Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: steroids

81 Influence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on the Activity of Steroid C17-Hydroxylase-C17,20-Lyase in Patients with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

Authors: Leona Ondrejikova, Martin Hill, Antonin Parizek

Abstract:

The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is higher in women predisposed to developing intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Both diseases are associated with altered steroidogenesis when compared with none-ICP controls. However, the effect of GDM on circulating steroids in ICP patients remains unclear. The question remains, whether the levels of circulating steroids differ between ICP patients with and without GDM. In total 10 ICP patients without GDM (ICP+GDM-), 7 ICP patients with GDM (ICP+GDM+), and 15 controls (ICP-GDM-) were monitored during late gestation, at labor, and during three periods postpartum (day 5, week 3, and week 6 postpartum) (Šimják et al., 2018). The relationships between steroid profiles and patients’ status were evaluated using the ANOVA model consisting of subject factor, between-subject factors Group (ICP+GDM+, ICP+GDM-, ICP-GDM-), gestational age at the diagnosis of ICP and gestational age at labor, and within-subject factor Stage and ICP × Stage interaction. The levels of the C21 and C19 Δ5 steroids and 5α/β-reduced C19 steroids were highest in ICP+GDM+, while those for the ICP-GDM-, and ICP+GDM- groups were lower. In the C21 Δ4 steroids and their 5α/β-reduced metabolites, the steroid levels were highest in the ICP+GDM-, intermediate in the ICP-GDM- and lowest in the ICP+GDM+ group. This higher concentration in ICP+GDM- group may be of importance as the 5α-pregnane-3α,20α-diol disulfate, is considered as the substance inducing ICP. In general, these data show that the comorbidity with GDM substantially changes the steroidome in ICP patients towards the higher activity of steroid CYP17A1 lyase step in adrenal zona reticularis reduced CYP17A1 hydroxylase step in zona fasciculata. This is consistent with our previously published hypothesis about the critical role of maternal zona reticularis in the pathophysiology of ICP. Our present data also indicate that the comorbidity with GDM might moderate the gravity of the ICP in this way.

Keywords: CYP17A1, GC-MS, gestational diabetes mellitus, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

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80 Preliminary Phytopharmacological Evaluation of Methanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Vegetables of Bangladesh

Authors: A. Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, B. Sheikh Mohammad Adil Uddin, C. Md Mamunur Rashid, D. Sheikh Arman Mahbub, E. Mohammad Sazzad Rahman, F. Abdullah Faruque

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of methanol and pet ether extracts of the Lagenaria siceraria (LM, LP), Cucumis sativus (CSM, CSP), Cucurbita maxima (CMM, CMP) plants. For the phytochemical screening, crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups. In Lagenaria siceraria the following groups were identified: alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and saponins for methanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and saponins are for pet ether extract. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in the methanol extract of Cucumis sativus; the pet ether extract has the alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in both the methanolic and pet ether extract of Cucurbita maxima. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were performed using DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity assays. The most prominent antioxidant activity was observed with the CSM in the DPPH free radical scavenging test with an IC50 value of 1667.23±11.00271 μg/ml as opposed to that of standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value of 15.707± 1.181 μg/ml.) In total antioxidant capacity method, CMP showed the highest activity (427.81±11.4 mg ascorbic acid/g). The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The highest total phenols and total flavonoids content were found in CMM and LP with the value of 79.06±16.06 mg gallic acid/g & 119.0±1.41 mg quercetin/g, respectively. In nitric oxide (NO) scavenging the most prominent antioxidant activity was observed in CMM with an IC50 value of 8.119± 0.0036 μg/ml. The Cupric reducing capacity of the extracts was strong and dose dependent manner and CSM showed lowest reducing capacity. The cytotoxicity was determined by Brine shrimp lethality test and among these extracts most potent cytotoxicity was shown by CMM with LC50 value 16.98 µg/ml. The obtained results indicate that the investigated plants could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and can be used for various types of diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, methanol, petroleum ether

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79 Growth and Bone Health in Children following Liver Transplantation

Authors: Faris Alkhalil, Rana Bitar, Amer Azaz, Hisham Natour, Noora Almeraikhi, Mohamad Miqdady

Abstract:

Background: Children with liver transplantation are achieving very good survival and so there is now a need to concentrate on achieving good health in these patients and preventing disease. Immunosuppressive medications have side effects that need to be monitored and if possible avoided. Glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors are detrimental to bone and mineral homeostasis in addition steroids can also affect linear growth. Steroid sparing regimes in renal transplant children has shown to improve children’s height. Aim: We aim to review the growth and bone health of children post liver transplant by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan and assessing if there is a clear link between poor growth and impaired bone health and use of long term steroids. Subjects and Methods: This is a single centre retrospective Cohort study, we reviewed the medical notes of children (0-16 years) who underwent a liver transplantation between November 2000 to November 2016 and currently being followed at our centre. Results: 39 patients were identified (25 males and 14 females), the median transplant age was 2 years (range 9 months - 16 years), and the median follow up was 6 years. Four patients received a combined transplant, 2 kidney and liver transplant and 2 received a liver and small bowel transplant. The indications for transplant included, Biliary Atresia (31%), Acute Liver failure (18%), Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (15%), transplantable metabolic disease (10%), TPN related liver disease (8%), Primary Hyperoxaluria (5%), Hepatocellular carcinoma (3%) and other causes (10%). 36 patients (95%) were on a calcineurin inhibitor (34 patients were on Tacrolimus and 2 on Cyclosporin). The other three patients were on Sirolimus. Low dose long-term steroids was used in 21% of the patients. A considerable proportion of the patients had poor growth. 15% were below the 3rd centile for weight for age and 21% were below the 3rd centile for height for age. Most of our patients with poor growth were not on long term steroids. 49% of patients had a DEXA scan post transplantation. 21% of these children had low bone mineral density, one patient had met osteoporosis criteria with a vertebral fracture. Most of our patients with impaired bone health were not on long term steroids. 20% of the patients who did not undergo a DEXA scan developed long bone fractures and 50% of them were on long term steroid use which may suggest impaired bone health in these patients. Summary and Conclusion: The incidence of impaired bone health, although studied in limited number of patients; was high. Early recognition and treatment should be instituted to avoid fractures and improve bone health. Many of the patients were below the 3rd centile for weight and height however there was no clear relationship between steroid use and impaired bone health, reduced weight and reduced linear height.

