Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: periodontitis

18 Inflammatory Markers in the Blood and Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Nevila Alliu, Tea Meta


Background: Plasma levels of inflammatory markers are the expression of the infectious wastes of existing periodontitis, as well as of existing inflammation everywhere in the body. Materials and Methods: The study consists of the clinical part of the measurement of inflammatory markers of 23 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and the recording of parental periodontal parameters of patient periodontal status: hemorrhage index and probe values, before and 7-10 days after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Results: The level of fibrinogen drops according to the categorization of disease progression, active and passive, with the biggest % (18%-30%) at the fluctuation 10-20 mg/d. Fluctuations in fibrinogen level according to the age of patients in the range 0-10 mg/dL under 40 years and over 40 years was 13%-26%, in the range 10-20 mg/dL was 26%-22%, in the 20-40 mg/dL was 9%-4%. Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal treatment significantly reduces the level of non-inflammatory markers in the blood. Oral health significantly reduces the potential source for periodontal bacteria, with the potential of promoting thromboembolism, through interaction between thrombocytes.

Keywords: chronic periodontitis, atherosclerosis, risk factor, inflammatory markers

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17 Effect of Scaling and Root Planing on Improvement of Glycemic Control in Periodontitis Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Shivalal Sharma, Sanjib K. Sharma, Madhab Lamsal


Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory changes three months after full-mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) in periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Forty-seven type 2 DM subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (TG), 25 subjects, received full-mouth scaling and root planning; control group (CG), 22 subjects, received no treatment. At baseline and at the end of three months, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values, fasting glucose, and clinical parameters like plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded in all the patients. Following SRP, the patients were enrolled in a monthly interval maintenance program for 3 months. Results: A statistically significant effect could be demonstrated for PI, GI, PPD, and CAL for the treatment group. HbA1c levels in the treatment group decreased significantly whereas the control group showed a slight but insignificant increase for these parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP) is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 DM patients and could be undertaken along with the standard measures for the diabetic patient care.

Keywords: periodontitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-surgical periodontal therapy, SRP

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16 Probiotic Antibacterial Test of Pediococcus pentosaceus Isolated from Dadih in Inhibiting Periodontitis Bacteria: In Vitro Study on Bacteria Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

Authors: Nurlaili Syafar Wulan, Almurdi, Suprianto Kosno


Introduction: Periodontitis defined as an inflammatory disease of teeth supporting tissue with irritation of specific pathogens as the main aetiology. Periodontitis can be cured by giving medical action accompanied by administration of an antibiotic, but the use of antibiotic has a side effect that can cause bacterial resistance. This side effect can be corrected by probiotic, which has antibiotic-like substance but do not have bacterial resistance effect; it makes probiotic became a promising future periodontitis medication. West Sumatran people has their own typical traditional food product made from fermented buffalo’s milk called dadih, and it contained probiotics. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the ability of probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from dadih in inhibiting the growth of bacteria Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Method: This was a true experimental study with post-test and control group design. This study was conducted on 36 samples of 2 treatment groups, the test group with probiotic Pediococcus pentosacesus isolated from dadih and the negative control group with sterile aquadest. The antibacterial effect was tested using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and calculated by measuring the zone of inhibition on MHA around paper disk using a sliding caliper with 0.5 mm accuracy. Result: The result of bivariate analysis using Independent t-test was p=0.00 where p < 0.05 means that there is a significant difference between the tested group and negative control group. Conclusion: Probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from dadih are able to inhibit the growth of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

Keywords: aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, antibacterial activities, periodontitis, probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus

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15 Analysis of Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 Protein Value as an Indicator of Neutrophil Chemotaxis Dysfunction in Aggressive Periodontitis

