Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 919

Search results for: labor shortage

919 Continuance Commitment of Retail Pharmacist in a Labor Shortage: Results from the Questionnaire Survey

Authors: Shigeaki Mishima

Abstract:

Pharmacist labor shortage has become a long-term problem in Japan. This paper discusses the relationship between organizational commitment and pharmacists' organizational behavior in the context of labor shortage. Based on a multidimensional view of organizational commitment, effective commitment and continuous commitment are measured. It is suggested that the continuous commitment has a unique impact on withholding information behavior. We also discuss the impact of labor supply and demand on continuous commitment of retail pharmacist.

Keywords: organizational commitment, pharmacist, labor shortage, professional

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
918 A Study Concerning Foreign Worker Migration in Thailand

Authors: Napatsorn Suput-Anyaporn

Abstract:

This paper aimed to investigate multilateral relationships across the factors which included labor shortage, trade union, turnover rate of employee, labor law and regulation, and effectiveness of foreign worker administration in the scope of foreign workers in the industrial manufacturing sector of Thailand. The research employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches, in which foreign workers from Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia in the industrial manufacturing sector in selected areas of Thailand were sampled for the quantitative data collection, and persons in the chief executive management and the supervisor levels, and persons in the academic area in relation with foreign workers were selected as the sample for the qualitative data collection method. Thus, a questionnaire, in-depth interview and focus group were utilized as tools in this research paper. The discussion placed an emphasis on the fact that Thailand should design more effective law and regulations for the foreign workers administration and management in response to preparing for the coming ASEAN Economic Community with the declaration of the free- flow labor movement policy.

Keywords: industrial manufacturing sector, labor law and regulation, labor shortage, migrant worker, trade union, turnover rate of employee

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
917 Labor Productivity in the Construction Industry: Factors Influencing the Spanish Construction Labor Productivity

Authors: G. Robles, A. Stifi, José L. Ponz-Tienda, S. Gentes

Abstract:

This research paper aims to identify, analyze and rank factors affecting labor productivity in Spain with respect to their relative importance. Using a selected set of 35 factors, a structured questionnaire survey was utilized as the method to collect data from companies. Target population is comprised by a random representative sample of practitioners related with the Spanish construction industry. Findings reveal the top five ranked factors are as follows: (1) shortage or late supply of materials; (2) clarity of the drawings and project documents; (3) clear and daily task assignment; (4) tools or equipment shortages; (5) level of skill and experience of laborers. Additionally, this research also pretends to provide simple and comprehensive recommendations so that they could be implemented by construction managers for an effective management of construction labor forces.

Keywords: construction management, factors, improvement, labor productivity, lean construction

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916 A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor Strategies

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. For this, it gropes for methods for reducing conceptual ambiguity. Further, it arranges the concept of emotional labor; and examines and reviews comparatively the currents of the existing studies and looks for the characteristics and correlations of their classification criteria. That is, this study intends to arrange systematically and examine theories on emotional labor suggested hitherto, and suggest a future direction of research on emotional labor on the basis thereof. In addition, it attempts to look for positive aspects of the results of emotional labor.

Keywords: emotion labor, dimensions of emotional labor, surface acting, deep acting

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
915 Unravelling the Knot: Towards a Definition of ‘Digital Labor’

Authors: Marta D'Onofrio

Abstract:

The debate on the digitalization of the economy has raised questions about how both labor and the regulation of work processes are changing due to the introduction of digital technologies in the productive system. Within the literature, the term ‘digital labor’ is commonly used to identify the impact of digitalization on labor. Despite the wide use of this term, it is still not available an unambiguous definition of it, and this could create confusion in the use of terminology and in the attempts of classification. As a consequence, the purpose of this paper is to provide for a definition and to propose a classification of ‘digital labor’, resorting to the theoretical approach of organizational studies.

Keywords: digital labor, digitalization, data-driven algorithms, big data, organizational studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
914 Analysis of Labor Effectiveness at Green Tea Dry Sorting Workstation for Increasing Tea Factory Competitiveness

Authors: Bayu Anggara, Arita Dewi Nugrahini, Didik Purwadi

Abstract:

Dry sorting workstation needs labor to produce green tea in Gambung Tea Factory. Observation results show that there is labor who are not working at the moment and doing overtime jobs to meet production targets. The measurement of the level of labor effectiveness has never been done before. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of labor effectiveness and provide recommendations for improvement based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram. The method used to measure the level of labor effectiveness is Overall Labor Effectiveness (OLE). OLE had three indicators which are availability, performance, and quality. Recommendations are made based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram for indicators that do not meet world standards. Based on the results of the study, the OLE value was 68.19%. Recommendations given to improve labor performance are adding mechanics, rescheduling rest periods, providing special training for labor, and giving rewards to labor. Furthermore, the recommendations for improving the quality of labor are procuring water content measuring devices, create material standard policies, and rescheduling rest periods.

