Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 679

Search results for: turnover intention

679 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

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Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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678 Did Nature of Job Matters - Impact of Perceived Job Autonomy on Turnover Intention in Sales and Marketing Managers: Moderating Effect of Procedural and Distributive Justice

Authors: Muhammad Babar Shahzad

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The purpose of our study is to investigate the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention in sales & marketing staff. Perceived job autonomy is considered one of most studied dimension of Job Characteristic Model. But still there is a confusion in scholars about predictive role of perceived job autonomy in turnover intention. In line of more complex research on this relation, we investigated the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Did nature of job have any impact on this relationship. On the call of different authors we take interactive effect of perceived job autonomy and procedural justice on turnover intention. Predictive role of distributive justice to employee outcomes is not deniable. But predictive role of distributive justice will be prone in different contextual influences. Interactive role of distributive justice and perceived job autonomy is also not tested before. We collected date from 279 marketing and sales managers working in financial institution, FMCG industries, Pharamesutical Industry & Bank. Strong and direct negative relation was found in perceived job autonomy, distributive justice & procedural justice on turnover intention. Distributive and procedural justice is also amplifying the negative relationship of perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Limitation and future direction for research is also discussed.

Keywords: perceived job autonomy, turnover intention, procedural justice, distributive job

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677 Examining the Impact of Training on Turnover Intention in Project-Based Organizations

Authors: Muhammad Safder Shafi, Uzma Javed, Tooba Qasim

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The purpose of this paper is to find out the relationship between training and turnover intention in the presence of mediating variables promotion opportunities and job satisfaction among IT professionals in project based industry. It investigates the relationship directly between 1 independent variable training and dependent variable turnover intention. It also investigates the relationship between independent variable to the mediating variables and mediating variables to the turnover intention. Promotion opportunities and job satisfaction act as a mediator. The study sample comprised of 186 IT professionals from Pakistan, who work on different IT projects. Linear regression and Baron and Kenny approach were used to test the direct and mediated relationship between variables. The survey results demonstrated that job satisfaction fully mediate the relationship between promotion opportunities and turnover intention. Promotion opportunities fully mediate the relationship between employee training and job satisfaction. Promotion opportunities and job satisfaction mediates the relationship between training and turnover intention. The findings from the collected data may help top management to improve organizational strategies to cope up with improving different HR practices like training, pay structure and promotions in order to retain their workforce.

Keywords: HCT, SET, career growth opportunities, job satisfaction, training, turnover intention

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676 Factor Influencing Pharmacist Engagement and Turnover Intention in Thai Community Pharmacist: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

Authors: T. Nakpun, T. Kanjanarach, T. Kittisopee

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Turnover of community pharmacist can affect continuity of patient care and most importantly the quality of care and also the costs of a pharmacy. It was hypothesized that organizational resources, job characteristics, and social supports had direct effect on pharmacist turnover intention, and indirect effect on pharmacist turnover intention via pharmacist engagement. This research aimed to study influencing factors on pharmacist engagement and pharmacist turnover intention by testing the proposed structural hypothesized model to explain the relationship among organizational resources, job characteristics, and social supports that effect on pharmacist turnover intention and pharmacist engagement in Thai community pharmacists. A cross sectional study design with self-administered questionnaire was conducted in 209 Thai community pharmacists. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling technique with analysis of a moment structures AMOS program. The final model showed that only organizational resources had significant negative direct effect on pharmacist turnover intention (β =-0.45). Job characteristics and social supports had significant positive relationship with pharmacist engagement (β = 0.44, and 0.55 respectively). Pharmacist engagement had significant negative relationship with pharmacist turnover intention (β = - 0.24). Thus, job characteristics and social supports had significant negative indirect effect on turnover intention via pharmacist engagement (β =-0.11 and -0.13, respectively). The model fit the data well (χ2/ degree of freedom (DF) = 2.12, the goodness of fit index (GFI)=0.89, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.94 and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07). This study can be concluded that organizational resources were the most important factor because it had direct effect on pharmacist turnover intention. Job characteristics and social supports were also help decrease pharmacist turnover intention via pharmacist engagement.

Keywords: community pharmacist, influencing factor, turnover intention, work engagement

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675 The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Nimra Parvez, Nawaz Ahmed

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Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.

