Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Shigeaki Mishima

5 Continuance Commitment of Retail Pharmacist in a Labor Shortage: Results from the Questionnaire Survey

Authors: Shigeaki Mishima

Abstract:

Pharmacist labor shortage has become a long-term problem in Japan. This paper discusses the relationship between organizational commitment and pharmacists' organizational behavior in the context of labor shortage. Based on a multidimensional view of organizational commitment, effective commitment and continuous commitment are measured. It is suggested that the continuous commitment has a unique impact on withholding information behavior. We also discuss the impact of labor supply and demand on continuous commitment of retail pharmacist.

Keywords: organizational commitment, pharmacist, labor shortage, professional

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4 Summary of the Actual Conditions of SME Management Consultants

Authors: Takao Maeda, Tomofumi Tohara, Shigeaki Mishima

Abstract:

Focusing on the “SME management consultants” in Japan, this study intends (1) to clarify implications as to their self-actualization, motivation and (2) to revitalize SMEs, on which local economies depend. On the basis of these study purposes, the presenters conducted an interview survey of several SME management consultants and SME managers. This survey identified the current circumstances and challenges as follow: SME management consultants are high-level professionals who acquired very difficult national qualifications (examination pass rate 4%) to provide consultation and business analysis for SMEs. Nevertheless, only 20% of the qualified consultants run their business independently, while the rest (80%) are corporate employees as in-house consultants, the majority of whom belong to big companies. They acquired the qualification merely for the purpose of self-development. Therefore, they have few opportunities to demonstrate their expertise inside and outside their companies.On the other hand, the SMEs, which are to receive analysis and consultation from SME management consultants, constitute 99.7% of all industries, and are very important to local communities, for they sustain the economy and provide employment. SMEs used to be supported by the consultants in company management due to their scarce managerial resources compared with big companies. Nowadays, however, SMEs are regarded as the source of Japanese economic dynamism. To have the same degree of managerial skills as big companies, therefore, SMEs now need analysis and consultation by the consultants in more active ways, such as discovering and utilizing their dormant technologies. Partly because SME management consultants have not been fully utilized in Japan, the number of SMEs has been on a long-term downward trend since 1986. Utilizing expertise of the in-house consultants, who have rich experience in their big companies and deep knowledge regarding SMEs obtained through qualification, will potentially lead to revitalization of SMEs and consequently to economic growth in Japan. Through detailed analysis of the interview results, this study revealed short-term and long-term challenges regarding how to utilize SME management consultants. The most urgent issue is to study managerial approaches that will provide the consultants serving in big companies with more “opportunities to demonstrate their expertise.” The long-term issue is to enable the consultants to demonstrate their expertise in financial institutions, or financial supporter of SMEs, to examine farsighted and innovative financing strategy and criteria based on managers’ personalities and their business plans, instead of the conventional financing based on prompt fund collection.

Keywords: small and medium enterprise(SME), SME managemant consultant, self-actualization, motivation

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3 Orientation of Japanese Literary Translation to the Japanese Studies Undergraduate Students: Focusing on Bengali

Authors: Lopamudra Malek

Abstract:

Bangladesh continues a compacted bilateral relationship with Japan since 1971, but the seed of this vital relationship had been sown much earlier in 1863 when MadhushudhonMukhapaddhay translated Commodore Mathew’s book, and the seed was nourished and nurtured by Rabindranath and other writers by translating Japanese literature in Bengali. Sano Jinnotsuke translated Rabindranath’s novel ‘Gora’ in 1924. Concentrating on formal literary translation, Jyotirmoy Mukhopadhyay, Jalal Ahmed continued to translate important novels, short poems, and short stories as well. Kyoko Niwa - GouriAiyub and Monjurul Huq and Swandip Tagore had translated one of the master pieces of Matsuo Basho and 万葉集. Gita A. Keeni has translated few stories from Kenji Miyazawa and in contemporary literature, Abhijit Mukherjee translating Yukio Mishima and Haruki Murakami in Bengali language.

