Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 109

Search results for: transplantation

109 The Predictive Value of Serum Bilirubin in the Post-Transplant De Novo Malignancy: A Data Mining Approach

Authors: Nasim Nosoudi, Amir Zadeh, Hunter White, Joshua Conrad, Joon W. Shim

Abstract:

De novo Malignancy has become one of the major causes of death after transplantation, so early cancer diagnosis and detection can drastically improve survival rates post-transplantation. Most previous work focuses on using artificial intelligence (AI) to predict transplant success or failure outcomes. In this work, we focused on predicting de novo malignancy after liver transplantation using AI. We chose the patients that had malignancy after liver transplantation with no history of malignancy pre-transplant. Their donors were cancer-free as well. We analyzed 254,200 patient profiles with post-transplant malignancy from the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). Several popular data mining methods were applied to the resultant dataset to build predictive models to characterize de novo malignancy after liver transplantation. Recipient's bilirubin, creatinine, weight, gender, number of days recipient was on the transplant waiting list, Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), International normalized ratio (INR), and ascites are among the most important factors affecting de novo malignancy after liver transplantation

Keywords: De novo malignancy, bilirubin, data mining, transplantation

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108 Addressing Head Transplantation and Its Legal, Social and Neuroethical Implications

Authors: Joseph P. Mandala

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This paper examines the legal and medical ethics concerns, which proponents of human head transplantation continue to defy since the procedure was first attempted on dogs in 1908. Despite recent bioethical objections, proponents have proceeded with radical experimentation, claiming transplantation would treat incurable diseases and improve patients’ quality of life. In 2018, Italian neurosurgeon, Sergio Canavero, and Dr. Xiaoping Ren claimed to have performed a head transplant on a corpse in China. Content analysis of literature shows that the procedure failed to satisfy scientific, legal, and bioethical elements because, unlike humans, corpses cannot coordinate function. Putting a severed head onto a body that has been dead for several days is not equivalent to a transplant which would require successfully reconnecting and restoring function to a spinal cord. While reconnection without restoration of bodily function is not transplantation, the publicized procedure on animals and corpses could leapfrog to humans, sparking excitement in society likely to affect organ donors and recipients from territorial jurisdictions with varying legal and ethical regimes. As neurodiscoveries generate further excitement, the need to preemptively address the legal and medical ethics impact of head transplantation in our society cannot be overstated. A preemptive development of methods to address the impact of head transplantation will help harmonizing national and international laws on organ donations, advance directives, and laws affecting end of life.

Keywords:

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107 Histological Study on the Effect of Bone Marrow Transplantation Combined with Curcumin on Pancreatic Regeneration in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Manal M. Shehata, Kawther M. Abdel-Hamid, Nashwa A. Mohamed, Marwa H. Bakr, Maged S. Mahmoud, Hala M. Elbadre

Abstract:

Introduction: The worldwide rapid increase in diabetes poses a significant challenge to current therapeutic approaches. Therapeutic utility of bone marrow transplantation in diabetes is an attractive approach. However, the oxidative stress generated by hyperglycemia may hinder β-cell regeneration. Curcumin, is a dietary spice with antioxidant activity. Aim of work: The present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of curcumin, bone marrow transplantation, and their combined effects in the reversal of experimental diabetes. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male healthy albino rats were included in the present study.They were divided into two groups: Group І: (control group) included 10 rats. Group П: (diabetic group): included 40 rats. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Group II will be further subdivided into four groups (10 rats for each): Group II-a (diabetic control). Group II-b: rats were received single intraperitoneal injection of bone marrow suspension (un-fractionated bone marrow cells) prepared from rats of the same family. Group II-c: rats were treated with curcumin orally by gastric intubation for 6 weeks. Group II-d: rats were received a combination of single bone marrow transplantation and curcumin for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, blood glucose, insulin levels were measured and the pancreas from all rats were processed for Histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric examination. Results: Diabetic group, showed progressive histological changes in the pancreatic islets. Treatment with either curcumin or bone marrow transplantation improved the structure of the islets and reversed streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Combination of curcumin and bone marrow transplantation elicited more profound alleviation of streptozotocin-induced changes including islet regeneration and insulin secretion. Conclusion: The use of natural antioxidants combined with bone marrow transplantation to induce pancreatic regeneration is a promising strategy in the management of diabetes.

Keywords: diabtes, panceatic islets, bone marrow transplantation, curcumin

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106 Trial of Faecal Microbial Transplantation for the Prevention of Canine Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Caroline F. Moeser

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The skin-gut axis defines the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the development of pathological skin diseases. Low diversity within the gut can predispose to the development of allergic skin conditions, and a greater diversity of the gastrointestinal microflora has been associated with a reduction of skin flares in people with atopic dermatitis. Manipulation of the gut microflora has been used as a treatment option for several conditions in people, but there is limited data available on the use of faecal transplantation as a preventative measure in either people or dogs. Six, 4-month-old pups from a litter of ten were presented for diarrhea and/or signs of skin disease (chronic scratching, otitis externa). Of these pups, two were given probiotics with a resultant resolution of diarrhea. The other four pups were given faecal transplantation, either as a sole treatment or in combination with other treatments. Follow-up on the litter of ten pups was performed at 18 months of age. At this stage, the four pups that had received faecal transplantation had resolved all clinical signs and had no recurrence of either skin or gastrointestinal symptoms. Of the remaining six pups from the litter, all had developed at least one episode of Malassezia otitis externa within the period of 5 months to 18 months of age. Two pups had developed two Malassezia otitis infections, and one had developed three Malassezia otitis infections during this period. Favrot’s criteria for the diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis include chronic or recurrent Malassezia infections by the age of three years. Early results from this litter predict a reduction in the development of canine atopic disease in dogs given faecal microbial transplantation. Follow-up studies at three years of age and within a larger population of dogs can enhance understanding of the impact of early faecal transplantation in the prevention of canine atopic dermatitis.

