, and the basic healthcare reform have affected their relationship. One key feature of this article is that it analyzes the ways in which commodification and decommodification of healthcare have defined and in many different ways have determined the expectations and practices of physicians and patients, which illustrates how the trust between physicians and patients threatens to collapse and the bond between the citizen and the state fails to be firmly established in the mainland Chinese healthcare context. It also pays special attention to the role played by law and legal institutions—for instance, the implementation of informed consent and the liability law—in being complicit in facilitating the decoupling of the practices of physicians and patients from their ethical senses of obligation and undermining the bond (the trust relationship) between them.

Keywords: healthcare, marketization, physician-patient relationship, sense of obligation

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243 Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children Aged 4-6 Years by Municipal Maternal and Child Health Physicians: An Educational Intervention Study

Authors: M. Van 'T Hof, R. V. Pasma, J. T. Bailly, H. W. Hoek, W. A. Ester

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Background: The transition into primary school can be challenging for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Due to the new demands that are made to children in this period, their limitations in social functioning and school achievements may manifest and appear faster. Detection of possible ASD signals mainly takes place by parents, teachers and during obligatory municipal maternal and child health centre visits. Physicians of municipal maternal and child health centres have limited education and instruments to detect ASD. Further education on detecting ASD is needed to optimally equip these doctors for this task. Most research aims to increase the early detection of ASD in children aged 0-3 years and shows positive results. However, there is a lack of research on educational interventions to detect ASD in children aged 4-6 years by municipal maternal and child health physicians. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the effect of the online educational intervention: Detection of ASD in children aged 4-6 years for municipal maternal and child health physicians. This educational intervention is developed within The Reach-Aut Academic Centre for Autism; Transitions in education, and will be available throughout The Netherlands. Methods: Ninety-two participants will follow the educational intervention: Detection of ASD in children aged 4-6 years for municipal maternal and child health centre physicians. The educational intervention consists of three, one and a half hour sessions, which are offered through an online interactive classroom. The focus and content of the course has been developed in collaboration with three groups of stakeholders; autism scientists, clinical practitioners (municipal maternal and child health doctors and ASD experts) and parents of children with ASD. The primary outcome measure is knowledge about ASD: signals, early detection, communication with parents and referrals. The secondary outcome measures are the number of ASD related referrals, the attitude towards the mentally ill (CAMI), perceived competency about ASD knowledge and detection skills, and satisfaction about the educational intervention. Results and Conclusion: The study started in January 2016 and data collection will end mid 2017.

Keywords: ASD, child, detection, educational intervention, physicians

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242 Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome at Emergency Department

Authors: Taerim Kim, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Won Young Kim

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Object: Reversible cerebral vasospasm syndrome (RCVS) remains an underrated cause of thunderclap headache which shares similar history of the ‘worst-ever’ headache with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to the emergency physicians. This study evaluated the clinical manifestations, radiological features, and outcomes of patients with RCVS so that the physicians could raise the high index of suspicion to detect RCVS in more patients with thunderclap headache before having life-threatening complications. Methods: The electric medical records of 18 patients with diagnostic criteria of RCVS at the emergency department (ED) between January 2013 and December 2014 were retrospective reviewed. Results: The mean age was 50.7 years, and 80% were women. Patients with RCVS visit an average of 4.7 physicians before receiving an accurate diagnosis and mean duration of symptom until diagnosis is 9.3 days. All patients except one experienced severe headache, from 8 to 10 pain intensity on a numerical rating scale (NRS). 44% of patients had nausea as an associated symptom, 66% of patients experienced worsening of headache while gagging, leaning forward, defecating, urinating or having sex. The most frequently affected vessels are middle cerebral arteries demonstrating the characteristic diffuse “string of beads” appearance. Four patients had SAH as a complication. Conclusion: Patients with RCVS have a unique set of clinical and imaging features. Emergency physicians should raise the high index of suspicion to detect RCVS in more patients with thunderclap headache before life-threatening complications.

