Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Türkân Sakinc

13 Identification and Characterization of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Protein (CAPD) of Enterococcus faecium

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Hubert E. Blum, Türkân Sakinc


Enterococcus faecium is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen increased dramatically worldwide and causing bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract and surgical site infections in immunocomprised patients. The capsular polysaccharides that contribute to pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system are also involved in hindering leukocyte killing of enterococci. The gene cluster (enterococcal polysaccharide antigen) of E. faecalis encoding homologues of many genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. We identified two putative loci with 22 kb and 19 kb which contained 11 genes encoding for glycosyltransferases (GTFs); this was confirmed by using genome comparison of already sequenced strains that has no homology to known capsule genes and the epa-locus. The polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines have rapidly emerged as a suitable strategy to combat different pathogenic bacteria, therefore, we investigated a polysaccharide biosynthesis CapD protein in E. faecium contains 336 amino acids and had putative function for N-linked glycosylation. The deletion/knock-out capD mutant was constructed and complemented by homologues recombination method and confirmed by using PCR and sequencing. For further characterization and functional analysis, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Our ΔcapD mutant shows a strong hydrophobicity and all strains exhibited biofilm production. Subsequently, the opsonic activity was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay which shows increased in mutant compared complemented and wild type strains but more than two fold decreased in colonization and adherence was seen on surface of uroepithelial cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonialization was observed in capD mutant during animal bacteremia infection. Unlike other polysaccharides biosynthesis proteins, CapD does not seems to be a major virulence factor in enterococci but further experiments and attention is needed to clarify its function, exact mechanism and involvement in pathogenesis of enteroccocal nosocomial infections eventually to develop a vaccine/ or targeted therapy.

Keywords: E. faecium, pathogenesis, polysaccharides, biofilm formation

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12 Quantile Smoothing Splines: Application on Productivity of Enterprises

Authors: Semra Turkan


In this paper, we have examined the factors that affect the productivity of Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises in 2014. The labor productivity of enterprises is taken as an indicator of productivity of industrial enterprises. When the relationships between some financial ratios and labor productivity, it is seen that there is a nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales. In addition, the distribution of labor productivity of enterprises is right-skewed. If the dependent distribution is skewed, the quantile regression is more suitable for this data. Hence, the nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales by quantile smoothing splines.

Keywords: quantile regression, smoothing spline, labor productivity, financial ratios

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11 Detection Efficient Enterprises via Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: S. Turkan


In this paper, the Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises data in 2014 were analyzed by data envelopment analysis. Data envelopment analysis is used to detect efficient decision-making units such as universities, hospitals, schools etc. by using inputs and outputs. The decision-making units in this study are enterprises. To detect efficient enterprises, some financial ratios are determined as inputs and outputs. For this reason, financial indicators related to productivity of enterprises are considered. The efficient foreign weighted owned capital enterprises are detected via super efficiency model. According to the results, it is said that Mercedes-Benz is the most efficient foreign weighted owned capital enterprise in Turkey.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, super efficiency, logistic regression, financial ratios

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10 Problems Encountered during the Education Process in Hakkari

Authors: Mukadder Baran, Medine Baran Türkan, Gülbeyaz Baran Durmaz


The objective of this work is to collect and evaluate the thoughts about Hakkari's education system of the highschool pupils of the city of Hakkari. To this end, semi-directed questionnaire forms were used. The samples of this work are made up of 24 pupils studying at four different highschools. In order to analyze the data collected, the content analysis method was used. According to the results of this work, the following factors bear an influence on the conditions of education in Hakkari: political environment, feudal resources, family, teacher, geographic conditions, social environment, transportation, difficulties related to economic resources or the access to information. Proceeding from these results, we believe that the bettermen of the conditions of education in Hakkari will improve the pupils' level of achievement. In turn, the rise in educational levels will lay the ground for a more effective participation in democratic processes. In this manner, the rise in educational level will result in a progress in society and ensure the more active participation of individuals in the socio-economic process.

Keywords: economic resources, education, political environment, poverty

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9 Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Determination of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Criteria

Authors: Ibrahim Cil, Onur Kurtcu, H. Ibrahim Demir, Furkan Yener, Yusuf. S. Turkan, Muharrem Unver, Ramazan Evren


Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is decision-making way at the end of integrating the current AHP method with fuzzy structure. In this study, the processes of production planning, inventory management and purchasing department of a system were analysed and were requested to decide the performance criteria of each area. At this point, the current work processes were analysed by various decision-makers and comparing each criteria by giving points according to 1-9 scale were completed. The criteria were listed in order to their weights by using Fuzzy AHP approach and top three performance criteria of each department were determined. After that, the performance criteria of supply chain consisting of three departments were asked to determine. The processes of each department were compared by decision-makers at the point of building the supply chain performance system and getting the performance criteria. According to the results, the criteria of performance system of supply chain by using Fuzzy AHP were determined for which will be used in the supply chain performance system in the future.

