Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: inflammasome

12 The Role of a Novel DEAD-Box Containing Protein in NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

Authors: Yi-Hui Lai, Chih-Hsiang Yang, Li-Chung Hsu

Abstract:

The inflammasome is a protein complex that modulates caspase-1 activity, resulting in proteolytic cleavage of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18, into their bioactive forms. It has been shown that the inflammasomes play a crucial role in the clearance of pathogenic infection and tissue repair. However, dysregulated inflammasome activation contributes to a wide range of human diseases such as cancers and auto-inflammatory diseases. Yet, regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains largely unknown. We discovered a novel DEAD box protein, whose biological function has not been reported, not only negatively regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by interfering NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and cellular localization but also mitigate pyroptosis upon pathogen evasion. The DEAD-box protein is the first DEAD-box protein gets involved in modulation of the inflammasome activation. In our study, we found that caspase-1 activation and mature IL-1β production were largely enhanced upon LPS challenge in the DEAD box-containing protein- deleted THP-1 macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). In addition, this DEAD box-containing protein migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm upon LPS stimulation, which is required for its inhibitory role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The DEAD box-containing protein specifically interacted with the LRR motif of NLRP3 via its DEAD domain. Furthermore, due to the crucial role of the NLRP3 LRR domain in the recruitment of NLRP3 to mitochondria and binding to its adaptor ASC, we found that the interaction of NLRP3 and ASC was downregulated in the presence of the DEAD box-containing protein. In addition to the mechanical study, we also found that this DEAD box protein protects host cells from inflammasome-triggered cell death in response to broad-ranging pathogens such as Candida albicans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, etc., involved in nosocomial infections and severe fever shock. Collectively, our results suggest that this novel DEAD box molecule might be a key therapeutic strategy for various infectious diseases.

Keywords: inflammasome, inflammation, innate immunity, pyroptosis

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11 Nanoparticles Activated Inflammasome Lead to Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma

Authors: Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Sun-Hye Lee, An-Soo Jang

Abstract:

Background: Nanoparticles may pose adverse health effects due to particulate matter inhalation. Nanoparticle exposure induces cell and tissue damage, causing local and systemic inflammatory responses. The inflammasome is a major regulator of inflammation through its activation of pro-caspase-1, which cleaves pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form and may signal acute and chronic immune responses to nanoparticles. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify whether nanoparticles exaggerates inflammasome pathway leading to airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in an allergic mice model of asthma. Methods: Mice were treated with saline (sham), OVA-sensitized and challenged (OVA), or titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Lung interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 levels were assessed with Western Blot. Caspase-1 was checked by immunohistochemical staining. Reactive oxygen species were measured for the marker 8-isoprostane and carbonyl by ELISA. Results: Airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. TiO2 nanoparticles treatment increased IL-1β and IL-18 protein expression in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. TiO2 nanoparticles augmented the expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 leading to the formation of an active caspase-1 in the lung. Lung caspase-1 expression was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. Reactive oxygen species was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and in OVA-sensitized/challenged plus TiO2 exposed mice. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that inflammasome pathway activates in asthmatic lungs following nanoparticles exposure, suggesting that targeting the inflammasome may help control nanoparticles-induced airway inflammation and responsiveness.

Keywords: bronchial asthma, inflammation, inflammasome, nanoparticles

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10 The Effect of SIRT1 on NLRP3 (Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-Like Receptor Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3) Inflammasome of Osteoarthritis

Authors: So Youn Park, Yi Sle Lee, Ki Whan Hong, Chi Dae Kim

Abstract:

The role of metabolism in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is an emerging field. Metabolic alterations may be a role in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, and these changes influence joint destruction via several cytokine. Especially, in OA patients, levels of IL-1β are elevated in the synovial fluid, synovial membrane, subchondral bone, and cartilage. The IL-1β is activated by NLRP3 inflammasomes, and NLRP3 inflammasomes are cytosolic complexes that drive the production of other inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β. In this study, we examined that SIRT1 suppresses IL-1β through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasomes and SIRT1 ameliorates osteoarthritis. OA fibroblasts were isolated from synovium of OA patients. IL-1β and NLRP3 were detected in synovium of OA patients by immunohistochemistry. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulated the expression of active IL-1β mRNA in OA fibroblasts and combination of LPS, and adenosine triphosphate increased more the expression of active IL-1β in OA fibroblasts. The level of IL-1β was measured by western blot and ELISA assay. NLRP3 inflammasomes complex were measured by western blot. SIRT1 did not inhibit expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. So caspase-1, apoptotic speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and NLRP3 protein were expressed in OA fibroblasts. But SIRT1 suppressed activation of IL-1β by inhibiting activity of caspase-1 via NLRP3 inflammasome in OA fibroblasts under LPS plus ATP stimulation. These results suggest that SIRT1 is a modulator of NLRP3 inflammasomes in OA fibroblasts and ameliorate IL-1β, so expression of SIRT1 in OA fibroblast may be a potential strategy for OA inflammation treatment.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, inflammasome, SIRT1, IL-1beta

