Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: photovoltaics

53 Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Polymers Consist of 2-{3-[4,6-Bis-(4-Hexyl-Thiophen-2-yl)-Pyrimidin-2-yl]Phenyl}-Thiazolo[5,4-B]Pyridine as Electron-Deficient Unit for Photovoltaics

Authors: Hyehyeon Lee, Juwon Yu, Juwon Kim, Raquel Kristina Leoni Tumiar, Taewon Kim, Juae Kim, Hongsuk Suh

Abstract:

Recently, the development of photovoltaics is rapidly accelerating as one of green energy sources. So we designed pyrimidine-based polymers with 2-{3-[4,6-bis-(4-hexyl-thiophen-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-yl]-phenyl}-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridine (mPTP), as active layer substances for polymer solar cells. Polymers with push-pull types, mPTPBDT-12, mPTPBDT-EH, mPTPBDTT-EH and mPTPTTI, are comprised of electron pushing unit using benzo[1,2-b;3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT) or 4,8-bis(5-thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDTT) or 6-(2-thienyl)-4H-thieno[3,2-b]indole(TTI) and electron pulling unit using mPTP. The device including mPTPTTI-12 indicated a VOC of 0.67 V, a JSC of 2.16 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.30, giving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.43%. The device including mPTPBDT-EH indicated a VOC of 0.56 V, a JSC of 2.64 mA/cm², and an FF of 0.30, giving a PCE of 0.44%. The device including mPTPBDTT-EH indicated a VOC of 0.44 V, a JSC of 2.45 mA/cm², and an FF of 0.29, giving a PCE of 0.31%. The device including mPTPTTI indicated a VOC of 0.72 V, a JSC of 4.95 mA/cm², and an FF of 0.32, giving a PCE of 1.15%. Therefore, mPTPBDT-12, mPTPBDT-EH, mPTPBDTT-EH and mPTPTTI were fabricated by Stille polymerization. Their optical properties were measured and the results show that pyrimidine-based polymers have a great promise to act as donor of active layer.

Keywords: polymer solar cells, photovoltaics, thiazolopyridine, conjugated polymer

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52 Sunlight-Activated Graphene Heterostructure Transparent Cathodes for High-Performance Graphene/Si Schottky Junction Photovoltaics

Authors: Po-Sun Ho, Chun-Wei Chen

Abstract:

This work demonstrated a “sunlight-activated” graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode in which photogenerated charges from a light-absorbing material are transferred to graphene, resulting in the modulation of electrical properties of the graphene transparent electrode caused by a strong light–matter interaction at graphene-heterostructure interfaces. A photoactive graphene/TiOx-heterostructure transparent cathode was used to fabricate an n-graphene/p-Si Schottky junction solar cell, achieving a record-high power conversion efficiency (>10%). The photoactive graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode, which exhibits excellent tunable electrical properties under sunlight illumination, has great potential for use in the future development of graphene-based photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

Keywords: graphene, transparent electrode, graphene/Si Schottky junction, solar cells

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51 Pragmatic Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Power Conditioning Device (DC-DC Converters) in a Simple Photovoltaics System

Authors: Asowata Osamede

Abstract:

Solar radiation provides the largest renewable energy potential on earth and photovoltaics (PV) are considered a promising technological solution to support the global transformation to a low-carbon economy and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of power conditioning devices with a focus on the Buck and Boost DC-DC converters (12 V, 24 V and 48 V) in a basic off grid PV system with a varying load profile. This would assist in harnessing more of the available solar energy. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0º N, with corresponding tilt angles. Preliminary results, which include data analysis showing the power loss in the system and efficiency, indicate that the 12V DC-DC converter coupled with the load profile had the highest efficiency for a latitude of 26º S throughout the year.

Keywords: poly-crystalline PV panels, DC-DC converters, tilt and orientation angles, direct solar radiation, load profile

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50 Estimating Solar Irradiance on a Tilted Surface Using Artificial Neural Networks with Differential Outputs

Authors: Hsu-Yung Cheng, Kuo-Chang Hsu, Chi-Chang Chan, Mei-Hui Tseng, Chih-Chang Yu, Ya-Sheng Liu

Abstract:

Photovoltaics modules are usually not installed horizontally to avoid water or dust accumulation. However, the measured irradiance data on tilted surfaces are rarely available since installing pyranometers with various tilt angles induces high costs. Therefore, estimating solar irradiance on tilted surfaces is an important research topic. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANN) are utilized to construct the transfer model to estimate solar irradiance on tilted surfaces. Instead of predicting tilted irradiance directly, the proposed method estimates the differences between the horizontal irradiance and the irradiance on a tilted surface. The outputs of the ANNs in the proposed design are differential values. The experimental results have shown that the proposed ANNs with differential outputs can substantially improve the estimation accuracy compared to ANNs that estimate the titled irradiance directly.