Keywords: Ishikawa diagram, labor effectiveness, OLE, Pareto diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
913 An Investigation of the Effectiveness and Quality Service of Thai Labor Fund

Authors: Chutikarn Sriviboon

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study the operation of the Labor Fund and to investigate the needs for money and assistance from Thai laborers both from within the system and out of the system and to compare between the assistance from domestic and international funds. The population of this study included three labor groups: group one was laborer in the system who were the members of saving cooperative, group two was laborer in the system who were not the members of saving cooperative, and group three was laborer who were not in the system. This was a mixed research of quantitative and qualitative methods. The findings can be categorized into four parts. First, the labor fund was beneficial to Thai laborers by giving access to government funds but the weakness was found to be poor public relations. Second, the labor funds should extend their assistance to laborer in the system who was not the members of saving cooperative. Third, the comparison between domestic labor funds and international labor funds revealed that there were no international funds which provided assistance the same way as Thai labor funds. Finally, there was a need to improve the management of labor funds and to provide long term assistance to Thai labors.

Keywords: effectiveness, quality, labor funds, service

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
912 An Estimation Process for Progress Rate Based on Labor-Quantity in Republic of Korea

Authors: Dong-Ho Kim, Zheng-Xun Jin, Yong-Woon Cha, Su-Sang Lim, Sang-Won Han, Chang-Taek Hyun

Abstract:

As construction is a labor-intensive industry, it is important to identify and manage labor quantities for accurate progress management of the construction project. However, the progress management that focuses on construction cost calculated based on materials rather than labor quantities has led to a difference in the implementation of cost and progress of the actual construction. In addition, since it is not easy to predict accurate labor quantities in the estimation of labor quantity-based progress rate, there have been limited researches into the progress rate estimation based on labor quantity. Accordingly, this study proposed a process for labor quantity-based progress rate estimation using a standard of estimate to predict accurate progress rate of the construction project in Republic Korea. It is expected that the utilization of the proposed process will help to identify the progress rate closer to that of the actual site management and adjust the workforce in each construction type, thereby contributing to improving construction efficiency.

Keywords: labor based, labor cost, progress management, progress rate, progress payment

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911 Two Steady States and Two Movement Patterns under the Balanced Budget Rule: An Economy with Divisible Labor

Authors: Fujio Takata

Abstract:

When governments levy taxes on labor income on the basis of a balanced budget rule, two steady states in an economy exist, of which one can cause two movement patterns, namely, indeterminacy paths and a saddle path. However, in this paper, we assume an economy with divisible labor, in which labor adjustment is made by an intensive margin. We demonstrate that there indeed exist the two paths in the economy and that there exists a critical condition dividing them. This is proved by establishing the relationship between a finite elasticity of labor with regard to real wages and the share of capital in output. Consequently, we deduce the existence of an upper limit in the share of capital in output for indeterminacy to occur. The largest possible value of that share is less than 0.5698.

Keywords: balanced budget rule, divisible labor, labor income taxation, two movement patterns

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910 Quantile Smoothing Splines: Application on Productivity of Enterprises

Authors: Semra Turkan

Abstract:

In this paper, we have examined the factors that affect the productivity of Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises in 2014. The labor productivity of enterprises is taken as an indicator of productivity of industrial enterprises. When the relationships between some financial ratios and labor productivity, it is seen that there is a nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales. In addition, the distribution of labor productivity of enterprises is right-skewed. If the dependent distribution is skewed, the quantile regression is more suitable for this data. Hence, the nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales by quantile smoothing splines.