Authors: Prajna Metta, Yanti Rusyanti, Nunung Rusminah, Bremmy Laksono


The decrease of neutrophil chemotaxis function may cause increased susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis (AP). Neutrophil chemotaxis is affected by formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), which when activated will respond to bacterial chemotactic peptide formyl methionyl leusyl phenylalanine (FMLP). FPR1 protein value is decreased in response to a wide number of inflammatory stimuli in AP patients. This study was aimed to assess the alteration of FPR1 protein value in AP patients and if FPR1 protein value could be used as an indicator of neutrophil chemotaxis dysfunction in AP. This is a case control study with 20 AP patients and 20 control subjects. Three milliliters of peripheral blood were drawn and analyzed for FPR1 protein value with ELISA. The data were statistically analyzed with Mann-Whitney test (p>0,05). Results showed that the mean value of FPR1 protein value in AP group is 0,353 pg/mL (0,11 to 1,18 pg/mL) and the mean value of FPR1 protein value in control group is 0,296 pg/mL (0,05 to 0,88 pg/mL). P value 0,787 > 0,05 suggested that there is no significant difference of FPR1 protein value in both groups. The present study suggests that FPR1 protein value has no significance alteration in AP patients and could not be used as an indicator of neutrophil chemotaxis dysfunction.

Keywords: aggressive periodontitis, chemotaxis dysfunction, FPR1 protein value, neutrophil

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14 The Involvement of Viruses and Fungi in the Pathogenesis of Dental Infections

Authors: Wael Khalil, Elias Rahal, Ghassan Matar


Tooth related infections or commonly named dental infections have been described as the most common causes of tooth loss in adults. These pathologies were mostly periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. The involvement of various bacteria in the pathogenesis of these pathologies has been thoroughly mentioned and approved in the literature. However, the variability in the severity and prognosis of these lesions among patients suggests the association of other pathogens, like viruses and fungi, in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Several studies in the literature investigated the association of multiple viruses and fungi with the above-mentioned lesions, yet, a vast controversy was reached concerning this subject.Aim: Our study aims to fill the gap in the literature concerning the contribution of adenovirus, HPV-16, EBV, fungi, and candida in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. For this purpose, we utilized the quantitative PCR for pathogen detection in saliva, gingival, and lesions samples of involved subjects. Results: Some of these pathogens appeared to have an association with the investigated dental pathologies, while others showed no contribution to the pathogenesis of these lesions. Further investigation is required in order to identify the subtype of the involved pathogens in these tooth related oral pathology.

Keywords: periodontitis, pericoronitis, dental abscess, PCR, microbiology

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13 Methylglyoxal Induced Glycoxidation of Human Low Density Lipoprotein: A Biophysical Perspective and Its Role in Diabetes and Periodontitis

Authors: Minhal Abidi, Moinuddin


Diabetes mellitus (DM) induced metabolic abnormalities causes oxidative stress which leads to the pathogenesis of complications associated with diabetes like retinopathy, nephropathy periodontitis etc. Combination of glycation and oxidation 'glycoxidation' occurs when oxidative reactions affect the early state of glycation products. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is prone to glycoxidative attack by sugars and methylglyoxal (MGO) being a strong glycating agent may have severe impact on its structure and consequent role in diabetes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL1β and TNFα produced by the action of gram negative bacteria in periodontits (PD) can in turn lead to insulin resistance. This work discusses modifications to LDL as a result of glycoxidation. The changes in the protein molecule have been characterized by various physicochemical techniques and the immunogenicity of the modified molecules was also evaluated as they presented neo-epitopes. Binding of antibodies present in diabetes patients to the native and glycated LDL has been evaluated. Role of modified epitopes in the generation of antibodies in diabetes and periodontitis has been discussed. The structural perturbations induced in LDL were analyzed by UV–Vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy, molecular docking studies, thermal denaturation studies, Thioflavin T assay, isothermal titration calorimetry, comet assay. MALDI-TOF, ketoamine moieties, carbonyl content and HMF content were also quantitated in native and glycated LDL. IL1β and TNFα levels were also measured in the type 2 DM and PD patients. We report increased carbonyl content, ketoamine moieties and HMF content in glycated LDL as compared to native analogue. The results substantiate that in hyperglycemic state MGO modification of LDL causes structural perturbations making the protein antigenic which could obstruct normal physiological functions and might contribute in the development of secondary complications in diabetic patients like periodontitis.