Keywords: photovoltaics, artificial neural networks, tilted irradiance, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
49 Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Polymers Consist of 2-{4-[4,6-Bis-(4-Hexyl-Thiophen-2-yl)-Pyrimidin-2-yl]-Phenyl}-Thiazolo[5,4-B]Pyridine with Deep HOMO Level for Photovoltaics

Authors: Hyehyeon Lee, Jiwon Yu, Juwon Kim, Raquel Kristina Leoni Tumiar, Taewon Kim, Juae Kim, Hongsuk Suh

Abstract:

Photovoltaics, which have many advantages in cost, easy processing, and light-weight, have attracted attention. We synthesized pyrimidine-based conjugated polymers with 2-{4-[4,6-bis-(4-hexyl-thiophen-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-yl]-phenyl}-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridine (pPTP) which have an ability of powerful electron withdrawing and introduced into the PSCs. By Stille polymerization, we designed the conjugated polymers, pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH and pPTPTTI. The HOMO energy levels of four polymers (pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH and pPTPTTI) were at -5.61 ~ -5.89 eV, their LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy levels were at -3.95 ~ -4.09 eV. The device including pPTPBDT-12 and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.67 V, a J_sc of 1.33 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.25, giving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.23%. The device including pPTPBDT-EH and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.72 V, a J_sc of 2.56 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.30, giving a power conversion efficiency of 0.56%. The device including pPTPBDTT-EH and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.72 V, a J_sc of 3.61 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.29, giving a power conversion efficiency of 0.74%. The device including pPTPTTI and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.83 V, a J_sc of 4.41 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.31, giving a power conversion efficiency of 1.13%. Therefore, pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH, and pPTPTTI were synthesized by Stille polymerization. And We find one of the best efficiency for these polymers, called pPTPTTI. Their optical properties were measured and the results show that pyrimidine-based polymers especially like pPTPTTI have a great promise to act as the donor of the active layer.

Keywords: polymer solar cells, pyrimidine-based polymers, photovoltaics, conjugated polymer

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48 Location Selection Using Artificial Intelligence for Rainwater Harvesting Powered by Photovoltaics

Authors: Stephen A. Agha, Ranjan Vepa, Vandre Barbosa Briao, M. Hasan Shaheed

Abstract:

Water is essential for life, hence providing secure access to clean water supply is the priority of many governments and the subject of multiple studies. Rainwater provides an opportunity to meet the water demands of communities. However, the quality of water harvested from rain is not always suitable for direct human consumption due to the presence of particulates, high ion concentrations, or presence of harmful chemicals. Choosing a location to cite water purification systems inevitably involves consideration of energy availability to drive water purification systems. For remote or off-grid communities the availability of renewable energy resources becomes important. This study is focused on the selection of feasible locations for citing water purification systems given the dual considerations of available rainwater and solar energy to drive the plant. In this study, hourly precipitation and solar irradiance data were collected from 44 locations in Brazil and used to determine locations suitable for rainwater purification plants using Artificial Intelligence (AI). To understand both the daily and seasonal distribution of these resources, data for an entire year is employed. However, given the enormity of the data set, artificial intelligence is utilized to process the data and hence provide decision support. It has been identified that the temporal distribution of the data (frequency) used in this process is vital to the outcome. This is because the two parameters are generally not simultaneously maximal - solar irradiance is lower when it rains for instance. The data, therefore, needs to be resampled appropriately. The outcome of this AI-based decision support system is validated by examining weighted linear combinations of these parameters. The method is applicable anywhere in the world for the selection of appropriate locations to harvest rainwater powered by photovoltaics.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting, location selection, photovoltaics, artificial intelligence

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47 Development of Dye Sensitized Solar Window by Physical Parameters Optimization

Authors: Tahsin Shameem, Chowdhury Sadman Jahan, Mohammad Alam

Abstract:

