Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Eryati Darwin

16 Analysis of Brain Specific Creatine Kinase of Postmortem Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum in Blunt Head Trauma Cases

Authors: Rika Susanti, Eryati Darwin, Dedi Afandi, Yanwirasti, Syahruddin Said, Noverika Windasari, Zelly Dia Rofinda

Abstract:

Introduction: Blunt head trauma is one of the leading causes of death associated with murders and other deaths involved in criminal acts. Creatine kinase (CKBB) levels have been used as a biomarker for blunt head trauma. Therefore, it is now used as an alternative to an autopsy. The aim of this study is to investigate CKBB levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and post-mortem serum in order to deduce the cause and time of death. Method: This investigation was conducted through post-test–only group design involving deaths caused by blunt head trauma, which was compared to deaths caused by ketamine poisoning. Results: There were eight treatment groups, each consisting of six adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague-Dawley strain. Examinations were done at 0 hours, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours post-mortem, which followed by brain tissue observation. Data were then analyzed statistically with a repeated-measures general linear model. Conclusion: There were increases in the level of CKBB in CSF and postmortem serum in both blunt head trauma and ketamine poisoning treatment groups. However, there were no significant differences between these two groups.

Keywords: blunt head trauma, CKBB, the cause of death, estimated time of death

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15 Role of Pro-Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines in Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease in Association with Autoantibody Thyroid and Regulatory FoxP3 T-Cells

Authors: Dwitya Elvira, Eryati Darwin

Abstract:

Background: Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease. Imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells and T-regulatory (Treg)/Th17 cells was thought to play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of GD. Treg FoxP3 produced TGF-β to maintain regulatory function, and Th17 cells produced IL-17 as cytokines that were thought in mediating several autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the role of IL-17 and TGF-β in the pathogenesis of GD and to investigate its correlation with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody (TRAb) and Treg FoxP3 expression. Method: 30 GD patients and 27 age and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of GD was based on clinical and biochemical of GD. Serum IL-17, TGF-β, TRAb, and FoxP3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 (SPSS Inc.). Spearman rank correlation test was used for assessment of correlation. The statistical significance was accepted as P<0.05. Result: There was no significant correlation between IL-17 and TGF-β serum with expression of FoxP3 level in GD, but there was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb serum level (P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-17 and TGF-β were found to be elevated in patient group compared to control, where mean values of IL-17 were 14.43±2.15 pg/mL and TGF-β were 10.44±3.19 pg/mL in patients group; and in control group, level of IL-17 were 7.1±1.45 pg/mL and TGF-β were 4.95±1.35 pg/mL. Conclusion: Serum Il-17 and TGF-β were elevated in GD patients that reflect the role of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines activation in pathogenesis of GD. There was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb, revealing that Treg cytokines may play a role in pathogenesis of GD.

Keywords: IL-17, TGF-B, FoxP3, TRAb, Graves’ disease

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14 Effect of Psychological Stress to the Mucosal IL-6 and Helicobacter pylori Activity in Functional Dyspepsia and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Arina Widya Murni, Adnil Edwin Nurdin

Abstract:

Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. Most patients with FD complain of symptoms related to the intake of meals. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and had an effect on ulcers associated Hp, and may also trigger worsen symptoms in inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal. Cells in mucosal gastric stimulate the production of several cytokines, which might associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The cascade of biological events leading to stress-induced FD remains poorly understood. Aim of Study: To determine the prion-flammatory cytokine IL-6, and Helicobacter pylori activity on mucosal gastric of FD and their association with psychological stress. Methods: The subjects of this study were dyspeptic patients who visited M. Djamil General Hospital and in two Community Health Centers in Padang. On the basis of the stress index scale to identify psychological stress by using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 42), subjects were divided into two groups of 20 each, stress groups and non-stress groups. All diagnoses were confirmed by review of cortisol and esophagogastroduodenoscopy reports. Gastric biopsy samples and peripheral blood were taken during diagnostic procedures. Immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine the expression of IL-6 and Hp in gastric mucosal. The data were statistically analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis. All procedures of this study were approved by Research Ethics Committee of Medical Faculty Andalas University. Results: In this study, we enrolled 40 FD patients (26 woman and 14 men) in range between 35-56 years old. Cortisol level of blood FD patients as parameter of stress hormone which taken in the morning was significantly higher in stress group than non-stress group. The expression of IL-6 in gastric mucosa was significantly higher in stress group in compared to non-stress group (p<0,05). Helicobacter pylori activity in gastric mucosal in stress group were significantly higher than non-stress group. Conclusion: The present study showed that psychological stress can induce gastric mucosal inflammation and increase of Helicobacter pylori activity.