Keywords: canine atopic dermatitis, faecal microbial transplant, skin-gut axis, otitis

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105 Transplant Oncology: An Evolution Field of Treating Cancer by Transplantation

Authors: Maen Abdelrahim, Abdullah Esmail

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Transplant oncology is an emerging concept of cancer treatment with a promising prospective outcome. The application of oncology, transplant medicine, and surgery to improve patients’ survival and quality of life is the core of transplant oncology. Hepatobiliary malignancies have been treated by liver transplantation (LT) with significant improved outcome. In addition, as the liver is the most common site of metastasis for colorectal cancer (CRC), patients with CRC who have stable unresectable liver metastases are good candidates for LT, and initial studies have shown improved survival compared to palliative systemic therapy. The indications of LT for hepatobiliary malignancies have been slowly expanded over the years in a stepwise manner; however, they have only been shown to improve patient survival in the setting of limited systemic therapy options. This review illustrates the concept and history of transplant oncology as an evolving field for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic biliary cancer, and liver-only metastasis of non-hepatobiliary carcinoma. The utility of immunotherapy in the transplant setting will be discussed as well as the feasibility of using circulating tumor DNA for surveillance post-transplantation.

Keywords: transplant oncology, liver transplantation, cholangiocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, liver metastases, hepatocellular carcinoma, circulating tumor DNA, colorectal cancers, immunotherapy

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104 Co-Culture of Neonate Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells with Sertoli Cells: Inductive Role of Melatonin following Transplantation: Adult Azoospermia Mouse Model

Authors: Mehdi Abbasi, Shadan Navid, Mohammad Pourahmadi, M. Majidi Zolbin

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We have recently reported that melatonin as antioxidant enhances the efficacy of colonization of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Melatonin as an antioxidant plays a vital role in the development of SSCs in vitro. This study aimed to investigate evaluation of sertoli cells and melatonin simultaneously on SSC proliferation following transplantation to testis of adult mouse busulfan-treated azoospermia model. SSCs and sertoli cells were isolated from the testes of three to six-day old male mice.To determine the purity, Flow cytometry technique using PLZF antibody were evaluated. Isolated testicular cells were cultured in αMEM medium in the absence (control group) or presence (experimental group) of sertoli cells and melatonin extract for 2 weeks. We then transplanted SSCs by injection into the azoospermia mice model. Higher viability, proliferation, and Id4, Plzf, expression were observed in the presence of simultaneous sertoli cells and melatonin in vitro. Moreover, immunocytochemistry results showed higher Oct4 expression in this group. Eight weeks after transplantation, injected cells were localized at the base of seminiferous tubules in the recipient testes. The number of spermatogonia and the weight of testis were higher in the experimental group relative to control group. The results of our study suggest that this new protocol can increase the transplantation of these cells can be useful in the treatment of male infertility.

Keywords: colonization, melatonin, spermatogonial stem cell, transplantation

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103 Liver Transplant for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Single Medical Center Experience in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Chih Wang, Chia-Yu Lai, Hsiao-Tien Liu, Yi-Ju Chen, Shao-Bin Cheng

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Liver transplant has been one of the curative treatment options for hepatocellular carcinomaunder certain oncological conditions. Two of the most validated criteria are from Milan in1996 and USCF in 2001, suggesting number and size limits of tumor without vascularinvasion or distant metastasis. We performed a retrospective cohort study of hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing livertransplant between August 2003 and December 2020 in our institute. Clinical andpathological characteristic, survival outcome, and recurrent pattern were analysed.UCSF criteria was applied for living donor transplantation, and Milan criteria was applied for deceased donor transplantation. Of 180 total patients, 52 cases(28.8%) with diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, including26 living donor(LD) and 26 deceased donor(DD) liver transplant. Complete pathologicalremission was significantly more in the DD group(p=0.009). Pathological reports showed that30.8% of DD group exceeded Milan criteria, and 19.2% of LD group exceeded UCSFcriteria.After a median follow-up of 52.2 months, the 1-year, 3-year and 5-year overall survival was 87.6%, 74.1%, and 71.8%, respectively.Meanwhile, progression-free survival was 93.1%, 85.7%, and 81.6% for 1, 3, and 5-year, respectively, similar to that in Mazzaferro et al, 1996. We concluded that Liver transplant could be applied cautiously in expanded criteria for patent withhepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords: liver transplant, milan criteria, UCSF criteria, living donor transplantation, deceased donor transplantation

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102 Outcomes of Live Renal Donors with a History of Nephrolithiasis

Authors: Bin Mohamed Ebrahim, Aminesh Singla, Henry Pleass

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Aim: There is an ongoing gap in renal transplantation between organs available for donation and recipients on the waiting list. Live donors with pre-existing or a history of renal calculi were thought to be a relative contraindication due to safety concerns for donors. We aim to review current literature assessing outcomes of donors who were found to have a history of renal calculi. Methods: Ovid and Embase were searched between 1960 to 2021 using key terms and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) – nephrolithiasis, renal stones, renal transplantation and renal graft. Articles included conference proceedings and journal articles and were not excluded based on patient numbers. Studies were excluded if the specific organ was not identified, duplicated reports found or if post-transplant outcomes were not recorded. Outcomes were donor’s renal function or renal calculi recurrence postoperatively. Results: Upon reviewing 344 articles, 14 manuscripts met inclusion criteria. A total of 152 live donors were identified as having pre-existing or with a history of renal calculi at pre-operative workup. The mean stone size was 2.6 4mm (1 – 16) with a mean follow-up duration of 31.8 months (1 – 96). Seven studies had both outcomes. None showed renal complications or stone recurrence. The remaining studies contained 2 out of 84 patients having recurrent nephrolithiasis. Conclusion: Data suggests minimal morbidity involved for live renal donors with a history of nephrolithiasis. This should encourage surgeons to continue recruiting such donors for kidney transplantation.

Keywords: renal transplantation, renal graft, nephrolithiasis, renal calculi, live donor

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101 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial on N-Acetylcysteine for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Amirhossein Moslehi, Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Asieh Ashouri, Elham Amini, Kheirollah Gholami, Alireza Hayatshahi, Mohammad Vaezi, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

Abstract:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is associated with increased mortality. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol compound with antioxidant and vasodilatory properties that has been investigated for the prevention of AKI in several clinical settings. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intravenous NAC on the prevention of AKI in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, and 80 patients were recruited to receive 100 mg/kg/day NAC or placebo as intermittent intravenous infusion from day -6 to day +15. AKI was determined on the basis of the Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage renal disease and AKI Network criteria as the primary outcome. We assessed urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) on days -6, -3, +3, +9, and +15 as the secondary outcome. Moreover, transplant-related outcomes and NAC adverse reactions were evaluated during the study period. Statistical analysis was performed using appropriate parametric and non-parametric methods including Kaplan–Meier for AKI and generalized estimating equation for uNGAL. At the end of the trial, data from 72 patients were analyzed (NAC: 33 patients and placebo: 39 patients). Participants of each group were not different considering baseline characteristics. AKI was observed in 18% of NAC recipients and 15% of placebo group patients, and the occurrence pattern was not significantly different (p = 0.73). Moreover, no significant difference was observed between groups for uNGAL measures (p = 0.10). Transplant-related outcomes were similar for both groups, and all patients had successful engraftment. Three patients did not tolerate NAC because of abdominal pain, shortness of breath and rash with pruritus and were dropped from the intervention group before transplantation. However, the frequency of adverse reactions was not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, our findings could not show any clinical benefits from high-dose NAC particularly for AKI prevention in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, N-acetylcysteine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, randomized controlled trial