Interest about Net Zero Energy Buildings have gained traction in recent years following the need to sustain energy consumption with generations on site and to reduce dependence on grid supplied energy from large plants using fossil fuel. With this end in view, building integrated photovoltaics are being studied attempting to utilize all exterior facades of a building to generate power. In this paper, we have looked at the physical parameters defining a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and discussed their impact on energy harvest. Following our discussion and experimental data obtained from literature, we have attempted to optimize these physical parameters accordingly so as to allow maximum light absorption for a given active layer thickness. We then modified a planer DSSC design with our optimized properties to allow adequate light transmission which demonstrated a high fill factor and an External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) of greater than 9% by computer aided design and simulation. In conclusion, a DSSC based solar window with such high output values even after such high light transmission through it definitely flags a promising future for this technology and our work elicits the need for further study and practical experimentation.

Keywords: net zero energy building, integrated photovoltaics, dye sensitized solar cell, fill factor, External Quantum Efficiency

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46 Simulation and Characterization of Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics Using Physics Based Tool

Authors: T. A. Shahul Hameed, P. Predeep, Anju Iqbal, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

Research and development in organic photovoltaic cells and Organic Light Emitting Diodes have gained wider acceptance due to the advent of many advanced techniques to enhance the efficiency and operational hours. Here we report our work on design, simulation and characterizationracterize the bulk heterojunction organic photo cell and polymer light emitting diodes in different layer configurations using ATLAS, a licensed device simulation tool. Bulk heterojuction and multilayer devices were simulated for comparing their performance parameters.

Keywords: HOMO, LUMO, PLED, OPV

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45 Investigation on Development of Pv and Wind Power with Hydro Pumped Storage to Increase Renewable Energy Penetration: A Parallel Analysis of Taiwan and Greece

Authors: Robel Habtemariam

Abstract:

Globally, wind energy and photovoltaics (PV) solar energy are among the leading renewable energy sources (RES) in terms of installed capacity. In order to increase the contribution of RES to the power supply system, large scale energy integration is required, mainly due to wind energy and PV. In this paper, an investigation has been made on the electrical power supply systems of Taiwan and Greece in order to integrate high level of wind and photovoltaic (PV) to increase the penetration of renewable energy resources. Currently, both countries heavily depend on fossil fuels to meet the demand and to generate adequate electricity. Therefore, this study is carried out to look into the two cases power supply system by developing a methodology that includes major power units. To address the analysis, an approach for simulation of power systems is formulated and applied. The simulation is based on the non-dynamic analysis of the electrical system. This simulation results in calculating the energy contribution of different types of power units; namely the wind, PV, non-flexible and flexible power units. The calculation is done for three different scenarios (2020, 2030, & 2050), where the first two scenarios are based on national targets and scenario 2050 is a reflection of ambitious global targets. By 2030 in Taiwan, the input of the power units is evaluated as 4.3% (wind), 3.7% (PV), 65.2 (non-flexible), 25.3% (flexible), and 1.5% belongs to hydropower plants. In Greece, much higher renewable energy contribution is observed for the same scenario with 21.7% (wind), 14.3% (PV), 38.7% (non-flexible), 14.9% (flexible), and 10.3% (hydro). Moreover, it examines the ability of the power systems to deal with the variable nature of the wind and PV generation. For this reason, an investigation has also been done on the use of the combined wind power with pumped storage systems (WPS) to enable the system to exploit the curtailed wind energy & surplus PV and thus increase the wind and PV installed capacity and replace the peak supply by conventional power units. Results show that the feasibility of pumped storage can be justified in the high scenario (that is the scenario of 2050) of RES integration especially in the case of Greece.

Keywords: large scale energy integration, photovoltaics solar energy, pumped storage systems, renewable energy sources

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44 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization

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43 Graphene Materials for Efficient Hybrid Solar Cells: A Spectroscopic Investigation

Authors: Mohammed Khenfouch, Fokotsa V. Molefe, Bakang M. Mothudi

Abstract:

Nowadays, graphene and its composites are universally known as promising materials. They show their potential in a large field of applications including photovoltaics. This study reports on the role of nanohybrids and nanosystems known as strong light harvesters in the efficiency of graphene hybrid solar cells. Our system included Graphene/ZnO/Porphyrin/P3HT layers. Moreover, the physical properties including surface/interface, optical and vibrational properties were also studied. Our investigations confirmed the interaction between the different components as well as the sensitivity of their photonics to the synthesis conditions. Remarkable energy and charge transfer were detected and deeply investigated. Hence, the optimization of the conditions will lead to the fabrication of higher conversion efficiency in graphene solar cells.