Keywords: functional dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori, interleukin-6, psychological stress

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13 The Effect of Physical Exercise to Level of Nuclear Factor Kappa B on Serum, Macrophages and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Eka Fithra Elfi, Indria Hafizah

Abstract:

Background: Physical exercise induces a pattern of hormonal and immunological responses that prevent endothelial dysfunction by maintaining the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Regular and moderate exercise stimulates NO release, that can be considered as protective factor of cardiovascular diseases, while strenuous exercise induces increased levels in a number of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers endothelial activation which results in an increased vascular permeability. Nuclear gene factor kappa B (NF-κB) activates biological effect of TNF-α. Aim of Study: To determine the effect of physical exercise on the endothelial and skeletal muscle, we measured the level of NF-κB on rats’ serum, macrophages, and myocytes after strenuous physical exercise. Methods: 30 male Rattus norvegicus in the age of eight weeks were randomly divided into five groups (each containing six), and there were treated groups (T) and control group (C). The treated groups obtain strenuous physical exercise by ran on treadmill at 32 m/minutes for 1 hour or until exhaustion. Blood samples, myocytes of gastrocnemius muscle, and intraperitoneal macrophages were collected sequentially. There were investigated immediately, 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours (T1, T2, T3, and T4) after sacrifice. The levels of NF-κB were measured by ELISA methods. Results: From our study, we found that the levels of NF-κB on myocytes in treated group from which its specimen was taken immediately (T1), 2 hours after treadmill (T2), and 6 hours after treadmill (T3) were significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), while the group from which its specimen was taken 24 hours after treadmill, was no significantly different (p>0.05). Also on macrophages, NF-κB in treated groups T1, T2, and T3 was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), but there was no difference between T4 and control group (p>0.05). The level of serum NF-κB was not significantly different between treatment group as well as compared to control group (p>0.05). Serum NF-κB was significantly higher than the level on macrophages and myocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that strenuous physical exercise stimulates the activation of NF-κB that plays a role in vascular inflammation and muscular damage, and may be recovered after resting period.

Keywords: endothelial function, inflammation, NFkB, physical exercise

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12 Effect of 3-Dimensional Knitted Spacer Fabrics Characteristics on Its Thermal and Compression Properties

Authors: Veerakumar Arumugam, Rajesh Mishra, Jiri Militky, Jana Salacova

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The thermo-physiological comfort and compression properties of knitted spacer fabrics have been evaluated by varying the different spacer fabric parameters. Air permeability and water vapor transmission of the fabrics were measured using the Textest FX-3300 air permeability tester and PERMETEST. Then thermal behavior of fabrics was obtained by Thermal conductivity analyzer and overall moisture management capacity was evaluated by moisture management tester. Spacer Fabrics compression properties were also tested using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES-FB3). In the KES testing, the compression resilience, work of compression, linearity of compression and other parameters were calculated from the pressure-thickness curves. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed using new statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin in order to compare the influence of different fabric parameters on thermo-physiological and compression behavior of samples. This study established that the raw materials, type of spacer yarn, density, thickness and tightness of surface layer have significant influence on both thermal conductivity and work of compression in spacer fabrics. The parameter which mainly influence on the water vapor permeability of these fabrics is the properties of raw material i.e. the wetting and wicking properties of fibers. The Pearson correlation between moisture capacity of the fabrics and water vapour permeability was found using statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin. These findings are important requirements for the further designing of clothing for extreme environmental conditions.

