Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Lexi Frankel

15 The Role Previous Cytomegalovirus Infection in Subsequent Lymphoma Develompment

Authors: Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Divesh Manjani, Gabriela Santizo, Maximillian Guerra, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a widespread infection affecting between 60-70% of people in industrialized countries. CMV has been previously correlated with a higher incidence of Hodgkin Lymphoma compared to noninfected persons. Research regarding prior CMV infection and subsequent lymphoma development is still controversial. With limited evidence, further research is needed in order to understand the relationship between previous CMV infection and subsequent lymphoma development. This study assessed the effect of CMV infection and the incidence of lymphoma afterward. Methods: A retrospective cohort study (2010-2019) was conducted through a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database and conducted using International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th,10th codes, and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. These were used to identify lymphoma diagnosis in a previously CMV infected population. Patients were matched for age range and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). A chi-squared test was used to assess statistical significance. Results: A total number of 14,303 patients was obtained in the CMV infected group as well as in the control population (matched by age range and CCI score). Subsequent lymphoma development was seen at a rate of 11.44% (1,637) in the CMV group and 5.74% (822) in the control group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant by p= 2.2x10-16, odds ratio = 2.696 (95% CI 2.483- 2.927). In an attempt to stratify the population by antiviral medication exposure, the outcomes were limited by the decreased number of members exposed to antiviral medication in the control population. Conclusion: This study shows a statistically significant correlation between prior CMV infection and an increased incidence of lymphoma afterward. Further exploration is needed to identify the potential carcinogenic mechanism of CMV and whether the results are attributed to a confounding bias.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, lymphoma, cancer, microbiology

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14 Association of Clostridium difficile Infection and Bone Cancer

Authors: Daniela Prado, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Lokesh Manjani, Matthew Cardeiro, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Background: Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is a gram-positive bacterium that is known to cause life-threatening diarrhea and severe inflammation of the colon. It originates as an alteration of the gut microbiome and can be transmitted through spores. Recent studies have shown a high association between the development of C. diff in cancer patients due to extensive hospitalization. However, research is lacking regarding C. diff’s association in the causation or prevention of cancer. The objective of this study was to therefore assess the correlation between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the incidence of bone cancer. Methods: This retrospective analysis used data provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to evaluate the patients infected versus patients not infected with C. diff using ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes. Access to the database was granted by the Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, for the purpose of academic research. Standard statistical methods were used. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 78863 patients in both the infected and control group, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. The incidence of bone cancer was 659 patients (0.835%) in the C. diff group compared to 1941 patients (2.461%) in the control group. The difference was statistically significant by a P-value < 2.2x10^-16 with an odds ratio (OR)= 0.33 (0.31-0.37) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Treatment for CDI was analyzed for both C. diff infected and noninfected populations. 91 out of 16,676 (0.55%) patients with a prior C. diff infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to the control group were 275 out of 16,676 (1.65%) patients with no history of CDI and received antibiotic treatment. Results remained statistically significant by P-value <2.2x10-16 with an OR= 0.42 (0.37, 0.48). and a 95% CI. Conclusion: The study shows a statistically significant correlation between C. diff and a reduced incidence of bone cancer. Further evaluation is recommended to assess the potential of C. difficile in reducing bone cancer incidence.

Keywords: bone cancer, colitis, clostridium difficile, microbiome

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13 The Correlation between Clostridium Difficile Infection and Bronchial Lung Cancer Occurrence

Authors: Molnar Catalina, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Enoch Kim, Marissa Dallara, Omar Rashid