Keywords: literary translation, bengali, Japanese, book

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2 The Management of Care by People with Type 2 Diabetes versus the Professional Care at Primary Health Care in Brazil

Authors: Nunila Ferreira de Oliveira, Silvana Martins Mishima

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) prevalence, is increasing on the world, in Brazil is considered a public health problem. Treatment focuses on glycemic control depending primarily of lifestyle changes - not drug treatment (NDT), may involve drug therapy (DT) and requires continuous health monitoring. In Brazil this monitoring is performed by the Unified Health System (SUS) through Primary Health Care (PHC), which stimulate people with DM2 empowerment for care management. SUS was approved in 1988 and the PHC operationalization was strengthened with the creation of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in 1994. Our aim was to analyze the people with DM2 participation in front of the care management health monitoring in the FHS. Qualitative research was carried out through non-participant observation of attendance of 25 people with DM2 in the FHS and interviewed at home. Ethical guidelines were followed. It was found that people with DM2 only follow professionals’ recommendations that make sense according to their own conceptions of health/disease; most of them emphasize the importance of (DT) with little emphasis on the NDT, was found great difficulty in the NDT and lack of knowledge about the disease and care. As regards monitoring the FHS, were observed therapeutic practices based on the bio medical model, although the APS search for another care perspective; NDT is not systematically accompanied by the health team and takes place a few educational activities on the DM2 in the FHS, with low user adoption. The work of the FHS is done by multidisciplinary teams, but we see the need for greater participation of nurses in clinical-care follow-up of this population and may also act in adapting to the NDT. Finally we emphasize the need for professional practices that consider the difficulties to care management by people with DM2, especially because of the NDT. It is noticed that the measures recommended by the FHS professionals are not always developed by people with DM2. We must seek the empowerment of people with DM2 to manage the form of care associated with the FHS team, seeking to reduce the incidence of complications and higher quality of life.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, primary health care, nursing, management of care

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1 The Effect of Vibration Amplitude on Tissue Temperature and Lesion Size When Using a Vibrating Cardiac Catheter

Authors: Kaihong Yu, Tetsui Yamashita, Shigeaki Shingyochi, Kazuo Matsumoto, Makoto Ohta

Abstract:

During cardiac ablation, high power delivery for deeper lesion formation is limited by electrode-tissue interface overheating which can cause serious complications such as thrombus. To prevent this overheating, temperature control and open irrigation are often used. In temperature control, radiofrequency generator is adjusted to deliver the maximum output power, which maintains the electrode temperature at a target temperature (commonly 55°C or 60°C). Then the electrode-tissue interface temperature is also limited. The electrode temperature is a result of heating from the contacted tissue and cooling from the surrounding blood. Because the cooling from blood is decreased under conditions of low blood flow, the generator needs to decrease the output power. Thus, temperature control cannot deliver high power under conditions of low blood flow. In open irrigation, saline in room temperature is flushed through the holes arranged in the electrode. The electrode-tissue interface is cooled by the sufficient environmental cooling. And high power delivery can also be done under conditions of low blood flow. However, a large amount of saline infusions (approximately 1500 ml) during irrigation can cause other serious complication. When open irrigation cannot be used under conditions of low blood flow, a new overheating prevention may be required. The authors have proposed a new electrode cooling method by making the catheter vibrating. The previous work has introduced that the vibration can make a cooling effect on electrode, which may result form that the vibration could increase the flow velocity around the catheter. The previous work has also proved that increasing vibration frequency can increase the cooling by vibration. However, the effect of the vibration amplitude is still unknown. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of vibration amplitude on tissue temperature and lesion size. An agar phantom model was used as a tissue-equivalent material for measuring tissue temperature. Thermocouples were inserted into the agar to measure the internal temperature. Porcine myocardium was used for lesion size measurement. A normal ablation catheter was set perpendicular to the tissue (agar or porcine myocardium) with 10 gf contact force in 37°C saline without flow. Vibration amplitude of ± 0.5, ± 0.75, and ± 1.0 mm with a constant frequency (31 Hz or 63) was used. A temperature control protocol (45°C for agar phantom, 60°C for porcine myocardium) was used for the radiofrequency applications. The larger amplitude shows the larger lesion sizes. And the higher tissue temperatures in agar phantom are also shown with the higher amplitude. With a same frequency, the larger amplitude has the higher vibrating speed. And the higher vibrating speed will increase the flow velocity around the electrode more, which leads to a larger electrode temperature decrease. To maintain the electrode at the target temperature, ablator has to increase the output power. With the higher output power in the same duration, the released energy also increases. Consequently, the tissue temperature will be increased and lead to larger lesion sizes.

Keywords: cardiac ablation, electrode cooling, lesion size, tissue temperature

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