Keywords: bone, growth, pediatric, liver, transplantation

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78 Management of Severe Asthma with Omalizumab in United Arab Emirates

Authors: Shanza Akram, Samir Salah, Imran Saleem, Jassim Abdou, Ashraf Al Zaabi

Abstract:

Estimated prevalence of asthma in UAE is around 10% (900,000 people). Patients with persistent symptoms despite using high dose ICS plus a second controller +/- Oral steroids are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab (Xolair) is an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody approved as add-on therapy for severe allergic asthma. The objective of our study was to obtain baseline characteristics of our local cohort, to determine the efficacy of omalizumab based on clinical outcomes pre and post 52 weeks of treatment and to assess safety and tolerability. Medical records of patients receiving omalizumab therapy for asthma at Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi were retrospectively reviewed. Patients fulfilling the criteria for severe allergic asthma as per GINA guidelines were included. Asthma control over 12 months pre and post omalizumab were analyzed by taking into account the number of exacerbations, hospitalizations, maintenance of medication dosages, the need for reliever therapy and PFT’s. 21 patients (5 females) with mean age 41 years were included. The mean duration of therapy was 22 months. 19 (91%) patients had Allergic Rhinitis/Sinusitis. Mean serum total IgE level was 648 IU/ml (65-1859). 11 (52%) patients were on oral maintenance steroids pre-treatment. 7 patients managed to stop steroids on treatment while 4 were able to decrease the dosage. Mean exacerbation rate decreased from 5 per year pre-treatment to 1.36 while on treatment. The number of hospitalizations decreased from a mean of 2 per year to 0.9 per year. Reliever inhaler usage decreased from mean of 40 to 15 puffs per week.2 patients discontinued therapy, 1 due to lack of benefit (2 doses) and 2nd due to severe persistent side effects. Patient compliance was poor in some cases. Treatment with omalizumab reduced the number of exacerbations, hospitalizations, maintenance and reliever medications, and is generally well tolerated. Our results show that there is room for improved documentation in terms of symptom recording and use of rescue medication at our institution. There is also need for better patient education and counseling in order to improve compliance.

Keywords: asthma, exacerbations, omalizumab, IgE

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77 Heterocyclic Ring Extension of Estrone: Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Fused Pyrin, Pyrimidine and Thiazole Derivatives

Authors: Rafat M. Mohareb

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Several D-ring alkylated estrone analogues display exceptionally high affinity for estrogen receptors. In particular, compounds in which an E-ring is formed are known to be involved in the inhibition of steroidogenic enzymes. Such compounds also have an effect on steroid dehydrogenase activity and the ability to inhibit the detrimental action of the steroid sulfatase enzyme. Generally, E-ring extended steroids have been accessed by modification of the C17-ketone in the D-ring by either arylimine or oximino formation, addition of a carbon nucleophile or hydrazone formation. Other approaches have included ketone reduction, silyl enol ether formation or ring-closing metathesis (giving five- or six-membered E-rings). Chemical modification of the steroid D-ring provides a way to alter the functional groups, sizes and stereochemistry of the D-ring, and numerous structure-activity relationships have been established by such synthetic alterations. Steroids bearing heterocycles fused to the D-ring of the steroid nucleus have been of pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, we report on the efficient synthesis of estrone possessing pyran, pyrimidine and thiazole ring systems. This study focused on the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of newly synthesized heterocyclic compounds which were then subjected through inhibitory evaluations towards human cancer and normal cell lines.

Keywords: estrone, heterocyclization, cytotoxicity, biomedicine

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76 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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75 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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74 Ovarian Surface Epithelium Receptors during Pregnancy and Estrus Cycle of Rats with Emphasis on Steroids and Gonadotropins Fluctuation

Authors: Salina Yahya Saddik

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The present study is designed to demonstrate the Ovarian Surface Epithelial cells (OSE) Estrogen Receptor α (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) during pregnancy and estrous cycle in rat. Moreover, determination of the levels of plasma progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH were also made. The levels of plasma progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were determined on days 7 (n=5), 14 (n=5), and 21(n=5) of pregnancy in three groups of rats and during the estrous cycle (n=5) using ELISA kit. Immunohistochemical method for PR and ERα expression was also made on the ovary. During pregnancy, FSH and LH remained low except at term when LH levels began to increase from 16 ng/ml to 47 ng/ml. Progesterone levels significantly exceeded estradiol values in all pregnant rats with a peak value of 202 ng/ml on day 14. Elevated progesterone levels were associated negatively with LH and estradiol levels during pregnancy. The levels of estradiol surged significantly on day 21. Immunohistochemistry of the ovary showed low levels of OSE cells staining positive for ERα expression. ERα positive cells were absent on day 7 and 14 of pregnancy, only day 21 recorded a very low percentage of immunostaining (0.5%) within the nuclei of OSE cells. On the contrary, immunostaining of PR was not observed within the nuclei of OSE cells in all groups of study. In conclusions, these results may suggest that progesterone effect during pregnancy seems to be overriding the positive effect of estrogens on OSE cells. High progesterone levels may have a direct negative effect on gonadotropin production and thereby it might inhibit events leading to both follicular development and OSE proliferation. Understanding the factors affecting OSE proliferation may help elucidating the mechanism(s) of assisted diseases such as ovarian cancer.