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Introduction: Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is a toxin-producing bacteria that can cause diarrhea and colitis. U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased from 31 cases per 100,000 persons per year in 1996 to 61 per 100,000 in 2003. Approximately 500,000 cases per year occur in the United States. After exposure, the bacteria colonize the colon, where it adheres to the intestinal epithelium where it produces two toxins: TcdA and TcdB. TcdA affects the intestinal epithelium, causing fluid secretion, inflammation, and tissue necrosis, while TcdB acts as a cytotoxin purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between C diff infection and bronchial lung cancer development. Methods: Using ICD- 9 and ICD-10 codes, the data was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to assess the patients infected with C diff as opposed to the non-infected patients. The Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, granted access to the database for the purpose of academic research. Patients were matched for age and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Standard statistical methods were used. Results: Bronchial lung cancer occurrence in the population not infected with C diff infection was 4741, as opposed to the population infected with C. diff, where 2039 cases of lung cancer were observed. The difference was statistically significant (p-value < 2.2x10^e-16), which reveals that C diff might be protective against bronchial lung cancer. The data was then matched by treatment to create to minimize the effect of treatment bias. Bronchial cancer incidence was 422 and 861 in infected vs. non-infected (p-value of < 2.2x10^e-16), which once more indicates that C diff infection could be beneficial in diminishing bronchial cancer development. Conclusion: This retrospective study conveys a statistical correlation between C diff infection and decreased incidence of lung bronchial cancer. Further studies are needed to comprehend the protective mechanisms of C. Diff infection on lung cancer.

Keywords: C. diff, lung cancer, protective, microbiology

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12 Incidence of Lymphoma and Gonorrhea Infection: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Diya Kohli, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Jose Garcia, Lokesh Manjani, Omar Rashid

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Gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted disease (STDs) in the United States of America. Gonorrhea affects the urethra, rectum, or throat and the cervix in females. Lymphoma is a cancer of the immune network called the lymphatic system that includes the lymph nodes/glands, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. Lymphoma can affect many organs in the body. When a lymphocyte develops a genetic mutation, it signals other cells into rapid proliferation that causes many mutated lymphocytes. Multiple studies have explored the incidence of cancer in people infected with STDs such as Gonorrhea. For instance, the studies conducted by Wang Y-C and Co., as well as Caini, S and Co. established a direct co-relationship between Gonorrhea infection and incidence of prostate cancer. We hypothesize that Gonorrhea infection also increases the incidence of Lymphoma in patients. This research study aimed to evaluate the correlation between Gonorrhea infection and the incidence of Lymphoma. The data for the research was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database. This database was utilized to evaluate patients infected with Gonorrhea versus the ones who were not infected to establish a correlation with the prevalence of Lymphoma using ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes. Access to the database was granted by the Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for academic research. Standard statistical methods were applied throughout. Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 254 and 808 patients in both the infected and control group, respectively. The two groups were matched by Age Range and CCI score. The incidence of Lymphoma was 0.998% (254 patients out of 25455) in the Gonorrhea group (patients infected with Gonorrhea that was Lymphoma Positive) compared to 3.174% and 808 patients in the control group (Patients negative for Gonorrhea but with Lymphoma). This was statistically significant by a p-value < 2.210-16 with an OR= 0.431 (95% CI 0.381-0.487). The patients were then matched by antibiotic treatment to avoid treatment bias. The incidence of Lymphoma was 1.215% (82 patients out of 6,748) in the Gonorrhea group compared to 2.949% (199 patients out of 6748) in the control group. This was statistically significant by a p-value <5.410-10 with an OR= 0.468 (95% CI 0.367-0.596). The study shows a statistically significant correlation between Gonorrhea and a reduced incidence of Lymphoma. Further evaluation is recommended to assess the potential of Gonorrhea in reducing Lymphoma.

