Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: IL-17

5 IL-23, an Inflammatory Cytokine, Decreased by Shark Cartilage and Vitamin A Oral Treatment in Patient with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zarei, Hassan zm, Abolghasem Ajami, Darush Moslemi, Narges Afsary, Amrollah Mostafa-zade

Abstract:

Introduction: IL-23 is responsible for the differentiation and expansion of Th17/ThIL-17 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. Therefore, may be IL-23/IL17 axis involve in a variety of allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as RA, MS, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asthma. TGF-β is also share for the differentiation Th17 producing IL-17 and CD4+CD25+Foxp3hiT regulatory cells from naïve CD4+ T cells which are involved in the regulation of immune response, maintaining immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis ,and the control of autoimmunity and cancer surveillance. Therefore, T regulatory cells play a key role in autoimmunity, allergy, cancer, infectious disease, and the induction of transplantation tolerance. Vitamin A and it's derivatives (retinoids) inhibit or reverse the carcinogenic process in some types of cancers in oral cavity,head and neck, breast, skin, liver, and blood cells. Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, in vitro. Our purpose is whether simultaneous oral treatment vitamin A and shark cartilage can modulate IL-23/IL-17 and CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory cell/TGF-β pathways and Th1/Th2 immunity in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23,IL-17,TGF-β,IL-4 and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: An imbalance between IL-17 secretion and TGF-β/Foxp3 t regulatory cell pathway and so, Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) was not seen in patients with gastric cancer treated by vitamin A and shark cartilage. But, the simultaneously presented down-regulation of IL-23 indicated, at least cytokine level. Conclusion: Il-23, as a pro-angiogenesis cytokine, probably, help to tumor growth. Hence, suggested that down-regulation of IL-23, at least cytokine level, is useful for anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage and gastric cancer

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4 The Pro-Reparative Effect of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Chronic Inflammatory Osteolytic Periapical Lesions

Authors: Michelle C. S. Azevedo, Priscila M. Colavite, Carolina F. Francisconi, Ana P. Trombone, Gustavo P. Garlet

Abstract:

VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) know as a potential protective factor in the view of its marked immunosuppressive properties. In this work, we investigated a possible association of VIP with the clinical status of experimental periapical granulomas and the association with expression markers in the lesions potentially associated with periapical lesions pathogenesis. C57BL/6WT mice were treated or not with recombinant VIP. Animals with active/progressive (N=40), inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas and controls (N=50) were anesthetized and the right mandibular first molar was surgically opened, allowing exposure of dental pulp. Endodontic pathogenic bacterial strains were inoculated: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Actinomyces viscosus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum. The cavity was not sealed after bacterial inoculation. During lesion development, animals were treated or not with recombinant VIP 3 days post infection. Animals were killed after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of infection and the jaws were dissected. The extraction of total RNA from periodontal tissues was performed and the integrity of samples was checked. qPCR reaction using TaqMan chemistry with inventoried primers were performed in ViiA7 equipment. The results, depicted as the relative levels of gene expression, were calculated in reference to GAPDH and β-actin expression. Periodontal tissues from upper molars were vested and incubated supplemented RPMI, followed by processing with 0.05% DNase. Cell viability and couting were determined by Neubauer chamber analysis. For flow cytometry analysis, after cell counting the cells were stained with the optimal dilution of each antibody; (PE)-conjugated and (FITC)-conjugated antibodies against CD4, CD25, FOXP3, IL-4, IL-17 and IFN-γ antibodies, as well their respective isotype controls. Cells were analyzed by FACScan and CellQuest software. Results are presented as the number of cells in the periodontal tissues or the number of positive cells for each marker in the CD4+FOXp3+, CD4+IL-4+, CD4+IFNg+ and CD4+IL-17+ subpopulations. The levels mRNA were measured by qPCR. The VIP expression was predominated in inactive lesions, as well part of the clusters of cytokine/Th markers identified as protective factors and a negative correlation between VIP expression and lesion evolution was observed. A quantitative analysis of IL1β, IL17, TNF, IFN, MMP2, RANKL, OPG, IL10, TGFβ, CTLA4, COL5A1, CTGF, CXCL11, FGF7, ITGA4, ITGA5, SERP1 and VTN expression was measured in experimental periapical lesions treated with VIP 7 and 14 days after lesion induction and healthy animals. After 7 days, all targets presented a significate increase in comparison to untreated animals. About migration kinetics, profile of chemokine receptors expression of TCD4+ subsets and phenotypic analysis of Tregs, Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells during the course of experimental periodontal disease evaluated by flow cytometry and depicted as the number of positive cells for each marker. CD4+IFNg+ and CD4+FOXp3+ cells migration were significate increased 7 days post VIP treatment. CD4+IL17+ cells migration were significate increased 7 and 14 days post VIP treatment, CD4+IL4+ cells migration were significate increased 14 and 21 days post VIP treatment compared to the control group. In conclusion, our experimental data support VIP involvement in determining the inactivity of periapical lesions. Financial support: FAPESP #2015/25618-2.