Keywords: bullying, organizational commitment, turnover intention, workplace aggression

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674 The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Abusive Supervision on Employee’s Turnover Intention: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Contract and Emotional Exhaustion

Authors: Seung Yeon Son

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Workers (especially, competent personnel) have been recognized as a core contributor to overall organizational effectiveness. Hence, verifying the determinants of turnover intention is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of perceived organizational support and abusive supervision on employee’s turnover intention. In addition, mediating roles of psychological contract and emotional exhaustion were examined. Data from 255 Korean employees supported all hypotheses Implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, perceived organizational support, psychological contract, turnover intention

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673 The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support and Leader Member Exchange on Turnover Intention: A Field Study in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Mehtap Öztürk, Adem Öğüt, Emine Öğüt

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Leader member exchange is considered as relationship-based approach to leadership. The focal point of this theory is that effective leadership processes occur when leaders and followers are able to develop mature leadership relationships and thus gain access to a variety of benefits these relationships bring. In this context, it can be claimed that the quality of leader member exchange appears to have a strong affect on perceived organizational support and reduce turnover intention. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the levels of leader member exchange, perceived organizational support and turnover intention on the employees of a health institution operating in the province of Konya. A field study based on survey method on 134 physicians who are employees of a health institution operating in the mentioned sample. In accordance with this purpose, it has been observed that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between leader member exchange and turnover intention. Furthermore, it has been also realized that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between perceived organizational support and turnover intention.

Keywords: leader member exchange, perceived organizational support, social exchange theory, turnover intention

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672 Impact of Distributive in-Justice on Turnover Intention: An Exploratory Study on Turnover Intention among Line Staff Working in Textile Composite Units in Karachi Pakistan

Authors: Warraichi, G. Kanwal

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The main purpose of the study was to explore relationship between distributive justice and intention to leave the organization by the line staff working in textile sector of Karachi Pakistan. Based on literature review it was hypothesized that perceived distributive justice is positively correlated with intention to leave the organization. A survey of 92 participants (12 female and 80 Male) of textile employee of Karachi was conducted. Two measures were used i.e. 3 item questionnaires on turn over intention developed by Mobley, Horner, & Hollingsworth (1978) and a 13 item and 6 point likert scale questionnaire is adopted from the validated questionnaire of Robert Moorman. Result supports the hypothesis that significant correlation was found between distributive justice and intention to leave the organization. Moreover the results also suggest that distributive justice effect on the intention to leave the organization by the textile line staff. Theoretical and methodological outcome are discussed including recommendations are provided which possibly contribute to the textile industry. Highlighted areas of further study are also provided to open research arena for other researchers.

Keywords: distributive justice, turnover intention, textile industry, Karachi-Pakistan

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671 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

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The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: diversity sensitive orientation, job satisfaction, turnover intention, perception, cognition

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670 The Effect of Socio-Affective Variables in the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Paula A. Cruise, Carvell McLeary

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Employee turnover leads to lowered productivity, decreased morale and work quality, and psychological effects associated with employee separation and replacement. Yet, it remains unknown why talented employees willingly withdraw from organizations. This uncertainty is worsened as studies; a) priorities organizational over individual predictors resulting in restriction in range in turnover measurement; b) focus on actual rather than intended turnover thereby limiting conceptual understanding of the turnover construct and its relationship with other variables and; c) produce inconsistent findings across cultures, contexts and industries despite a clear need for a unified perspective. The current study addressed these gaps by adopting the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework to examine socio-cognitive factors in organizational trust and individual turnover intentions among bankers and energy employees in Jamaica. In a comparative study of n=369 [nbank= 264; male=57 (22.73%); nenergy =105; male =45 (42.86)], it was hypothesized that organizational trust was a predictor of employee turnover intention, and the effect of individual, group, cognitive and socio-affective variables varied across industry. Findings from structural equation modelling confirmed the hypothesis, with a model of both cognitive and socio-affective variables being a better fit [CMIN (χ2) = 800.067, df = 364, p ≤ .000; CFI = 0.950; RMSEA = 0.057 with 90% C.I. (0.052 - 0.062); PCLOSE = 0.016; PNFI = 0.818 in predicting turnover intention. The findings are discussed in relation to socio-cognitive components of trust models and predicting negative employee behaviors across cultures and industries.

Keywords: context-specific organizational trust, cross-cultural psychology, theory of planned behavior, employee turnover intention

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669 Using Internal Marketing to Investigate Nursing Staff Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Tsung Chin Wu, Yu Chen Tsai, Rhay Hung Weng, Weir Sen Lin