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100 The Role of Bone Marrow Stem Cells Transplantation in the Repair of Damaged Inner Ear in Albino Rats

Authors: Ahmed Gaber Abdel Raheem, Nashwa Ahmed Mohamed

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Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is largely caused by the degeneration of the cochlea. Therapeutic options for SNHL are limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants. The cell transplantation approach to the regeneration of hair cells has gained considerable attention because stem cells are believed to accumulate in the damaged sites and have the potential for the repair of damaged tissues. The aim of the work: was to assess the use of bone marrow transplantation in repair of damaged inner ear hair cells in rats after the damage had been inflicted by Amikacin injection. Material and Methods: Thirty albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into three groups. Each group ten rats. Group I: used as control. Group II: Were given Amikacin- intratympanic injection till complete loss of hearing function. This could be assessed by Distortion product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAEs) and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR). GroupIII: were given intra-peritoneal injection of bone marrow stem cell after complete loss of hearing caused by Amikacin. Clinical assessment was done using DPOAEs and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR), before and after bone marrow injection. Histological assessment of the inner ear was done by light and electron microscope. Also, Detection of stem cells in the inner ear by immunohistochemistry. Results: Histological examination of the specimens showed promising improvement in the structure of cochlea that may be responsible for the improvement of hearing function in rats detected by DPOAEs and / or ABR. Conclusion: Bone marrow stem cells transplantation might be useful for the treatment of SNHL.

Keywords: amikacin, hair cells, sensorineural hearing loss, stem cells

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99 Isolation and Transplantation of Hepatocytes in an Experimental Model

Authors: Inas Raafat, Azza El Bassiouny, Waldemar L. Olszewsky, Nagui E. Mikhail, Mona Nossier, Nora E. I. El-Bassiouni, Mona Zoheiry, Houda Abou Taleb, Noha Abd El-Aal, Ali Baioumy, Shimaa Attia

Abstract:

Background: Orthotopic liver transplantation is an established treatment for patients with severe acute and end-stage chronic liver disease. The shortage of donor organs continues to be the rate-limiting factor for liver transplantation throughout the world. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising treatment for several liver diseases and can, also, be used as a "bridge" to liver transplantation in cases of liver failure. Aim of the work: This study was designed to develop a highly efficient protocol for isolation and transplantation of hepatocytes in experimental Lewis rat model to provide satisfactory guidelines for future application on humans.Materials and Methods: Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver by double perfusion technique and bone marrow cells were isolated by centrifugation of shafts of tibia and femur of donor Lewis rats. Recipient rats were subjected to sub-lethal dose of irradiation 2 days before transplantation. In a laparotomy operation the spleen was injected by freshly isolated hepatocytes and bone marrow cells were injected intravenously. The animals were sacrificed 45 day latter and splenic sections were prepared and stained with H & E, PAS AFP and Prox1. Results: The data obtained from this study showed that the double perfusion technique is successful in separation of hepatocytes regarding cell number and viability. Also the method used for bone marrow cells separation gave excellent results regarding cell number and viability. Intrasplenic engraftment of hepatocytes and live tissue formation within the splenic tissue were found in 70% of cases. Hematoxylin and eosin stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed sheets and clusters of cells among the splenic tissues. Periodic Acid Schiff stained splenic sections from 7 rats showed clusters of hepatocytes with intensely stained pink cytoplasmic granules denoting the presence of glycogen. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-α-fetoprotein antibody showed brownish cytoplasmic staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of AFP. Splenic sections from 7 rats stained with anti-Prox1 showed brownish nuclear staining of the hepatocytes denoting positive expression of Prox1 gene on these cells. Also, positive expression of Prox1 gene was detected on lymphocytes aggregations in the spleens. Conclusions: Isolation of liver cells by double perfusion technique using collagenase buffer is a reliable method that has a very satisfactory yield regarding cell number and viability. The intrasplenic route of transplantation of the freshly isolated liver cells in an immunocompromised model was found to give good results regarding cell engraftment and tissue formation. Further studies are needed to assess function of engrafted hepatocytes by measuring prothrombin time, serum albumin and bilirubin levels.

Keywords: Lewis rats, hepatocytes, BMCs, transplantation, AFP, Prox1

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98 Factor Associated with Uncertainty Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Sandra Adarve, Jhon Osorio

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Uncertainty has been studied in patients with different types of cancer, except in patients with hematologic cancer and undergoing transplantation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with uncertainty in adults patients with malignant hemato-oncology diseases who are scheduled to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation based on Merle Mishel´s Uncertainty theory. This was a cross-sectional study with an analytical purpose. The study sample included 50 patients with leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma selected by non-probability sampling by convenience and intention. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were measured. Mishel´s Scale of Uncertainty in Illness was used for the measurement of uncertainty. A bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the relationships and associations between the different variables and uncertainty level. For this analysis, the distribution of the uncertainty scale values was evaluated through the Shapiro-Wilk normality test to identify statistical tests to be used. A multivariate analysis was conducted through a logistic regression using step-by-step technique. Patients were 18-74 years old, with a mean age of 44.8. Over time, the disease course had a median of 9.5 months, an opportunity was found in the performance of the transplantation of < 20 days for 50% of the patients. Regarding the uncertainty scale, a mean score of 95.46 was identified. When the dimensions of the scale were analyzed, the mean score of the framework of stimuli was 25.6, of cognitive ability was 47.4 and structure providers was 22.8. Age was identified to correlate with the total uncertainty score (p=0.012). Additionally, a statistically significant difference was evidenced between different religious creeds and uncertainty score (p=0.023), education level (p=0.012), family history of cancer (p=0.001), the presence of comorbidities (p=0.023) and previous radiotherapy treatment (p=0.022). After performing logistic regression, previous radiotherapy treatment (OR=0.04 IC95% (0.004-0.48)) and family history of cancer (OR=30.7 IC95% (2.7-349)) were found to be factors associated with the high level of uncertainty. Uncertainty is present in high levels in patients who are going to be subjected to bone marrow transplantation, and it is the responsibility of the nurse to assess the levels of uncertainty and the presence of factors that may contribute to their presence. Once it has been valued, the uncertainty must be intervened from the identified associated factors, especially all those that have to do with the cognitive capacity. This implies the implementation and design of intervention strategies to improve the knowledge related to the disease and the therapeutic procedures to which the patients will be subjected. All interventions should favor the adaptation of these patients to their current experience and contribute to seeing uncertainty as an opportunity for growth and transcendence.