Keywords: chronic inflammation, cytokines, osteolytic lesions, VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide)

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3 Shark Cartilage Modulate IL-23/IL-17 Axis by Increasing IFN-γ and Decreasing IL-4 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zareia, Hassan ZMB, Darush Moslemic, Amrollah Mostafa-Zaded

Abstract:

Introduction: Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, at least, in vitro. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the immune-effectiveness on imbalance between IL-23/IL-17 axis, as an inflammatory pathway and TGF/Foxp3 T regulatory as a inhibitory pathway of commercial shark cartilage that is available as a non-common dietary supplement in IRAN. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-4, and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: The simultaneously presented up-regulation IL-17A indicated, at least cytokine level without changing in TGF-β amount or CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T regulatory cells, that there are not a direct correlation between IL-23/IL-17 axis and Treg/TGF-β pathway in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage, but IL-23 was not expressed differentially in this group. So, accompany these changes, an imbalance between Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) evaluated in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage. Conclusion: On the basis of results, we propose that shark cartilage, by reducing IL-4, decreasing IL-17 a central cytokine in angiogenesis and increasing γ-IFN amplify anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4+CD25+Foxp3high T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage, gastric cancer

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2 In vitro Modulation of Cytokine Expression by an Aqueous Licorice Extract in Canine

Authors: A. Watson, G. Telford, D. I. Pritchard

Abstract:

Objective: We investigated the immunomodulatory ability of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Such activities could have value for the management of common immunological diseases in dogs, such as environmental allergy. This study investigated the potential of a Licorice root extract (LRE) to influence the relative expression of Th-1, Th-2, and Th-17 cytokines in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods: A LRE was prepared using an alcoholic-aqueous-based solvent method. The extract was tested in three in vitro assays using canine leukocytes to determine its toxicity and immunoregulatory profile. Extract toxicity was assessed using the human T-lymphocyte cell line, Jurkat E6.1. The impact of the extract on the proliferation of concanavalin-activated canine PBMC was also determined. Finally, the extract was assessed for its ability to influence cytokine release in activated PBMC, measuring culture medium concentrations of interleukin-17, interferon gamma, and interleukin-4. One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post-test was used for statistics using concanavalin positive control as reference (p ≤ 0.05). Results: There was evidence that the LRE had specific immunomodulatory properties, causing significant inhibition of IL4 expression over a non-toxic/non-cytostatic concentration range (p < 0.001). In the same cell incubations, there was no significant impact on IL17 nor IFNg over the same non-toxic/non-cytostatic concentration range. Conclusion: The study provides in vitro evidence that LRE preferentially reduces the expression of a Th-2-type cytokine, IL4. The dog population, as with humans, is prone to conditions associated with a Th-2 bias of the immune system, such as environmental allergy. Based on these results, licorice merits further evaluation as a useful immune modulator for such allergic diseases.

Keywords: cytokine, Glycyrrhiza glabra, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, T-cell activation

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1 Bioinformatic Prediction of Hub Genes by Analysis of Signaling Pathways, Transcriptional Regulatory Networks and DNA Methylation Pattern in Colon Cancer

Authors: Ankan Roy, Niharika, Samir Kumar Patra

Abstract:

Anomalous nexus of complex topological assemblies and spatiotemporal epigenetic choreography at chromosomal territory may forms the most sophisticated regulatory layer of gene expression in cancer. Colon cancer is one of the leading malignant neoplasms of the lower gastrointestinal tract worldwide. There is still a paucity of information about the complex molecular mechanisms of colonic cancerogenesis. Bioinformatics prediction and analysis helps to identify essential genes and significant pathways for monitoring and conquering this deadly disease. The present study investigates and explores potential hub genes as biomarkers and effective therapeutic targets for colon cancer treatment. Colon cancer patient sample containing gene expression profile datasets, such as GSE44076, GSE20916, and GSE37364 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and thoroughly screened using the GEO2R tool and Funrich software to find out common 2 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Other approaches, including Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis, Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network construction and hub gene investigation, Overall Survival (OS) analysis, gene correlation analysis, methylation pattern analysis, and hub gene-Transcription factors regulatory network construction, were performed and validated using various bioinformatics tool. Initially, we identified 166 DEGs, including 68 up-regulated and 98 down-regulated genes. Up-regulated genes are mainly associated with the Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, IL17 signaling pathway, ECM-receptor interaction, Focal adhesion and PI3K-Akt pathway. Downregulated genes are enriched in metabolic pathways, retinol metabolism, Steroid hormone biosynthesis, and bile secretion. From the protein-protein interaction network, thirty hub genes with high connectivity are selected using the MCODE and cytoHubba plugin. Survival analysis, expression validation, correlation analysis, and methylation pattern analysis were further verified using TCGA data. Finally, we predicted COL1A1, COL1A2, COL4A1, SPP1, SPARC, and THBS2 as potential master regulators in colonic cancerogenesis. Moreover, our experimental data highlights that disruption of lipid raft and RAS/MAPK signaling cascade affects this gene hub at mRNA level. We identified COL1A1, COL1A2, COL4A1, SPP1, SPARC, and THBS2 as determinant hub genes in colon cancer progression. They can be considered as biomarkers for diagnosis and promising therapeutic targets in colon cancer treatment. Additionally, our experimental data advertise that signaling pathway act as connecting link between membrane hub and gene hub.

Keywords: hub genes, colon cancer, DNA methylation, epigenetic engineering, bioinformatic predictions

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