Keywords: ovarian surface, pregnancy, gonadotropins, steroids

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73 Mesenteric Vasculitis Causing Perforated Diverticulitis Mimicking Abdominal Sepsis

Authors: Christopher Leung, Assad Zahid

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Mesenteric vasculitis can often mimic abdominal sepsis in a postoperative setting leading to a predicament where steroids could improve mesenteric vasculitis whilst worsening abdominal sepsis. Here this study presents a unique and rare case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis secondary to systemic vasculitis. A 68-year-old gentleman presented with perforated sigmoid diverticulitis requiring an emergency Hartmann’s procedure. Early in his postoperative course, he had painful and asymmetrical neuropathy that, after a careful history and examination, revealed a patient with mono neuritis multiplex on a background history of longstanding rheumatoid arthritis. On day seven of his postoperative course, he had rising inflammatory markers and a CT abdomen and pelvis showing fluid around the mesentery. Whilst contamination from sigmoid perforation was somewhat congruent with these signs, a diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa, a common cause of mononeuritis multiplex, is also possible, although involvement of the large bowel in polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare. The histopathology from the initial Hartmann’s procedure was re-examined, showing medium vessel disease vasculitis. Given his lack of fevers, absence of abdominal pain, and worsening neurology, he was given a provisional diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa and was treated successfully, not on IV antibiotics but on steroids. Large bowel involvement of polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare and this is the first case of polyarteritis nodosa causing perforated diverticulitis. The learning point here is to obtain a good clinical picture of a patient to identify mesenteric vasculitis as compared to abdominal sepsis as the treatment of one worsens the other.

Keywords: abdominal sepsis, diverticulitis, mesenteric vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa

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72 The Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors during Pregnancy and Relation to Steroid Hormones

Authors: L. Kolatorova, J. Vitku, K. Adamcova, M. Simkova, M. Hill, A. Parizek, M. Duskova

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Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances leaching from various industrial products, which are able to interfere with the endocrine system. Their harmful effects on human health are generally well-known, and exposure during fetal development may have lasting effects. Fetal exposure and transplacental transport of bisphenol A (BPA) have been recently studied; however, less is known about alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF), which have started to appear in consumer products. The human organism is usually exposed to the mixture of EDs, out of which parabens are otherwise known to transfer placenta. The usage of many cosmetic, pharmaceutical and consumer products during the pregnancy that may contain parabens and bisphenols has led to the need for investigation. The aim of the study was to investigate the transplacental transport of BPA, its alternatives, and parabens, and to study their relation to fetal steroidogenesis. BPA, BPS, BPF, BPAF, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, benzylparaben and 15 steroids including estrogens, corticoids, androgens and immunomodulatory ones were determined in 27 maternal (37th week of gestation) and cord plasma samples using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry methods. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly higher levels of BPA (p=0.0455) in cord plasma compared to maternal plasma. The results from multiple regression models investigated that in cord plasma, methylparaben, propylparaben and the sum of all measured parabens were inversely associated with testosterone levels. To our best knowledge, this study is the first attempt to determine the levels of alternative bisphenols in the maternal and cord blood, and also the first study reporting the simultaneous detection of bisphenols, parabens, and steroids in these biological fluids. Our study confirmed the transplacental transport of BPA, with likely accumulation in the fetal compartment. The negative association of cord blood parabens and testosterone levels highlights their possible risks, especially for the development of male fetuses. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project MH CR 17-30528 A from the Czech Health Research Council, MH CZ - DRO (Institute of Endocrinology - EÚ, 00023761) and by the MEYS CR (OP RDE, Excellent research - ENDO.CZ).

Keywords: bisphenol, endocrine disruptor, paraben, pregnancy, steroid

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71 Pulmonary Complications of Dengue Infection

Authors: Shilpa Avarebeel

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Background: India is one of the seven identified countries in South-East Asia region, regularly reporting dengue infection and may soon transform into a major niche for dengue epidemics. Objective: To study the clinical profile of dengue in our setting with special reference to respiratory complication. Study design: Descriptive and exploratory study, for one year in 2014. All patients confirmed as dengue infection were followed and their clinical profile, along with outcome was determined. Study proforma was designed based on the objective of the study and it was pretested and used after modification. Data was analyzed using statistical software SPSS-Version 16. Data were expressed as mean ±S .D for parametric variables and actual frequencies or percentage for non-parametric data. Comparison between groups was done using students’ t-test for independent groups, Chie square test, one-way ANOVA test, Karl Pearson’s correlation test. Statistical significance is taken at P < 0.05. Results: Study included 134 dengue positive cases. 81% had dengue fever, 18% had dengue hemorrhagic fever, and one had dengue shock syndrome. Most of the cases reported were during the month of June. Maximum number of cases was in the age group of 26-35 years. Average duration of hospital stay was less than seven days. Fever and myalgia was present in all the 134 patients, 16 had bleeding manifestation. 38 had respiratory symptoms, 24 had breathlessness, and 14 had breathlessness and dry cough. On clinical examination of patients with respiratory symptoms, all twenty-eight had hypoxia features, twenty-four had signs of pleural effusion, and four had ARDS features. Chest x-ray confirmed the same. Among the patients with respiratory symptoms, the mean platelet count was 26,537 c/cmm. There was no statistical significant difference in the platelet count in those with ARDS and other dengue complications. Average four units of platelets were transfused to all those who had ARDS in view of bleeding tendency. Mechanical ventilator support was provided for ARDS patients. Those with pleural effusion and pulmonary oedema were given NIV (non-invasive ventilation) support along with supportive care. However, steroids were given to patients with ARDS and 10 patients with signs of respiratory distress. 100%. Mortality was seen in patients with ARDS. Conclusion: Dengue has to be checked for those presenting with fever and breathlessness. Supportive treatments remain the cornerstone of treatment. Platelet transfusion has to be given only by clinical judgment. Steroids have no role except in early ARDS, which is controversial. Early NIV support helps in speedy recovery of dengue patients with respiratory distress.