Keywords: 3D spacer fabrics, thermal conductivity, moisture management, work of compression (WC), resilience of compression (RC)

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11 The Prediction of Evolutionary Process of Coloured Vision in Mammals: A System Biology Approach

Authors: Shivani Sharma, Prashant Saxena, Inamul Hasan Madar

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Since the time of Darwin, it has been considered that genetic change is the direct indicator of variation in phenotype. But a few studies in system biology in the past years have proposed that epigenetic developmental processes also affect the phenotype thus shifting the focus from a linear genotype-phenotype map to a non-linear G-P map. In this paper, we attempt at explaining the evolution of colour vision in mammals by taking LWS/ Long-wave sensitive gene under consideration.

Keywords: evolution, phenotypes, epigenetics, LWS gene, G-P map

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10 Genetic Algorithm for Solving the Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Guilherme Baldo Carlos

Abstract:

The flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP) is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, which can be applied to model several applications in a wide array of industries. This problem will have its importance increase due to the shift in the production mode that modern society is going through. The demands are increasing and for products personalized and customized. This work aims to apply a meta-heuristic called a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve this problem. A GA is a meta-heuristic inspired by the natural selection of Charles Darwin; it produces a population of individuals (solutions) and selects, mutates, and mates the individuals through generations in order to find a good solution for the problem. The results found indicate that the GA is suitable for FJSP solving.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, evolutionary algorithm, scheduling, flexible job-shop scheduling

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9 Development of a Computer Vision System for the Blind and Visually Impaired Person

Authors: Rodrigo C. Belleza, Jr., Roselyn A. Maaño, Karl Patrick E. Camota, Darwin Kim Q. Bulawan

Abstract:

Eyes are an essential and conspicuous organ of the human body. Human eyes are outward and inward portals of the body that allows to see the outside world and provides glimpses into ones inner thoughts and feelings. Inevitable blindness and visual impairments may result from eye-related disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means. The study emphasizes innovative tools that will serve as an aid to the blind and visually impaired (VI) individuals. The researchers fabricated a prototype that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect for Windows and Arduino microcontroller board. The prototype facilitates advanced gesture recognition, voice recognition, obstacle detection and indoor environment navigation. Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) performs image analysis, and gesture tracking to transform Kinect data to the desired output. A computer vision technology device provides greater accessibility for those with vision impairments.

Keywords: algorithms, blind, computer vision, embedded systems, image analysis

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8 Comparison of Statistical Methods for Estimating Missing Precipitation Data in the River Subbasin Lenguazaque, Colombia

Authors: Miguel Cañon, Darwin Mena, Ivan Cabeza

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In this work was compared and evaluated the applicability of statistical methods for the estimation of missing precipitations data in the basin of the river Lenguazaque located in the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá, Colombia. The methods used were the method of simple linear regression, distance rate, local averages, mean rates, correlation with nearly stations and multiple regression method. The analysis used to determine the effectiveness of the methods is performed by using three statistical tools, the correlation coefficient (r2), standard error of estimation and the test of agreement of Bland and Altmant. The analysis was performed using real rainfall values removed randomly in each of the seasons and then estimated using the methodologies mentioned to complete the missing data values. So it was determined that the methods with the highest performance and accuracy in the estimation of data according to conditions that were counted are the method of multiple regressions with three nearby stations and a random application scheme supported in the precipitation behavior of related data sets.

Keywords: statistical comparison, precipitation data, river subbasin, Bland and Altmant

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7 Service Provision in 'the Jungle': Describing Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Offered to Residents of the Calais Camp

Authors: Amy Darwin, Claire Blacklock

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Background: Existing literature about delivering evidence-based mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in emergency settings is limited. It is difficult to monitor and evaluate the approach to MHPSS in informal refugee camps such as ‘The Jungle’ in Calais, where there are multiple service providers and where the majority of providers are volunteers. AIM: To identify experiences of MHPSS delivery by service providers in an informal camp environment in Calais, France and describe MHPSS barriers and opportunities in this type of setting. Method: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 individuals from different organisations offering MHPSS in Calais and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results: Unsafe, uncertain and unsanitary conditions in the camp meant MHPSS was difficult to implement, and such conditions contributed to the poor mental health of the residents. The majority of MHPSS was offered by volunteers who lacked resources and training, and there was no overall official camp leadership which meant care was poorly coordinated and monitored. Strong relationships existed between volunteers and camp residents, but volunteers felt frustrated that they could not deliver the kind of MHPSS that they felt residents required. Conclusion: While long-term volunteers had built supportive relationships with camp residents, lack of central coordination and leadership of MHPSS services and limited access to trained professionals made implementation of MHPSS problematic. Similarly, the camp lacked the necessary infrastructure to meet residents’ basic needs. Formal recognition of the camp, and clear central leadership were identified as necessary steps to improving MHPSS delivery.