Keywords: quantile regression, smoothing spline, labor productivity, financial ratios

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909 Ways to Define the Most Sustainable Actions for Water Shortage Prevention in Mega Cities, Especially in Developing Countries

Authors: Keivan Karimlou, Nemat Hassani, Abdollah Rashidi Mehrabadi

Abstract:

Climate change, industrial bloom, population growth and mismanagement are the most important factors that lead to water shortages around the world. Water shortages often lead to forced immigration, war, and thirst and hunger, especially in developing countries. One of the simplest solutions to solve the water shortage issues around the world is transferring water from one watershed to another; however it may not be a suitable solution. Water managers around the world use supply and demand management methods to decrease the incidence of water shortage in a sustainable manner. But as a matter of economic constraints, they must define a method to select the best possible action to reduce and limit water shortages. The following paper recognizes different kinds of criteria to select the best possible policy for reducing water shortage in mega cities by examining a comprehensive literature review.

Keywords: criteria, management, shortage, sustainable, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
908 The Determinants of Female Participation to the Labour Force in Turkey

Authors: Zeynep Karacor, Rahime Hulya Ozturk

Abstract:

Located in developing countries but with the successful performance in recent years have shown in emerging economies , the labor factor has undoubtedly an important place in Turkish economy. The theorists have emphasized the importance of labor and human capital factors for many years. The importance of human capital is emerging in the process of determining the labor force participation rate. It is relatively easy to employ qualified labor force but employment of unskilled labor is particularly difficult. Another factor affecting the gender differences are employment opportunities in the labor force. In our country, the employment conditions of men and women differ. Factors causing these differentials are inherent job requirements, the social structure of society, women's point of view, working hours, working conditions. Crisis in our country in recent years have significantly affect the labor force participation rates. In particular, women's labor force participation rates have shown a decrease in crisis.In crisis female laborforce leave their job and go their home. It is the sole provider of social perception of men so in crisis period it is considered that woman lost their job. In the first part of this study the current situation in the world of female participation in the labor force in Turkey will examine. In the second part of the study literature will be examined. In the third and last part of the study factors of determinants of female labor force participation rate analysis will done by Granger Causality Analysis.

Keywords: female labour force, employment, labor force, Turkey

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907 Comparing Skill, Employment, and Productivity of Industrial City Case Study: Bekasi Industrial Area and Special Economic Zone Sei Mangkei

Authors: Auliya Adzillatin Uzhma, M. Adrian Rizky, Puri Diah Santyarini

Abstract:

Bekasi Industrial Area in Kab. Bekasi and SEZ (Special Economic Zone) Sei Mangkei in Kab. Simalungun are two areas whose have the same main economic activity that are manufacturing industrial. Manufacturing industry in Bekasi Industrial Area contributes more than 70% of Kab. Bekasi’s GDP, while manufacturing industry in SEZ Sei Mangkei contributes less than 20% of Kab. Simalungun’s GDP. The dependent variable in the research is labor productivity, while the independent variable is the amount of labor, the level of labor education, the length of work and salary. This research used linear regression method to find the model for represent actual condition of productivity in two industrial area, then the equalization using dummy variable on labor education level variable. The initial hypothesis (Ho) in this research is that labor productivity in Bekasi Industrial Area will be higher than the productivity of labor in SEZ Sei Mangkei. The variable that supporting the accepted hypothesis are more labor, higher education, longer work and higher salary in Bekasi Industrial Area.

Keywords: labor, industrial city, linear regression, productivity

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906 A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Non-Task Behavior

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. In addition, in existing studies, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to a positive outcome variable and a negative outcome variable, respectively. It was confirmed that for employees performing emotional labor, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to OCB and CWB, respectively. While positive emotion that employees come to experience during job performance process can easily trigger a positive non-task behavior such as OCB, negative emotion that employees experience through excessive workload or unfair treatment can easily induce a negative behavior like CWB. The two management behaviors of emotional labor, surface acting and deep acting, can have either a positive or negative effect on non-task behavior of employees, depending on which one they would choose. Thus, the purpose of this review paper is to clarify the relationship between emotional labor and non-task behavior more specifically.

Keywords: emotion labor, non-task behavior, OCB, CWB

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
905 The Impact of Gender Inequality on Corruption:Evidence from Politics and Labor Market

Authors: Mahmoud Salari

Abstract:

Corruption and gender inequality are the main topics of interest for both economists and policymakers. This study develops various static and dynamic estimation models to examine the impact of gender inequality in politics and the labor market on corruption using data of 170 countries from 1998 to 2014. This study uses two most reliable corruption indexes, including Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and Corruption Control (CC), to evaluate corruption levels across countries. The results indicate that gender inequality in politics has a strong impact on corruption level, and those countries that have larger/smaller gender inequality in their parliaments are faced with higher/lower corruption, respectively. Meanwhile, there is no enough evidence that supports the relationship between gender inequality in the labor market and corruption, and the results indicate that gender inequality in the labor market is not directly linked to the corruption level.