Keywords: adult respiratory distress syndrome, dengue fever, non-invasive ventilation, pulmonary complication

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70 A New Second Tier Screening for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Utilizing One Dried Blood Spot

Authors: Engy Shokry, Giancarlo La Marca, Maria Luisa Della Bona

Abstract:

Newborn screening for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) relies on quantification of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone using enzyme immunoassays. These assays, in spite of being rapid, readily available and easy to perform, its reliability was found questionable due to lack of selectivity and specificity resulting in large number of false-positives, consequently family anxiety and associated hospitalization costs. To improve specificity of conventional 17α-hydroxyprogesterone screening which may experience false transient elevation in preterm, low birth weight or acutely ill neonates, steroid profiling by LC-MS/MS as a second-tier test was implemented. Unlike the previously applied LC-MS/MS methods, with the disadvantage of requiring a relatively high number of blood drops. Since newborn screening tests are increasing, it is necessary to minimize the sample volume requirement to make the maximum use of blood samples collected on filter paper. The proposed new method requires just one 3.2 mm dried blood spot (DBS) punch. Extraction was done using methanol: water: formic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) containing deuterium labelled internal standards. Extracts were evaporated and reconstituted in 10 % acetone in water. Column switching strategy for on-line sample clean-up was applied to improve the chromatographic run. The first separative step retained the investigated steroids and passed through the majority of high molecular weight impurities. After the valve switching, the investigated steroids are back flushed from the POROS® column onto the analytical column and separated using gradient elution. Found quantitation limits were 5, 10 and 50 nmol/L for 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and cortisol respectively with mean recoveries of between 98.31-103.24 % and intra-/ inter-assay CV% < 10 % except at LLOQ. The method was validated using standard addition calibration and isotope dilution strategies. Reference ranges were determined by analysing samples from 896 infants of various ages at the time of sample collection. The method was also applied on patients with confirmed CAH. Our method represents an attractive combination of low sample volume requirement, minimal sample preparation time without derivatization and quick chromatography (5 min). The three steroid profile and the concentration ratios (17OHP + androstenedione/cortisol) allowed better screening outcomes of CAH reducing false positives, associated costs and anxiety.

Keywords: congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, cortisol, LC-MS/MS

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69 Rt-Pcr Negative COVID-19 Infection in a Bodybuilding Competitor Using Anabolic Steroids: A Case Report

Authors: Mariana Branco, Nahida Sobrino, Cristina Neves, Márcia Santos, Afonso Granja, João Rosa Oliveira, Joana Costa, Luísa Castro Leite

Abstract:

This case reports a COVID-19 infection in an unvaccinated adult man with no history of COVID-19 and no relevant clinical history besides anabolic steroid use, undergoing weaning with tamoxifen after a bodybuilding competition. The patient presented a 4cm cervical mass 3 weeks after COVID-19 infection in his cohabitants. He was otherwise asymptomatic and tested negative to multiple RT-PCR tests. Nevertheless, the IgG COVID-19 antibody was positive, suggesting the previous infection. This report raises a potential link between anabolic steroid use and atypical COVID-19 onset. Objectives: The goals of this paper are to raise a potential link between anabolic steroid use and atypical COVID-19 onset but also to report an uncommon case of COVID-19 infection with consecutive negative gold standard tests. Methodology: The authors used CARE guidelines for case report writing. Introduction: This case reports a COVID-19 infection case in an unvaccinated adult man, with multiple serial negative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, presenting with single cervical lymphadenopathy. Although the association between COVID-19 and lymphadenopathy is well established, there are no cases with this presentation, and consistently negative RT-PCR tests have been reported. Methodologies: The authors used CARE guidelines for case report writing. Case presentation: This case reports a 28-year-old Caucasian man with no previous history of COVID-19 infection or vaccination and no relevant clinical history besides anabolic steroid use undergoing weaning with tamoxifendue to participation in a bodybuilding competition. He visits his primary care physician because of a large (4 cm) cervical lump, present for 3 days prior to the consultation. There was a positive family history for COVID-19 infection 3 weeks prior to the visit, during which the patient cohabited with the infected family members. The patient never had any previous clinical manifestation of COVID-19 infection and, despite multiple consecutive RT-PCR testing, never tested positive. The patient was treated with an NSAID and a broad-spectrum antibiotic, with little to no effect. Imagiological testing was performed via a cervical ultrasound, followed by a needle biopsy for histologic analysis. Serologic testing for COVID-19 immunity was conducted, revealing a positive Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (Spike S1) antibody, suggesting the previous infection, given the unvaccinated status of our patient Conclusion: In patients with a positive epidemiologic context and cervical lymphadenopathy, physicians should still consider COVID-19 infection as a differential diagnosis, despite negative PCR testing. This case also raises a potential link between anabolic steroid use and atypical COVID-19 onset, never before reported in scientific literature.