Keywords: AHP, fuzzy, performance evaluation, supply chain

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8 Art, Space and Nature in Design: Analysing the Perception of Landscape Architecture Students

Authors: M. Danial Ismail, Turkan Sultan Yasar Ismail, Mehmet Cetin


Eco-design issues are seldom addressed as a major importance in most projects in Turkey. Cities undergo a rapid urban expansion with less awareness and focus on green spaces. The aim of this paper is firstly to analyse the graduating landscape architecture students of Kastamonu University’s perception on the new course content that discusses the relationship of art, space and nature in the context of landscape architectural design using the perception analysis methodology. Secondly, this paper also addresses how these elements synthesize together in an artistic perception in concept and form. In this study, a new coursework subject was introduced as a part of the curriculum for the 4th year students of the undergraduate program and project proposals dealing with the concept of art, space and nature were discussed and graded. Simulations of contemporary art installations in gallery spaces are built upon the concept of critical awareness to ecological problems. These concepts and simulations are important as they will influence future developments and projects. This paper will give an insight to scholars and professionals regarding new concepts of multidisciplinary education strategies and its positive effects on critical and creative design thinking within the scope of ecological design.

Keywords: art, ecological design, landscape architecture curriculum, space and nature

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7 Investigation of Kinesiophobia in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Ismail Okur, Betul Taspinar, Turkan Pasali Kilit, Eda O. Okur, Ferruh Taspinar


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most important global health emergencies and every year more and more people are affected by T2DM. T2DM causes life-changing complications by affecting organ and systems. Although diet and exercise are the best way to treat patients with T2DM, those patients generally have a sedentary life style. This study was planned to determine whether patients with T2DM have kinesiophobia (fear of movement). A controlled trial was conducted on 87 adults. Forty-one individuals with T2DM (study group, 34 female and 7 male) and 46 nondiabetic individuals (control group, 39 female and 7 male) were included in the study. Patients were screened for fear of movement using the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK). The data including age, sex, weight, height, and TSK scores were obtained. Mann Whitney U test were used to analyse the data. The mean ages and BMI of study and control groups were 51.98 ± 6.03 year and 49.52 ± 5.61 year and 31.82 ± 2.88 kg/m2 and 30.22 ± 2.91 kg/m2, respectively. The groups have similar demographic properties. The kinesiophobia scores of study and control groups were 42.78 ± 5.50 and 39.48 ± 5.05, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.05). This study showed that patients with T2DM had high kinesiophobia scores rather than nondiabetics. Those patients might avoid to do exercise. In other words, patients with T2DM might have lower physical activity level. Therefore the authors suggest that to evaluate and interfere with kinesiophobia before conducting exercise therapy will be useful for diabetes care.

Keywords: diabetes, fear of movement, kinesiophobia, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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6 Restoration Process of Kastamonu - Tufekciler Village Houses for Potential Eco-Tourism Purposes

Authors: Turkan Sultan Yasar Ismail, Mehmet Cetin, M. Danial Ismail, Hakan Sevik


Nowadays, there is a need for the real world to be translated to the virtual environment by three-dimensional visualisation for restoration and promotional modelling of historic sites in protected areas. Visualisation models have also become the very important basis for the creation of three-dimensional Geographic Information System. The protection of historical and cultural heritage and documenting in Turkey as well as all over the world is an important issue. This heritage is a bridge between the past and the future of humanity. Many historical and cultural heritages suffer neglect and for reasons arising from natural causes. This is to determine the current status of the work and documenting information from the selected buildings. This process is important for their conservation and renovation work that might be done in the future. Kastamonu city is one of the historical cities in Turkey with a number of heritage buildings. However, Tufekciler Village is not visited and famous even though it includes several historical buildings and peaceful landscape. Digital terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most important methods used in the documentation of cultural and historical heritage. Firstly, measurements were made primarily around creating polygon mesh and 3D model drawings of the structures to be modelled on images with the move to digital media such as picture size and by subsequent visualisation process. Secondly, a restoration project is offered to the village with the concept of eco-tourism with all scales such as, interior space to landscape design.