Keywords: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, hematologic diseases, nursing, uncertainty

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97 The Cytomegalovirus Infection among Iranian Kidney Graft Recipients

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh , Nariman Sepehrvand-Zahra Shirmohamadi

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Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common infectious problems following kidney transplantation. In this study, we are aimed to investigate the CMV infection in the setting of renal transplant recipients in Urmia-Iran, using both ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods: Ninety-six renal transplant recipients were selected randomly and enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Blood sampling was done via venipuncture, and all sera were investigated for anti-CMV IgM, and the seropositive cases in association with 14 randomly selected seronegative cases were investigated with PCR assay. Results: Thirty-three patients (34.3%) were seropositive for anti-CMV IgM, 3 patients (3.1%) were in borderline range, and 60 patients (62.5%) were seronegative. By considering the patients with borderline anti-CMV IgM levels as seropositive, 37.5% were seropositive for anti-CMV IgM. Among 36 seropositive cases, the CMV infection was confirmed in 19 (52.7%) of them using PCR. Age (P = 0.40), educational status (P = 0.77), history of pre-transplantation dialysis (0.52), history of blood transfusion (P = 0.52), and immunosuppressive regimen were not statistically different among recipients with positive versus negative CMV PCR study results. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of CMV infection was demonstrated to be high in renal transplant recipients of Urmia-Iran. The rate was higher compared to several previous reports in the literature. ELISA method has an appropriate sensitivity to screen the recipients for CMV infection but considering its relatively low specificity, the seropositive cases are better to be confirmed by further PCR study.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, renal transplantation, ELISA, IgM, PCR

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96 Nursing Experience of Providing Nursing Care to a Lung Transplantation Patient by Applying the Self-Efficacy Theory

Authors: Hsin-Yi Huang

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This study mainly discussed the disease-induced and surgery-induced physical, psychological, and spiritual issues faced by a patient who suffered from emphysema and respiratory failure and had underwent a right-lung transplantation surgery. Nursing care was provided from May 21 to May 29. Based on the observations, interviews, physical examinations, and evaluations that were carried out using Roy’s adaptation model, the following nursing issues were identified: risk of infection, lack of knowledge, and anxiety. Active care was provided and a good nursing relationship with the patient and the patient’s family was established. The four strategies of Bandura’s self-efficacy theory (self-transcendence, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and biofeedback) were employed. Instructions for the appropriate rehabilitation exercises were given, immunosuppressant concentration was monitored, and special measures were taken to prevent infection. The patient was encouraged to express feelings and was provided with sufficient information to alleviate anxiety. With assistance from nursing personnel and the medical team, the patient was successfully discharged from the hospital and thereafter embarked on the path of postoperative recovery. The patient learned about the importance of home self-care and regular follow-up outpatient visits, and patient management was implemented for discharge preparation services. This nursing case study may serve as a reference to nurses managing similar cases in future.

Keywords: anxiety, lung transplantation, Roy's adaptation model, self-efficacy theory

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95 Methane Plasma Modified Polyvinyl Alcohol Scaffolds for Melanocytes Cultivation

Authors: B. Kodedova, E. Filova, M. Kralovic, E. Amler

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Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin characterized by loss of melanocyte in the epidermis that leads to white lesions. One of the possible treatments is autologous transplantation of melanocytes. Biodegradable electrospun polymeric nanofibers provide good mechanical properties and could serve as suitable scaffold for epithelial cells cultivation and follow up transplantation. Moreover the microarchitecture of nanofibers mimics the structure of extracellular matrix and its porosity allows nutrients and waste exchange. The aim of this work was to develop biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric scaffolds suitable for autologous melanocytes transplantation. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were modified by cold methane plasma to lower their hydrofility and to achieve better adhesion, proliferation and viability of the murine melanocyte (Melan-a). Cells were seeded on the modified scaffolds and their adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and melanin synthesis was evaluated and compared to non-modified scaffolds. Results clearly indicate that cold methane plasma modified PVA nanofibers are suitable for melanocyte cultivation and may be future candidate for vitiligo treatment. Furthermore, the nanofibers can be functionalized with various bioactive substances, for enhancement of the melanocyte proliferation, melanogenesis or healing and regenerative processes. The project was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports NPU I: LO1309 and by Grant Agency of Charles University (grant No. 1228214).

Keywords: melanocyte, nanofibers, polyvinyl alcohol, plasma modification

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94 Benign Osteoblastoma of the Mandible Resection and Replacement of the Defects with Decellularized Cattle Bone Scaffold with Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stem Cells

Authors: K. Mardaleishvili, G. Loladze, G. Shatirishivili, D. Chakhunashvili, A. Vishnevskaya, Z. Kakabadze

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Benign osteoblastoma is a benign tumor of the bone, usually affecting the vertebrae and long tubular bones. It is a rarely seen tumor of the facial bones. The authors present a case of a 28-year-old male patient with a tumor in mandibular body. The lesion was radically resected and histological analysis of the specimen demonstrated features typical of a benign osteoblastoma. The defect of the jaw was reconstructed with titanium implants and decellularized and lyophilized cattle bone matrix with mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells transplantation. This presentation describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with decellularized bone scaffold in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient.