Keywords: graphene, optoelectronics, nanohybrids, solar cells

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42 Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions Towards Agrivoltaics Using Decision Tree Algorithms

Authors: Mayuri Roy Choudhury

Abstract:

In recent times the concept of agrivoltaics has gained popularity due to the dual use of land and the added value provided by photovoltaics in terms of renewable energy and crop production on farms. However, the transition towards agrivoltaics has been slow, and our research tries to investigate the obstacles leading towards the slow progress of agrivoltaics. We applied data science decision tree algorithms to quantify qualitative perceptions of farmers in the United States for agrivoltaics. To date, there has not been much research that mentions farmers' perceptions, as most of the research focuses on the benefits of agrivoltaics. Our study adds value by putting forward the voices of farmers, which play a crucial towards the transition to agrivoltaics in the future. Our results show a mixture of responses in favor of agrivoltaics. Furthermore, it also portrays significant concerns of farmers, which is useful for decision-makers when it comes to formulating policies for agrivoltaics.

Keywords: agrivoltaics, decision-tree algorithms, farmers perception, transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
41 Problems of Using Mobile Photovoltaic Installations

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Łukasz Grabowski, Michał Gęca

Abstract:

The dynamic development of photovoltaics in the 21st century has resulted in more possibilities for using photovoltaic systems. In order to reduce emissions, a retrofitting of vehicles with photovoltaic modules has recently become increasingly popular. Preparing such an installation, however, requires professional knowledge and compliance with safety rules. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of some types of flexible photovoltaic modules that can be applied to mobile installations, types and causes of damage to photovoltaic modules as well as the most frequent types of misinstallation. Our attention has been drawn to the risk of fire caused by misintallation or defective insulation and the need to closely monitor mobile installations, for example by a non-destructive testing with a thermal imaging camera. The paper also presents certain selected results of the research conducted at the Lublin University of Technology. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, under Grant Agreement No. PBS2/A6/16/2013.

Keywords: flexible PV module, mobile PV module, photovoltaic module, photovoltaic

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40 Fabrication of Titania and Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning Process

Authors: R. F. Louh, Cathy Chou, Victor Wang, Howard Yan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to manufacture titania and reduced graphene oxide (TiO2/rGO) composite nanofibers via electrospinning (ESP) of precursor fluid consisted of titania sol containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) and GO solution. The GO nanoparticles were derived from Hummers’ method. A metal grid ring was used to provide the bias voltage to reach higher ESP yield and nonwoven fabric with dense network of TiO2/GO composite nanofibers. The ESP product was heat treated at 500°C for 2 h in nitrogen atmosphere to acquire TiO2/rGO nanofibers by thermal reduction of GO and phase transformation into anatase TiO2. The TiO2/rGO nanofibers made from various volume fractions of GO solution by ESP were analyzed by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, BET and FTIR. Such TiO2/rGO fibers having photocatalytic property, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity can be used for photovoltaics and chemical sensing applications.

Keywords: electrospinning process, titanium oxide, thermally reduced graphene oxide, composite nanofibers

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39 Evaluation of Methodologies for Measuring Harmonics and Inter-Harmonics in Photovoltaic Facilities

Authors: Anésio de Leles Ferreira Filho, Wesley Rodrigues de Oliveira, Jéssica Santoro Gonçalves, Jorge Andrés Cormane Angarita

Abstract:

The increase in electric power demand in face of environmental issues has intensified the participation of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics, in the energy matrix of various countries. Due to their operational characteristics, they can generate time-varying harmonic and inter-harmonic distortions. For this reason, the application of methods of measurement based on traditional Fourier analysis, as proposed by IEC 61000-4-7, can provide inaccurate results. Considering the aspects mentioned herein, came the idea of the development of this work which aims to present the results of a comparative evaluation between a methodology arising from the combination of the Prony method with the Kalman filter and another method based on the IEC 61000-4-30 and IEC 61000-4-7 standards. Employed in this study were synthetic signals and data acquired through measurements in a 50kWp photovoltaic installation.