Keywords: calais, mental health, refugees, the jungle, MHPSS

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6 Control of a Quadcopter Using Genetic Algorithm Methods

Authors: Mostafa Mjahed

Abstract:

This paper concerns the control of a nonlinear system using two different methods, reference model and genetic algorithm. The quadcopter is a nonlinear unstable system, which is a part of aerial robots. It is constituted by four rotors placed at the end of a cross. The center of this cross is occupied by the control circuit. Its motions are governed by six degrees of freedom: three rotations around 3 axes (roll, pitch and yaw) and the three spatial translations. The control of such system is complex, because of nonlinearity of its dynamic representation and the number of parameters, which it involves. Numerous studies have been developed to model and stabilize such systems. The classical PID and LQ correction methods are widely used. If the latter represent the advantage to be simple because they are linear, they reveal the drawback to require the presence of a linear model to synthesize. It also implies the complexity of the established laws of command because the latter must be widened on all the domain of flight of these quadcopter. Note that, if the classical design methods are widely used to control aeronautical systems, the Artificial Intelligence methods as genetic algorithms technique receives little attention. In this paper, we suggest comparing two PID design methods. Firstly, the parameters of the PID are calculated according to the reference model. In a second phase, these parameters are established using genetic algorithms. By reference model, we mean that the corrected system behaves according to a reference system, imposed by some specifications: settling time, zero overshoot etc. Inspired from the natural evolution of Darwin's theory advocating the survival of the best, John Holland developed this evolutionary algorithm. Genetic algorithm (GA) possesses three basic operators: selection, crossover and mutation. We start iterations with an initial population. Each member of this population is evaluated through a fitness function. Our purpose is to correct the behavior of the quadcopter around three axes (roll, pitch and yaw) with 3 PD controllers. For the altitude, we adopt a PID controller.

Keywords: quadcopter, genetic algorithm, PID, fitness, model, control, nonlinear system

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5 Globally Convergent Sequential Linear Programming for Multi-Material Topology Optimization Using Ordered Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization Interpolation

Authors: Darwin Castillo Huamaní, Francisco A. M. Gomes

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The aim of the multi-material topology optimization (MTO) is to obtain the optimal topology of structures composed by many materials, according to a given set of constraints and cost criteria. In this work, we seek the optimal distribution of materials in a domain, such that the flexibility of the structure is minimized, under certain boundary conditions and the intervention of external forces. In the case we have only one material, each point of the discretized domain is represented by two values from a function, where the value of the function is 1 if the element belongs to the structure or 0 if the element is empty. A common way to avoid the high computational cost of solving integer variable optimization problems is to adopt the Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method. This method relies on the continuous interpolation function, power function, where the base variable represents a pseudo density at each point of domain. For proper exponent values, the SIMP method reduces intermediate densities, since values other than 0 or 1 usually does not have a physical meaning for the problem. Several extension of the SIMP method were proposed for the multi-material case. The one that we explore here is the ordered SIMP method, that has the advantage of not being based on the addition of variables to represent material selection, so the computational cost is independent of the number of materials considered. Although the number of variables is not increased by this algorithm, the optimization subproblems that are generated at each iteration cannot be solved by methods that rely on second derivatives, due to the cost of calculating the second derivatives. To overcome this, we apply a globally convergent version of the sequential linear programming method, which solves a linear approximation sequence of optimization problems.