Keywords: corruption, female labor force participation, politics, gender inequality

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904 Immigration and Gender Equality – An Analysis of the Labor Market Characteristics of Turkish Migrants Living in Germany

Authors: C. Asarkaya, S. Z. Siretioglu Girgin

Abstract:

Turkish migrants constitute the largest group among people with migration background living in Germany. Turkish women’s labor market participation is of significant importance for their social and economic integration to the German society. This paper thus aims to investigate their labor market positions. Turkish migrant women participate less in the labor market compared to men, and are responsible for most of the housework, child care, and elderly care. This is due to their traditional roles in the family, educational level, insufficient knowledge of German language, and insufficient professional experience. We strongly recommend that wide-reaching integration policies for women are formulated, so as to encourage participation of not only migrant women but also their husbands, fathers and/or brothers, and natives.

Keywords: empowerment, Germany, labor market, migration, Turkish, women

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903 Political Economy on the Recent Labor Condition in the Philippines: A Literature Review

Authors: Lloyd B. Ranises

Abstract:

The Philippine labor force has been affected by the pandemic recently. The situation was added by the high inflation rate, which makes matter worse. Since the Philippines has a new government after the 2022 national election, the labor condition under the previous government has been passed on to the new one. To understand the labor challenges the present government faces, this study revisits the labor conditions and responses of the previous government from 2016 to 2022. Thus, this study reviews the labor force of the Philippines within the time frame. It explores the challenges in the labor market and examines government policy. This study uses secondary sources in tracing the labor conditions and government actions that addressed them. The Literatures are consolidated to see its relevance to the new government’s labor policy. This study found that the labor force had a sluggish growth earlier until 2018 and thrived on but was affected by the pandemic. By 2020, the National Capital Region’s labor force dropped, although, after which, it begins to thrive again, showing recovery. However, its composition is much more complex. Cognitive skill is high in demand that requires tertiary education. But the production of goods and services is low in the scientific workforce in addition to the mismatch between position and profession. Moreover, Philippine labor has poor female participation. In addition to these complexities, the agricultural rural areas have high underemployment, which implies surplus labor of low skill. Overseas employment, on the other, is significant to the decrease in domestic production. The major responses of the previous government, by far, have been focused on the minimum wage increase and the social services and health insurance, which are appropriate to the post-pandemic needs. Yet still, some issues are unattended. This study concludes that the previous government’s policy needs to be fleshed out substantially. It necessitates that the new administration shall consider encompassing all aspects of the Philippine labor force to sustain and strengthen the economy of the country.

Keywords: cognitive skills, minimum wage, national capital region, underemployment

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902 Gender Inequality in the Nigerian Labour Market as a Cause of Unemployment among Female Graduates

Authors: Temitope Faloye

Abstract:

The absence of equity and transparency in Nigeria's economic system has resulted in unemployment. Women’s unemployment rate remains higher because women's range of jobs is often narrower due to discriminatory attitudes of employers and gender segregation in the labor market. Gender inequality is one of the strong factors of unemployment, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where the female gender is marginalized in the labor force market. However, gender equality in terms of labor market access and employment condition has not yet been attained. Feminist theory is considered as an appropriate theory for this study. The study will use a mixed-method design, collecting qualitative and quantitative data to provide answers to the research questions. Therefore, the research study aims to investigate the present situation of gender inequality in the Nigerian labor market.

Keywords: unemployment, gender inequality, gender equality, labor market, female graduate

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901 Circular Labour Migration and Its Consequences in Georgia

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze

Abstract:

Introduction: The paper will argue that labor migration is the most important problem Georgia faces today. The structure of labor migration by age and gender of Georgia is analyzed. The main driving factors of circular labor migration during the last ten years are identified. While studying migration, it is necessary to discuss the interconnection of economic, social, and demographic features, also taking into consideration the policy of state regulations in terms of education and professional training. Methodology: Different research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical, such as selection, grouping, observation, trend, and qualitative research methods, namely; analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison ones. Main Findings: Labour migrants are filling the labor market as a low salary worker. The main positive feedback of migration from developing countries is poverty eradication, but this process is accompanied by problems, such as 'Brain Drain'. The country loses an important part of its intellectual potential, and it is invested by households or state itself. Conclusions: Labor migration is characterized to be temporary, but socio-economic problems of the country often push the labor migration in the direction of longterm and illegal migration. Countries with developed economies try to stricter migration policy and fight illegal migration with different methods; circular migration helps solve this problem. Conclusions and recommendations are included about circular labor migration consequences in Georgia and its influence on the reduction of unemployment level.