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9 Caspase-11 and AIM2 Inflammasome are Involved in Smoking-Induced COPD and Lung Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Chiara Colarusso, Michela Terlizzi, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino

Abstract:

Cigarette smoking is the main cause and the most common risk factor for both COPD and lung cancer. In our previous studies, we proved that caspase-11 in mice and its human analogue, caspase-4, are involved in lung carcinogenesis and that AIM2 inflammasome might play a pro-cancerous role in lung cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate potential crosstalk between COPD and lung cancer, focusing on AIM2 and caspase-11-dependent inflammasome signaling pathway. To mimic COPD, we took advantage of an experimental first-hand smoking mouse model and, to confirm what was observed in mice, we used human samples of lung adenocarcinoma patients stratified according to the smoking and COPD status. We demonstrated that smoke exposure led to emphysema-like features, bronchial tone impairment, and release of IL-1-like cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-18) in a caspase-1 independent manner in C57Bl/6N. Rather, a dysfunctional caspase-11 in smoke-exposed 129Sv mice was associated to lower bronchial inflammation, collagen deposition, and IL-1-like inflammation. In addition, for the first time, we found that AIM2 inflammasome is involved in lung inflammation in smoking and COPD, in that its expression was higher in smoke-exposed C57Bl/6N compared to 129Sv smoking mice, who instead did not show any alteration of AIM2 in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Moreover, we found that AIM2 expression in the cancerous tissue, albeit higher than non-cancerous tissue, was not statistically different according to the COPD and smoking status. Instead, the higher expression of AIM2 in non-cancerous tissue of smoker COPD patients than smokers who did not have COPD was correlated to a higher hazard ratio of poor survival rate than patients who presented lower levels of AIM2. In conclusion, our data highlight that caspase-11 in mice is associated to smoke-induced lung latent inflammation which could drive the establishment of lung cancer, and that AIM2 inflammasome plays a role at the crosstalk between smoking/COPD and lung adenocarcinoma in that its higher presence is correlated to lower survival rate of smoker COPD adenocarcinoma.

Keywords: COPD, inflammasome, lung cancer, lung inflammation, smoke

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8 The Second Generation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Afatinib Controls Inflammation by Regulating NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

Authors: Shujun Xie, Shirong Zhang, Shenglin Ma

Abstract:

Background: Chronic inflammation might lead to many malignancies, and inadequate resolution could play a crucial role in tumor invasion, progression, and metastases. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial shows that IL-1β inhibition with canakinumab could reduce incident lung cancer and lung cancer mortality in patients with atherosclerosis. The process and secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β are controlled by the inflammasome. Here we showed the correlation of the innate immune system and afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Murine Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and THP-1 were used to check the effect of afatinib on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. The assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome was check by co-immunoprecipitation of NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS)-cross link of ASC. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis and Alum-induced peritonitis were conducted to confirm that afatinib could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients before or after taking afatinib were used to check that afatinib inhibits inflammation in NSCLC therapy. Results: Our data showed that afatinib could inhibit the secretion of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner in macrophage. Moreover, afatinib could inhibit the maturation of IL-1β and caspase-1 without affecting the precursors of IL-1β and caspase-1. Next, we found that afatinib could block the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome and the ASC speck by blocking the interaction of the sensor protein NLRP3 and the adaptor protein ASC. We also found that afatinib was able to alleviate the LPS-induced sepsis in vivo. Conclusion: Our study found that afatinib could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophage, providing new evidence that afatinib could target the innate immune system to control chronic inflammation. These investigations will provide significant experimental evidence in afatinib as therapeutic drug for non-small cell lung cancer or other tumors and NLRP3-related diseases and will explore new targets for afatinib.