Keywords: gonorrhea, lymphoma, STDs, cancer, ICD

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11 Implications of Human Cytomegalovirus as a Protective Factor in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

Authors: Marissa Dallara, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Nadia Obaed, Naureen Rashid, Omar Rashid

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Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that remains latent in approximately 60% of individuals in developed countries. Viral load is kept at a minimum due to a robust immune response that is produced in most individuals who remain asymptomatic. HCMV has been recently implicated in cancer research because it may impose oncomodulatory effects on tumor cells of which it infects, which could have an impact on the progression of cancer. HCMV has been implicated in increased pathogenicity of certain cancers such as gliomas, but in contrast, it can also exhibit anti-tumor activity. HCMV seropositivity has been recorded in tumor cells, but this may also have implications in decreased pathogenesis of certain forms of cancer such as leukemia as well as increased pathogenesis in others. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between cytomegalovirus and the incidence of breast cancer. Methods The data used in this project was extracted from a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to analyze the patients infected versus patients not infection with cytomegalovirus using ICD-10, ICD-9 codes. Permission to utilize the database was given by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, for the purpose of academic research. Data analysis was conducted using standard statistical methods. Results The query was analyzed for dates ranging from January 2010 to December 2019, which resulted in 14,309 patients in both the infected and control groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. The incidence of breast cancer was 1.642% and 235 patients in the cytomegalovirus group compared to 4.752% and 680 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant by a p-value of less than 2.2x 10^-16 with an odds ratio of 0.43 (0.4 to 0.48) with a 95% confidence interval. Investigation into the effects of HCMV treatment modalities, including Valganciclovir, Cidofovir, and Foscarnet, on breast cancer in both groups was conducted, but the numbers were insufficient to yield any statistically significant correlations. Conclusion This study demonstrates a statistically significant correlation between cytomegalovirus and a reduced incidence of breast cancer. If HCMV can exert anti-tumor effects on breast cancer and inhibit growth, it could potentially be used to formulate immunotherapy that targets various types of breast cancer. Further evaluation is warranted to assess the implications of cytomegalovirus in reducing the incidence of breast cancer.

Keywords: human cytomegalovirus, breast cancer, immunotherapy, anti-tumor

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10 The Impact of a Prior Haemophilus influenzae Infection in the Incidence of Prostate Cancer

Authors: Maximiliano Guerra, Lexi Frankel, Amalia D. Ardeljan, Sarah Ghali, Diya Kohli, Omar M. Rashid.

Abstract:

Introduction/Background: Haemophilus influenzae is present as a commensal organism in the nasopharynx of most healthy adults from where it can spread to cause both systemic and respiratory tract infection. Pathogenic properties of this bacterium as well as defects in host defense may result in the spread of these bacteria throughout the body. This can result in a proinflammatory state and colonization particularly in the lungs. Recent studies have failed to determine a link between H. Influenzae colonization and prostate cancer, despite previous research demonstrating the presence of proinflammatory states in preneoplastic and neoplastic prostate lesions. Given these contradictory findings, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between H. Influenzae infection and the incidence of prostate cancer. Methods: To evaluate the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae infection and the development of prostate cancer in the future we used data provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database. We were afforded access to this database by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the express purpose of academic research. Standard statistical methods were employed in this study including Pearson’s chi-square tests. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 13, 691 patients in both the control and C. difficile infected groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. In the Haemophilus influenzae infected group, the incidence of prostate cancer was 1.46%, while the incidence of the prostate cancer control group was 4.56%. The observed difference in cancer incidence was determined to be a statistically significant p-value (< 2.2x10^-16). This suggests that patients with a history of C. difficile have less risk of developing prostate cancer (OR 0.425, 95% CI: 0.382 - 0.472). Treatment bias was considered, the data was analyzed and resulted in two groups matched groups of 3,208 patients in both the infected with H. Influenzae treated group and the control who used the same medications for a different cause. Patients infected with H. Influenzae and treated had an incidence of prostate cancer of 2.49% whereas the control group incidence of prostate cancer was 4.92% with a p-value (< 2.2x10^-16) OR 0.455 CI 95% (0.526 -0.754), proving that the initial results were not due to the use of medications. Conclusion: The findings of our study reveal a statistically significant correlation between H. Influenzae infection and a decreased incidence of prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that prior infection with H. Influenzae may confer some degree of protection to patients and reduce their risk for developing prostate cancer. Future research is recommended to further characterize the potential role of Haemophilus influenzae in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.