Keywords: migration, circular labor migration, labor migration employment, unemployment

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900 Discovering Event Outliers for Drug as Commercial Products

Authors: Arunas Burinskas, Aurelija Burinskiene

Abstract:

On average, ten percent of drugs - commercial products are not available in pharmacies due to shortage. The shortage event disbalance sales and requires a recovery period, which is too long. Therefore, one of the critical issues that pharmacies do not record potential sales transactions during shortage and recovery periods. The authors suggest estimating outliers during shortage and recovery periods. To shorten the recovery period, the authors suggest using average sales per sales day prediction, which helps to protect the data from being downwards or upwards. Authors use the outlier’s visualization method across different drugs and apply the Grubbs test for significance evaluation. The researched sample is 100 drugs in a one-month time frame. The authors detected that high demand variability products had outliers. Among analyzed drugs, which are commercial products i) High demand variability drugs have a one-week shortage period, and the probability of facing a shortage is equal to 69.23%. ii) Mid demand variability drugs have three days shortage period, and the likelihood to fall into deficit is equal to 34.62%. To avoid shortage events and minimize the recovery period, real data must be set up. Even though there are some outlier detection methods for drug data cleaning, they have not been used for the minimization of recovery period once a shortage has occurred. The authors use Grubbs’ test real-life data cleaning method for outliers’ adjustment. In the paper, the outliers’ adjustment method is applied with a confidence level of 99%. In practice, the Grubbs’ test was used to detect outliers for cancer drugs and reported positive results. The application of the Grubbs’ test is used to detect outliers which exceed boundaries of normal distribution. The result is a probability that indicates the core data of actual sales. The application of the outliers’ test method helps to represent the difference of the mean of the sample and the most extreme data considering the standard deviation. The test detects one outlier at a time with different probabilities from a data set with an assumed normal distribution. Based on approximation data, the authors constructed a framework for scaling potential sales and estimating outliers with Grubbs’ test method. The suggested framework is applicable during the shortage event and recovery periods. The proposed framework has practical value and could be used for the minimization of the recovery period required after the shortage of event occurrence.

Keywords: drugs, Grubbs' test, outlier, shortage event

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
899 Predicting Shortage of Hospital Beds during COVID-19 Pandemic in United States

Authors: Saba Ebrahimi, Saeed Ahmadian, Hedie Ashrafi

Abstract:

World-wide spread of coronavirus grows the concern about planning for the excess demand of hospital services in response to COVID-19 pandemic. The surge in the hospital services demand beyond the current capacity leads to shortage of ICU beds and ventilators in some parts of US. In this study, we forecast the required number of hospital beds and possible shortage of beds in US during COVID-19 pandemic to be used in the planning and hospitalization of new cases. In this paper, we used a data on COVID-19 deaths and patients’ hospitalization besides the data on hospital capacities and utilization in US from publicly available sources and national government websites. we used a novel ensemble modelling of deep learning networks, based on stacking different linear and non-linear layers to predict the shortage in hospital beds. The results showed that our proposed approach can predict the excess hospital beds demand very well and this can be helpful in developing strategies and plans to mitigate this gap.

Keywords: COVID-19, deep learning, ensembled models, hospital capacity planning

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898 Various Perspectives for the Concept of the Emotion Labor

Authors: Jae Soo Do, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

Radical changes in the industrial environment, and spectacular developments of IT have changed the current of managements from people-centered to technology- or IT-centered. Interpersonal emotion exchanges have long become insipid and interactive services have also come as mechanical reactions. This study offers various concepts for the emotional labor based on traditional studies on emotional labor. Especially the present day, on which human emotions are subject to being served as machinized thing, is the time when the study on human emotions comes momentous. Precedent researches on emotional labors commonly and basically dealt with the relationship between the active group who performs actions and the passive group who is done with the action. This study focuses on the passive group and tries to offer a new perspective of 'liquid emotion' as a defence mechanism for the passive group from the external environment. Especially, this addresses a concrete discussion on directions of following studies on the liquid labor as a newly suggested perspective.