Keywords: globally convergence, multi-material design ordered simp, sequential linear programming, topology optimization

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4 Forest Policy and Its Implications on Private Forestry Development: A Case Study in Rautahat District, Nepal

Authors: Dammar Bahadur Adhikari

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Community forestry in Nepal has got disproportionately high level of support from government and other actors in forestry sector. Even though master plan for forestry sector (1989) has highlighted community and private forestry as one component, the government policies and other intervention deliberately left out private forestry in its structure and programs. The study aimed at providing the pathway for formulating appropriate policies to address need of different kind of forest management regimes in Rautahat district, Nepal. The key areas the research focused were assessment of current status of private forestry, community forest users' understanding on private forestry; criteria for choosing species of private forestry and factors affecting establishment of private forestry in the area. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected employing questionnaire survey, rapid forest assessment and key informant interview. The study found out that forest policies are imposed due to intense pressure of exogenous forces than due to endogenous demand. Most of the local people opine that their traditional knowledge and skills are not sufficient for private forestry and hence need training on the matter. Likewise, local use, market value and rotation dictate the choice of species for plantation in private forests. Currently district forest office is the only government institution working in the area of private forestry all other governmental and non-governmental organizations have condoned. private forestry. Similarly, only permanent settlers in the area are found to establish private forests other forest users such as migrants and forest encroachers follow opportunistic behavior to meet their forest product need from community and national forests. In this regard, the study recommends taking appropriate step to support other forest management system including private forestry provide community forestry the benefits of competition as suggested by Darwin in 18th century, one and half century back and to help alleviate poverty by channelizing benefits to household level.

Keywords: community forest, forest management, poverty, private forest, users’ group

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3 MARISTEM: A COST Action Focused on Stem Cells of Aquatic Invertebrates

Authors: Arzu Karahan, Loriano Ballarin, Baruch Rinkevich

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Marine invertebrates, the highly diverse phyla of multicellular organisms, represent phenomena that are either not found or highly restricted in the vertebrates. These include phenomena like budding, fission, a fusion of ramets, and high regeneration power, such as the ability to create whole new organisms from either tiny parental fragment, many of which are controlled by totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent stem cells. Thus, there is very much that can be learned from these organisms on the practical and evolutionary levels, further resembling Darwin's words, “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change”. The ‘stem cell’ notion highlights a cell that has the ability to continuously divide and differentiate into various progenitors and daughter cells. In vertebrates, adult stem cells are rare cells defined as lineage-restricted (multipotent at best) with tissue or organ-specific activities that are located in defined niches and further regulate the machinery of homeostasis, repair, and regeneration. They are usually categorized by their morphology, tissue of origin, plasticity, and potency. The above description not always holds when comparing the vertebrates with marine invertebrates’ stem cells that display wider ranges of plasticity and diversity at the taxonomic and the cellular levels. While marine/aquatic invertebrates stem cells (MISC) have recently raised more scientific interest, the know-how is still behind the attraction they deserve. MISC, not only are highly potent but, in many cases, are abundant (e.g., 1/3 of the entire animal cells), do not locate in permanent niches, participates in delayed-aging and whole-body regeneration phenomena, the knowledge of which can be clinically relevant. Moreover, they have massive hidden potential for the discovery of new bioactive molecules that can be used for human health (antitumor, antimicrobial) and biotechnology. The MARISTEM COST action (Stem Cells of Marine/Aquatic Invertebrates: From Basic Research to Innovative Applications) aims to connect the European fragmented MISC community. Under this scientific umbrella, the action conceptualizes the idea for adult stem cells that do not share many properties with the vertebrates’ stem cells, organizes meetings, summer schools, and workshops, stimulating young researchers, supplying technical and adviser support via short-term scientific studies, making new bridges between the MISC community and biomedical disciplines.