Keywords: headache, thunderclap, subarachnoid haemorrhage, stroke

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241 GSM Based Smart Patient Monitoring System

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour

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In this paper, we propose an intelligent system that is used for monitoring the health conditions of Patients. Monitoring the health condition of Patients is a complex problem that involves different medical units and requires continuous monitoring especially in rural areas because of inadequate number of available specialized physicians. The proposed system will Improve patient care and drive costs down comparing to the existing system in Jordan. The proposed system will be the start point to Faster and improve the communication between different units in the health system in Jordan. Connecting patients and their physicians beyond hospital doors regarding their geographical area is an important issue in developing the health system in Jordan. The propose system will provide an intelligent system that will generate initial diagnosing to the patient case. This will assist and advice clinicians at the point of care. The decision is based on demographic data and laboratory test results of patient data. Using such system with the ability of making medical decisions, the quality of medical care in Jordan and specifically in Tafial is expected to be improved. This will provide more accurate, effective, and reliable diagnoses and treatments especially if the physicians have insufficient knowledge.

Keywords: GSM, SMS, patient, monitoring system, fuzzy logic, multi-agent system

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240 Computer Aided Diagnosis Bringing Changes in Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Devadrita Dey Sarkar

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Regardless of the many technologic advances in the past decade, increased training and experience, and the obvious benefits of uniform standards, the false-negative rate in screening mammography remains unacceptably high .A computer aided neural network classification of regions of suspicion (ROS) on digitized mammograms is presented in this abstract which employs features extracted by a new technique based on independent component analysis. CAD is a concept established by taking into account equally the roles of physicians and computers, whereas automated computer diagnosis is a concept based on computer algorithms only. With CAD, the performance by computers does not have to be comparable to or better than that by physicians, but needs to be complementary to that by physicians. In fact, a large number of CAD systems have been employed for assisting physicians in the early detection of breast cancers on mammograms. A CAD scheme that makes use of lateral breast images has the potential to improve the overall performance in the detection of breast lumps. Because breast lumps can be detected reliably by computer on lateral breast mammographs, radiologists’ accuracy in the detection of breast lumps would be improved by the use of CAD, and thus early diagnosis of breast cancer would become possible. In the future, many CAD schemes could be assembled as packages and implemented as a part of PACS. For example, the package for breast CAD may include the computerized detection of breast nodules, as well as the computerized classification of benign and malignant nodules. In order to assist in the differential diagnosis, it would be possible to search for and retrieve images (or lesions) with these CAD systems, which would be reliable and useful method for quantifying the similarity of a pair of images for visual comparison by radiologists.

Keywords: CAD(computer-aided design), lesions, neural network, ROS(region of suspicion)

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239 Beliefs about the Use of Extemporaneous Compounding for Paediatric Outpatients among Physicians in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Chairun Wiedyaningsih, Sri Suryawati, Yati Soenarto, Muhammad Hakimi

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Background: Many drugs used in paediatrics are not commercially available in suitable dosage forms. Therefore, the drugs often prescribed in extemporaneous compounding dosage form. Compounding can pose health risks include poor quality and unsafe products. Studies of compounding dosage form have primarily focused on prescription profiles, reasons of prescribing never be explored. Objectives: The study was conducted to identify factors influencing physicians’ decision to prescribe extemporaneous compounding dosage form for paediatric outpatients. Setting: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) province, Indonesia. Method: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 general physicians and 7 paediatricians to identify the reason of prescribing extemporaneous compounding dosage form. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Factors underlying prescribing of compounding could be categorized to therapy, healthcare system, patient and past experience. The primary reasons of therapy factors were limited availability of drug compositions, dosages or formulas specific for children. Beliefs in efficacy of the compounding forms were higher when the drugs used primarily to overcome complex cases. Physicians did not concern about compounding form containing several active substances because manufactured syrups may also contain several active substances. Although medicines were available in manufactured syrups, limited institutional budget was healthcare system factor of compounding prescribing. The prescribing factors related to patients include easy to use, efficient and lower price. The prescribing factors related to past experience were physicians’ beliefs to the progress of patient's health status. Conclusions: Compounding was prescribed based on therapy-related factors, healthcare system factors, patient factors and past experience.