Keywords: facial bones, osteoblastoma, stem cells, transplantation

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93 Medical Complications in Diabetic Recipients after Kidney Transplantation

Authors: Hakan Duger, Alparslan Ersoy, Canan Ersoy

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Diabetes mellitus is the most common etiology of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Also, diabetic nephropathy is the etiology of ESRD in approximately 23% of kidney transplant recipients. A successful kidney transplant improves the quality of life and reduces the mortality risk for most patients. However, patients require close follow-up after transplantation due to medical complications. Diabetes mellitus can affect patient morbidity and mortality due to possible effects of immunosuppressive therapy on glucose metabolism. We compared the frequency of medical complications and the outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study conducted in 498 patients who underwent kidney transplant surgery at our center in 10-year periods. The patients were divided into two groups: diabetics (46 ± 10 year, 26 males, 16 females) and non-diabetics (39 ± 12 year, 259 males, 197 females). The medical complications, graft functions, causes of graft loss and death were obtained from medical records. Results: There was no significant difference between recipient age, duration of dialysis, body mass index, gender, donor type, donor age, dialysis type, histories of HBV, HCV and coronary artery disease between two groups. The history of hypertension in diabetics was higher (69% vs. 36%, p < 0.001). The ratios of hypertension (50.1% vs. 57.1%), pneumonia (21.9% vs. 20%), urinary infection (16.9% vs. 20%), transaminase elevation (11.5% vs. 20%), hyperpotasemia (14.7% vs. 17.1%), hyponatremia (9.7% vs. 20%), hypotension (7.1% vs. 7.9%), hypocalcemia (1.4% vs. 0%), thrombocytopenia (8.6% vs. 8.6%), hypoglycemia (0.7% vs. 0%) and neutropenia (1.8% vs. 0%) were comparable in non-diabetic and diabetic groups, respectively. The frequency of hyperglycaemia in diabetics was higher (8.6% vs. 54.3%, p < 0.001). After transplantation, primary non-function (3.4% vs. 2.6%), delayed graft function (25.1% vs. 34.2%) and acute rejection (7.3% vs. 10.5%) ratios of in non-diabetic and diabetic groups were similar, respectively. Hospitalization durations in non-diabetics and diabetics were 22.5 ± 17.5 and 18.7 ± 13 day (p=0.094). Mean serum creatinine levels in non-diabetics and diabetics were 1.54 ± 0.74 and 1.52 ± 0.62 mg/dL at 6th month. Forty patients had graft loss. The ratios of graft loss and death in non-diabetic and diabetic groups were 8.2% vs. 7.1% and 7.1% vs. 2.6% (p > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between graft and patient survivals with the development of medical complication. Conclusion: As a result, medical complications are common in the early period. Hyperglycaemia was frequently seen following transplantation due to the effects of immunosuppressant regimens. However, the frequency of other medical complications in diabetic patients did not differ from non-diabetic one. The most important cause of death is still infections. The development of medical complications during the first 6 months did not significantly affect transplant outcomes.

Keywords: kidney transplantation, diabetes mellitus, complication, graft function

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92 Colonization of Embrionic Gonads of Nile Tilapia by Giant Gourami Testicular Germ Cells

Authors: Irma Andriani, Ita Djuwita, Komar Sumantadinata, Alimuddin

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The recent study has been conducted to develop testicular germ cell transplantation as a tool for preservation and propagation of male germ-plasm from endangered fish species, as well as to produce surrogate broodstock of commercially valuable fish. Giant gourami testis had been used as a model for donor and Nile tilapia larvae as recipient. We developed testicular cell xenotransplantation by optimizing the timing of intraperitoneal cell transplantation to recipient larvae aged 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post hatching (dph). Freshly isolated testis of giant gourami weighing 600–800 g were minced in dissociation medium and then incubated for 3 hours in room temperature to collect monodisperce cell suspension. Donor cells labeled with PKH 26 were transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of Nile tilapia larvae using glass micropipettes. Parameters observed were survival rate of Nile tilapia larvae at 24 hours post transplantation (pt) and colonization efficiency of donor cells at 2 and 3 months pt. The incorporated donor cells were observed under fluorescent microscope. The result showed that the lowest survival rate at 24 hours pt was 1 dph larvae (82.74±6.76%) and the highest survival rate were 3 and 5 dph larvae (95.00±5.00% and 95.00±2.50%, respectively). The highest colonization efficiency was on 3 dph larvae (61.1±34.71%) and the lowest colonization efficiency was on 7 dph larvae (19.43±17.33%). In conclusion, 3 dph Nile tilapia larvae was the best recipient for giant gourami testicular germ cells xenotransplantation.

Keywords: xenotransplantation, testicular germ cell, giant gourami, Nile tilapia, colonization efficiency

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91 Positive Effects of Aerobic Exercise after Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Recovery of Dopaminergic Neurons and Promotion of Angiogenesis Markers in the Striatum of Parkinsonian Rats

Authors: S. A. Hashemvarzi, A. Heidarianpour, Z. Fallahmohammadi, M. Pourghasem, M. Kaviani

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Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative in the central nervous system characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in loss of dopamine release in the striatum. Non-drug treatment options such as Stem cell transplantation and exercise have been considered for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise after bone marrow stem cells transplantation on recovery of dopaminergic neurons and promotion of angiogenesis markers in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups: Normal (N), Sham (S), Parkinson’s (P), Stem cells transplanted Parkinson’s (SP), Exercised Parkinson’s (EP) and Stem cells transplanted + Exercised Parkinson’s (SEP). To create a model of Parkinson's, the striatum was destroyed by injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into the striatum through stereotaxic apparatus. Stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of male rats with 6-8 weeks old. After cultivation, approximately 5×105 cells in 5 microliter of medium were injected into the striatum of rats through the channel. Aerobic exercise was included 8 weeks of running on the treadmill with a speed of 15 meters per minute. At the end, all subjects were decapitated and striatum tissues were separately isolated for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels. Results: VEGF, DA and TH levels in the striatum of parkinsonian rats significantly increased in treatment groups (SP, EP and SEP), especially in SEP group compared to P group after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: The findings implicate that the BMSCs transplantation in combination with exercise would have synergistic effects leading to functional recovery, dopaminergic neurons recovery and promotion of angiogenesis marker in the striatum of parkinsonian rats.

Keywords: stem cells, treadmill training, neurotrophic factors, Parkinson

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90 Immature Platelet Fraction and Immature Reticulocyte Fraction as Early Predictors of Hematopoietic Recovery Post Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Aditi Mittal, Nishit Gupta, Tina Dadu, Anil Handoo

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Introduction: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment done for hematologic malignancies and other clinical conditions. Its main objective is to reconstitute the hematopoietic system of the recipient by administering an infusion of donor hematopoietic stem cells. Transplant engraftment is the first sign of bone marrow recovery. The main objective of this study is to assess immature platelet fraction (IPF) and immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) as early indicators of post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant engraftment. Methods: Patients of all age groups and both genders undergoing both autologous and allogeneic transplants were included in the study. All the CBC samples were run on Mindray CAL-8000 (BC-6800 plus; Shenzhen, China) analyser and assessed for IPF and IRF. Neutrophil engraftment was defined as the first of three consecutive days with an ANC >0.5 x 109/L and platelet engraftment with a count >20 x 109/L. The cut-off values for IRF were calculated as 13.5% with a CV of 5% and for IPF was 19% with a CV of 12%. Results: The study sample comprised 200 patients, of whom 116 had undergone autologous HSCT, and 84 had undergone allogeneic HSCT. We observed that IRF anticipated the neutrophil recovery by an average of 5 days prior to IPF. Though there was no significant variation in IPF and IRF for the prediction of platelet recovery, IRF was preceded by 1 or 2 days to IPF in 25% of cases. Conclusions: Both IPF and IRF can be used as reliable parameters as predictors for post-transplant engraftment; however, IRF seems to be more reliable than IPF as a simple, inexpensive, and widely available tool for predicting marrow recovery several days before engraftment.

