Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Liaqat Ali

14 Economics of Oil and Its Stability in the Gulf Region

Authors: Al Mutawa A. Amir, Liaqat Ali, Faisal Ali

Abstract:

After the World War II, the world economy was disrupted and changed due to oil and its prices. The research in this paper presents the basic statistical features and economic characteristics of the Gulf economy. The main features of the Gulf economies and its heavy dependence on oil exports, its dualism between modern and traditional sectors and its rapidly increasing affluences are particularly emphasized.  In this context, the research in this paper discussed the problems of growth versus development and has attempted to draw the implications for the future economic development of this area.

Keywords: oil prices, GCC, economic growth, gulf oil

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13 Development of Light-Weight Refractory Bricks

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Furqan Ahmad

Abstract:

The heat losses should be controlled during the high temperature processes from energy conservation point of view. For this purpose, refractories with low thermal conductivity, high porosity and good mechanical strength along with low price are desirable. In this work, various combinations of naturally occurring, locally available, cheap raw materials, namely, clay, rice husk and saw dust were used. Locally produced insulating firebricks (IFBs) cannot be used at higher than a few hundred °C and possess low strength as well. Various process parameters were studied and the refractories with desirable properties were produced, which can be used up to 1200 °C.

Keywords: firebricks, mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, refractory bricks

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12 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance

Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab

Abstract:

In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.

Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thickness

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11 Effects of CFRP Confinement on PCC and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Jahangeer Munir, Liaqat Ali Qureshi, Junaid Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation regarding use of glass fibers in structural concrete members and determining the behavior of normal PCC, GFRC and retrofitted GFRC under different tests performed in the laboratory. Effect of retrofitting on the GFRC & PCC was investigated by using three patterns of CFRP wrapping. Properties like compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of normal GFRC and retrofitted GFRC were investigated and compared with their PCC counterparts. It was found that GFRC has more compressive strength as compared to PCC. At lower confinement pressures PCC behaves better than GFRC. Confinement efficiency was lower in GFRC as compared to PCC in terms of Split tensile strength. In case of GFRC all the patterns of wrapped CFRP strips showed more strength than their PCC counterparts.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymers, confinement, glass fibers, retrofitting

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10 Hot Corrosion Behavior of Calcium Zirconate Modified YSZ Coatings

Authors: Naveed Ejaz, Liaqat Ali, Amer Nusair

Abstract:

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) serve as thermal barriers against the high temperature of the hot regions of the aircraft turbine engines keeping the surface of the turbine blades, vanes and combustion chamber at comparatively lower temperature. The life of these coatings depends on many in-service environmental factors. Among these factors, the behavior of the bond coat as well as the top coat at high temperature aggravated by the corrosive environments having S, V, Na and Cl plays a key role. The incorporation of the 5-15% CaZrO3 in YSZ coatings was studied after hot corrosion in vanadium oxide environment. It was observed that the reactivity of the V gradually switched from Y to Ca making CaV2O4 instead of YVO4; the percentage of CaV2O4 increased with the increase of CaZrO3 in YSZ. It eventually prevented leaching out of the Y from YSZ leaving the YSZ without any harmful phase change. The thermal insulation was found to be improved in case of CaZrO3 incorporated YSZ coatings as compared to only YSZ coating.

Keywords: hot corrosion, thermal barrier coatings, yttria stabilized zirconia, calcium zirconate

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9 The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Individual Attributes

Authors: Bilal Liaqat, Muhammad Umar, Zara Bashir, Hassan Rafique, Mohsin Abbasi, Zarak Khan

Abstract:

Transformational leadership is one of the most studied topics in the organization sciences. However, the impact of transformational leadership on employee’s individual attributes have not yet been studied. Purpose: This research aims to discover the relationship between transformational leadership and employee motivation, performance and creativity. Moreover, the study will also investigate the influence of transformational leadership on employee performance through employee motivation and employee creativity. Design-Methodology-Approach: The data was collected from employees in different organization. This cross-sectional study collected data from employees and the methodology used includes survey data that were collected from employees in organizations. Structured interviews were also conducted to explain the outcomes from the survey. Findings: The results of this study reveal that transformational leadership has a positive impact on employee’s individual attributes. Research Implications: Although this study expands our knowledge about the role of learning orientation between transformational leadership and employee motivation, performance and creativity, the prospects for further research are still present.