Keywords: Haemophilus Influenzae, incidence, prostate cancer, risk.

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9 Incidence of Breast Cancer and Enterococcus Infection: A Retrospective Analysis

Authors: Matthew Cardeiro, Amalia D. Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Dianela Prado Escobar, Catalina Molnar, Omar M. Rashid

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Introduction: Enterococci comprise the natural flora of nearly all animals and are ubiquitous in food manufacturing and probiotics. However, its role in the microbiome remains controversial. The gut microbiome has shown to play an important role in immunology and cancer. Further, recent data has suggested a relationship between gut microbiota and breast cancer. These studies have shown that the gut microbiome of patients with breast cancer differs from that of healthy patients. Research regarding enterococcus infection and its sequala is limited, and further research is needed in order to understand the relationship between infection and cancer. Enterococcus may prevent the development of breast cancer (BC) through complex immunologic and microbiotic adaptations following an enterococcus infection. This study investigated the effect of enterococcus infection and the incidence of BC. Methods: A retrospective study (January 2010- December 2019) was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database and conducted using a Humans Health Insurance Database. International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th and 10th codes, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), and National Drug Codes were used to identify BC diagnosis and enterococcus infection. Patients were matched for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), antibiotic treatment, and region of residence. Chi-squared, logistic regression, and odds ratio were implemented to assess the significance and estimate relative risk. Results: 671 out of 28,518 (2.35%) patients with a prior enterococcus infection and 1,459 out of 28,518 (5.12%) patients without enterococcus infection subsequently developed BC, and the difference was statistically significant (p<2.2x10⁻¹⁶). Logistic regression also indicated enterococcus infection was associated with a decreased incidence of BC (RR=0.60, 95% CI [0.57, 0.63]). Treatment for enterococcus infection was analyzed and controlled for in both enterococcus infected and noninfected populations. 398 out of 11,523 (3.34%) patients with a prior enterococcus infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 624 out of 11,523 (5.41%) patients with no history of enterococcus infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed BC. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-16) with a relative risk of 0.57 (95% CI [0.54, 0.60]). Conclusion & Discussion: This study shows a statistically significant correlation between enterococcus infection and a decrease incidence of breast cancer. Further exploration is needed to identify and understand not only the role of enterococcus in the microbiome but also the protective mechanism(s) and impact enterococcus infection may have on breast cancer development. Ultimately, further research is needed in order to understand the complex and intricate relationship between the microbiome, immunology, bacterial infections, and carcinogenesis.

Keywords: breast cancer, enterococcus, immunology, infection, microbiome

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8 The Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Previous Infected E. Coli Population

Authors: Andreea Molnar, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Marissa Dallara, Brittany Nagel, Omar Rashid

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Background: Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae and resides in the intestinal tracts of individuals. E.Coli has numerous strains grouped into serogroups and serotypes based on differences in antigens in their cell walls (somatic, or “O” antigens) and flagella (“H” antigens). More than 700 serotypes of E. coli have been identified. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, a few strains, such as E. coli O157:H7 which produces Shiga toxin, can cause intestinal infection with symptoms of severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. Infection with E. Coli can lead to the development of systemic inflammation as the toxin exerts its effects. Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to cancer development in several organs, including the prostate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between E. Coli and the incidence of prostate cancer. Methods: Data collected in this cohort study was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to evaluate patients infected with E.Coli infection and prostate cancer using the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes). Permission to use the database was granted by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the purpose of academic research. Data analysis was conducted through the use of standard statistical methods. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 81, 037 patients after matching in both infected and control groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by Age Range and CCI score. The incidence of prostate cancer was 2.07% and 1,680 patients in the E. Coli group compared to 5.19% and 4,206 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant by a p-value p<2.2x10-16 with an Odds Ratio of 0.53 and a 95% CI. Based on the specific treatment for E.Coli, the infected group vs control group were matched again with a result of 31,696 patients in each group. 827 out of 31,696 (2.60%) patients with a prior E.coli infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 1634 out of 31,696 (5.15%) patients with no history of E.coli infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed prostate carcinoma. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-16), Odds Ratio=0.55 (95% CI 0.51-0.59). Conclusion: This retrospective study shows a statistically significant correlation between E.Coli infection and a decreased incidence of prostate cancer. Further evaluation is needed in order to identify the impact of E.Coli infection and prostate cancer development.