Keywords: transplantation, stem cells, reticulocyte, engraftment

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89 Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems and the Improvement in Hypoglycemic Awareness Post-Islet Transplantation: A Single-Centre Cohort Study

Authors: Clare Flood, Shareen Forbes

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Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder affecting >400,000 people in the UK alone, with the global prevalence expected to double in the next decade. Islet transplant offers a minimally-invasive procedure with very low morbidity and almost no mortality, and is now as effective as whole pancreas transplant. The procedure was introduced to the UK in 2011 for patients with the most severe type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) – those with unstable blood glucose, frequently occurring episodes of severe hypoglycemia and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH). Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of islet transplantation in improving glycemic control, reducing the burden of hypoglycemia and improving awareness of hypoglycemia through a single-centre cohort study at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Glycemic control and degree of hypoglycemic awareness will be determined and monitored pre- and post-transplantation to determine effectiveness of the procedure. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data collected over three years from the 16 patients who have undergone islet transplantation in Scotland. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) were utilised to assess glycemic control, while Gold and Clarke score questionnaires tested IAH. Results: All patients had improved glycemic control following transplant, with optimal control seen visually at 3 months post-transplant. Glycemic control significantly improved, as illustrated by percentage time in hypoglycemia in the months following transplant (p=0.0211) and HbA1c (p=0.0426). Improved Clarke (p=0.0034) and Gold (p=0.0001) scores indicate improved glycemic awareness following transplant. Conclusion: While the small sample of islet transplant recipients at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh prevents definitive conclusions being drawn, it is indicated that through our retrospective, single-centre cohort study of 16 patients, islet transplant is capable of improving glycemic control, reducing the burden of hypoglycemia and IAH post-transplant. Data can be combined with similar trials at other centres to increase statistical power but from research in Edinburgh, it can be suggested that the minimally invasive procedure of islet transplantation offers selected patients with extremely unstable T1DM the incredible opportunity to regain control of their condition and improve their quality of life.

Keywords: diabetes, islet, transplant, CGMS

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88 Companies and Transplant Tourists to China

Authors: Pavel Porubiak, Lukas Kudlacek

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Introduction Transplant tourism is a controversial method of obtaining an organ, and that goes all the more for a country such as China, where sources of evidence point out to the possibility of organs being harvested illegally. This research aimed at listing the individual countries these tourists come from, or which medical companies sell transplant related products in there, with China being used as an example. Materials and methods The methodology of scoping study was used for both parts of the research. The countries from which transplant tourists come to China were identified by a search through existing medical studies in the NCBI PubMed database, listed under the keyword ‘transplantation in China’. The search was not limited by any other criteria, but only the studies available for free – directly on PubMed or a linked source – were used. Other research studies on this topic were considered as well. The companies were identified through multiple methods. The first was an online search focused on medical companies and their products. The Bloomberg Service, used by stock brokers worldwide, was then used to identify the revenue of these companies in individual countries – if data were available – as well as their business presence in China. A search through the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission was done in the same way. Also a search on the Chinese internet was done, and to obtain more results, a second online search was done as well. The results and discussion The extensive search has identified 14 countries with transplant tourists to China. The search for a similar studies or reports resulted in finding additional six countries. The companies identified by our research also amounted to 20. Eight of them are sourcing China with organ preservation products – of which one is just trying to enter the Chinese market, six with immunosuppressive drugs, four with transplant diagnostics, one with medical robots which Chinese doctors use for transplantation as well, and another one trying to enter the Chinese market with a consumable-type product also related to transplantation. The conclusion The question of the ethicality of transplant tourism may be very pressing, since as the research shows, just the sheer amount of participating countries, sourcing transplant tourists to another one, amounts to 20. The identified companies are facing risks due to the nature of transplantation business in China, as officially executed prisoners are used as sources, and widely cited pieces of evidence point out to illegal organ harvesting. Similar risks and ethical questions are also relevant to the countries sourcing the transplant tourists to China.

Keywords: China, illegal organ harvesting, transplant tourism, organ harvesting technology

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87 Growth and Bone Health in Children following Liver Transplantation

Authors: Faris Alkhalil, Rana Bitar, Amer Azaz, Hisham Natour, Noora Almeraikhi, Mohamad Miqdady

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Background: Children with liver transplantation are achieving very good survival and so there is now a need to concentrate on achieving good health in these patients and preventing disease. Immunosuppressive medications have side effects that need to be monitored and if possible avoided. Glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors are detrimental to bone and mineral homeostasis in addition steroids can also affect linear growth. Steroid sparing regimes in renal transplant children has shown to improve children’s height. Aim: We aim to review the growth and bone health of children post liver transplant by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan and assessing if there is a clear link between poor growth and impaired bone health and use of long term steroids. Subjects and Methods: This is a single centre retrospective Cohort study, we reviewed the medical notes of children (0-16 years) who underwent a liver transplantation between November 2000 to November 2016 and currently being followed at our centre. Results: 39 patients were identified (25 males and 14 females), the median transplant age was 2 years (range 9 months - 16 years), and the median follow up was 6 years. Four patients received a combined transplant, 2 kidney and liver transplant and 2 received a liver and small bowel transplant. The indications for transplant included, Biliary Atresia (31%), Acute Liver failure (18%), Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (15%), transplantable metabolic disease (10%), TPN related liver disease (8%), Primary Hyperoxaluria (5%), Hepatocellular carcinoma (3%) and other causes (10%). 36 patients (95%) were on a calcineurin inhibitor (34 patients were on Tacrolimus and 2 on Cyclosporin). The other three patients were on Sirolimus. Low dose long-term steroids was used in 21% of the patients. A considerable proportion of the patients had poor growth. 15% were below the 3rd centile for weight for age and 21% were below the 3rd centile for height for age. Most of our patients with poor growth were not on long term steroids. 49% of patients had a DEXA scan post transplantation. 21% of these children had low bone mineral density, one patient had met osteoporosis criteria with a vertebral fracture. Most of our patients with impaired bone health were not on long term steroids. 20% of the patients who did not undergo a DEXA scan developed long bone fractures and 50% of them were on long term steroid use which may suggest impaired bone health in these patients. Summary and Conclusion: The incidence of impaired bone health, although studied in limited number of patients; was high. Early recognition and treatment should be instituted to avoid fractures and improve bone health. Many of the patients were below the 3rd centile for weight and height however there was no clear relationship between steroid use and impaired bone health, reduced weight and reduced linear height.