Keywords: harmonics, inter-harmonics, iec61000-4-7, parametric estimators, photovoltaic generation

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38 Estimating the Potential of Solar Energy: A Moroccan Case Study

Authors: Fakhreddin El Wali Elalaoui, Maatouk Mustapha

Abstract:

The problem of global climate change isbecoming more and more serious. Therefore, there is a growing interest in renewable energy sources to minimize the impact of this phenomenon. Environmental policies are changing in different countries, including Morocco, with a greater focus on the integration and development of renewable energy projects. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential of solar power plants in Morocco based on two technologies: concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV). In order to perform an accurate search, we must follow a certain method to select the correct criteria. Four selection criteria were retained: climate, topography, location, and water resources. AnalyticHierarchy Process (AHP) was used to calculate the weight/importance of each criterion. Once obtained, weights are applied to the map for each criterion to produce a final ranking that ranks regions according to their potential. The results show that Morocco has strong potential for both technologies, especially in the southern region. Finally, this work is the first in the field to include the whole of Morocco in the study area.

Keywords: PV, Csp, solar energy, GIS

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37 Pre-Analysis of Printed Circuit Boards Based on Multispectral Imaging for Vision Based Recognition of Electronics Waste

Authors: Florian Kleber, Martin Kampel

Abstract:

The increasing demand of gallium, indium and rare-earth elements for the production of electronics, e.g. solid state-lighting, photovoltaics, integrated circuits, and liquid crystal displays, will exceed the world-wide supply according to current forecasts. Recycling systems to reclaim these materials are not yet in place, which challenges the sustainability of these technologies. This paper proposes a multispectral imaging system as a basis for a vision based recognition system for valuable components of electronics waste. Multispectral images intend to enhance the contrast of images of printed circuit boards (single components, as well as labels) for further analysis, such as optical character recognition and entire printed circuit board recognition. The results show that a higher contrast is achieved in the near infrared compared to ultraviolet and visible light.

Keywords: electronics waste, multispectral imaging, printed circuit boards, rare-earth elements

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36 Transparent Photovoltaic Skin for Artificial Thermoreceptor and Nociceptor Memory

Authors: Priyanka Bhatnagar, Malkeshkumar Patel, Joondong Kim, Joonpyo Hong

Abstract:

Artificial skin and sensory memory platforms are produced using a flexible, transparent photovoltaic (TPV) device. The TPV device is composed of a metal oxide heterojunction (nZnO/p-NiO) and transmits visible light (> 50%) while producing substantial electric power (0.5 V and 200 μA cm-2 ). This TPV device is a transparent energy interface that can be used to detect signals and propagate information without an external energy supply. The TPV artificial skin offers a temperature detection range (0 C75 C) that is wider than that of natural skin (5 C48 °C) due to the temperature-sensitive pyrocurrent from the ZnO layer. Moreover, the TPV thermoreceptor offers sensory memory of extreme thermal stimuli. Much like natural skin, artificial skin uses the nociceptor mechanism to protect tissue from harmful damage via signal amplification (hyperalgesia) and early adaption (allodynia). This demonstrates the many features of TPV artificial skin, which can sense and transmit signals and memorize information under self-operation mode. This transparent photovoltaic skin can provide sustainable energy for use in human electronics.

Keywords: transparent, photovoltaics, thermal memory, artificial skin, thermoreceptor

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35 The Potential and Economic Viability Analysis of Grid-Connected Solar PV Power in Kenya

Authors: Remember Samu, Kathy Kiema, Murat Fahrioglu

Abstract:

This present study is aimed at minimizing the dependence on fossil fuels thus reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and also to curb for the rising energy demands in Kenya. In this analysis, 35 locations were each considered for their techno-economic potential of installation of a 10MW grid-connected PV plant. The sites are scattered across the country but are mostly concentrated in the eastern region and were selected based on their accessibility to the national grid and availability of their meteorological parameters from NASA Solar Energy Dataset. RETScreen software 4.0 version will be employed for the analysis in this present paper. The capacity factor, simple payback, equity payback, the net present value (NPV), annual life cycle savings, energy production cost, net annual greenhouse gas emission reduction and the equivalent barrels of crude oil not consumed are outlined. Energy accounting is performed and compared to the existing grid tariff for an effective feasibility argument of this 10MW grid-connected PV power system.