Keywords: advanced glycation end products, diabetes mellitus, glycation, glycoxidation, low density lipoprotein, periodontitis

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12 Level of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Plasma in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis

Authors: Youjeong Hwang


Purpose: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) promotes B-cell development, immunoglobulin formation, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, then regulate the immune response and inflammation. As IGF-I and their receptor also exist in the periodontal tissue, they may affect the immune response caused by periodontal pathogens in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients. The function of IGF is regulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP-3 is known to most abundant in plasma. The aim of the present study was to assess the concentration of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in AgP patients and to find out their association. Methods: Nine patients with AgP (test group) and nine healthy subjects (control group) were included in this study. None of the subjects had a history of systemic disease, smoking or steroids medication. GCF samples were collected by microcapillary pipettes and plasma samples were obtained by venipuncture. Probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded. Samples were assayed for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels using ELISA. Results: Mean IGF-I level in GCF was higher in the test group than control. Mean IGF-I level in plasma and IGFBP-3 level in GCF and plasma in control group were higher than that of the test group. However, there was no statistical significance (p > 0.05). The mean level of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in GCF was lower than those in plasma. Mean IGF-I level in plasma showed a negative correlation with PD and CAL (p < 0.05) in both groups. The levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in GCF seemed to be negatively correlated with BOP in the test group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The difference in the level of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 between AgP and healthy subjects was not significant. Further studies that explain the mechanism of the protective role of IGF-I with more samples are needed.

Keywords: aggressive periodontitis, pathogenesis, insulin-like growth factor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein

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11 Correlation between Total Polyphenol Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Opuntia ficus indica Extracts against Periodontopathogenic Bacteria

Authors: N. Chikhi-Chorfi, L. Arbia, S. Zenia, H.Lounici


Opuntia ficus-indica belongs to the Cactaceae family. The cactus is mainly cultivated for its fruit (prickly pear) that, eaten after pealing, is sweet and juicy, and rich in nutritional compounds, such as ascorbic acid and polyphenols. Different parts of O. ficus-indica are used in the traditional medicine of several countries: the cladodes are utilized to reduce serum cholesterol level and blood pressure, for treatment of ulcers, rheumatic pain, wounds, fatigue, capillary fragility, and liver conditions. This original study, investigate the effect of polyphenols of O. ficus indica (cactus) cladodes against periodontal bacteria collected from patients with periodontitis. The quantitative analysis of total polyphenols (TPP) was determined with Follin-Ciocalteu method. Different concentrations of extracts of O. ficus indica were tested by the disk method on two bacterial strains: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia responsible for periodontal disease. The results showed a good correlation between the concentration of total polyphenols and the antibacterial activity of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia with R² = 0.94 and R² = 0.90 respectively. This observation suggests that these extracts could be used in the treatment and prevention of periodontitis.

Keywords: periodontal disease, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, polyphenols, Opuntia ficus indica

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10 Investigations into the in situ Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm Removal Efficacies of Passive and Active Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigant Delivered into Lateral Canal of a Simulated Root Canal Model

Authors: Saifalarab A. Mohmmed, Morgana E. Vianna, Jonathan C. Knowles


The issue of apical periodontitis has received considerable critical attention. Bacteria is integrated into communities, attached to surfaces and consequently form biofilm. The biofilm structure provides bacteria with a series protection skills against, antimicrobial agents and enhances pathogenicity (e.g. apical periodontitis). Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has become the irrigant of choice for elimination of bacteria from the root canal system based on its antimicrobial findings. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different agitation techniques on the efficacy of 2.5% NaOCl to eliminate the biofilm from the surface of the lateral canal using the residual biofilm, and removal rate of biofilm as outcome measures. The effect of canal complexity (lateral canal) on the efficacy of the irrigation procedure was also assessed. Forty root canal models (n = 10 per group) were manufactured using 3D printing and resin materials. Each model consisted of two halves of an 18 mm length root canal with apical size 30 and taper 0.06, and a lateral canal of 3 mm length, 0.3 mm diameter located at 3 mm from the apical terminus. E. faecalis biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm and lateral canal of the models for 10 days in Brain Heart Infusion broth. Biofilms were stained using crystal violet for visualisation. The model halves were reassembled, attached to an apparatus and tested under a fluorescence microscope. Syringe and needle irrigation protocol was performed using 9 mL of 2.5% NaOCl irrigant for 60 seconds. The irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or activated for 30 seconds using manual (gutta-percha), sonic and ultrasonic methods. Images were then captured every second using an external camera. The percentages of residual biofilm were measured using image analysis software. The data were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The greatest removal was associated with the ultrasonic group (66.76%) followed by sonic (45.49%), manual (43.97%), and passive irrigation group (control) (38.67%) respectively. No marked reduction in the efficiency of NaOCl to remove biofilm was found between the simple and complex anatomy models (p = 0.098). The removal efficacy of NaOCl on the biofilm was limited to the 1 mm level of the lateral canal. The agitation of NaOCl results in better penetration of the irrigant into the lateral canals. Ultrasonic agitation of NaOCl improved the removal of bacterial biofilm.