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In recent years, nursing staff’s lower job satisfaction has led to higher turnover rates, and high turnover rates not only cause medical institution costs to increase but also the quality of medical care to decrease. From the perspective of internal marketing, institution staffs are internal customers, and institutions should focus and meet the needs of staff, so that staff will strive to meet the needs of external customers and provide them with the required care. However, few previous studies have investigated the impact of internal staff satisfaction on external customers. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct job satisfaction surveys on internal staff to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and quality of medical care through statistical analysis of the study results. The related study results may serve as a reference for healthcare managers. This study was conducted using a questionnaire and the subjects were nursing staff from four hospitals. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed and 577 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 96.1%. After collecting the data, the reliability and validity of the study variables were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The impact of internal marketing and job satisfaction on turnover intention of nursing staff was analyzed using descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The study results showed that there was a significant difference between nursing staff’s job title and ‘professional participation’ and ‘shifts’. There was a significant difference between salary and ‘shifts’ and ‘turnover intention’, as well as between marriage and ‘remuneration’ and ‘turnover intention’. A significant difference was found between professional advancement and ‘professional growth’ and ‘type of leave’, as well as between division of service and ‘shifts’ and ‘turnover intention’. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between turnover intention and ‘internal marketing’, ‘interaction’, ‘professional participation’, ‘grasp of environment’, ‘remuneration’ and ‘shifts’, meaning that the higher the satisfaction, the lower the turnover intention. It is recommended that hospitals establish a comprehensive internal marketing mechanism to enhance staff satisfaction and in turn, reduce intention to resign, and the key to increasing job satisfaction is by establishing effective methods of internal communication.

Keywords: internal marketing, job satisfaction, turnover intention, nursing staff

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668 The Influence of Employer Branding Campaign on Organization Commitment and Employee Satisfaction towards Voluntary Intention

Authors: Prabukusumo Prakoso

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The topic research aims to analyze the influence of employer branding towards the voluntary turnover intention on employee by projecting the variable of organization commitment and employee satisfaction. To measure each components of employer branding, the author conducted an exploratory study to confirm the items in the questionnaire. There are 80 respondents that are mostly permanent employees at an IT company in Indonesia, including partner and clients to get external viewpoints of employer branding. The result of this research indicates that employer branding has an influence on the voluntary turnover. Furthermore, to maintain the organization commitment in the company, the management can develop employer branding strategy in order to increase employee’s organization commitment.

Keywords: employer branding, organization commitment, employee satisfaction, voluntary intention turnover

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667 Employees Retention through Effective HR Practices

Authors: Choi Sang Long

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It is vital for Human Resource (HR) managers to address and overcome employees’ turnover intention in their organization. Ability to keep good employees is critical for ensuring success of the organization in future. People are seeking many ways of live that is meaningful and less complicated and this new lifestyle actually has an impact on how an employee must be motivated and managed. Therefore, this paper discusses extensively on the impact of human resource practices that can alter the negative effect on the organization due to high employees’ turnover. These critical practices are employees’ career development, performance management, training and a fair compensation scheme.

Keywords: turnover intention, career development, performance management, compensation, human resource management, organization

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666 Effects of Alternative Opportunities and Compensation on Turnover Intention of Singapore PMET

Authors: Han Guan Chew, Keith Yong Ngee Ng, Shan-Wei Fan

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In Singapore, talent retention is one of the most persistent and real issue companies have to grapple with due to the tight labour market. Being resource-scarce, Singapore depends solely on its talented pool of high quality human resource to sustain its competitive advantage in the global economy. But the complex and multifaceted nature of turnover phenomenon makes the prescription of effective talent retention strategies in such a competitive labour market very challenging, especially when it comes to monetary incentives, companies struggle to answer the question of “How much is enough?” By examining the interactive effects of perceived alternative employment opportunities, annual salary and satisfaction with compensation on the turnover intention of 102 Singapore Professionals, Managers, Executives and Technicians (PMET) through correlation analyses and multiple regressions, important insights into the psyche of the Singapore talent pool can be drawn. It is found that annual salary influence turnover intention indirectly through mediation and moderation effects on PMET’s satisfaction on compensation. PMET are also found to be heavily swayed by better external opportunities. This implies that talent retention strategies should not adopt a purely monetary based blanket approach but rather a comprehensive and holistic one that considers the dynamics of prevailing market conditions.

Keywords: employee turnover, high performers, knowledge workers, perceived alternative employment opportunities salary, satisfaction on compensation, Singapore PMET, talent retention

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665 The Association of Excessive Work Stress with Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention in Operating Room Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Metropolitan Teaching Hospital in Southern Taiwan

Authors: Chia Yu Chen, Shu Fen Wu, Chen-Fuh Lam, I-Ling Tsai, Shu Jiuan Chen, Yen Ling Liu