Keywords: eco-tourism, restoration, sustainability, cultural village

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5 An Investigation on Physics Teachers’ Views Towards Context Based Learning Approach

Authors: Medine Baran, Abdulkadir Maskan, Mehmet Ikbal Yetişir, Mukadder Baran, Azmi Türkan, Şeyma Yaşar


The purpose of this study was to determine the views of physics teachers from several secondary schools in Turkey towards context-based learning approach. In the study, the context-based learning opinion questionnaire developed by the researchers for use as the data collection tool was piloted with 250 physics teachers. The questionnaire examined by the researchers and field experts was initially made up of 53 items. Following the evaluation process of the questionnaire, it included 37 items. In this way, the reliability and validity process of the measurement tool was completed. In the end, the finalized questionnaire was applied to 144 physics teachers from several secondary schools in different cities in Turkey (F:73, M:71). In the study, the participants were determined based on ease of reaching them. The results revealed no remarkable difference between the views of the physics teachers with respect to their gender, region and school. However, when the items in the questionnaire were considered, it was found that the participants interestingly agreed on some of the choices in the items. Depending on this, it was found that there were high levels of differences between the frequencies of those who agreed and those who disagreed with the 16 items in the questionnaire. Therefore, as the following phase of the present study, further research has been planned using the same questions. Based on these questions, which received opposite responses, physics teachers will be asked for their views about the results of the study using the interview technique, one of qualitative research techniques. In this way, the results will be evaluated both by the researchers and by the participants, and the problems and difficulties will be determined. As a result, related suggestions can be put forward.

Keywords: context bases learning, physics teachers, views

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4 Examining the Skills of Establishing Number and Space Relations of Science Students with the 'Integrative Perception Test'

Authors: Ni̇sa Yeni̇kalayci, Türkan Aybi̇ke Akarca


The ability of correlation the number and space relations, one of the basic scientific process skills, is being used in the transformation of a two-dimensional object into a three-dimensional image or in the expression of symmetry axes of the object. With this research, it is aimed to determine the ability of science students to establish number and space relations. The research was carried out with a total of 90 students studying in the first semester of the Science Education program of a state university located in the Turkey’s Black Sea Region in the fall semester of 2017-2018 academic year. An ‘Integrative Perception Test (IPT)’ was designed by the researchers to collect the data. Within the scope of IPT, the courses and workbooks specific to the field of science were scanned and the ones without symmetrical structure from the visual items belonging to the ‘Physics - Chemistry – Biology’ sub-fields were selected and listed. During the application, it was expected that students would imagine and draw images of the missing half of the visual items that were given incomplete in the first place. The data obtained from the test in which there are 30 images or pictures in total (f Physics = 10, f Chemistry = 10, f Biology = 10) were analyzed descriptively based on the drawings created by the students as ‘complete (2 points), incomplete/wrong (1 point), empty (0 point)’. For the teaching of new concepts in small aged groups, images or pictures showing symmetrical structures and similar applications can also be used.

Keywords: integrative perception, number and space relations, science education, scientific process skills

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3 Elucidation of Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of an Endemic Halophyte Centaurea Tuzgoluensis under Salt Stress

Authors: Mustafa Kucukoduk, Evren Yildiztugay, A. Hediye Sekmen, Ismail Turkan, Yavuz Bagci


In this study, physiological and biochemical responses of Centaurea tuzgoluensis, a Turkish endemic halophyte, to salinity were studied. Therefore, the changes in shoot growth, leaf relative water content (RWC), ion concentrations, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl (OH.) radical scavenging activity, proline (Pro) content, and antioxidant system [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR)] were investigated. The 60 days (d) old C. tuzgoluensis seedlings were subjected to 0, 150 and 300 mM NaCl for 7 d and 14 d. The relative shoot growth was generally did not change in the 150 mM NaCl, but reduced with 300 mM NaCl stress at 7 d and 14 d. RWC was higher in 150 mM NaCl-treated leaves than that of 300 mM NaCl. Salinity decreased K+/Na+ ratio, but increased Na+, Cl, Ca+2 and Na+/Cl ratio in the leaves. On the other hand, it did not change or increase the K+ content at 150 and 300 mM NaCl, respectively. MDA content in the 150 and 300 mM NaCl-treated leaves remained close to control at 7 d. This was related to enhanced activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GR enzymes, and their isoenzymes especially Fe-SOD in the leaves. On the other hand, the higher sensitivity to 300 mM NaCl at 14 d was associated with inadequate increase in antioxidant enzymes and the decreased OH radical scavenging activity. All these results suggest that C. tuzgoluensis has different antioxidant metabolisms between short- (7 d) and long-term (14 d) salt treatments and salinity tolerance of C. tuzgoluensis might be closely related to increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulation of osmoprotectant proline under salinity conditions.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, proline, Centaurea tuzgoluensis

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2 Decoration in Anatolian Seljuk Minarets