Keywords: E. Coli, prostate cancer, protective, microbiology

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7 Exploring the Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and the Incidence of Bronchogenic Carcinoma

Authors: Jose R. Garcia, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Sergio Medina, Ali Yasback, Omar Rashid

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Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that affects nearly half of the population worldwide and humans serve as the principal reservoir. Infection rates usually follow an inverse relationship with hygiene practices and are higher in developing countries than developed countries. Incidence varies significantly by geographic area, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. H. pylori is primarily associated with conditions of the gastrointestinal tract such as atrophic gastritis and duodenal peptic ulcers. Infection is also associated with an increased risk of carcinogenesis as there is evidence to show that H. pylori infection may lead to gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. It is suggested that H. pylori infection may be considered as a systemic condition, leading to various novel associations with several different neoplasms such as colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer, although further research is needed. Emerging evidence suggests that H. pylori infection may offer protective effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a result of non-specific induction of interferon- γ (IFN- γ). Similar methods of enhanced immunity may affect the development of bronchogenic carcinoma due to the antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and cytostatic functions of IFN- γ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma. Methods: The data was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to evaluate the patients infected versus patients not infected with H. pylori using ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes. Access to the database was granted by the Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the purpose of academic research. Standard statistical methods were used. Results:-Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 163,224 in both the infected and control group, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma was 1.853% with 3,024 patients in the H. pylori group compared to 4.785% with 7,810 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 2.22x10-16) with an odds ratio of 0.367 (0.353 - 0.383) with a confidence interval of 95%. The two groups were matched by treatment and incidence of cancer, which resulted in a total of 101,739 patients analyzed after this match. The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma was 1.929% with 1,962 patients in the H. pylori and treatment group compared to 4.618% with 4,698 patients in the control group with treatment. The difference was statistically significant (p < 2.22x10-16) with an odds ratio of 0.403 (0.383 - 0.425) with a confidence interval of 95%.

Keywords: bronchogenic carcinoma, helicobacter pylori, lung cancer, pathogen-associated molecular patterns

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6 A Retrospective Study: Correlation between Enterococcus Infections and Bone Carcinoma Incidence

Authors: Sonia A. Stoica, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Selena Rashid, Ali Yasback, Omar Rashid