Keywords: 3D printing, biofilm, root canal irrigation, sodium hypochlorite

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9 A Novel Co-Culture System for the Cementoblastic Differentiation of SHED

Authors: Manal Farea, Adam Husein, Ahmad S. Halim, Zurairah Berahim, Nurul A. Abdullah, Khairani I. Mokhtar, Kasmawati Mokhtar


Endodontic furcal perforation remains both an endodontic and a periodontal problem. Regeneration of cementum is very essential for the perforation repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells on the cementogenic differentiation of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in the presence of chitosan scaffold-TGFβ1. HERS cells were isolated and characterized then co-cultured with SHED with/without chitosan scaffold-TGFβ1. SHED proliferation was assessed by PrestoBlue. Alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization behaviour and gene/protein expression of cemento/osteoblast phenotype of SHED were evaluated. Results of the present study showed that HERS cells in association with chitosan-TGFβ1 enhanced proliferation and cemento/osteogenic differentiation of SHED. Our novel co-culture system confirmed the potential effect of HERS cells to stimulate the differentiation of SHED along the cementoblastic lineage which was triggered in the presence of chitosan-TGFβ1. This approach possesses a novel therapeutic strategy for future endodontic perforation and periodontitis.

Keywords: cementogenesis, co-culture system, HERS, SHED

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8 Characterization of a Novel Hemin-Binding Protein, HmuX, in Porphyromonas gingivalis W50

Authors: Kah Yan How, Peh Fern Ong, Keang Peng Song


Porphyromonas gingivalis is a black-pigmented, anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium that is important in the progression of chronic and severe periodontitis. This organism has an essential requirement for iron, which is usually obtained from hemin, using specific membrane receptors, proteases, and lipoproteins. In this study, we report the characterization of a novel 24 kDa hemin-binding protein, HmuX, in P. gingivalis W50. The hmuX gene is 651 bp long which encodes for a 217 amino acid protein. HmuX was found to be identical at the C-terminus to the previously reported HmuY protein, differing by an additional 74 amino acids at the N-terminus. Recombinant HmuX demonstrated hemin-binding ability by LDS- PAGE and TMBZ staining. Sequence analysis of HmuX revealed a putative lipoprotein attachment site, suggesting its possible role as a lipoprotein. HmuX was also localized to the outer cell surface by transmission electron microscopy. Northern analysis showed hmuX to be transcribed as a single gene and that hmuX mRNA was tightly regulated by the availability of extra-cellular hemin. P. gingivalis isogenic mutant deficient in hmuX gene exhibited significant growth retardation under hemin-limited conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that HmuX is a hemin-binding lipoprotein, important in hemin utilization for the growth of P. gingivalis.

Keywords: Porphyromonas gingivalis, periodontal diseases, HmuX, protein characterization

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7 A Study on Compromised Periodontal Health Status among the Pregnant Woman of Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India

Authors: Rana Praween Kumar


Preterm-low birth weight delivery is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries and has been linked to poor periodontal health during pregnancy. Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory oral diseases. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. This study is intended to investigate predisposing and enabling factors as determinants of oral health indicators in pregnancy as well as the association between periodontal problems during pregnancy with age and socio economic status of the individual. A community –based prospective cohort study will be conducted in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India among pregnant women using completed interviews and a full mouth oral clinical examination using the CPITN (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need) and OHI-S (Simplified Oral Hygiene) indices with adequate sample size and informed consent to the patient following proper inclusion and exclusion criteria. Multiple logistic regression analyses will be used to identify independent determinants of periodontal problems and use of dental services during pregnancy. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) will be used to investigate the relationship between periodontal problems with the age and socioeconomic status. The result will help in proper monitoring of periodontal health during pregnancy encouraging the delivery of healthy child and the maintenance of proper health of the mother.