Keywords: compounding dosage form, interview, physician, prescription

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238 Barriers of the Development and Implementation of Health Information Systems in Iran

Authors: Abbas Sheikhtaheri, Nasim Hashemi

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Health information systems have great benefits for clinical and managerial processes of health care organizations. However, identifying and removing constraints and barriers of implementing and using health information systems before any implementation is essential. Physicians are one of the main users of health information systems, therefore, identifying the causes of their resistance and concerns about the barriers of the implementation of these systems is very important. So the purpose of this study was to determine the barriers of the development and implementation of health information systems in terms of the Iranian physicians’ perspectives. In this study conducted in 8 selected hospitals affiliated to Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2014, physicians (GPs, residents, interns, specialists) in these hospitals were surveyed. In order to collect data, a research made questionnaire was used (Cronbach’s α = 0.95). The instrument included 25 about organizational (9), personal (4), moral and legal (3) and technical barriers (9). Participants were asked to answer the questions using 5 point scale Likert (completely disagree=1 to completely agree=5). By using a simple random sampling method, 200 physicians (from 600) were invited to study that eventually 163 questionnaires were returned. We used mean score and t-test and ANOVA to analyze the data using SPSS software version 17. 52.1% of respondents were female. The mean age was 30.18 ± 7.29. The work experience years for most of them were between 1 to 5 years (80.4 percent). The most important barriers were organizational ones (3.4 ± 0.89), followed by ethical (3.18 ± 0.98), technical (3.06 ± 0.8) and personal (3.04 ± 1.2). Lack of easy access to a fast Internet (3.67±1.91) and the lack of exchanging information (3.61±1.2) were the most important technical barriers. Among organizational barriers, the lack of efficient planning for the development and implementation systems (3.56±1.32) and was the most important ones. Lack of awareness and knowledge of health care providers about the health information systems features (3.33±1.28) and the lack of physician participation in planning phase (3.27±1.2) as well as concerns regarding the security and confidentiality of health information (3.15 ± 1.31) were the most important personal and ethical barriers, respectively. Women (P = 0.02) and those with less experience (P = 0.002) were more concerned about personal barriers. GPs also were more concerned about technical barriers (P = 0.02). According to the study, technical and ethics barriers were considered as the most important barriers however, lack of awareness in target population is also considered as one of the main barriers. Ignoring issues such as personal and ethical barriers, even if the necessary infrastructure and technical requirements were provided, may result in failure. Therefore, along with the creating infrastructure and resolving organizational barriers, special attention to education and awareness of physicians and providing solution for ethics concerns are necessary.

Keywords: barriers, development health information systems, implementation, physicians

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237 Medical Error: Concept and Description According to Brazilian Physicians

Authors: Vitor S. Mendonca, Maria Luisa S. Schmidt

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The Brazilian medical profession is viewed as being error-free, so healthcare professionals who commit an error are condemned there. Medical errors occur frequently in the Brazilian healthcare system, so identifying better options for handling this issue has become of interest primarily for physicians. The purpose of this study is to better understand the tensions involved in the fear of making an error due to the harm and risk this would represent for those involved. A qualitative study was performed by means of the narratives of the lived experiences of ten acting physicians in the State of Sao Paulo. The concept and characterization of errors were discussed, together with the fear of making an error, the near misses or error in itself, how to deal with errors and what to do to avoid them. The analysis indicates an excessive pressure in the medical profession for error-free practices, with a well-established physician-patient relationship to facilitate the management of medical errors. The error occurs, but a lack of information and discussion often leads to its concealment due to fear or possible judgment by society or peers. The establishment of programs that encourage appropriate medical conduct in the event of an error requires coherent answers for humanization in Brazilian medical science. It is necessary to improve the discussion about medical errors and disseminate models of communication and notification of errors in Brazil.