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Aim: It remains undetermined that whether increased work stress may affect the job satisfaction and career loyalty among nursing staffs in the operating room. The long-term goal of this study is to lengthen the professional life of operating room nurses by attenuating the work stress and enhancing their contentment in work. Method: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study performed in a metropolitan teaching hospital in the southern Taiwan between May 2017 to July 2017. A structured self-administered questionnaire, modified from the Occupational Stress Indicator-2 (OSI-2) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) manual was collected from the operating room nurses. Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data and Pearson correlation was used to analyze the association between two numerical datasets (SPSS version 20.0). Results: The response rate was 80% (80/100) and a total of 73 (73%) completed forms were eventually proceeded for analysis. The average scores for work stress and job satisfaction of the operating room nurses were 145.96±32.91 and 47.38±6.07, respectively. The correlation coefficients of work stress versus job satisfaction and organizational identity were (r=-0.338, p=0.003 and r=-0.354, p=0.002), respectively. There were more nurses who took rotating shift quitted works from the operating room than those who took only dayshift (2=5.176, p<0.05). Nurses who reported of having lower job satisfaction were associated with significantly higher turnover intention (t=3.714, p< 0.01). Following multivariate regression analysis, rotating shift and low job satisfaction were identified as the two independent predictors of intention to quit from working in the operating room. Conclusion: Our study clearly demonstrates that increased work stress significantly attenuates job satisfaction and organizational identity. Rotating shift is associated with higher work stress, lower job satisfaction, and higher turnover intention, which is consistent with the previous surveys carried out in the department of medical technology. Therefore, improvement of working quality in the operating rooms is essential to increase the retain intention of the well-trained nursing staffs. Further investigation into types of work shifts and other strategies of attenuating stress in workplace is currently undertaken in order to improve the job satisfaction and to decrease turnover intention in the operating room.

Keywords: rotating shift, work stress, job satisfaction, turnover intention

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664 Investigating the Relationship between Job Satisfaction, Role Identity, and Turnover Intention for Nurses in Outpatient Department

Authors: Su Hui Tsai, Weir Sen Lin, Rhay Hung Weng

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There are numerous outpatient departments at hospitals with enormous amounts of outpatients. Although the work of outpatient nursing staff does not include the ward, emergency and critical care units that involve patient life-threatening conditions, the work is cumbersome and requires facing and dealing with a large number of outpatients in a short period of time. Therefore, nursing staff often do not feel satisfied with their work and cannot identify with their professional role, leading to intentions to leave their job. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between the job satisfaction and role identity of nursing staff with turnover intention. This research was conducted using a questionnaire, and the subjects were outpatient nursing staff in three regional hospitals in Southern Taiwan. A total of 175 questionnaires were distributed, and 166 valid questionnaires were returned. After collecting the data, the reliability and validity of the study variables were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The influence of role identity and job satisfaction on nursing staff’s turnover intention was analyzed by descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that 'role identity' had significant differences in different types of marriages. Job satisfaction of 'grasp of environment' had significant differences in different levels of education. Job satisfaction of 'professional growth' and 'shifts and days off' showed significant differences in different types of marriages. 'Role identity' and 'job satisfaction' were negatively correlated with turnover intention respectively. Job satisfaction of 'salary and benefits' and 'grasp of environment' were significant predictors of role identity. The higher the job satisfaction of 'salary and benefits' and 'grasp of environment', the higher the role identity. Job satisfaction of 'patient and family interaction' were significant predictors of turnover intention. The lower the job satisfaction of 'patient and family interaction', the higher the turnover intention. This study found that outpatient nursing staff had the lowest satisfaction towards salary structure. It is recommended that bonuses, promotion opportunities and other incentives be established to increase the role identity of outpatient nursing staff. The results showed that the higher the job satisfaction of 'salary and benefits' and 'grasp of environment', the higher the role identity. It is recommended that regular evaluations be conducted to reward nursing staff with excellent service and invite nursing staff to share their work experiences and thoughts, to enhance nursing staff’s expectation and identification of their occupational role, as well as instilling the concept of organizational service and organizational expectations of emotional display. The results showed that the lower the job satisfaction of 'patient and family interaction', the higher the turnover intention. It is recommended that interpersonal communication and workplace violence prevention educational training courses be organized to enhance the communication and interaction of nursing staff with patients and their families.

Keywords: outpatient, job satisfaction, turnover, intention

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663 The Investigation of Work Stress and Burnout in Nurse Anesthetists: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Yen Ling Liu, Shu-Fen Wu, Chen-Fuh Lam, I-Ling Tsai, Chia-Yu Chen