Keywords: employee creativity, employee motivation, employee performance, transformational leadership

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8 Exploitation of Variability for Salinity Tolerance in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat

Abstract:

Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germplasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

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7 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity for Salt Stress in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Seedling Stage

Authors: Abdu Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat

Abstract:

Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germ plasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

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6 Risk Factors for High Resistance of Ciprofloxacin Against Escherichia coli in Complicated Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Khalid Farooq, Shafieullah Khan, Nasir Orakzai, Qudratullah

Abstract:

Objectives: To determine the risk factors for high resistance of ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: It is an analytical study that was conducted in the department of Urology (Team ‘C’) at Institute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad Peshawar from 1st June 2012 till 31st December 2012. Total numbers of 100 patients with complicated UTI was selected in the study. Multivariate analysis and linear regression were performed for the detection of risk factors. All the data was recorded on structured Proforma and was analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: The mean age of the patient was 55.6 years (Range 3-82 years). 62 patients were male while 38 patients were female. 66 isolates of E-Coli were found sensitive to ciprofloxacin while 34 isolates were found Resistant for ciprofloxacin. Using multivariate analysis and linear regression, an increasing age above 50 (p=0.002) History of urinary catheterization especially for bladder outflow obstruction (p=0.001) and previous multiple use of ciprofloxacin (p=0.001) and poor brand of ciprofloxacin were found to be independent risk factors for high resistance of ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: UTI is common illness across the globe with increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance for ciprofloxacin against E Coli in complicated UTI. The risk factors for emerging resistance are increasing age, urinary catheterization and multiple use and poor brand of ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: urinary tract infection, ciprofloxacin, urethral catheterization, antimicrobial resistance

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5 Impact of America's Anti-Ballistic Missile System (ABMS) on Power Dynamics of the World

Authors: Fehmeen Anwar, Ujala Liaqat

Abstract:

For over half a century, U.S. and the Soviet Union have been at daggers drawn with each other. Both leading powers of the world have been struggling hard to surpass each other in military and other technological fields. This neck-to-neck competition turned in favour of U.S. in the early 1990s when USSR had to face economic stagnation and later dismemberment of several of its states. The predominance of U.S. is still evident to date, rather it continues to grow. With this proposed defence program i.e. Anti-Ballistic Missile System, the U.S. will have a considerable chance of intercepting any nuclear strike by Russia, which re-asserts U.S. dominance in the region and creating a security dilemma for Russia and other states. The question is whether America’s recent nuclear deterrence project is merely to counter nuclear threats from Iran and North Korea or is it purely directed towards Russia, thus ensuring complete military supremacy in the world. Although U.S professes to direct its Anti-Ballistic Missile System (ABMS) against the axis of evil (Iran and North Korea), yet the deployment of this system in the East European territory undermines the Russian nuclear strategic capability, as this enables U.S. to initiate an attack and guard itself from retaliatory strike, thus disturbing the security equilibrium in Europe. The implications of this program can lead to power imbalance which can lead to the emergence of fundamentally different paradigm of international politics.

Keywords: Anti-Ballistic Missile System (ABMS), cold-war, axis of evil, power dynamics

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4 Identification and Characterization of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Protein (CAPD) of Enterococcus faecium

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Hubert E. Blum, Türkân Sakinc

Abstract:

Enterococcus faecium is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen increased dramatically worldwide and causing bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract and surgical site infections in immunocomprised patients. The capsular polysaccharides that contribute to pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system are also involved in hindering leukocyte killing of enterococci. The gene cluster (enterococcal polysaccharide antigen) of E. faecalis encoding homologues of many genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. We identified two putative loci with 22 kb and 19 kb which contained 11 genes encoding for glycosyltransferases (GTFs); this was confirmed by using genome comparison of already sequenced strains that has no homology to known capsule genes and the epa-locus. The polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines have rapidly emerged as a suitable strategy to combat different pathogenic bacteria, therefore, we investigated a polysaccharide biosynthesis CapD protein in E. faecium contains 336 amino acids and had putative function for N-linked glycosylation. The deletion/knock-out capD mutant was constructed and complemented by homologues recombination method and confirmed by using PCR and sequencing. For further characterization and functional analysis, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Our ΔcapD mutant shows a strong hydrophobicity and all strains exhibited biofilm production. Subsequently, the opsonic activity was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay which shows increased in mutant compared complemented and wild type strains but more than two fold decreased in colonization and adherence was seen on surface of uroepithelial cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonialization was observed in capD mutant during animal bacteremia infection. Unlike other polysaccharides biosynthesis proteins, CapD does not seems to be a major virulence factor in enterococci but further experiments and attention is needed to clarify its function, exact mechanism and involvement in pathogenesis of enteroccocal nosocomial infections eventually to develop a vaccine/ or targeted therapy.

Keywords: E. faecium, pathogenesis, polysaccharides, biofilm formation

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3 Etiology and Postnatal Management of Prenatal Hydronephrosis: A Study of Two Teaching Hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Authors: Saima Ali, Liaqat Ali, Nasir Orakzai

Abstract:

Background: Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with Ultrasonography. The prenatal hydronephrosis is a diagnostic dilemma in differentiating between obstructive variant versus physiologic hydronephrosis. The assessment and prompt diagnosis of prenatal hydronephrosis is important because of the fact that untreated obstructive hydronephrosis usually leads to recurrent UTI, Urosepsis, deterioration of renal functions, non-functioning kidneys, and even end-stage renal disease. Objectives: To determine the etiology and outcome of postnatal treatment of children with prenatal hydronephrosis in two teaching hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Methods: It is a multicentric descriptive study that was conducted in department of Paediatrics in Kuwait teaching hospital Peshawar and Department of Urology in Institute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar from January 2008 till December 2010. Total numbers of 64 neonates were included in the study with the mean follow-up of 14.5 months. All the diagnostic data in prenatal, postnatal data, and operative and non-operative data were collected on structured Proforma and was analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: Out of 64 patients, 39 (60.9 %) were male while 25 were female. 52 patients had unilateral while 12 patients had bilateral hydronephrosis. Based upon prenatal USG in term of AP diameter, 37 (57 %) patients had mild hydronephrosis (5-10 mm AP diameter), 14 patients had moderate hydronephrosis (10-15 mm AP diameter) while 13 patients had gross hydronephrosis (More than 15mm). Regarding etiology, 44(76 %) patients were labeled as physiologic hydronephrosis, 11 patients (9.3%) with PUJ obstruction, 5 patients with Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and 4 patients with posterior urethral valves. Surgery was performed in total of 15 (23.4%) patients that included open Pyeloplasty in 11 patients, Vesicostomy followed by posterior valve fulguration in 4 patients. All the patients of VUR treated medically. The severity in the grade of prenatal hydronephrosis is significantly associated with the need for definitive urological surgery p < 0.005. Ancillary procedures like percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) were inserted 7 patients. Conclusions: Prenatal hydronephrosis is a common ailment associated with significant morbidity. Physiological Hydronephrosis and VUR can be successfully treated with medical treatment. However obstructive PUJ obstructions and posterior urethral valves require surgical correction with a good success rate.

Keywords: prenatal hydronephrosis, Pelviureteric Junction (PUJ) Obstruction, vesicoureteric reflux, posterior urethral valve, renography

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2 Challenges & Barriers for Neuro Rehabilitation in Developing Countries

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Babur, Maria Liaqat

Abstract:

Background & Objective: People with disabilities especially neurological disabilities have many unmet health and rehabilitation needs, face barriers in accessing mainstream health-care services, and consequently have poor health. There are not sufficient epidemiological studies from Pakistan which assess barriers to neurorehabilitation and ways to counter it. Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the challenges and to evaluate the barriers for neuro-rehabilitation services in developing countries. Methods: This is Exploratory sequential qualitative study based on the Panel discussion forum in International rehabilitation sciences congress and national rehabilitation conference 2017. Panel group discussion has been conducted in February 2017 with a sample size of eight professionals including Rehabilitation medicine Physician, Physical Therapist, Speech Language therapist, Occupational Therapist, Clinical Psychologist and rehabilitation nurse working in multidisciplinary/Interdisciplinary team. A comprehensive audio-videography have been developed, recorded, transcripted and documented. Data was transcribed and thematic analysis along with characteristics was drawn manually. Data verification was done with the help of two separate coders. Results: After extraction of two separate coders following results are emerged. General category themes are disease profile, demographic profile, training and education, research, barriers, governance, global funding, informal care, resources and cultural beliefs and public awareness. Barriers identified at the level are high cost, stigma, lengthy course of recovery. Hospital related barriers are lack of social support and individually tailored goal setting processes. Organizational barriers identified are lack of basic diagnostic facilities, lack of funding and human resources. Recommendations given by panelists were investment in education, capacity building, infrastructure, governance support, strategies to promote communication and realistic goals. Conclusion: It is concluded that neurorehabilitation in developing countries need attention in following categories i.e. disease profile, demographic profile, training and education, research, barriers, governance, global funding, informal care, resources and cultural beliefs and public awareness. This study also revealed barriers at the level of patient, hospital, organization. Recommendations were also given by panelists.

Keywords: disability, neurorehabilitation, telerehabilitation, disability

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1 Efficacy of Mitomycin C in Reducing Recurrence of Anterior Urethral Stricture after Internal Optical Urethrotomy

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Ehsan, Muhammad Shahzad, Nasir Orakzai

Abstract:

Introduction: Internal optical urethrotomy is the main stay treatment modality in management of urethral stricture. Being minimal invasive with less morbidity, it is commonly performed and favored procedure by urologists across the globe. Although short-term success rate of optical urethrotomy is promising but long-term efficacy of IOU is questionable with high recurrence rate in different studies. Numerous techniques had been adopted to reduce the recurrence after IOU like prolong catheterization and self-clean intermittent catheterization with varying success. Mitomycin C has anti-fibroblast and anti-collagen properties and has been used in trabeculectomy, myringotomy and after keloid scar excision in contemporary surgical practice. Present study according to the best of our knowledge is a pioneer pilot study in Pakistan to determine the efficacy of Mitomycin C in preventing recurrence of urethral stricture after internal optical urethrotomy. Objective: To determine the efficacy of Mitomycin C in reducing the recurrence of anterior urethral stricture after internal optical urethrotomy. Methods: It is a randomized control trial conducted in department of urology, Institute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar from March 2011 till December 2013. After approval of hospital ethical committee, we included maximum of 2 cm anterior urethral stricture irrespective of etiology. Total of 140 patients were equally divided into two groups by lottery method. Group A (Case) comprising of 70 patients in whom Mitomycin C 0.1% was injected sub mucosal in stricture area at 1,11,6 and 12 O clock position using straight working channel paediatric cystoscope after conventional optical urethrotomy. Group B (Control) 70 patients in whom only optical urethrotomy was performed. SCIC was not offered in both the groups. All the patients were regularly followed on a monthly basis for 3 months then three monthly for remaining 9 months. Recurrence was diagnosed by using diagnostic tools of retrograde urethrogram and flexible urethroscopy in selected cased. Data was collected on structured Proforma and was analyzed on SPSS. Result: The mean age in Group A was 33 ±1.5 years and Group B was 35 years. External trauma was leading cause of urethral stricture in both groups 46 (65%) Group A and 50 (71.4%) Group B. In Group A. Iatrogenic urethral trauma was 2nd etiological factor in both groups. 18(25%) Group A while 15( 21.4%) in Group B. At the end of 1 year, At the end of one year, recurrence of urethral stricture was recorded in 11 (15.71%) patient in Mitomycin C Group A and it was recorded in 27 (38.5 %) patients in group B. Significant difference p=0.001 was found in favour of group A Mitomycin group. Conclusion: Recurrence of urethral stricture is high after optical urethrotomy. Mitomycin C is found highly effective in preventing recurrence of urethral stricture after IOU.

Keywords: urethral stricture, mitomycine, internal optical urethrotomy, medical and health sciences

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