Keywords: COVID-19, cervical lymphadenopathy, anabolic steroids, primary care

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68 Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Indigenous Vegetables in Northern Mindanao, Philippines

Authors: Renee P. Baang, Romeo M. del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes

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The crude methanol extracts of five indigenous vegetables namely, Amarathus tricolor, Basella rubra L, Chochurus olitorius L., Ipomea batatas, and Momordica chuchinensis L., were examined for their phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The values for DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 7.6-89.53% with B. rubra and I. batatas having the lowest and highest values, respectively. The total flavonoid content of all five indigenous vegetables ranged from 74.65-277.3 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dried vegetable material while the total phenolic content ranged from 1.93-6.15 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dried material. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and reducing sugars, which may also be associated with the antioxidant activity shown by these indigenous vegetables.

Keywords: antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging activity, Philippine İndigenous vegetables, phytochemical screening

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67 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

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In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight

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66 Anti-Inflammatory Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N. Ukwuani, M. G. Abubakar, S. W. Hassan

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Grewia crenata is used locally in the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanolic extract of G. crenata leaves was investigated using egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema model in albino rat. The extract produced a time-dependent inhibition of egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema at 30th minutes up to 150th minutes in all the groups compared to the control. Significant reduction (p<0.05) of hind paw oedema was observed 150 minutes after egg albumin injection. The percentage inhibition produced by the extract at 200 mg/kg (22.1%) was comparable to that produced by 10 mg/kg indomethacin (24.9%) at the 150th minutes of post-egg albumin injection. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and glycosides. The results obtained in this study suggest that Grewia crenata can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agent and validates its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: Grewia crenata, anti-inflammatory, hind paw, oedema

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65 Comparison of Classical and Ultrasound-Assisted Extractions of Hyphaene thebaica Fruit and Evaluation of Its Extract as Antibacterial Activity in Reducing Severity of Erwinia carotovora

Authors: Hanan Moawad, Naglaa M. Abd EL-Rahman

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Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora is the main cause of soft rot in potatoes. Hyphaene thebaica was studied for biocontrol of E. carotovora which inhibited growth of E. carotovora on solid medium, a comparative study of classical and ultrasound-assisted extractions of Hyphaene thebaica fruit. The use of ultrasound decreased significant the total time of treatment and increase the total amount of crude extract. The crude extract was subjected to determine the in vitro, by a bioassay technique revealed that the treatment of paper disks with ultrasound extraction of Hyphaene thebaica reduced the growth of pathogen and produced inhibition zones up to 38mm in diameter. The antioxidant activity of ultrasound-ethanolic extract of Doum fruits (Hyphaene thebaica) was determined. Data obtained showed that the extract contains the secondary metabolites such as Tannins, Saponin, Flavonoids, Phenols, Steroids, Terpenoids, Glycosides and Alkaloids.

Keywords: ultrasound, classical extract, biological control, Erwinia carotovora, Hyphaene thebaica

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64 Antibacterial Activity of Libyan Seaweed Extracts

Authors: Salmin K. Alshalmani, Nada H. Zobi, Ismaeel H. Bozakouk

Abstract:

Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bio active secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Libyan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bio activities. The phytochemical analysis of the alcoholic extracts of some commonly occurring seaweed Cystoseira compressa, enteromorpha intestinals, corallina, and Ulva lactuca and their evaluated for antibacterial activity by well diffusion assay were studied. Four different solvents namely water, ethanol 99 %, methanol 99 %, and methylated spirit 95 % were used for extraction. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, tannin & phenols, saponins, proteins, and glycosides. The extracts were subjected for study of antibacterial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 8 to 16 mm in aqueous extract and up to 16 mm in methanol extract. The maximum activity (16 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Ulva lactuca against Staphylococcus aureus and, minimum activity (8mm) recorded by Cystoseira compressa against S. aureus.

Keywords: macroalgae, phytochemicals, antibacterial activity, methanolic extract

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63 Comparative Production of Secondary Metabolites by Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman Provenances in Cameroon and Some Associated Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Gloria M. Ntuba-Jua, Afui M. Mih, Eneke E. T. Bechem

Abstract:

Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, commonly known as Pygeum or African cherry belongs to the Rosaceae family. It is a medium to large, evergreen tree with a spreading crown of 10 to 20 m. It is used by the traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of over 45ailments in Cameroon and sub-Sahara Africa. In modern medicine, it is used in the treatment of benign prostrate hyperplasia (BPH), prostate gland hypertrophy (enlarged prostate glands). This is possible because of its ability to produce some secondary metabolites which are believed to have bioactivity against these ailments. The ready international market for the sale of Prunus bark, uncontrolled exploitation, illegal harvesting using inappropriate techniques and poor timing of harvesting have contributed enormously to making the plant endangered. It is known to harbor a large number of endophytic fungi with the potential to produce similar secondary metabolites as the parent plant. Alternative sourcing of medicinal principles through endophytic fungi requires succinct knowledge of the endophytic fungi. This will serve as a conservation measure for Prunus africana by reducing dependence on Prunus bark for such metabolites. This work thus sought to compare the production of some major secondary metabolites produced by P. africana and some of its associated endophytic fungi. The leaves and stem bark of the plant from different provenances were soaked in methanol for 72 hrs to yield the methanolic crude extract. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic crude extracts using different standard procedures revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolics and steroids. Pure cultures of some predominantly isolated endophyte species from the difference Prunus provenances such as Curvularia sp, and Morphospecies P001 were also grown in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) for 21 days and later extracted with Methylene dichloride (MDC) solvent after 24hrs to produce crude culture extracts. Qualitative assessment of crude culture extracts showed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, phenolics and steroids particularly β-Sitosterol, (a major bioactive metabolite) as did the plant tissues. Qualitative analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was done to confirm and compare the production of β-Sitosterol (as marker compounds) in the crude extracts of the plant and endophyte. Samples were loaded on TLC silica gel aluminium barked plate (Kieselgel 60 F254, 0.2 mm, Merck) using acetone/hexane, (3.0:7.0) solvent system. They were visualized under an ultra violet lamp (UV254 and UV360). TLC revealed that leaves had a higher concentration of β-sitosterol in terms of band intensity than stem barks from the different provenances. The intensity of β-sitosterol bands in the culture extracts of endophytes was comparable to the plant extracts except for Curvularia sp (very minute) whose band was very faint. The ability of these fungi to make β-sitosterol was confirmed by TLC analysis with the compound having chromatographic properties (retention factor) similar to those of β-sitosterol standard. The ability of these major endophytes to produce secondary metabolites similar to the host has therefore been demonstrated. There is, therefore, the potential of developing the in vitro production system of Prunus secondary metabolites thereby enhancing its conservation.