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Purpose: Nurse anesthetists are confronting extraordinarily high job stress in their daily practice, deriving from the fast-track anesthesia care, risk of perioperative complications, routine rotating shifts, teaching programs and interactions with the surgical team in the operating room. This study investigated the influence of work stress on the burnout and turnover intention of nurse anesthetists in a regional general hospital in Southern Taiwan. Methods: This was a descriptive correlational study carried out in 66 full-time nurse anesthetists. Data was collected from March 2017 to June 2017 by in-person interview, and a self-administered structured questionnaire was completed by the interviewee. Outcome measurements included the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and nursing staff turnover intention. Numerical data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, independent t test, or one-way ANOVA. Categorical data were compared using the chi-square test (x²). Datasets were computed with Pearson product-moment correlation and linear regression. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 20.0 software. Results: The average score for job burnout was 68.7916.67 (out of 100). The three major components of burnout, including emotional depletion (mean score of 26.32), depersonalization (mean score of 13.65), and personal(mean score of 24.48). These average scores suggested that these nurse anesthetists were at high risk of burnout and inversely correlated with turnover intention (t = -4.048, P < 0.05). Using linear regression model, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were the two independent factors that predicted turnover intention in the nurse anesthetists (19.1% in total variance). Conclusion/Implications for Practice: The study identifies that the high risk of job burnout in the nurse anesthetists is not simply derived from physical overload, but most likely resulted from the additional emotional and psychological stress. The occurrence of job burnout may affect the quality of nursing work, and also influence family harmony, in turn, may increase the turnover rate. Multimodal approach is warranted to reduce work stress and job burnout in nurse anesthetists to enhance their willingness to contribute in anesthesia care.

Keywords: anesthesia nurses, burnout, job, turnover intention

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662 Machiavellian Language at Work: The Signs of Machiavellianism in Work-Related Interviews

Authors: Gyongyver Csapo, Andrea Czibor

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Machiavellianism is a personality trait based on the exploitation and deception of others. Machiavellian individuals are motivated to gain and to maintain power with the help of their strategic thinking, manipulation tactics, and interpersonal skills. Consequently, Machiavellianism is treated as a personality trait that can affect an individual’s career and work-related behavior. The aim of our research is to provide a narrative psychological approach to Machiavellianism in order to get a more comprehensive picture about the attitudes, values, and work-related behaviors of Machiavellian individuals. In this study, semi-structured interviews were made with employees (N=275) about their work-related experiences. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires about their turnover intention and perceived stress. The interviews were examined with narrative psychological content analysis and thematic analyzes. Based on the thematic analysis, mentioning of two topics (recognition at work and control) were associated with Machiavellianism. Scientific narrative psychological content analysis showed a negative association between Machiavellianism and positive emotions. Turnover intention and the magnitude of perceived work-related stress showed a significant positive correlation with Machiavellianism. In this study, qualitative and quantitative methodologies were combined in order to get a deeper insight of Machiavellianism from an organizational psychological perspective. Our research can contribute to a better understanding of this personality trait and provides an excellent basis for further investigations.

Keywords: machiavellianism, narrative psychology, turnover intention, work-related stress

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661 Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Employee Engagement in Determining Turnover Intentions of Employees

Authors: Prashant Das, Tushar Singh, Virendra Byadwal

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The present study attempted to understand the role of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement in predicting employees’ turnover intentions. Employee turnover is a significant problem that many organizations are facing these days. Employee turnover is not only extremely expensive for the employer but also results in poor production levels. In developing countries like India, organizations once believed to have most stable employees, are facing major turnover problems. One such organization is banking organizations. Due to globalization, banks are now changing their work scenarios under which the employees have many different roles to perform. Cognitive flexibility which refers to an individual’s ability to shift cognitive sets and to adapt to one’s changing environment, thus seems to be an important factor that are responsible for the employee turnover in organizations. It is hypothesized that those with higher cognitive flexibility would be more able to adapt to the changing work demands of the organizations and thus would show less turnover intentions. Another factor that seems to be important in predicting turnover is employee engagement. Kahn referred to engagement in terms of the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles [by which they] employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances. Studies have shown a strong relationship between employee engagement and turnover intentions. Those with higher engagement with their jobs have found to show low turnover intentions. This study thus hypothesizes that employees with higher engagement will show lower levels of turnover intentions. A total of 150 bank employees (75 from private and 75 from public) participated in this study. They were administered Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Gallup Questionnaire and Intention to Stay Questionnaire along with another questionnaire asking for their demographic details. Results of the study revealed that employees with higher levels of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement show lover levels of turnover intentions. However, the effect is more prominent in case of employees of private banks. Demographic characteristics such as level of the employee and years of engagement in the current job have also been found to be influencing the relationship between cognitive flexibility, employee engagement and turnover intentions. Results of the study are interpreted in accordance to the prevalent literature and theoretical positions.