Keywords: inflammasome, afatinib, inflammation, tyrosine kinase inhibitor

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7 Contribution of NLRP3 Inflammasome to the Protective Effect of 5,14-HEDGE, A 20-HETE Mimetic, against LPS-Induced Septic Shock in Rats

Authors: Bahar Tunctan, Sefika Pinar Kucukkavruk, Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Demet Sinem Guden, Ayse Nihal Sari, Seyhan Sahan-Firat, Mahesh P. Paudyal, John R. Falck, Kafait U. Malik

Abstract:

We hypothesized that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) mimetics such as N-(20-hydroxyeicosa-5[Z],14[Z]-dienoyl)glycine (5,14-HEDGE) may be beneficial for preventing mortality due to inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study aims to assess the effect of 5,14-HEDGE on the LPS-induced changes in nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3)/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC)/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome. Rats were injected with saline (4 ml/kg) or LPS (10 mg/kg) at time 0. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff device. 5,14-HEDGE (30 mg/kg) was administered to rats 1 h after injection of saline or LPS. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after saline or LPS injection and kidney, heart, thoracic aorta, and superior mesenteric artery were isolated for measurement of caspase-1/11 p20, NLRP3, ASC, and β-actin proteins as well as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels. Blood pressure decreased by 33 mmHg and heart rate increased by 63 bpm in the LPS-treated rats. In the LPS-treated rats, tissue protein expression of caspase-1/11 p20, NLRP3, and ASC in addition to IL-1β levels were increased. 5,14-HEDGE prevented the LPS-induced changes. Our findings suggest that inhibition of renal, cardiac, and vascular formation/activity of NLRP3/ASC/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome involved in the protective effect of 5,14-HEDGE on LPS-induced septic shock in rats. This work was financially supported by the Mersin University (2015-AP3-1343) and USPHS NIH (PO1 HL034300).

Keywords: 5, 14-HEDGE, lipopolysaccharide, NLRP3, inflammasome, septic shock

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6 Identification, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of the Major Human Metabolite of NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibitor MCC950

Authors: Manohar Salla, Mark S. Butler, Ruby Pelingon, Geraldine Kaeslin, Daniel E. Croker, Janet C. Reid, Jong Min Baek, Paul V. Bernhardt, Elizabeth M. J. Gillam, Matthew A. Cooper, Avril A. B. Robertson

Abstract:

MCC950 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome that shows early promise for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The identification of major metabolites of lead molecule is an important step during drug development process. It provides an information about the metabolically labile sites in the molecule and thereby helping medicinal chemists to design metabolically stable molecules. To identify major metabolites of MCC950, the compound was incubated with human liver microsomes and subsequent analysis by (+)- and (−)-QTOF-ESI-MS/MS revealed a major metabolite formed due to hydroxylation on 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacene moiety of MCC950. This major metabolite can lose two water molecules and three possible regioisomers were synthesized. Co-elution of major metabolite with each of the synthesized compounds using HPLC-ESI-SRM-MS/MS revealed the structure of the metabolite (±) N-((1-hydroxy-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-4-yl)carbamoyl)-4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)furan-2-sulfonamide. Subsequent synthesis of individual enantiomers and coelution in HPLC-ESI-SRM-MS/MS using a chiral column revealed the metabolite was R-(+)- N-((1-hydroxy-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-s-indacen-4-yl)carbamoyl)-4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)furan-2-sulfonamide. To study the possible cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) responsible for the formation of major metabolite, MCC950 was incubated with a panel of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The result indicated that CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2J2 and CYP3A4 are most likely responsible for the formation of the major metabolite. The biological activity of the major metabolite and the other synthesized regioisomers was also investigated by screening for for NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. The major metabolite had 170-fold less inhibitory activity (IC50-1238 nM) than MCC950 (IC50-7.5 nM). Interestingly, one regioisomer had shown nanomolar inhibitory activity (IC50-232 nM). However, no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed with any of these synthesized compounds when tested in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293) and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma G2 cells (HepG2). These key findings give an insight into the SAR of the hexahydroindacene moiety of MCC950 and reveal a metabolic soft spot which could be blocked by chemical modification.