Keywords: Caneroon, endophytic fungi, Prunus africana, secondary metabolite

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62 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Comparison of Different Extracts of Capparidaceae Family

Authors: Noshaba Dilbar, Maria Jabbar

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Medicinal plants are considered to be the richest source of drug discovery. The main cause of medicinal properties of plants is the presence of bioactive compounds in them. Phytochemical screening is the valuable process that detects bioactive compounds(secondary metabolites) in plants. The present study was carried out to determine phytochemical profile and ethnobotanical importance of Capparidaceae species. ( Capparis spinosa and Dipterygium glaucum). The selection of plants was made on basis of traditional knowledge of their usage in ayurvedic medicines. Different type of solvents(ethanol, methanol, chloroform, benzene and petroleum ether) were used to make extracts of dry and fresh plants. Phytochemical screening was made by using various standard techniques. Results reveal the presence of large range of bioactive compounds i.e alakloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, phenols and steroids. Methanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed high extractability of bioactive compounds. The results obtained ensure these plants a reliable source of pharmacological industry and can be used in making of various biological friendly drugs.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, Capparidaceae, phytochemical screening, secondary metabolites

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61 A Case of Severe Iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome Followed by Adrenal Crisis, Multifocal Pneumonia, Sepsis, Pulmonary Embolism and Prolonged Adrenal Insufficiency

Authors: Jelena Maletkovic

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Background: Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is a rare disease, but iatrogenic or drug related Cushing syndrome from glucocorticoid products is commonly seen in clinical practice. With high dose and long term use of glucocorticoids, patients can develop isolated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) suppression, or HPA axis suppression can be accompanied by overt iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. This is a rare case where severe Cushing’s syndrome developed from an unknown medication and was followed by severe and prolonged adrenal insufficiency and multiple potentially fatal complications. Case: This is a 37-year-old woman who is presented to Emergency Room (ER) with shortness of breath and chest pain. Four months prior to this presentation the patient was a generally healthy woman who was looking for improvement in her appearance and visited local Rejuvenation Clinic. After initial consultation with a nurse, she was contacted by a physician over the phone and was advised to start taking multiple injectable medications that will arrive by mail. Medications without any labels on bottles were delivered and the patient started daily intramuscular injections. Over the next two months, she noticed rounding of her face and swelling around her eyes. She gained 20 pounds, mostly abdominal fat and became extremely fatigued. Her muscles on legs were visibly decreasing in size and she felt significant muscle weakness. Unexplained bruising occurred. She started growing hair on face and developed secondary amenorrhea. New severe back pain started. She developed depression and headaches. Finally, over a few days, a number of red-purple stretch marks that were sensitive and painful appeared over her abdomen, upper part of arms and legs. She then became suspicious that these dramatic symptoms are caused by injectable medication and she discontinued injections. Over the next few days she presented to ER with low blood pressure and oxygen saturation of 75%. Studies revealed extensive pneumonia as well as multiple pulmonary emboli. Her white blood count was elevated with 32 000 and she also had acute kidney failure on admission. She was treated for sepsis and was also given stress dose steroids. Steroids were tapered over 48 hours and discontinued. After being discharged to home, on her first visit to endocrinology clinic she had undetectable ACTH of < 2pg/mL and undetectable 8am cortisol of < 0.2mcg/dL. She did not respond to an intramuscular injection of cosyntropin 250mcg and her repeated cortisol after 60 minutes was only 1mcg/dL. The patient was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency and was started on hydrocortisone 20mg+10mg. It took close to 2 years of slow tapering for recovery of this patient’s HPA axis and resolve all the sequelae from Cushing’s syndrome. Conclusion: Misuse and abuse of glucocorticoids have been present almost since these medications were discovered. This is a rare case where not only severe Cushing’s syndrome in full clinical picture developed but also the patient suffered multiple potentially fatal complications and prolonged adrenal insufficiency. Visits to herbal, rejuvenation, esthetic, and similar clinics are becoming more and more popular and physicians need to be aware of possible non-benign nature of medications that their patients may be using.