Keywords: photovoltaics, project viability analysis, PV module, renewable energy

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34 Modelling the Photovoltaic Pump Output Using Empirical Data from Local Conditions in the Vhembe District

Authors: C. Matasane, C. Dwarika, R. Naidoo

Abstract:

The mathematical analysis on radiation obtained and the development of the solar photovoltaic (PV) array groundwater pumping is needed in the rural areas of Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province for sizing and power performance subject to the climate conditions within the area. A simple methodology approach is developed for the directed coupled solar, controller and submersible ground water pump system. The system consists of a PV array, pump controller and submerged pump, battery backup and charger controller. For this reason, the theoretical solar radiation obtained for optimal predictions and system performance in order to achieve different design and operating parameters. Here the examination of the PV schematic module in a Direct Current (DC) application is used for obtainable maximum solar power energy for water pumping. In this paper, a simple efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented with its theoretical studies and mathematical modeling of photovoltaics (PV) system.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, solar groundwater pumping, theoretical and mathematical analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system, theoretical solar radiation

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33 Working Title: Estimating the Power Output of Photovoltaics in Kuwait Using a Monte Carlo Approach

Authors: Mohammad Alshawaf, Rahmat Poudineh, Nawaf Alhajeri

Abstract:

The power generated from photovoltaic (PV) modules is non-dispatchable on demand due to the stochastic nature of solar radiation. The random variations in the measured intensity of solar irradiance are due to clouds and, in the case of arid regions, dust storms which decrease the intensity of intensity of solar irradiance. Therefore, modeling PV power output using average, maximum, or minimum solar irradiance values is inefficient to predict power generation reliably. The overall objective of this paper is to predict the power output of PV modules using Monte Carlo approach based the weather and solar conditions measured in Kuwait. Given the 250 Wp PV module used in study, the average daily power output is 1021 Wh/day. The maximum power was generated in April and the minimum power was generated in January 1187 Wh/day and 823 Wh/day respectively. The certainty of the daily predictions varies seasonally and according to the weather conditions. The output predictions were far more certain in the summer months, for example, the 80% certainty range for August is 89 Wh/day, whereas the 80% certainty range for April is 250 Wh/day.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, solar energy, variable renewable energy, Kuwait

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32 Integration of PV Systems in Residential Buildings: A Solution for Supporting Electrical Grid in Kuwait

Authors: Nabil A. Ahmed, Nasser A. N. Mhaisen

Abstract:

The paper presents a solution to enhance the power quality and to reduce the peak load demand in Kuwait electric grid as a solution to the shortage of electricity production. Technical, environmental and economic feasibility study of utilizing integrated grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system in residential buildings for supplying 7.1% of electrical power consumption in Kuwait is carried out using RETScreen software. A 10 KWp on-grid PV power generation system spread on the rooftop of the residential buildings is adopted and investigated and the complete system performance is simulated using PSIM software. Taking into account the international prices of electricity and natural gas, the proposed solution is investigated and tested for four different types of installation systems in terms of power generation and costs which includes horizontal installation, 25º tilted angle, single axis tracking and dual axis tracking. Results shows that the 25º tilted angle fixed mounted system is the most efficient type. The payback period as a tool of benefit analysis of the proposed system is calculated and it found to be 2.55 years.

Keywords: photovoltaics, residential buildings, electrical grid, production capacity, on-grid, power generation

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31 Enhanced Efficiency of Thermoelectric Generator by Optimizing Mechanical and Electrical Structures

Authors: Kewen Li

Abstract:

Much attention has been paid to the application of low temperature thermal resources, especially for power generation in recent years. Most of the current commercialized thermal, including geothermal, power-generation technologies convert thermal energy to electric energy indirectly, that is, making mechanical work before producing electricity. Technology using thermoelectric generator (TEG), however, can directly transform thermal energy into electricity by using Seebeck effect. TEG technology has many advantages such as compactness, quietness, and reliability because there are no moving parts. One of the big disadvantages of TEGs is the low efficiency from thermal to electric energy. For this reason, we redesigned and modified our previous 1 KW (at a temperature difference of around 120 °C) TEG system. The efficiency of the system was improved significantly, about 20% greater. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to measure the output power, including both open and net power, at different conditions: different modes of connections between TEG modules, different mechanical structures, different temperature differences between hot and cold sides. The cost of the TEG power generator has been reduced further because of the increased efficiency and is lower than that of photovoltaics (PV) in terms of equivalent energy generated. The TEG apparatus has been pilot tested and the data will be presented. This kind of TEG power system can be applied in many thermal and geothermal sites with low temperature resources, including oil fields where fossil and geothermal energies are co-produced.