Keywords: Cytochrome P450, inflammasome, MCC950, metabolite, microsome, NLRP3

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5 NLRP3-Inflammassome Participates in the Inflammatory Response Induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Authors: Eduardo Kanagushiku Pereira, Frank Gregory Cavalcante da Silva, Barbara Soares Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia Bergamasco Galastri, Ronei Luciano Mamoni

Abstract:

The inflammatory response initiates after the recognition of pathogens by receptors expressed by innate immune cells. Among these receptors, the NLRP3 was associated with the recognition of pathogenic fungi in experimental models. NLRP3 operates forming a multiproteic complex called inflammasome, which actives caspase-1, responsible for the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. In this study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of NLRP3 in the inflammatory response elicited in macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), the etiologic agent of PCM. Macrophages were differentiated from THP-1 cells by treatment with phorbol-myristate-acetate. Following differentiation, macrophages were stimulated by Pb yeast cells for 24 hours, after previous treatment with specific NLRP3 (3,4-methylenedioxy-beta-nitrostyrene) and/or caspase-1 (VX-765) inhibitors, or specific inhibitors of pathways involved in NLRP3 activation such as: Reactive Oxigen Species (ROS) production (N-Acetyl-L-cysteine), K+ efflux (Glibenclamide) or phagossome acidification (Bafilomycin). Quantification of IL-1beta and IL-18 in supernatants was performed by ELISA. Our results showed that the production of IL-1beta and IL-18 by THP-1-derived-macrophages stimulated with Pb yeast cells was dependent on NLRP3 and caspase-1 activation, once the presence of their specific inhibitors diminished the production of these cytokines. Furthermore, we found that the major pathways involved in NLRP3 activation, after Pb recognition, were dependent on ROS production and K+ efflux. In conclusion, our results showed that NLRP3 participates in the recognition of Pb yeast cells by macrophages, leading to the activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome and production of IL-1beta and IL-18. Together, these cytokines can induce an inflammatory response against P. brasiliensis, essential for the establishment of the initial inflammatory response and for the development of the subsequent acquired immune response.

Keywords: inflammation, IL-1beta, IL-18, NLRP3, Paracoccidioidomycosis

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4 Molecular Mechanisms of Lipid Metabolism and Obesity Modulation by Caspase-1/11 and nlrp3 Inflammasome in Mice

Authors: Lívia Pimentel Sant'ana Dourado, Raquel Das Neves Almeida, Luís Henrique Costa Corrêa Neto, Nayara Soares, Kelly Grace Magalhães

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity and high-fat diet intake have a crucial impact on immune cells and inflammatory profile, highlighting an emerging realization that obesity is an inflammatory disease. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the role of caspase-1/11 and NLRP3 inflammasome in the establishment of mice obesity and modulation of inflammatory lipid metabolism induced by high fat diet intake. Methods and results: Wild type, caspase-1/11 and NLRP3 knockout mice were fed with standard fat diet (SFD) or high fat diet (HFD) for 90 days. The weight of animals was measured weekly to monitor the weight gain. After 90 days, the blood, peritoneal lavage cells, heart and liver were collected from mice studied here. Cytokines were measured in serum by ELISA and analyzed in spectrophotometry. Lipid antigen presentation molecule CD1d expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid droplets biogenesis were analyzed in cells from mice peritoneal cavity by flow cytometry. Liver histopathology was performed for morphological evaluation of the organ. The absence of caspase-1/11, but not NLRP3, in mice fed with HFD favored the mice weight gain, increased liver size, induced development of hepatic steatosis and IL-12 secretion in mice compared to mice fed with SFD. In addition, caspase-1/11 knockout mice fed with HFD presented an increased CD1d molecule expression, as well as higher levels of lipid droplets biogenesis and ROS generation compared to wild type mice also fed with HFD. Conclusion: Our data suggest that caspase-1/11 knockout mice have greater susceptibility to obesity as well as increased activation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers.

Keywords: caspase 1, caspase 11, inflamassome, obesity, lipids

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3 The Role of Inflammasomes for aβ Microglia Phagocytosis in Alzheimer Disease

Authors: Francesca La Rosa , Marina Saresella, Mario Clerici, Michael Heneka

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Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the modulation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Microglia, the main immune effector of the brain, are able to migrate to sites of Amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition to eliminate Aβ phagocytosis upon activation by multiple receptors: Toll like receptors and scavenger receptors. The issue of whether microglia are able to eliminate pathological lesions such as neurofibrillary tangles or senile plaques from AD brain still remains the matter of controversy. Recent data suggest that the Nod Like Receptor 3 (NLRP3), multiprotein inflammasome complexes, plays a role in AD, as its activation in the microglia by Aβ triggers. IL-1β is produced as a biologically inactive pro-form and requires caspase-1 for activation and secretion. Caspase-1 activity is controlled by inflammasomes. We investigate about the importance of inflammasomes complex in the Aβ phagocytosis and its degradation. The preliminary results of phagocytosis assay and immunofluorescent experiment on primary Microglia cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) an Aβ exposure show that a previous treatment with LPS reduce Aβ phagocytosis. Different results were obtained in Primary Microglia wild type, NLRP3 and ASC Knockout suggesting a real inflammasomes involvement in Alzheimer's pathology. Inflammasomes inactivation reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines prolonging the protective activity of microglia and Aβ clearance, featuring a typical microglia phenotype of the early stage of AD disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, innate immunity, neuroinflammation, NLRP3