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Introduction Enterococcus is a vast genus of lactic acid bacteria, gram-positivecocci species. They are common commensal organisms in the intestines of humans: E. faecalis (90–95%) and E. faecium (5–10%). Rare groups of infections can occur with other species, including E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, and E. raffinosus. The most common infections caused by Enterococcus include urinary tract infections, biliary tract infections, subacute endocarditis, diverticulitis, meningitis, septicemia, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The treatment for sensitive strains of these bacteria includes ampicillin, penicillin, cephalosporins, or vancomycin, while the treatment for resistant strains includes daptomycin, linezolid, tygecycline, or streptogramine. Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 is an encouraging nominee for being considered as a probiotic strain. E. faecalis CECT7121 enhances and skews the profile of cytokines to the Th1 phenotype in situations such as vaccination, anti-tumoral immunity, and allergic reactions. It also enhances the secretion of high levels of IL-12, IL-6, TNF alpha, and IL-10. Cytokines have been previously associated with the development of cancer. The intention of this study was to therefore evaluate the correlation between Enterococcus infections and incidence of bone carcinoma. Methods A retrospective cohort study (2010-2019) was conducted through a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database and conducted using International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th and 10th codes for bone carcinoma diagnosis in a previously Enterococcus infected population. Patients were matched for age range and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Access to the database was granted by Holy Cross Health for academic research. Chi-squared test was used to assess statistical significance. Results A total number of 17,056 patients was obtained in Enterococcus infected group as well as in the control population (matched by Age range and CCI score). Subsequent bone carcinoma development was seen at a rate of 1.07% (184) in the Enterococcal infectious group and 3.42% (584) in the control group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant by p= 2.2x10-¹⁶, Odds Ratio = 0.355 (95% CI 0.311 - 0.404) Treatment for enterococcus infection was analyzed and controlled for in both enterococcus infected and noninfected populations. 78 out of 6,624 (1.17%) patients with a prior enterococcus infection and treated with antibiotics were compared to 202 out of 6,624 (3.04%) patients with no history of enterococcus infection (control) and received antibiotic treatment. Both populations subsequently developed bone carcinoma. Results remained statistically significant (p<2.2x10-), Odds Ratio=0.456 (95% CI 0.396-0.525). Conclusion This study shows a statistically significant correlation between Enterococcus infection and a decreased incidence of bone carcinoma. The immunologic response of the organism to Enterococcus infection may exert a protecting mechanism from developing bone carcinoma. Further exploration is needed to identify the potential mechanism of Enterococcus in reducing bone carcinoma incidence.

Keywords: anti-tumoral immunity, bone carcinoma, enterococcus, immunologic response

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5 Investigating the Association between Escherichia Coli Infection and Breast Cancer Incidence: A Retrospective Analysis and Literature Review

Authors: Nadia Obaed, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Denis Nigel, Anniki Witter, Omar Rashid

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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, with a lifetime risk of one in eight of all women in the United States. Although breast cancer is prevalent throughout the world, the uneven distribution in incidence and mortality rates is shaped by the variation in population structure, environment, genetics and known lifestyle risk factors. Furthermore, the bacterial profile in healthy and cancerous breast tissue differs with a higher relative abundance of bacteria capable of causing DNA damage in breast cancer patients. Previous bacterial infections may change the composition of the microbiome and partially account for the environmental factors promoting breast cancer. One study found that higher amounts of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Enterobacteriaceae, of which Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a part, were present in breast tumor tissue. Based on E. coli’s ability to damage DNA, it is hypothesized that there is an increased risk of breast cancer associated with previous E. coli infection. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between E. coli infection and the incidence of breast cancer. Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, provided access to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability (HIPAA) compliant national database for the purpose of academic research. International Classification of Disease 9th and 10th Codes (ICD-9, ICD-10) was then used to conduct a retrospective analysis using data from January 2010 to December 2019. All breast cancer diagnoses and all patients infected versus not infected with E. coli that underwent typical E. coli treatment were investigated. The obtained data were matched for age, Charlson Comorbidity Score (CCI score), and antibiotic treatment. Standard statistical methods were applied to determine statistical significance and an odds ratio was used to estimate the relative risk. A total of 81286 patients were identified and analyzed from the initial query and then reduced to 31894 antibiotic-specific treated patients in both the infected and control group, respectively. The incidence of breast cancer was 2.51% and present in 2043 patients in the E. coli group compared to 5.996% and present in 4874 patients in the control group. The incidence of breast cancer was 3.84% and present in 1223 patients in the treated E. coli group compared to 6.38% and present in 2034 patients in the treated control group. The decreased incidence of breast cancer in the E. coli and treated E. coli groups was statistically significant with a p-value of 2.2x10-16 and 2.264x10-16, respectively. The odds ratio in the E. coli and treated E. coli groups was 0.784 and 0.787 with a 95% confidence interval, respectively (0.756-0.813; 0.743-0.833). The current study shows a statistically significant decrease in breast cancer incidence in association with previous Escherichia coli infection. Researching the relationship between single bacterial species is important as only up to 10% of breast cancer risk is attributable to genetics, while the contribution of environmental factors including previous infections potentially accounts for a majority of the preventable risk. Further evaluation is recommended to assess the potential and mechanism of E. coli in decreasing the risk of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, escherichia coli, incidence, infection, microbiome, risk