Keywords: bone, growth, pediatric, liver, transplantation

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86 Induction of HIV-1 Resistance: The New Approaches Based on Gene Modification and Stem Cell Engineering

Authors: Alieh Farshbaf

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Introduction: Current anti-retroviral drugs have some restrictions for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The efficacy of retroviral drugs is not same in different infected patients and the virus rebound from latent reservoirs after stopping them. Recently, the engineering of stem cells and gene therapy provide new approaches to eliminate some drug problems by induction of resistance to HIV-1. Literature review: Up to now, AIDS-restriction genes (ARGs) were suitable candidate for gene and cell therapies, such as cc-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5). In this manner, CCR5 provide effective cure in Berlin and Boston patients by inducing of HIV-1 resistance with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is showed that Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) could induce HIV-1 resistance in stem cells of infected patients by homologous recombination or non-end joining mechanism and eliminate virus loading after returning the modified cells. Then, gene modification by HIV restriction factors, as TRIM5, introduced another gene candidate for HIV by interfering in infection process. These gene modifications/editing provided by stem cell futures that improve treatment in refractory disease such as HIV-1. Conclusion: Although stem cell transplantation has some complications, but in compare to retro-viral drugs demonstrated effective cure by elimination of virus loading. On the other hand, gene therapy is cost-effective for an infected patient than retroviral drugs payment in a person life-long. The results of umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation showed that gene and cell therapy will be applied easier than previous treatment of AIDS with high efficacy.

Keywords: stem cell, AIDS, gene modification, cell engineering

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85 MRCP as a Pre-Operative Tool for Predicting Variant Biliary Anatomy in Living Related Liver Donors

Authors: Awais Ahmed, Atif Rana, Haseeb Zia, Maham Jahangir, Rashed Nazir, Faisal Dar

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Purpose: Biliary complications represent the most common cause of morbidity in living related liver donor transplantation and detailed preoperative evaluation of biliary anatomic variants is crucial for safe patient selection and improved surgical outcomes. Purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of preoperative MRCP in predicting biliary variations when compared to intraoperative cholangiography in living related liver donors. Materials and Methods: From 44 potential donors, 40 consecutive living related liver donors (13 females and 28 males) underwent donor hepatectomy at our centre from April 2012 to August 2013. MRCP and IOC of all patients were retrospectively reviewed separately by two radiologists and a transplant surgeon.MRCP was performed on 1.5 Tesla MR magnets using breath-hold heavily T2 weighted radial slab technique. One patient was excluded due to suboptimal MRCP. The accuracy of MRCP for variant biliary anatomy was calculated. Results: MRCP accurately predicted the biliary anatomy in 38 of 39 cases (97 %). Standard biliary anatomy was predicted by MRCP in 25 (64 %) donors (100% sensitivity). Variant biliary anatomy was noted in 14 (36 %) IOCs of which MRCP predicted precise anatomy of 13 variants (93 % sensitivity). The two most common variations were drainage of the RPSD into the LHD (50%) and the triple confluence of the RASD, RPSD and LHD (21%). Conclusion: MRCP is a sensitive imaging tool for precise pre-operative mapping of biliary variations which is critical to surgical decision making in living related liver transplantation.

Keywords: intraoperative cholangiogram, liver transplantation, living related donors, magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreaticogram (MRCP)

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84 Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as an Early Marker of Acute Kidney Injury in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients

Authors: Sara Ataei, Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Amir Sarayani, Asieh Ashouri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Kheirollah Gholami

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Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients with an incidence of 21–73%. Prevention and early diagnosis reduces the frequency and severity of this complication. Predictive biomarkers are of major importance to timely diagnosis. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a widely investigated novel biomarker for early diagnosis of AKI. However, no study assessed NGAL for AKI diagnosis in HSCT patients. Methods: We performed further analyses on gathered data from our recent trial to evaluate the performance of urine NGAL (uNGAL) as an indicator of AKI in 72 allogeneic HSCT patients. AKI diagnosis and severity were assessed using Risk–Injury–Failure–Loss–End-stage renal disease and AKI Network criteria. We assessed uNGAL on days -6, -3, +3, +9 and +15. Results: Time-dependent Cox regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between uNGAL and AKI occurrence. (HR=1.04 (1.008-1.07), P=0.01). There was a relation between uNGAL day +9 to baseline ratio and incidence of AKI (unadjusted HR=.1.047(1.012-1.083), P<0.01). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for day +9 to baseline ratio was 0.86 (0.74-0.99, P<0.01) and a cut-off value of 2.62 was 85% sensitive and 83% specific in predicting AKI. Conclusions: Our results indicated that increase in uNGAL augmented the risk of AKI and the changes of day +9 uNGAL concentrations from baseline could be of value for predicting AKI in HSCT patients. Additionally uNGAL changes preceded serum creatinine rises by nearly 2 days.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, hemtopoietic stem cell transplantation, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, Receiver-operating characteristic curve

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83 Excess Body Fat as a Store Toxin Affecting the Glomerular Filtration and Excretory Function of the Liver in Patients after Renal Transplantation