Keywords: medical error, narrative, physician-patient relationship, qualitative research

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236 Physicians’ Knowledge and Perception of Gene Profiling in Malaysia: A Pilot Study

Authors: Farahnaz Amini, Woo Yun Kin, Lazwani Kolandaiveloo

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Availability of different genetic tests after completion of Human Genome Project increases the physicians’ responsibility to keep themselves update on the potential implementation of these genetic tests in their daily practice. However, due to numbers of barriers, still many of physicians are not either aware of these tests or are not willing to offer or refer their patients for genetic tests. This study was conducted an anonymous, cross-sectional, mailed-based survey to develop a primary data of Malaysian physicians’ level of knowledge and perception of gene profiling. Questionnaire had 29 questions. Total scores on selected questions were used to assess the level of knowledge. The highest possible score was 11. Descriptive statistics, one way ANOVA and chi-squared test was used for statistical analysis. Sixty three completed questionnaires was returned by 27 general practitioners (GPs) and 36 medical specialists. Responders’ age range from 24 to 55 years old (mean 30.2 ± 6.4). About 40% of the participants rated themselves as having poor level of knowledge in genetics in general whilst 60% believed that they have fair level of knowledge. However, almost half (46%) of the respondents felt that they were not knowledgeable about available genetic tests. A majority (94%) of the responders were not aware of any lab or company which is offering gene profiling services in Malaysia. Only 4% of participants were aware of using gene profiling for detection of dosage of some drugs. Respondents perceived greater utility of gene profiling for breast cancer (38%) compared to the colorectal familial cancer (3%). The score of knowledge ranged from 2 to 8 (mean 4.38 ± 1.67). Non-significant differences between score of knowledge of GPs and specialists were observed, with score of 4.19 and 4.58 respectively. There was no significant association between any demographic factors and level of knowledge. However, those who graduated between years 2001 to 2005 had higher level of knowledge. Overall, 83% of participants showed relatively high level of perception on value of gene profiling to detect patient’s risk of disease. However, low perception was observed for both statements of using gene profiling for general population in order to alter their lifestyle (25%) as well as having the full sequence of a patient genome for the purpose of determining a patient’s best match for treatment (18%). The lack of clinical guidelines, limited provider knowledge and awareness, lack of time and resources to educate patients, lack of evidence-based clinical information and cost of tests were the most barriers of ordering gene profiling mentioned by physicians. In conclusion Malaysian physicians who participate in this study had mediocre level of knowledge and awareness in gene profiling. The low exposure to the genetic questions and problems might be a key predictor of lack of awareness and knowledge on available genetic tests. Educational and training workshop might be useful in helping Malaysian physicians incorporate genetic profiling into practice for eligible patients.

Keywords: gene profiling, knowledge, Malaysia, physician

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
235 A Review on Applications of Experts Systems in Medical Sciences

Authors: D. K. Sreekantha, T. M. Girish, R. H. Fattepur

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In this article, we have given an overview of medical expert systems, which can be used for the developed of physicians in making decisions such as appropriate, prognostic, and therapeutic decisions which help to organize, store, and gives appropriate medical knowledge needed by physicians and practitioners during medical operations or further treatment. If they support the studies by using these systems, advanced tools in medicine will be developed in the future. New trends in the methodology of development of medical expert systems have also been discussed in this paper. So Authors would like to develop an innovative IT based solution to help doctors in rural areas to gain expertise in Medical Science for treating patients. This paper aims to survey the Soft Computing techniques in treating patient’s problems used throughout the world.

Keywords: expert system, fuzzy logic, knowledge base, soft computing, epilepsy

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234 Comparing Community Health Agents, Physicians and Nurses in Brazil's Family Health Strategy