Authors: Turkan Harmanbasi, Zeliha Busra Eryigit


The Anatolian Seljuk State was established in Anatolia by the Seljuks and continued its existence between the 11th and 14th centuries. Iznik was the first capital of Anatolian Seljuks. With the conquest of Konya in 1086, this place was declared as the capital. The Anatolian Seljuk State, with its numerous cultural elements, has produced valuable and permanent works for more than two centuries. Most of the important and monumental works were built in Konya. Anatolian Seljuk Art that makes unique; the technique in his works is the difference in material and style. It has gained an important place in Islamic architecture with this feature. In this period, rich embellishment programs emerged with the use of geometrical ornaments, floral motifs and calligraphy belts. In the Anatolian Seljuks, decoration was mainly applied with façade, crown gates, doors, windows, mihrab, mimbar, cover, transition elements and minarets; built with stone, brick and wooden materials. The minarets are located adjacent to the mosques or outside, as a high place that can be reached by stairs, which is made to invite people to worship and to announce this to people. They are architectural elements that have always been important in Islamic architecture with their compositions, construction techniques and ornaments. In different countries where Islam has spread, it has gained different appearances with the influence of local traditions. In the Seljuk art, minarets have become indispensable architectural elements of mosques and masjids. Stone and brick are generally used as a material in the minarets, and in some examples it can be seen that the tile was accompanied by the material. Ornamental motifs are formed by bringing these materials side by side vertically or horizontally. The scope of this study, the decoration details of the minarets built during the Anatolian Seljuk period will be examined. As a study area, samples from various Anatolian cities, especially Konya, were selected. Aim of studying the decoration of the Anatolian Seljuk minaret can shed some light on one of the most important aspects of the Islamic architecture in Anatolia and the development of the minaret in the Islamic World.

Keywords: Anatolian Seljuk, decoration, Islamic architecture, minaret, ornament

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1 The Effect of Empathy Training Given to Midwives on Mothers’ Satisfaction with Midwives and Their Birth Perception

Authors: Songul Aktas, Turkan Pasinlioglu, Kiymet Yesilcicek Calik


Introduction: Emphatic approach during labor increases both quality of care and birth satisfaction of mothers. Besides; maternal satisfaction statements and expressions about midwives who assist labor contribute to a positive birth perception and wish to give vaginal delivery again. Aim: The study aimed at investigating the effect of empathy training given to midwives on mothers’ satisfaction with midwives and their birth perception. Material/Method: This experimental study was undertaken between February 2013 and January 2014 at a public hospital in Trabzon Province. The population of the study was composed of mothers who gave vaginal delivery and the sample was composed of 222 mothers determined with power analyzes. Ethical approval and written informed consents were obtained. Mothers who were assisted by midwives during 1st, 2nd and 3rd phases of delivery and first two postpartum hours were included. Empathy training given to midwives included didactic narration, creative drama, psychodrama techniques and lasted 32 hours. The data were collected before the empathy training (BET), right after empathy training (RAET) and 8 weeks later after birth (8WLAB). Mothers were homogenous in terms of socio-demographic, obstetric characteristics. Data were collected with a questionnaire and were analyzed with Chi-square tests. Findings: Rate of mother’s satisfaction with midwives was 36.5% in BET, 81.1% in RAET and 75.7% in 8WLAB. Key mother’s satisfaction with midwives were as follows: 27.6% of mothers told that midwives were “smiling-kind” in BET, 39.6% of them in RAET and 33.7% of them in 8WLAB; 31% of mothers told that midwives were “understanding” in BET, 38.2% of them in RAET and 33.7% of them in 8WLAB; 15.7% of mothers told that midwives were “reassuring” in BET, 44.9% of them in RAET and 39.3% of them in 8WLAB;19.5% of mothers told that midwives were “encouraging and motivating” in BET, 39.8% of them in RAET and 19.8% of mothers told that midwives were “informative” in BET, 45.6% of them in RAET and 35.1% of them in 8WLAB (p<0.05). Key mother’s dissatisfaction with midwives were as follows: 55.3% of mothers told that midwives were “poorly-informed” in BET, 17% of them in RAET and 27.7% of them in 8WLAB; 56.9% of mothers told that midwives were “poorly-listening” in BET, 17.6% of them in RAET and 25.5% of them in 8WLAB; 53.2% of mothers told that midwives were “judgmental-embarrassing” in BET, 17% of them in RAET and 29.8% of them in 8WLAB; 56.2% of mothers told that midwives had “fierce facial expressions” in BET, 15.6% of them in RAET and 28.1% of them in 8WLAB. Rates of mothers’ perception that labor was “easy” were 8.1% in BET, 21.6% in RAET and 13.5% in 8WLAB and rates of mothers’ perception that labor was “very difficult and tiring” were 41.9% in BET, 5.4% in RAET and 13.5% in 8WLAB (p<0.05). Conclusion: The effect of empathy training given to midwives upon statements that described mothers’ satisfaction with midwives and their birth perception was positive. Note: This study was financially funded by TUBİTAK project with number 113S672.

Keywords: empathy training, labor perception, mother’s satisfaction with midwife, vaginal delivery

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