Keywords: infant, periodontal problems, pregnancy, pre-term-low birth weight delivery

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6 Barnard Feature Point Detector for Low-Contractperiapical Radiography Image

Authors: Chih-Yi Ho, Tzu-Fang Chang, Chih-Chia Huang, Chia-Yen Lee


In dental clinics, the dentists use the periapical radiography image to assess the effectiveness of endodontic treatment of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Periapical radiography images are taken at different times to assess alveolar bone variation before and after the root canal treatment, and furthermore to judge whether the treatment was successful. Current clinical assessment of apical tissue recovery relies only on dentist personal experience. It is difficult to have the same standard and objective interpretations due to the dentist or radiologist personal background and knowledge. If periapical radiography images at the different time could be registered well, the endodontic treatment could be evaluated. In the image registration area, it is necessary to assign representative control points to the transformation model for good performances of registration results. However, detection of representative control points (feature points) on periapical radiography images is generally very difficult. Regardless of which traditional detection methods are practiced, sufficient feature points may not be detected due to the low-contrast characteristics of the x-ray image. Barnard detector is an algorithm for feature point detection based on grayscale value gradients, which can obtain sufficient feature points in the case of gray-scale contrast is not obvious. However, the Barnard detector would detect too many feature points, and they would be too clustered. This study uses the local extrema of clustering feature points and the suppression radius to overcome the problem, and compared different feature point detection methods. In the preliminary result, the feature points could be detected as representative control points by the proposed method.

Keywords: feature detection, Barnard detector, registration, periapical radiography image, endodontic treatment

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5 Finite Element Modelling for the Development of a Planar Ultrasonic Dental Scaler for Prophylactic and Periodontal Care

Authors: Martin Hofmann, Diego Stutzer, Thomas Niederhauser, Juergen Burger


Dental biofilm is the main etiologic factor for caries, periodontal and peri-implant infections. In addition to the risk of tooth loss, periodontitis is also associated with an increased risk of systemic diseases such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes. For this reason, dental hygienists use ultrasonic scalers for prophylactic and periodontal care of the teeth. However, the current instruments are limited to their dimensions and operating frequencies. The innovative design of a planar ultrasonic transducer introduces a new type of dental scalers. The flat titanium-based design allows the mass to be significantly reduced compared to a conventional screw-mounted Langevin transducer, resulting in a more efficient and controllable scaler. For the development of the novel device, multi-physics finite element analysis was used to simulate and optimise various design concepts. This process was supported by prototyping and electromechanical characterisation. The feasibility and potential of a planar ultrasonic transducer have already been confirmed by our current prototypes, which achieve higher performance compared to commercial devices. Operating at the desired resonance frequency of 28 kHz with a driving voltage of 40 Vrms results in an in-plane tip oscillation with a displacement amplitude of up to 75 μm by having less than 8 % out-of-plane movement and an energy transformation factor of 1.07 μm/mA. In a further step, we will adapt the design to two additional resonance frequencies (20 and 40 kHz) to obtain information about the most suitable mode of operation. In addition to the already integrated characterization methods, we will evaluate the clinical efficiency of the different devices in an in vitro setup with an artificial biofilm pocket model.

Keywords: ultrasonic instrumentation, ultrasonic scaling, piezoelectric transducer, finite element simulation, dental biofilm, dental calculus

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4 In silico Statistical Prediction Models for Identifying the Microbial Diversity and Interactions Due to Fixed Periodontal Appliances