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2 Role of Autophagic Lysosome Reformation for Cell Viability in an in vitro Infection Model

Authors: Muhammad Awais Afzal, Lorena Tuchscherr De Hauschopp, Christian Hübner

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Introduction: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-dependent degradation pathway, which can be induced by extrinsic and intrinsic stressors in living systems to adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. In the context of inflammatory stress, autophagy contributes to the elimination of invading pathogens, the regulation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, and regulation of inflammasome activity as well as tissue damage repair. Lysosomes can be recycled from autolysosomes by the process of autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), which depends on the presence of several proteins including Spatacsin. Thus ALR contributes to the replenishment of lysosomes that are available for fusion with autophagosomes in situations of increased autophagic turnover, e.g., during bacterial infections, inflammatory stress or sepsis. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether ALR plays a role for cell survival in an in-vitro bacterial infection model. Methods: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from wild-type mice and Spatacsin (Spg11-/-) knockout mice. Wild-type MEFs and Spg11-/- MEFs were infected with Staphylococcus aureus (multiplication of infection (MOI) used was 10). After 8 and 16 hours of infection, cell viability was assessed on BD flow cytometer through propidium iodide intake. Bacterial intake by cells was also calculated by plating cell lysates on blood agar plates. Results: in-vitro infection of MEFs with Staphylococcus aureus showed a marked decrease of cell viability in ALR deficient Spatacsin knockout (Spg11-/-) MEFs after 16 hours of infection as compared to wild-type MEFs (n=3 independent experiments; p < 0.0001) although no difference was observed for bacterial intake by both genotypes. Conclusion: Suggesting that ALR is important for the defense of invading pathogens e.g. S. aureus, we observed a marked increase of cell death in an in-vitro infection model in cells with compromised ALR.

Keywords: autophagy, autophagic lysosome reformation, bacterial infections, Staphylococcus aureus

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1 Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasomes by Helicobacter pylori Infection in Innate Cellular Model and Its Correlation to IL-1β Production

Authors: Islam Nowisser, Noha Farag, Mohamed El Azizi

Abstract:

Helicobacter pylori is a highly important human pathogen which inhabits about 50% of the population worldwide. Infection with this bacteria is very hard to treat, with high probability of recurrence. H. pylori causes severe gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer, gastritis, and gastric cancer, which has been linked to chronic inflammation. The infection has been reported to be associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β and TNF-α. The aim of the current study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which H. pylori activates NLRP3 inflammasome and its contribution to Il-1 β production in an innate cellular model. H. pylori PMSS1 and G27 standard strains, as well as the PMSS1 isogenic mutant strain PMSS1ΔVacA and G27ΔVacA, G27ΔCagA in addition to clinical isolates obtained from biopsy samples from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis patients, were used to establish infection in RAW-264.7 macrophages. The production levels of TNF-α and IL-1β was assessed using ELISA. Since expression of these cytokines is often regulated by the transcription factor complex, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), the activation of NF-κB in H. pylori infected cells was also evaluated by luciferase assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from bacterial cultures of H. pylori clinical isolates as well as the standard strains and their corresponding mutants, where they were evaluated for the cagA pathogenicity island and vacA expression. The correlation between these findings and expression of the cagA Pathogenicity Island and vacA in the bacteria was also investigated. The results showed IL-1β, and TNF-α production significantly increased in raw macrophages following H. pylori infection. The cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains induced significant production of IL-1β compared to cagA- and vacA- strains. The activation pattern of NF-κB was correlated in the isolates to their cagA and vacA expression profiles. A similar finding could not be confirmed for TNF-α production. Our study shows the ability of H. pylori to activate NF-kB and induce significant IL-1β production as a possible mechanism for the augmented inflammatory response seen in subjects infected with cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains that would lead to the progression to more severe form of the disease.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, IL-1β, inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor KB, TNF-α

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