Keywords: emotion labor, surface acting, deep acting, liquid emotion

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897 Female Labor as a Social Right: A Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Claudia Borges Colcerniani

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The paper is about a qualitative study whose main objective is to know how labor, as a Brazilian constitutionally established social right, can promote the social inclusion of female heads of one-parent families in a situation of poverty. The participants are six women, mothers, and workers living in Rocinha, a community located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. According to the Brazilian Federal Constitution, social rights are based on the idea that socioeconomic inequalities should not limit or eliminate civil and political rights. In this perspective, labor can be a way to reach social justice, according to the theory of Nancy Fraser, the theoretical framework adopted in this research. Data were collected through socioeconomic questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews applied individually. The results analysis was made using the content analysis/categorical content analysis, according to Bardin's perspective. The results indicate that labor (as a social right) is considered, by the interviewed women, as an opportunity for social inclusion when there are the characteristics of the formality in accordance with the international labor regulations (Decent Work - International Labour Organization/United Nations).

Keywords: female labor, social justice, inclusion, women, decent work

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896 Investigating the Behavior of Water Shortage Indices for Performance Evaluation of a Water Resources System

Authors: Frederick N. F. Chou, Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh

Abstract:

The impact of water shortages has been increasingly severe as a consequence of population growth, urbanization, economic development, and climate change. The need for improvements in reliable water supply systems is urgent with the increasing living standards of regions. In this study, a suitable shortage index capable of multi-aspect description - frequency, magnitude, and duration - is adopted to more accurately describe the characteristics of a shortage situation. The values of the index were determined to cope with the increasing need for reliability. There are four reservoirs in series located on the Be River of the Dong Nai River Basin in Southern Vietnam. The primary purpose of the three upstream reservoirs is hydropower generation while the primary purpose of the fourth is water supply. A compromise between hydropower generation and water supply can be negotiated for these four reservoirs to reduce the severity of water shortages. A generalized water allocation model was applied to simulate the water supply, and hydropower generation of various management alternatives and the system’s reliability was evaluated using the adopted multiple shortage indices. Modifying management policies of water resources using data-based indexes can improve the reliability of water supply.

Keywords: cascade reservoirs, hydropower, shortage index, water supply

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895 Exploring Labor Market Participation of Highly Skilled Immigrant Women in the United States: Barriers and Strategies

Authors: Yurdum Cokadar

Abstract:

The United States is the country where the majority of highly skilled immigrants are hosted. Two-thirds of foreign-born migrants from Turkey - an underrepresented and understudied immigrant group in the United States - are highly skilled. Generated by the aim of filling this gap in the literature, the motivation of this research is to understand highly skilled Turkish immigrant women’s integration into the U.S. labor market, including barriers that they face and strategies they develop to rebuild their career after relocation. The in-depth interviews of 20 highly skilled Turkish women residing in the U.S. revealed that the majority of women participants are either not integrated into the labor market, occupy positions below their skill, or cannot reach the same upper segments of the labor market in the host country, arising from a range of structural and personal barriers interplaying in their career trajectories. Furthermore, many of them cannot transfer their social and cultural capital gained in their home country into the United States. The labor market participation process of these women is analyzed in the light of Bourdieu’s theory of capital and the intersectional approach of gender, class and ethnicity in order to understand the positions of highly skilled immigrant women in the host country labor market.

Keywords: deskilling, gender, class and ethnicity, highly skilled women immigrants, integration into the U.S. the labor market, labor market participation, skilled migration, theory of capital

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894 Emotional Labor Strategies and Intentions to Quit among Nurses in Pakistan

Authors: Maham Malik, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Asif

Abstract:

Current study aims to examine the relationship of emotional labor strategies - deep acting and surface acting - with employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intentions to quit. The study also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment for relationship of emotional labor strategies with intentions to quit. Data were conveniently collected from 307 nurses by using self-administered questionnaire. Linear regression test was applied to find the relationship between the variables. Mediation was checked through Baron and Kenny Model and Sobel test. Results prove the existence of partial mediation of job satisfaction between the emotional labor strategies and quitting intentions. The study recommends that deep acting should be promoted because it is positively associated with quality of work life, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior of employees.