Keywords: iatrogenic, Cushing's syndrome, adrenal crisis, steroid abuse

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60 Seasonal Heat Stress Effect on Cholesterol, Estradiol and Progesterone during Follicular Development in Egyptian Buffalo

Authors: Heba F. Hozyen, Hodallah H. Ahmed, S. I. A. Shalaby, G. E. S. Essawy

Abstract:

Biochemical and hormonal changes that occur in both follicular fluid and blood are involved in the control of ovarian physiology. The present study was conducted on follicular fluid and serum samples obtained from 708 buffaloes. Samples were examined for estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol concentrations in relation to seasonal changes, ovarian follicular size, and stage of estrous cycle. The obtained results revealed that follicular fluid and serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol were significantly lower during summer and autumn when compared to winter and spring seasons. With the increase in follicular size, the follicular fluid levels of progesterone and cholesterol were significantly decreased, while estradiol levels were significantly increased. Estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in follicular fluid than blood, while cholesterol was significantly lower in follicular fluid than serum. In conclusion, the current study threw a light on the hormonal changes in the follicular fluid and blood under the effect of heat stress which could be related to the low fertility of buffalo in the summer.

Keywords: buffalo, follicular fluid, folliculogenesis, seasonal changes, steroids

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59 Chromatographic Lipophilicity Determination of Newly Synthesized Steroid Derivatives for Further Biological Analysis

Authors: Milica Z. Karadzic, Lidija R. Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Z. Kovacevic, Anamarija I. Mandic, Katarina Penov-Gasi, Andrea R. Nikolic, Aleksandar M. Okljesa

Abstract:

In this study, a set of 29 newly synthesized steroid derivatives were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) as a first step in preselection of drug candidates. This analysis presents an experimental determination of chromatographic lipophilicity, and it was conducted to obtain physicochemical characterization of these molecules. As the most widely used bonded phases in RP-HPLC, octadecyl (C18) and octyl (C8) were used. Binary mixtures of water and acetonitrile or methanol were used as mobile phases. Obtained results were expressed as retention factor values logk and they were correlated with logP values. The results showed that both columns provide good estimations of the chromatographic lipophilicity of the molecules included in this study. This analysis was conducted in order to characterize newly synthesized steroid derivatives for further investigation regarding their antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity. This article is based upon work from COST Action (CM1306), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).

Keywords: antiproliferative activity, chromatographic lipophilicity, liquid chromatography, steroids

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58 Advanced Eales’ Disease with Neovascular Glaucoma at First Presentation: Case Report

Authors: Mohammed A. Alfayyadh, Halla A. AlAbdulhadi, Mahdi H. Almubarak

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Purpose: Eales’ disease is an idiopathic vasculitis that affects the peripheral retina. It is characterized by recurrent vitreous hemorrhage as a complication of retinal neovascularization. It is more prevalent in India and affects young males. Here we present a patient with neovascular glaucoma as a rare first presentation of Eales’ disease. Observations: This is a 24-year-old Indian gentleman, who complained of a sudden decrease in vision in the left eye over less than 24 hours, along with frontal headache and eye pain for the last three weeks. Ocular examination revealed peripheral retinal ischemia in the right eye, very high intraocular pressure, rubeosis iridis, vitreous hemorrhage and extensive retinal ischemia in the left eye, vascular sheathing and neovascularization in both eyes. Purified protein derivative skin test was positive. The patient was managed with anti-glaucoma, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and laser photocoagulation. Systemic steroids and anti-tuberculous therapy were also initiated. Conclusions: Neovascular glaucoma is an infrequent complication of Eales’ disease. However, the lack of early detection of the disease in the early stages might lead to such serious complication.

Keywords: case report, Eales’ disease, mycobacterium tuberculosis, neovascular glaucoma

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57 Effect of Low-Intensity Laser on Severe Tinnitus in Idiopathic Sudden Hearing Loss Patients

Authors: Z. Mowafy Emam Mowafy, Ahmed R. Sayed, M. El Sayed Mohmmed Hassan

Abstract:

Purpose: to evaluate the effect of low intensity laser on severe tinnitus in idiopathic sudden hearing loss patients. Methods of evaluation (Visual analogue scale and tinnitus handicap inventory scale):- Thirty patients who had unilateral tinnitus with sensorineural hearing loss were participated in the study. Subjects aged from 40 to 50 were randomly divided into two equal groups: group (A): composed of 15 patients who received the routine medical care (Systemic steroids) in addition to the low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) while group (B): composed of 15 patients who received only the routine medical care. Continuous 632.8nm He-Ne laser was used with 5mW power for 15 min\day, 3 days per week for 3 months. Results and conclusion: Results showed that application of the LILT had a valuable effect on severe tinnitus in idiopathic sudden hearing loss patients as evidenced by the highly decreased visual analogue scale and tinnitus handicap inventory scale.

Keywords: idiopathic sudden hearing loss, low intensity laser, tinnitus, tinnitus handicap inventory scale and visual analogue scale

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56 Rare Case of Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Upper Limb

Authors: Karissa A. Graham

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Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a prototypic autoinflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis that is a rare disorder. It presents a diagnostic challenge owing to its variable presentation, clinical overlap with other conditions, it is often associated with other systemic conditions, and there is no definitive histological or laboratory characteristic. The Delphai consensus for PG includes the presence of at least one ulcer on the anterior lower limb. Systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies are the mainstay treatment for PG. We describe a case report of delayed diagnosis of ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum in a 44-year-old male on his forearm. The patient presented with an infected ulcer on his right forearm that had been present for over three years. The patient was a Type 2 Diabetic with no personal or family history of inflammatory bowel disease or other autoimmune diseases. The patient was initially investigated for malignancy, but biopsies returned as chronic inflammatory tissue with neutrophilic infiltrate and no malignancy. The patient was commenced on systemic prednisone for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum. The diagnosis of ulcerative PG poses a challenge given the vast differential diagnosis for a cutaneous ulcer (i.e., malignant, vascular, autoimmune, trauma, infective, etc.). Diagnostic accuracy is important given that the treatment for PG with steroids does not go without risks and indeed may be contraindicated in other potential causes of the ulcer. Indeed, more common and more sinister causes of ulcers should be investigated first, as death from PG is quite rare.