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4 Test of Capital Account Monetary Model of Floating Exchange Rate Determination: Further Evidence from Selected African Countries

Authors: Oloyede John Adebayo

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This paper tested a variant of the monetary model of exchange rate determination, called Frankel’s Capital Account Monetary Model (CAAM) based on Real Interest Rate Differential, on the floating exchange rate experiences of three developing countries of Africa; viz: Ghana, Nigeria and the Gambia. The study adopted the Auto regressive Instrumental Package (AIV) and Almon Polynomial Lag Procedure of regression analysis based on the assumption that the coefficients follow a third-order Polynomial with zero-end constraint. The results found some support for the CAAM hypothesis that exchange rate responds proportionately to changes in money supply, inversely to income and positively to interest rates and expected inflation differentials. On this basis, the study points the attention of monetary authorities and researchers to the relevance and usefulness of CAAM as appropriate tool and useful benchmark for analyzing the exchange rate behaviour of most developing countries.

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary model, interest differentials, capital account

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3 Potential Drug-Drug Interactions at a Referral Hematology-Oncology Ward in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Shirinsadat Badri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Iman Karimzadeh, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

Abstract:

Purpose: To assess the pattern and probable risk factors for moderate and major drug–drug interactions in a referral hematology-oncology ward in Iran. Methods: All patients admitted to hematology–oncology ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital during a 6-month period and received at least two anti-cancer or non-anti-cancer medications simultaneously were included. All being scheduled anti-cancer and non-anti-cancer medications both prescribed and administered during ward stay were considered for drug–drug interaction screening by Lexi-Interact On- Desktop software. Results: One hundred and eighty-five drug–drug interactions with moderate or major severity were detected from 83 patients. Most of drug–drug interactions (69.73 %) were classified as pharmacokinetics. Fluconazole (25.95 %) was the most commonly offending medication in drug–drug interactions. Interaction of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with fluconazole was the most common drug–drug interaction (27.27 %). Vincristine with imatinib was the only identified interaction between two anti-cancer agents. The number of administered medications during ward stay was considered as an independent risk factor for developing a drug–drug interaction. Conclusions: Potential moderate or major drug–drug interactions occur frequently in patients with hematological malignancies or related diseases. Performing larger standard studies are required to assess the real clinical and economical effects of drug–drug interactions on patients with hematological and non-hematological malignancies.

Keywords: drug–drug interactions, hematology–oncology ward, hematological malignancies

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2 The Use of Corpora in Improving Modal Verb Treatment in English as Foreign Language Textbooks

Authors: Lexi Li, Vanessa H. K. Pang

Abstract:

This study aims to demonstrate how native and learner corpora can be used to enhance modal verb treatment in EFL textbooks in mainland China. It contributes to a corpus-informed and learner-centered design of grammar presentation in EFL textbooks that enhances the authenticity and appropriateness of textbook language for target learners. The linguistic focus is will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must. The native corpus is the spoken component of BNC2014 (hereafter BNCS2014). The spoken part is chosen because pedagogical purpose of the textbooks is communication-oriented. Using the standard query option of CQPweb, 5% of each of the nine modals was sampled from BNCS2014. The learner corpus is the POS-tagged Ten-thousand English Compositions of Chinese Learners (TECCL). All the essays under the 'secondary school' section were selected. A series of five secondary coursebooks comprise the textbook corpus. All the data in both the learner and the textbook corpora are retrieved through the concordance functions of WordSmith Tools (version, 5.0). Data analysis was divided into two parts. The first part compared the patterns of modal verbs in the textbook corpus and BNC2014 with respect to distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions to examine whether the textbooks reflect the authentic use of English. Secondly, the learner corpus was analyzed in terms of the use (distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions) and the misuse (syntactic errors, e.g., she can sings*.) of the nine modal verbs to uncover potential difficulties that confront learners. The analysis of distribution indicates several discrepancies between the textbook corpus and BNCS2014. The first four most frequent modal verbs in BNCS2014 are can, would, will, could, while can, will, should, could are the top four in the textbooks. Most strikingly, there is an unusually high proportion of can (41.1%) in the textbooks. The results on different meanings shows that will, would and must are the most problematic. For example, for will, the textbooks contain 20% more occurrences of 'volition' and 20% less of 'prediction' than those in BNCS2014. Regarding co-occurring structures, the textbooks over-represented the structure 'modal +do' across the nine modal verbs. Another major finding is that the structure of 'modal +have done' that frequently co-occur with could, would, should, and must is underused in textbooks. Besides, these four modal verbs are the most difficult for learners, as the error analysis shows. This study demonstrates how the synergy of native and learner corpora can be harnessed to improve EFL textbook presentation of modal verbs in a way that textbooks can provide not only authentic language used in natural discourse but also appropriate design tailed for the needs of target learners.

Keywords: English as Foreign Language, EFL textbooks, learner corpus, modal verbs, native corpus

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1 The Value of Computerized Corpora in EFL Textbook Design: The Case of Modal Verbs

Authors: Lexi Li

Abstract:

This study aims to contribute to the field of how computer technology can be exploited to enhance EFL textbook design. Specifically, the study demonstrates how computerized native and learner corpora can be used to enhance modal verb treatment in EFL textbooks. The linguistic focus is will, would, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must. The native corpus is the spoken component of BNC2014 (hereafter BNCS2014). The spoken part is chosen because the pedagogical purpose of the textbooks is communication-oriented. Using the standard query option of CQPweb, 5% of each of the nine modals was sampled from BNCS2014. The learner corpus is the POS-tagged Ten-thousand English Compositions of Chinese Learners (TECCL). All the essays under the “secondary school” section were selected. A series of five secondary coursebooks comprise the textbook corpus. All the data in both the learner and the textbook corpora are retrieved through the concordance functions of WordSmith Tools (version, 5.0). Data analysis was divided into two parts. The first part compared the patterns of modal verbs in the textbook corpus and BNC2014 with respect to distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions to examine whether the textbooks reflect the authentic use of English. Secondly, the learner corpus was compared with the textbook corpus in terms of the use (distributional features, semantic functions, and co-occurring constructions) in order to examine the degree of influence of the textbook on learners’ use of modal verbs. Moreover, the learner corpus was analyzed for the misuse (syntactic errors, e.g., she can sings*.) of the nine modal verbs to uncover potential difficulties that confront learners. The results indicate discrepancies between the textbook presentation of modal verbs and authentic modal use in natural discourse in terms of distributions of frequencies, semantic functions, and co-occurring structures. Furthermore, there are consistent patterns of use between the learner corpus and the textbook corpus with respect to the three above-mentioned aspects, except could, will and must, partially confirming the correlation between the frequency effects and L2 grammar acquisition. Further analysis reveals that the exceptions are caused by both positive and negative L1 transfer, indicating that the frequency effects can be intercepted by L1 interference. Besides, error analysis revealed that could, would, should and must are the most difficult for Chinese learners due to both inter-linguistic and intra-linguistic interference. The discrepancies between the textbook corpus and the native corpus point to a need to adjust the presentation of modal verbs in the textbooks in terms of frequencies, different meanings, and verb-phrase structures. Along with the adjustment of modal verb treatment based on authentic use, it is important for textbook writers to take into consideration the L1 interference as well as learners’ difficulties in their use of modal verbs. The present study is a methodological showcase of the combination both native and learner corpora in the enhancement of EFL textbook language authenticity and appropriateness for learners.

Keywords: EFL textbooks, learner corpus, modal verbs, native corpus

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