Keywords: cognitive flexibility, employee engagement, organization, turnover intentions

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660 Influencing Factors for Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention of Surgical Team in the Operating Rooms

Authors: Shu Jiuan Chen, Shu Fen Wu, I. Ling Tsai, Chia Yu Chen, Yen Lin Liu, Chen-Fuh Lam

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Background: Increased emotional stress in workplace and depressed job satisfaction may significantly affect the turnover intention and career life of personnel. However, very limited studies have reported the factors influencing the turnover intention of the surgical team members in the operating rooms, where extraordinary stress is normally exit in this isolated medical care unit. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the environmental and personal characteristic factors that might be associated with job satisfaction and turnover intention in the non-physician staff who work in the operating rooms. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study performed in a metropolitan teaching hospital in southern Taiwan between May 2017 to July 2017. A structured self-administered questionnaire, modified from the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), Occupational Stress Indicator-2 (OSI-2) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) manual was collected from the operating room nurses, nurse anesthetists, surgeon assistants, orderly and other non-physician staff. Numerical and categorical data were analyzed using unpaired t-test and Chi-square test, as appropriate (SPSS, version 20.0). Results: A total of 167 effective questionnaires were collected from 200 eligible, non-physician personnel who worked in the operating room (response rate 83.5%). The overall satisfaction of all responders was 45.64 ± 7.17. In comparison to those who had more than 4-year working experience in the operating rooms, the junior staff ( ≤ 4-year experience) reported to have significantly higher satisfaction in workplace environment and job contentment, as well as lower intention to quit (t = 6.325, P =0.000). Among the different specialties of surgical team members, nurse anesthetists were associated with significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (P=0.043) and intention to stay (x² = 8.127, P < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrates job title, seniority, working shifts and job satisfaction are the significant independent predicting factors for quit jobs. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight that increased work seniorities ( > 4-year working experience) are associated with significantly lower job satisfaction, and they are also more likely to leave their current job. Increased workload in supervising the juniors without appropriate job compensation (such as promotions in job title and work shifts) may precipitate their intention to quit. Since the senior staffs are usually the leaders and core members in the operating rooms, the retention of this fundamental manpower is essential to ensure the safety and efficacy of surgical interventions in the operating rooms.

Keywords: surgical team, job satisfaction, resignation intention, operating room

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659 Determining Antecedents of Employee Turnover: A Study on Blue Collar vs White Collar Workers on Marco Level

Authors: Evy Rombaut, Marie-Anne Guerry

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Predicting voluntary turnover of employees is an important topic of study, both in academia and industry. Researchers try to uncover determinants for a broader understanding and possible prevention of turnover. In the current study, we use a data set based approach to reveal determinants for turnover, differing for blue and white collar workers. Our data set based approach made it possible to study actual turnover for more than 500000 employees in 15692 Belgian corporations. We use logistic regression to calculate individual turnover probabilities and test the goodness of our model with the AUC (area under the ROC-curve) method. The results of the study confirm the relationship of known determinants to employee turnover such as age, seniority, pay and work distance. In addition, the study unravels unknown and verifies known differences between blue and white collar workers. It shows opposite relationships to turnover for gender, marital status, the number of children, nationality, and pay.

Keywords: employee turnover, blue collar, white collar, dataset analysis

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658 Work Engagement Reducing Employee Turnover Intentions in Telecommunication Sector: The Moderator Role of Human Resource Development Climate between Work Engagement and Turnover Intentions

Authors: Pirzada Sami Ullah Sabri

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The present study examines the relationship between work engagement (WE) and employee turnover intentions (TI) in telecommunication sector using human resource development climate (HRDC) as a moderator. Based on 538 employees of telecommunication sector Hierarchal regression analysis is employed to examine the influence of HRDC on the relationship of work engagement and turnover intentions. The result indicates the negative correlation between work engagement and turnover intentions; HRD climate support as a powerful moderator increases the work engagement and lessens the turnover intentions. The study shows the importance of favorable and supportive HRD climate which foster the work engagement of the employees in the organization. By understanding the importance of human resource development climate and work engagement in reducing the turnover intentions can increase the productivity and performance of the organization.

Keywords: turnover intentions, work engagement, human resource development, climate, hierarchal regression analysis, telecommunication sector

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657 Looking Elsewhere for Job: Relationship between Procedural Justice and Survivors’ Turnover Intent in Consolidated Nigeria Banks

Authors: Fasanmi Samuel Sunday

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The study examines the relationship between procedural justice and turnover intent among survivors in a consolidated Nigeria bank. Opinions of eight hundred and eighty five staff of First City Monumental Bank and Finbank who survived the consolidated process were conveniently sampled using battery of tests. Two hypotheses were tested for this study. Results revealed that procedural justice and demographic variables (sex, age, previous banking job experience, and year of work experience) were significantly, independently and jointly influence turnover intent among survivors in consolidated banks in Nigeria. Also, there was a significant relationship between procedural justice and turnover intent among survivors in a consolidated bank in Nigeria. It was recommended that if the workers perceived the process of downsizing to be fair, they tend to reason with their management and coast along with the process rather than increasing in their turnover intent which will eventually drastically reduce the profitability matrix which the banks desired so desperately.