Authors: Rahbel Rahman, Rogério Meireles Pinto, Margareth Santos Zanchetta

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Background: Existing shortcomings of current health-service delivery include poor teamwork, competencies that do not address consumer needs, and episodic rather than continuous care. Brazil’s Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System, UHS) is acknowledged worldwide as a model for delivering community-based care through Estratégia Saúde da Família (FHS; Family Health Strategy) interdisciplinary teams, comprised of Community Health Agents (in Portuguese, Agentes Comunitário de Saude, ACS), nurses, and physicians. FHS teams are mandated to collectively offer clinical care, disease prevention services, vector control, health surveillance and social services. Our study compares medical providers (nurses and physicians) and community-based providers (ACS) on their perceptions of work environment, professional skills, cognitive capacities and job context. Global health administrators and policy makers can leverage on similarities and differences across care providers to develop interprofessional training for community-based primary care. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 168 ACS, 62 nurses and 32 physicians in Brazil. We compared providers’ demographic characteristics (age, race, and gender) and job context variables (caseload, work experience, work proximity to community, the length of commute, and familiarity with the community). Providers perceptions were compared to their work environment (work conditions and work resources), professional skills (consumer-input, interdisciplinary collaboration, efficacy of FHS teams, work-methods and decision-making autonomy), and cognitive capacities (knowledge and skills, skill variety, confidence and perseverance). Descriptive and bi-variate analysis, such as Pearson Chi-square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) F-tests, were performed to draw comparisons across providers. Results: Majority of participants were ACS (64%); 24% nurses; and 12% physicians. Majority of nurses and ACS identified as mixed races (ACS, n=85; nurses, n=27); most physicians identified as males (n=16; 52%), and white (n=18; 58%). Physicians were less likely to incorporate consumer-input and demonstrated greater decision-making autonomy than nurses and ACS. ACS reported the highest levels of knowledge and skills but the least confidence compared to nurses and physicians. ACS, nurses, and physicians were efficacious that FHS teams improved the quality of health in their catchment areas, though nurses tend to disagree that interdisciplinary collaboration facilitated their work. Conclusion: To our knowledge, there has been no study comparing key demographic and cognitive variables across ACS, nurses and physicians in the context of their work environment and professional training. We suggest that global health systems can leverage upon the diverse perspectives of providers to implement a community-based primary care model grounded in interprofessional training. Our study underscores the need for in-service trainings to instill reflective skills of providers, improve communication skills of medical providers and curative skills of ACS. Greater autonomy needs to be extended to community based providers to offer care integral to addressing consumer and community needs.

Keywords: global health systems, interdisciplinary health teams, community health agents, community-based care

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233 Determinants of Consultation Time at a Family Medicine Center

Authors: Ali Alshahrani, Adel Almaai, Saad Garni

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Aim of the study: To explore duration and determinants of consultation time at a family medicine center. Methodology: This study was conducted at the Family Medicine Center in Ahad Rafidah City, at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia. It was conducted on the working days of March 2013. Trained nurses helped in filling in the checklist. A total of 459 patients were included. A checklist was designed and used in this study. It included patient’s age, sex, diagnosis, type of visit, referral and its type, psychological problems and additional work-up. In addition, number of daily bookings, physician`s experience and consultation time. Results: More than half of patients (58.39%) had less than 10 minutes’ consultation (Mean+SD: 12.73+9.22 minutes). Patients treated by physicians with shortest experience (i.e., ≤5 years) had the longest consultation time while those who were treated with physicians with the longest experience (i.e., > 10 years) had the shortest consultation time (13.94±10.99 versus 10.79±7.28, p=0.011). Regarding patients’ diagnosis, those with chronic diseases had the longest consultation time (p<0.001). Patients who did not need referral had significantly shorter consultation time compared with those who had routine or urgent referral (11.91±8.42,14.60±9.03 and 22.42±14.81 minutes, respectively, p<0.001). Patients with associated psychological problems needed significantly longer consultation time than those without associated psychological problems (20.06±13.32 versus 12.45±8.93, p<0.001). Conclusions: The average length of consultation time at Ahad Rafidah Family Medicine Center is approximately 13 minutes. Less-experienced physicians tend to spend longer consultation times with patients. Referred patients, those with psychological problems, those with chronic diseases tend to have longer consultation time. Recommendations: Family physicians should be encouraged to keep their optimal consultation time. Booking an adequate number of patients per shift would allow the family physician to provide enough consultation time for each patient.

Keywords: consultation, quality, medicine, clinics

Procedia PDF Downloads 192