Keywords: TEG, direct power generation, efficiency, thermoelectric effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
30 Study of Exciton Binding Energy in Photovoltaic Polymers and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

Authors: Ho-Wa Li, Sai-Wing Tsang

Abstract:

The excitonic effect in organic semiconductors plays a key role in determining the electronic devices performance. Strong exciton binding energy has been regarded as the detrimental factor limiting the further improvement in organic photovoltaic cells. To the best of our knowledge, only limited reported can be found in measuring the exciton binding energy in organic photovoltaic materials. Conventional sophisticated approach using photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and IPES) would limit the wide access of the investigation. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to study the electrical and optical quantum efficiencies of a series of conjugated photovoltaic polymer, fullerene and non-fullerene materials. Quantitative values of the exciton binding energy in those prototypical materials were obtained with concise photovoltaic device structure. And the extracted binding energies have excellent agreement with those determined by the conventional photoemission technique. More importantly, our findings can provide valuable information on the excitonic dissociation in the first excited state. Particularly, we find that the high binding energy of some non-fullerene acceptors limits the combination of polymer acceptors for efficiency exciton dissociation. The results bring insight into the engineering of excitonic effect for the development of efficient organic photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: organic photovoltaics, quantum efficiency, exciton binding energy, device physics

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29 Practical Evaluation of High-Efficiency Si-based Tandem Solar Cells

Authors: Sue-Yi Chen, Wei-Chun Hsu, Jon-Yiew Gan

Abstract:

Si-based double-junction tandem solar cells have become a popular research topic because of the advantages of low manufacturing cost and high energy conversion efficiency. However, there is no set of calculations to select the appropriate top cell materials. Therefore, this paper will propose a simple but practical selection method. First of all, we calculate the S-Q limit and explain the reasons for developing tandem solar cells. Secondly, we calculate the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the double-junction tandem solar cells while combining the commercial monocrystalline Si and materials' practical efficiency to consider the actual situation. Finally, we conservatively conclude that if considering 75% performance of the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the top cell, the suitable bandgap energy range will fall between 1.38eV to 2.5eV. Besides, we also briefly describe some improvements of several proper materials, CZTS, CdSe, Cu2O, ZnTe, and CdS, hoping that future research can select and manufacture high-efficiency Si-based tandem solar cells based on this paper successfully. Most importantly, our calculation method is not limited to silicon solely. If other materials’ performances match or surpass silicon's ability in the future, researchers can also apply this set of deduction processes.

Keywords: high-efficiency solar cells, material selection, Si-based double-junction solar cells, Tandem solar cells, photovoltaics.

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28 The Fishery and Electricity Symbiosis Environment and Social Inspection in Taiwan: The Kaohsiung City Example

Authors: Bing-Shun Huang, Hung-Ju Chiu, Wen-Kai Hsieh, Hsiu-Chuan Lin, Ming-Lung Hung

Abstract:

Taiwan's solar photovoltaic target in 2025 is 20 GW, of which the fish-electricity symbiosis target is 4 GW. In the future, many solar photovoltaic installations may cause local environmental or social impacts. Therefore, the Taiwan government inspects the fish-electricity symbiosis to reduce the impact of solar photovoltaics on the local environment or society. This stuy takes the symbiosis of fishery and electricity in Kaohsiung City as an example to explore Taiwan's environmental and social inspection practices. It mainly analyzes the two aspects of environmental ecology and social economy. The results show that the environmental inspection is mainly through site surveys, ecological information mapping, on-site interviews, and public consultation meetings. Social inspection mainly includes document analysis, on-site interviews, site surveys, expert discussions, and public consultations to identify possible local problems. Although the government had recognized the local issues, the future status may also change. It is recommended that future photoelectric companies should reconfirm the current situation of development sites when applying for the installation and propose countermeasures to solve the problem.