Keywords: bankers, procedural justice, sex, turnover intent

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656 Managing Work–Family Conflict in Today's Nursing Profession: The Role of Supervisors

Authors: Alshutwi Sitah

Abstract:

Many countries around the world are struggling to maintain an adequate number of nurses. Inadequate nursing staffing could compromise the quality of patient care. Among many factors that contribute to registered nurses (RN) turnover, the influence of work–family conflict (WFC) has gained little attention. WFC was found to be significantly associated with increased turnover intention (TI) among employees. Furthermore, WFC has been linked to a number of negative consequences, including lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, sleep insufficiency, insomnia symptoms, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sleep insufficiency, and high cholesterol. In an effort to find strategies to manage the consequences of WFC, many behavioral, psychological, and career scholars have focused on the role of supervisor support. Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB) has been found to be a promising approach contributing to the reduction of TI in employees’ experiencing WFC. Despite the importance of work–family issues and the influence of FSSB, limited studies have been conducted among the nursing population and none were found that included a sample from Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the main Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of FSSB on the relationship among WFC, Stress, and TI in Saudi Arabian registered nurses. Method: A cross-sectional study. Sample: Convenience sampling; 113 Saudi female nurse. Result: Fifty percent of nurses intended to leave their workplace, 68 % of nurses reported having a conflict between work and family, and 44% reported having a high level of stress. A significant positive correlation was found between WFC and TI (r= .43, P < 0.01). A negative correlation was found between FSSB and TI (r= -.53, P < 0.01). Both WFC and stress were associated with TI; however, these associations were buffered (weaken), when nurses had higher FSSB. Conclusion: The FSSB could be seen as a tool to help married, female nurses to demonstrate their professional role without compromising their family responsibilities. Nurses’ turnover is a complex issue that may require multiple prevention strategies; however, enhancing FSSB could be a key resource for maintaining a positive workplace environment and reducing TI.

Keywords: turnover intention, work-family conflict, supervisor support, nursing retention

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655 Investing the Employees Higher Quitting Intention at the Call Centers of Pakistan: A Reality or a Myth: A Case Study of Pakistan Telecommunication Sector

Authors: Naheed Malik, Marisa Smith

Abstract:

This study has been undertaken as an attempt to explore the underlying reasons that cause higher employee turnover rates at the call centers of Pakistan. This research also aimed to examine the relationship among the job related variables such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, supervisor support, self-esteem, organizational stressors (work overload, role ambiguity and work family conflict) and quitting inclination. A total of 340 call centers respondents filled the survey questionnaire. The data was analyzed through SPSS 19.0. Results reveal the significant relationship among the study variables and stress level contributing more towards employee penchant to leave the job. A significant amount of call centers employee have proclivity to quit from their jobs as soon as they would be able to find some other jobs with attractive compensation. The majority of the respondents were found to be unhappy and dissatisfied due to hectic schedule and imbalance between family and work. This research also highlighted the specific areas in which call centre management needs to emphasize deliberately that affect more sharply on employee leaving aptitude. This study also suggests some useful strategies for the well being of employees that can minimize their tendency of quitting and retention in the long run.

Keywords: call centers, stress, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, supervisor’s support, self esteem, employee turnover, employees’ intention to quit, customer service representative (CSRs)

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654 Modeling Intention to Use 3PL Services: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

Authors: Nasrin Akter, Prem Chhetri, Shams Rahman

Abstract:

The present study tested Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to explain the formation of business customers’ intention to use 3PL services in Bangladesh. The findings show that the TPB model has a good fit to the data. Based on theoretical support and suggested modification indices, a refined TPB model was developed afterwards which provides a better predictive power for intention. Consistent with the theory, the results of a structural equation analysis revealed that the intention to use 3PL services is predicted by attitude and subjective norms but not by perceived behavioral control. Further investigation indicated that the paths between (attitude and intention) and (subjective norms and intention) did not statistically differ between 3PL user and non-user. Findings of this research provide an evidence base to formulate business strategies to increase the use of 3PL services in Bangladesh to enhance productivity and to gain economic efficiency.