Authors: Suganya Chandrababu, Dhundy Bastola


Like in the gut, the subgingival microbiota plays a crucial role in oral hygiene, health, and cariogenic diseases. Human activities like diet, antibiotics, and periodontal treatments alter the bacterial communities, metabolism, and functions in the oral cavity, leading to a dysbiotic state and changes in the plaques of orthodontic patients. Fixed periodontal appliances hinder oral hygiene and cause changes in the dental plaques influencing the subgingival microbiota. However, the microbial species’ diversity and complexity pose a great challenge in understanding the taxa’s community distribution patterns and their role in oral health. In this research, we analyze the subgingival microbial samples from individuals with fixed dental appliances (metal/clear) using an in silico approach. We employ exploratory hypothesis-driven multivariate and regression analysis to shed light on the microbial community and its functional fluctuations due to dental appliances used and identify risks associated with complex disease phenotypes. Our findings confirm the changes in oral microbiota composition due to the presence and type of fixed orthodontal devices. We identified seven main periodontic pathogens, including Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Firmicutes, whose abundances were significantly altered due to the presence and type of fixed appliances used. In the case of metal braces, the abundances of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Candidatus saccharibacteria, and Spirochaetes significantly increased, while the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria decreased. However, in individuals With clear braces, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Candidatus saccharibacteria increased. The highest abundance value (P-value=0.004 < 0.05) was observed with Bacteroidetes in individuals with the metal appliance, which is associated with gingivitis, periodontitis, endodontic infections, and odontogenic abscesses. Overall, the bacterial abundances decrease with clear type and increase with metal type of braces. Regression analysis further validated the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results, supporting the hypothesis that the presence and type of the fixed oral appliances significantly alter the bacterial abundance and composition.

Keywords: oral microbiota, statistical analysis, fixed or-thodontal appliances, bacterial abundance, multivariate analysis, regression analysis

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3 Formulation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash from Some Herbal Extracts for Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Reenu Yadav, Abhay Asthana, S. K. Yadav


Purpose: The aim of the present work was to develop an oral gel for brushing with an antimicrobial activity which will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases such as periodontitis, gingivitis, and pyorrhea. Methods: Plant materials procured from local suppliers, extracted and standardized. Screening of antimicrobial activity was carried out with the help of disk diffusion method. The gel was formulated by dried extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliquus. Gels were evaluated on various parameters and standardization of the formulation was performed. The release of drugs was studied in pH 6.8 using a mastication device.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride method, and stability studies were performed (40°C and RH 75% ± 5% for 90 days) to assess the effect of temperature and humidity on the concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. The results of accelerated stability conditions were compared with that of samples kept at controlled conditions (RT). The control samples were kept at room temperature (25°C, 35% RH for 180 days). Results: Results are encouraging; extracts possess significant antimicrobial activity at very low concentration (15µg/disc, 20µg/disc and 15 µg/ disc) on oral pathogenic bacteria. The formulation has optimal characteristics, as well as has a pleasant appearance, fragrance, texture, and taste, is highly acceptable by the volunteers. The diffusion coefficient values ranged from 0.6655 to 0.9164. Since the R values of korsmayer papas were close to 1, Drug release from formulation follows matrix diffusion kinetics. Hence, diffusion was the mechanism of the drug release. Formulation follows non-Fickian transport mechanism. Most Formulations released 50 % of their contents within 25-30 minutes. Results obtained from the accelerated stability studies are indicative of a slight reduction in flavonoids and phenolic contents with time on long time storage. When measured degradation under ambient conditions, degradation was significantly lower than in accelerated stability study. Conclusion: Plant extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties can be used as. Developed formulation will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases. Further development and evaluations oral gel including the isolated compounds on the commercial scale and their clinical and toxicological studies are the future challenges.

Keywords: herbal gel, dental care, ambient conditions, commercial scale

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2 Effects of Cranberry Juice Enriched with n-3 PUFA Consumption in Adjunct with Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Glycemic Control, Antioxidant Status and Periodontal indices in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Periodontitis

Authors: A. Zare Javid, H. Babaee, E. Ashrafzadeh, H. Yousefimanesh, M. Zakerkish, K. Ahmadi Angali, M. Ravanbakhsh


Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease hold a physiologically relationship. Periodontal disease, a common widespread chronic disease, is considered as an important complication in diabetes mellitus. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease are increased among diabetic patients. A balanced nutrition may improve either diabetes or periodontal disease by controlling one of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cranberry juice enriched with n-3 PUFA and their individual consumption on glycemic control and antioxidant status in diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 41 diabetic patients (35 – 65 y) with chronic adult periodontal disease were recruited from Endocrinology Clinic of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz city, Iran. Subjects were randomly assigned to four groups as follow: one control group (n=12) and three intervention groups as receiving 1 g n-3 PUFA capsule (n=10), 400 ml cranberry juice (n=9), 400 ml cranberry juice enriched with 1g n-3 PUFA (n=10) for 8 weeks. Non-surgical periodontal therapy was provided for all patients during study. Fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, plasma and saliva TAOC and MDA, pocket depth and bleeding on probing were measured at baseline and post intervention. Results: There was a significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin observed in intervention groups of receiving n-3 PUFA and cranberry enriched with n-3 PUFA (11 %, P = 0.01 and 7 %, P = 0.01, respectively). The intervention group receiving n-3 PUFA had significantly lower glycated hemoglobin compared with control group. There was no significant difference found in FBS between and within groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in plasma TAOC only in cranberry enriched with n-3 PUFA group. Moreover, plasma MDA significantly decreased in intervention groups of receiving cranberry and cranberry enriched with n-3 PUFA. A significant increase was observed in TAOC of salvia in cranberry enriched with n-3 PUFA group compared to control group .The intervention group receiving cranberry enriched with n-3 PUFA had significantly lower MDA of salvia compared with control group. Pocket depth were significantly decreased in all groups, however, bleeding on probing didn’t significantly changed in patients post intervention. Conclusion: It is suggested that consumption of cranberry juice enriched with n-3 PUFA as a nutritional approach in adjunct with non-surgical periodontal therapy may help to improve glycosylated hemogolobin and TAOC in salvia and plasma in diabetic patients with periodontal disease.

Keywords: antioxidant, cranberry, oxidant status, periodontal disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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1 DH-Students Promoting Underage Asylum Seekers' Oral Health in Finland

Authors: Eeva Wallenius-Nareneva, Tuula Toivanen-Labiad


Background: Oral health promotion event was organised for forty Afghanistan, Iraqi and Bangladeshi underage asylum seekers in Finland. The invitation to arrange this coaching occasion was accepted in the Degree Programme in Oral Hygiene in Metropolia. The personnel in the reception center found the need to improve oral health among the youngsters. The purpose was to strengthen the health literacy of the boys in their oral self-care and to reduce dental fears. The Finnish studies, especially the terminology of oral health was integrated to coaching with the help of interpreters. Cooperative learning was applied. Methods: Oral health was interactively discussed in four study group sessions: 1. The importance of healthy eating habits; - Good and bad diets, - Regular meals, - Acid attack o Xylitol. 2. Oral diseases − connection to general health; - Aetiology of gingivitis, periodontitis and caries, - Harmfulness of smoking 3. Tools and techniques for oral self-care; - Brushing and inter dental cleaning. 4. Sharing earlier dental care experiences; - Cultural differences, - Dental fear, - Regular check-ups. Results: During coaching deficiencies appeared in brushing and inter dental cleaning techniques. Some boys were used to wash their mouth with salt justifying it by salt’s antiseptic properties. Many brushed their teeth by vertical movements. The boys took feedback positively when a demonstration with model jaws revealed the inefficiency of the technique. The advantages of fluoride tooth paste were advised. Dental care procedures were new and frightening for many boys. Finnish dental care system was clarified. The safety and indolence of the treatments and informed consent were highlighted. Video presentations and the dialog lowered substantially the threshold to visit dental clinic. The occasion gave the students means for meeting patients from different cultural and language backgrounds. The information hidden behind the oral health problems of the asylum seekers was valuable. Conclusions: Learning dental care practices used in different cultures is essential for dental professionals. The project was a good start towards multicultural oral health care. More experiences are needed before graduation. Health education themes should be held simple regardless of the target group. The heterogeneity of the group does not pose a problem. Open discussion with questions leading to the theme works well in clarifying the target group’s knowledge level. Sharing own experiences strengthens the sense of equality among the participants and encourages them to express own opinions. Motivational interview method turned out to be successful. In the future coaching occasions must confirm active participation of everyone. This could be realized by dividing the participants to even smaller groups. The different languages impose challenges but they can be solved by using more interpreters. Their presence ensures that everyone understands the issues properly although the use of plain and sign languages are helpful. In further development, it would be crucial to arrange a rehearsal occasion to the same participants in two/three months’ time. This would strengthen the adaption of self-care practices and give the youngsters opportunity to pose more open questions. The students would gain valuable feedback regarding the effectiveness of their work.

Keywords: cooperative learning, interactive methods, motivational interviewing, oral health promotion, underage asylum seekers

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