Authors: Magdalena B. Kaziuk, Waldemar Kosiba, Marek J. Kuzniewski

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Introduction: Adipose tissue is a typical place for storage water-insoluble toxins in the body. It's connective tissue, where the intercellular substance consist of fat, which level in people with low physical activity should be 18-25% for women and 13-18% for men. Due to the fat distribution in the body we distinquish two types of obesity: android (visceral, abdominal) and gynoidal (gluteal-femoral, peripheral). Abdominal obesity increases the risk of complications of the cardiovascular system diseases, and impaired renal and liver function. Through the influence on disorders of metabolism, lipid metabolism, diabetes and hypertension, leading to emergence of the metabolic syndrome. So thus, obesity will especially overload kidney function in patients after transplantation. Aim: An attempt was made to estimate the impact of amount fat tissue on transplanted kidney function and excretory function of the liver in patients after Ktx. Material and Methods: The study included 108 patients (50 females, 58 male, age 46.5 +/- 12.9 years) with active kidney transplant after more than 3 months from the transplantation. An analysis of body composition was done by using electrical bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometric measurements. Estimated basal metabolic rate (BMR), muscle mass, total body water content and the amount of body fat. Information about physical activity were obtained during clinical examination. Nutritional status, and type of obesity were determined by using indicators: Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) and Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR). Excretory functions of the transplanted kidney was rated by calculating the estimated renal glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Liver function was rated by total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase levels ALT concentration in serum. In our patients haemolitic uremic syndrome (HUS) was excluded. Results: In 19.44% of patients had underweight, 22.37% of the respondents were with normal weight, 11.11% had overweight, and the rest were with obese (49.08%). People with android stature have a lower eGFR compared with those with the gynoidal stature (p = 0.004). All patients with obesity had higher amount of body fat from a few to several percent. The higher amount of body fat percentage, the lower eGFR had patients (p <0.001). Elevated ALT levels significantly correlated with a high fat content (p <0.02). Conclusion: Increased amount of body fat, particularly in the case of android obesity can be a predictor of kidney and liver damage. Due to that obese patients should have more frequent control of diagnostic functions of these organs and the intensive dietary proceedings, pharmacological and regular physical activity adapted to the current physical condition of patients after transplantation.

Keywords: obesity, body fat, kidney transplantation, glomerular filtration rate, liver function

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82 The Digital Microscopy in Organ Transplantation: Ergonomics of the Tele-Pathological Evaluation of Renal, Liver, and Pancreatic Grafts

Authors: Constantinos S. Mammas, Andreas Lazaris, Adamantia S. Mamma-Graham, Georgia Kostopanagiotou, Chryssa Lemonidou, John Mantas, Eustratios Patsouris

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The process to build a better safety culture, methods of error analysis, and preventive measures, starts with an understanding of the effects when human factors engineering refer to remote microscopic diagnosis in surgery and specially in organ transplantation for the evaluation of the grafts. Α high percentage of solid organs arrive at the recipient hospitals and are considered as injured or improper for transplantation in the UK. Digital microscopy adds information on a microscopic level about the grafts (G) in Organ Transplant (OT), and may lead to a change in their management. Such a method will reduce the possibility that a diseased G will arrive at the recipient hospital for implantation. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the ergonomics of digital microscopy (DM) based on virtual slides, on telemedicine systems (TS) for tele-pathological evaluation (TPE) of the grafts (G) in organ transplantation (OT). Material and Methods: By experimental simulation, the ergonomics of DM for microscopic TPE of renal graft (RG), liver graft (LG) and pancreatic graft (PG) tissues is analyzed. In fact, this corresponded to the ergonomics of digital microscopy for TPE in OT by applying virtual slide (VS) system for graft tissue image capture, for remote diagnoses of possible microscopic inflammatory and/or neoplastic lesions. Experimentation included the development of an OTE-TS similar experimental telemedicine system (Exp.-TS) for simulating the integrated VS based microscopic TPE of RG, LG and PG Simulation of DM on TS based TPE performed by 2 specialists on a total of 238 human renal graft (RG), 172 liver graft (LG) and 108 pancreatic graft (PG) tissues digital microscopic images for inflammatory and neoplastic lesions on four electronic spaces of the four used TS. Results: Statistical analysis of specialist‘s answers about the ability to accurately diagnose the diseased RG, LG and PG tissues on the electronic space among four TS (A,B,C,D) showed that DM on TS for TPE in OT is elaborated perfectly on the ES of a desktop, followed by the ES of the applied Exp.-TS. Tablet and mobile-phone ES seem significantly risky for the application of DM in OT (p<.001). Conclusion: To make the largest reduction in errors and adverse events referring to the quality of the grafts, it will take application of human factors engineering to procurement, design, audit, and awareness-raising activities. Consequently, it will take an investment in new training, people, and other changes to management activities for DM in OT. The simulating VS based TPE with DM of RG, LG and PG tissues after retrieval, seem feasible and reliable and dependable on the size of the electronic space of the applied TS, for remote prevention of diseased grafts from being retrieved and/or sent to the recipient hospital and for post-grafting and pre-transplant planning.

Keywords: digital microscopy, organ transplantation, tele-pathology, virtual slides

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81 Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Potential Source for Cell Therapy in Liver Disorders

Authors: Laila Montaser, Hala Gabr, Maha El-Bassuony, Gehan Tawfeek

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Orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT) is the final procedure of both end stage and metabolic liver diseases. Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative for OLT, but the sources of hepatocytes are limited. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and are a potential alternative source for hepatocytes. The MSCs from bone marrow are a promising target population as they are capable of differentiating along multiple lineages and, at least in vitro, have significant expansion capability. MSCs from bone marrow may have the potential to differentiate in vitro and in vivo into hepatocytes. Our study examined whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are stem cells originated from human bone marrow, are able to differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. Our aim was to investigate the differentiation potential of BM-MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells. Adult stem cell therapy could solve the problem of degenerative disorders, including liver disease.

Keywords: bone marrow, differentiation, hepatocyte, stem cells

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80 Clinical Pathway for Postoperative Organ Transplantation

Authors: Tahsien Okasha

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Transplantation medicine is one of the most challenging and complex areas of modern medicine. Some of the key areas for medical management are the problems of transplant rejection, during which the body has an immune response to the transplanted organ, possibly leading to transplant failure and the need to immediately remove the organ from the recipient. When possible, transplant rejection can be reduced through serotyping to determine the most appropriate donor-recipient match and through the use of immunosuppressant drugs. Postoperative care actually begins before the surgery in terms of education, discharge planning, nutrition, pulmonary rehabilitation, and patient/family education. This also allows for expectations to be managed. A multidisciplinary approach is the key, and collaborative team meetings are essential to ensuring that all team members are "on the same page." .The following clinical pathway map and guidelines with the aim to decrease alteration in clinical practice and are intended for those healthcare professionals who look after organ transplant patients. They are also intended to be useful to both medical and surgical trainees as well as nurse specialists and other associated healthcare professionals involved in the care of organ transplant patients. This pathway is general pathway include the general guidelines that can be applicable for all types of organ transplant with special considerations to each organ.

Keywords: postoperative care, organ transplant, clinical pathway, patient

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