Keywords: Bangladesh, intention, third-party logistics, Theory of Planned Behavior

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653 Classification Method for Turnover While Sleeping Using Multi-Point Unconstrained Sensing Devices

Authors: K. Shiba, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaburagi, Y. Kurihara

Abstract:

Elderly population in the world is increasing, and consequently, their nursing burden is also increasing. In such situations, monitoring and evaluating their daily action facilitates efficient nursing care. Especially, we focus on an unconscious activity during sleep, i.e. turnover. Monitoring turnover during sleep is essential to evaluate various conditions related to sleep. Bedsores are considered as one of the monitoring conditions. Changing patient’s posture every two hours is required for caregivers to prevent bedsore. Herein, we attempt to develop an unconstrained nocturnal monitoring system using a sensing device based on piezoelectric ceramics that can detect the vibrations owing to human body movement on the bed. In the proposed method, in order to construct a multi-points sensing, we placed two sensing devices under the right and left legs at the head-side of an ordinary bed. Using this equipment, when a subject lies on the bed, feature is calculated from the output voltages of the sensing devices. In order to evaluate our proposed method, we conducted an experiment with six healthy male subjects. Consequently, the period during which turnover occurs can be correctly classified as the turnover period with 100% accuracy.

Keywords: turnover, piezoelectric ceramics, multi-points sensing, unconstrained monitoring system

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652 Interaction between Mutual Fund Performance and Portfolio Turnover

Authors: Sheng-Ching Wu

Abstract:

This paper examines the interaction between mutual fund performance and portfolio turnover. Active trading could affect fund performance, but underperforming funds could also be traded actively at the same time to perform well. Therefore, we used two-stage least squares to address with simultaneity. The results indicate that funds with higher portfolio turnovers exhibit inferior performance compared with funds having lower turnovers. Moreover, funds with poor performance exhibit higher portfolio turnover. The findings support the assumptions that active trading erodes performance, and that fund managers with poor performance attempt to trade actively to retain employment.

Keywords: mutual funds, portfolio turnover, simultaneity, two-stage least squares

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651 Customers’ Intention to Use Electronic Payment System for Purchasing

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the factors of characteristic of business, website quality and trust affected intention to use electronic payment systems for online purchasing. This survey research used questionnaire as a tool to collect the data of 300 customers who purchased online products and used an electronic payment system. The descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that customers had a good opinion towards the characteristic of the business and website quality. However, they have a moderate opinion towards trust and intention to repurchase. In addition, the characteristics of the business affected the purchase intention the most, followed by website quality and the trust with statistical significance at 0.05 level. For particular, the terms of reputation, communication, information quality, perceived risk and word of mouth affected the intention to use the electronic payment system. In contrast, the terms of size, system quality and service quality did not affect intention to use an electronic payment system.

Keywords: electronic payment, intention, online purchasing, trust

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650 Employment Mobility and the Effects of Wage Level and Tenure

Authors: Idit Kalisher, Israel Luski

Abstract:

One result of the growing dynamicity of labor markets in recent decades is a wider scope of employment mobility – i.e., transitions between employers, either within or between careers. Employment mobility decisions are primarily affected by the current employment status of the worker, which is reflected in wage and tenure. Using 34,328 observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLS79), which were derived from the USA population between 1990 and 2012, this paper aims to investigate the effects of wage and tenure over employment mobility choices, and additionally to examine the effects of other personal characteristics, individual labor market characteristics and macroeconomic factors. The estimation strategy was designed to address two challenges that arise from the combination of the model and the data: (a) endogeneity of the wage and the tenure in the choice equation; and (b) unobserved heterogeneity, as the data of this research is longitudinal. To address (a), estimation was performed using two-stage limited dependent variable procedure (2SLDV); and to address (b), the second stage was estimated using femlogit – an implementation of the multinomial logit model with fixed effects. Among workers who have experienced at least one turnover, the wage was found to have a main effect on career turnover likelihood of all workers, whereas the wage effect on job turnover likelihood was found to be dependent on individual characteristics. The wage was found to negatively affect the turnover likelihood and the effect was found to vary across wage level: high-wage workers were more affected compared to low-wage workers. Tenure was found to have a main positive effect on both turnover types’ likelihoods, though the effect was moderated by the wage. The findings also reveal that as their wage increases, women are more likely to turnover than men, and academically educated workers are more likely to turnover within careers. Minorities were found to be as likely as Caucasians to turnover post wage-increase, but less likely to turnover with each additional tenure year. The wage and the tenure effects were found to vary also between careers. The difference in attitude towards money, labor market opportunities and risk aversion could explain these findings. Additionally, the likelihood of a turnover was found to be affected by previous unemployment spells, age, and other labor market and personal characteristics. The results of this research could assist policymakers as well as business owners and employers. The former may be able to encourage women and older workers’ employment by considering the effects of gender and age on the probability of a turnover, and the latter may be able to assess their employees’ likelihood of a turnover by considering the effects of their personal characteristics.

Keywords: employment mobility, endogeneity, femlogit, turnover

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