Keywords: emotional labor strategies, intentions to quit, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, nursing

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893 Hierarchy and Weight of Influence Factors on Labor Productivity in the Construction Industry of the Nepal

Authors: Shraddha Palikhe, Sunkuk Kim

Abstract:

The construction industry is the most labor intensive in Nepal. It is obvious that construction is a major sector and any productivity enhancement activity in this sector will have a positive impact in the overall improvement of the national economy. Previous studies have stated that Nepal has poor labor productivity among other south Asian countries. Though considerable research has been done on productivity factors in other countries, no study has addressed labor productivity issues in Nepal. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to identify and hierarchy the influence factors for poor labor productivity. In this study, a questionnaire approach is chosen as a method of the survey from thirty experts involved in the construction industry, such as Architects, Civil Engineers, Project Engineers and Site Engineers. A survey was conducted in Nepal, to identify the major factors impacting construction labor productivity. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis method was used to understand the underlying relationships among the factors, categorized into five groups, namely (1) Labor-management group; (2) Material management group; (3) Human labor group; (4) Technological group and (5) External group and was divided into 33 subfactors. AHP was used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by labor productivity decision criteria. Respondents were asked to answer based on their experience of construction works. On the basis of the respondent’s response, weight of all the factors were calculated and ranked it. The AHP results were tabulated based on weight and ranking of influence factors. AHP model consists of five main criteria and 33 sub-criteria. Among five main criteria, the scenario assigns a weight of highest influential factor i.e. 26.15% to human labor group followed by 23.01% to technological group, 22.97% to labor management group, 17.61% material management group and 10.25% to external group. While in 33 sub-criteria, the most influential factor for poor productivity in Nepal are lack of monetary incentive (20.53%) for human labor group, unsafe working condition (17.55%) for technological group, lack of leadership (18.43%) for labor management group, unavailability of tools at site (25.03%) for material management group and strikes (35.01%) for external group. The results show that AHP model associated criteria are helpful to predict the current situation of labor productivity. It is essential to consider these influence factors to improve the labor productivity in the construction industry of Nepal.

Keywords: construction, hierarchical analysis, influence factors, labor productivity

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892 Traditional Factors of States’ Economic Growth: Modern Patterns, Values and Limitations

Authors: Denis Ushakov

Abstract:

Fast growing international migration as a factor of labor globalization now is one of the most important trends of world economy and determinant of social-political transformations. Study of fundamental economical reasons for international migration is relevant due to their prognostic, predictable and normative potential, which can be used in conditions of global economic non-stability. This paper analyzes role of natural-resources, financial and labor factors in economic growth of the modern states; studies relationships between stimulating role of natural resources, finance and labor with levels of modern countries’ economy development. Based on achieved results, findings about fundamental reasons of international migration; transformation of labor factor’s role in providing an economical progress of the states; efficiency of positive impact of manufacturing factors (domestic and attracted from international markets) were offered.

Keywords: international migration, migrant, labor productivity, economy efficiency of migration, migration policy

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891 Fairly Irrigation Water Distribution between Upstream and Downstream Water Users in Water Shortage Periods

Authors: S. M. Hashemy Shahdany

Abstract:

Equitable water delivery becomes one of the main concerns for water authorities in arid regions. Due to water scarcity, providing reliable amount of water is not possible for most of the irrigation districts in arid regions. In this paper, water level difference control is applied to keep the water level errors equal in adjacent reaches. Distant downstream decentralized configurations of the control method are designed and tested under a realistic scenario shows canal operation under water shortage. The simulation results show that the difference controllers share the water level error among all of the users in a fair way. Therefore, water deficit has a similar influence on downstream as well as upstream and water offtakes.

Keywords: equitable water distribution, precise agriculture, sustainable agriculture, water shortage

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890 Association of Social Data as a Tool to Support Government Decision Making

Authors: Diego Rodrigues, Marcelo Lisboa, Elismar Batista, Marcos Dias

Abstract:

Based on data on child labor, this work arises questions about how to understand and locate the factors that make up the child labor rates, and which properties are important to analyze these cases. Using data mining techniques to discover valid patterns on Brazilian social databases were evaluated data of child labor in the State of Tocantins (located north of Brazil with a territory of 277000 km2 and comprises 139 counties). This work aims to detect factors that are deterministic for the practice of child labor and their relationships with financial indicators, educational, regional and social, generating information that is not explicit in the government database, thus enabling better monitoring and updating policies for this purpose.

Keywords: social data, government decision making, association of social data, data mining

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