Keywords: dermatological diagnosis, dermatosis, pyoderma gangrenosum, rare presentation

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55 Parental Perceptions and Practices toward Childhood Asthma

Authors: Amani K. Abu-Shaheen, Abdullah Nofal, Humariya Heena

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Introduction: Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective: To identify the prevalence of asthma and to investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods: A two-stage cross-sectional survey of 2000 parents of children aged 3–15 years from schools located in all five districts of Riyadh province located in central Saudi Arabia, was conducted. Data collection was accomplished using a self-administered questionnaire based on information obtained from the literature. Results: Of 1450 children whose parents participated in the study, 600 had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy. The overall number of children with parental reports of ever having been diagnosed with asthma was 478 (32.9%). The majority of parents (321, 53.5%) believed that asthma was a hereditary disease. Of these parents, 361 (60.3%) were concerned about side effects of inhaled steroids, and 192 (32%) about development of dependency on asthma medications. Three hundred sixty seven (61.2%) parents reported that they could treat the asthma attack at home and almost 76% of parents went to pediatric emergency department during asthma attack. Conclusions: In this study, the overall prevalence of children whose parents reported that they were diagnosed with asthma was high (32.9%). Furthermore, parents of children with asthma had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. To improve asthma care and compliance, adequate education should be provided to parents.

Keywords: asthma, management, parents, quality of life

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54 Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Root Bark Extracts from Glossonema boveanum (Decne.)

Authors: Ahmed Jibrin Uttu, Maimuna Waziri

Abstract:

The root bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne), a member of Apocynaceae family, is used by traditional medicine practitioner to treat urinary and respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea and stomach pain. This present study aims to validate the medicinal claims ascribed to the root bark of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study of the root bark extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Antimicrobial study of the extracts showed activities against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhii, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans while Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumoniae showed resistance to all the extracts. The inhibitory effect was compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. MIC and MBC for both extracts were also determined using the tube dilution method. This study concluded that the root bark of G. boveanum, used traditionally as a medicinal plant, has antimicrobial activities against some causative organisms.

Keywords: Glossonema boveanum (Decne.), phytochemical, antimicrobial, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration

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53 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Potential, and Mineral Composition of Dried Abelmoschus esculentus L. Fruits Consume in Gada Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, I. M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is very common especially in northern part of Nigeria, but people are ignorant of its medicinal and pharmacological benefits. Preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant potential and mineral composition of the dried form of this fruit were determined. The Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods. Antioxidant potential screening was carried out using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP) method, while, the mineral compositions were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer by wet digest method. The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that the fruits contain saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and terpenoids, while, anthraquinone, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, and phlobatannins were not detected. The quantitative analysis revealed that the fruits contain saponnins (380 ± 0.020 mg/g), flavonoids (240±0.01 mg/g), and tannins (21.71 ± 0.66 mg/ml). The antioxidant potential was determined to be 54.1 ± 0.19%. The mineral composition revealed that 100 g of the fruits contains 97.52 ± 1.04 mg of magnesium (Mg), 94.53 ± 3.21 mg of calcium (Ca), 77.10 ± 0.79 mg of iron (Fe), 47.14 ± 0.41 mg of zinc (Zn), 43.96 ± 1.49 mg of potassium (K), 42.02 ± 1.09 mg of sodium (Na), 0.47 ± 0.08 mg of copper (Cu) and 0.10 ± 0.02 mg of lead (Pb). These results showed that the Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is a good source of antioxidants, and contains an appreciable amount of phytochemicals, therefore, it has some pharmacological attributes. On the other side, the fruit can serve as a nutritional supplement for Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, K, and Na, but a poor source of Cu, and contains no significant amount of Pb.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Fruits, antioxidant potential, mineral composition, phytochemical screening

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52 Effects of Boldenone Injections and Endurance Exercise on Hepatocyte Morphologic Damages in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Seyyed Javad Ziaolhagh

Abstract:

Background: The purpose of present study was to investigate, the effects of anabolic steroid Boldenone (BOL) with eight weeks of resistance training on structural changes in rat liver. Method: 21 Male adult Wistar rats, 12 weeks old and 228/53±7/94 g initial body weight were randomly assigned to three groups: group1: Control+ Placebo (C), group2: training+ Placebo (T), group3: Boldenone intramuscular injections 5mg/kg (B). The endurance training protocol consisted three exercise sessions weekly started by a 30-minute run with the speed of 12 m/min and lasted by 60min run with the speed of 30 m/min in 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, for light microscopic study Slides were prepared. Results: Sections stained of rat's livers showed no any cell degeneration and cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles in all groups, but few samples were seen. Indeed, congested blood sinusoids, cell infiltration and degeneration were seen in the Boldenone-treated group. Hepatotoxic effects were severe in group treatment received 5 mg/kg and directly depended on the doses. Indeed, training group was no any hepatocyte degeneration, inflammation and congestion. Conclusion: The present results showed that BOL has a marked adverse effect on the liver tissue, even with low– dose and endurance training. As a result, athletes should aware of Boldenone dosage consumption.

Keywords: anabolic androgenic steroids, Boldenone, blood congestion, cellular inflammation, cellular degeneration, lipid vocuolations, endurance training

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