Keywords: aquatic/marine invertebrates, adult stem cell, regeneration, cell cultures, bioactive molecules

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2 The Evolution of Man through Cranial and Dental Remains: A Literature Review

Authors: Rishana Bilimoria

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Darwin’s insightful anthropological theory on the evolution drove mankind’s understanding of our existence in the natural world. Scientists consider analysis of dental and craniofacial remains to be pivotal in uncovering facts about our evolutionary journey. The resilient mineral content of enamel and dentine allow cranial and dental remains to be preserved for millions of years, making it an excellent resource not only in anthropology but other fields of research including forensic dentistry. This literature review aims to chronologically approach each ancestral species, reviewing Australopithecus, Paranthropus, Homo Habilis, Homo Rudolfensis, Homo Erectus, Homo Neanderthalis, and finally Homo Sapiens. Studies included in the review assess the features of cranio-dental remains that are of evolutionary importance, such as microstructure, microwear, morphology, and jaw biomechanics. The article discusses the plethora of analysis techniques employed to study dental remains including carbon dating, dental topography, confocal imaging, DPI scanning and light microscopy, in addition to microwear study and analysis of features such as coronal and root morphology, mandibular corpus shape, craniofacial anatomy and microstructure. Furthermore, results from these studies provide insight into the diet, lifestyle and consequently, ecological surroundings of each species. We can correlate dental fossil evidence with wider theories on pivotal global events, to help us contextualize each species in space and time. Examples include dietary adaptation during the period of global cooling converting the landscape of Africa from forest to grassland. Global migration ‘out of Africa’ can be demonstrated by enamel thickness variation, cranial vault variation over time demonstrates accommodation to larger brain sizes, and dental wear patterns can place the commencement of lithic technology in history. Conclusions from this literature review show that dental evidence plays a major role in painting a phenotypic and all rounded picture of species of the Homo genus, in particular, analysis of coronal morphology through carbon dating and dental wear analysis. With regards to analysis technique, whilst studies require larger sample sizes, this could be unrealistic since there are limitations in ability to retrieve fossil data. We cannot deny the reliability of carbon dating; however, there is certainly scope for the use of more recent techniques, and further evidence of their success is required.

Keywords: cranio-facial, dental remains, evolution, hominids

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1 Ecosystem Modeling along the Western Bay of Bengal

Authors: A. D. Rao, Sachiko Mohanty, R. Gayathri, V. Ranga Rao

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Modeling on coupled physical and biogeochemical processes of coastal waters is vital to identify the primary production status under different natural and anthropogenic conditions. About 7, 500 km length of Indian coastline is occupied with number of semi enclosed coastal bodies such as estuaries, inlets, bays, lagoons, and other near shore, offshore shelf waters, etc. This coastline is also rich in wide varieties of ecosystem flora and fauna. Directly/indirectly extensive domestic and industrial sewage enter into these coastal water bodies affecting the ecosystem character and create environment problems such as water quality degradation, hypoxia, anoxia, harmful algal blooms, etc. lead to decline in fishery and other related biological production. The present study is focused on the southeast coast of India, starting from Pulicat to Gulf of Mannar, which is rich in marine diversity such as lagoon, mangrove and coral ecosystem. Three dimensional Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) along with Darwin biogeochemical module is configured for the western Bay of Bengal (BoB) to study the biogeochemistry over this region. The biogeochemical module resolves the cycling of carbon, phosphorous, nitrogen, silica, iron and oxygen through inorganic, living, dissolved and particulate organic phases. The model domain extends from 4°N-16.5°N and 77°E-86°E with a horizontal resolution of 1 km. The bathymetry is derived from General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), which has a resolution of 30 sec. The model is initialized by using the temperature, salinity filed from the World Ocean Atlas (WOA2013) of National Oceanographic Data Centre with a resolution of 0.25°. The model is forced by the surface wind stress from ASCAT and the photosynthetically active radiation from the MODIS-Aqua satellite. Seasonal climatology of nutrients (phosphate, nitrate and silicate) for the southwest BoB region are prepared using available National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) in-situ data sets and compared with the WOA2013 seasonal climatology data. The model simulations with the two different initial conditions viz., WOA2013 and the generated NIO climatology, showed evident changes in the concentration and the evolution of the nutrients in the study region. It is observed that the availability of nutrients is more in NIO data compared to WOA in the model domain. The model simulated primary productivity is compared with the spatially distributed satellite derived chlorophyll data and at various locations with the in-situ data. The seasonal variability of the model simulated primary productivity is also studied.

Keywords: Bay of Bengal, Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model, MITgcm, biogeochemistry, primary productivity

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