Keywords: taiwan, fish-electricity symbiosis, environment, society, inspection

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27 Automated Irrigation System with Programmable Logic Controller and Photovoltaic Energy

Authors: J. P. Reges, L. C. S. Mazza, E. J. Braga, J. A. Bessa, A. R. Alexandria

Abstract:

This paper proposes the development of control and automation of irrigation system located sunflower harvest in the Teaching Unit, Research and Extension (UEPE), the Apodi Plateau in Limoeiro do Norte. The sunflower extraction, which in turn serves to get the produced oil from its seeds, animal feed, and is widely used in human food. Its nutritional potential is quite high what makes of foods produced from vegetal, very rich and healthy. The focus of research is to make the autonomous irrigation system sunflower crop from programmable logic control energized with alternative energy sources, solar photovoltaics. The application of automated irrigation system becomes interesting when it provides convenience and implements new forms of managements of the implementation of irrigated cropping systems. The intended use of automated addition to irrigation quality and consequently brings enormous improvement for production of small samples. Addition to applying the necessary and sufficient features of water management in irrigation systems, the system (PLC + actuators + Renewable Energy) will enable to manage the quantitative water required for each crop, and at the same time, insert the use of sources alternative energy. The entry of the automated collection will bring a new format, and in previous years, used the process of irrigation water wastage base and being the whole manual irrigation process.

Keywords: automation, control, sunflower, irrigation, programming, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
26 Statistical Mechanical Approach in Modeling of Hybrid Solar Cells for Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: A. E. Kobryn

Abstract:

We present both descriptive and predictive modeling of structural properties of blends of PCBM or organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites of the type CH3NH3PbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) with P3HT, P3BT or squaraine SQ2 dye sensitizer, including adsorption on TiO2 clusters having rutile (110) surface. In our study, we use a methodology that allows computing the microscopic structure of blends on the nanometer scale and getting insight on miscibility of its components at various thermodynamic conditions. The methodology is based on the integral equation theory of molecular liquids in the reference interaction site representation/model (RISM) and uses the universal force field. Input parameters for RISM, such as optimized molecular geometries and charge distribution of interaction sites, are derived with the use of the density functional theory methods. To compare the diffusivity of the PCBM in binary blends with P3HT and P3BT, respectively, the study is complemented with MD simulation. A very good agreement with experiment and the reports of alternative modeling or simulation is observed for PCBM in P3HT system. The performance of P3BT with perovskites, however, seems as expected. The calculated nanoscale morphologies of blends of P3HT, P3BT or SQ2 with perovskites, including adsorption on TiO2, are all new and serve as an instrument in rational design of organic/hybrid photovoltaics. They are used in collaboration with experts who actually make prototypes or devices for practical applications.

Keywords: multiscale theory and modeling, nanoscale morphology, organic-inorganic halide perovskites, three dimensional distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
25 The Importance of Zenithal Lighting Systems for Natural Light Gains and for Local Energy Generation in Brazil

Authors: Ana Paula Esteves, Diego S. Caetano, Louise L. B. Lomardo

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach on the advantages of using adequate coverage in the zenithal lighting typology in various areas of architectural production, while at the same time to encourage to the design concerns inherent in this choice of roofing in Brazil. Understanding that sustainability needs to cover several aspects, a roofing system such as zenithal lighting system can contribute to the provision of better quality natural light for the interior of the building, which is related to the good health and welfare; it will also be able to contribute for the sustainable aspects and environmental needs, when it allows the generation of energy in semitransparent or opacity photovoltaic solutions and economize the artificial lightning. When the energy balance in the building is positive, that is, when the building generates more energy than it consumes, it may fit into the Net Zero Energy Building concept. The zenithal lighting systems could be an important ally in Brazil, when solved the burden of heat gains, participate in the set of pro-efficiency actions in search of "zero energy buildings". The paper presents comparative three cases of buildings that have used this feature in search of better environmental performance, both in light comfort and sustainability as a whole. Two of these buildings are examples in Europe: the Notley Green School in the UK and the Isofóton factory in Spain. The third building with these principles of shed´s roof is located in Brazil: the Ipel´s factory in São Paulo.

Keywords: natural lighting, net zero energy building, sheds, semi-transparent photovoltaics

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
24 Fabrication of Pure and Doped MAPbI3 Thin Films by One Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: S. V. N. Pammi, Soon-Gil Yoon

Abstract:

In the present study, we report a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for Perovskite MAPbI3 thin films by doping with Br and Cl. We performed a systematic optimization of CVD parameters such as deposition temperature, working pressure and annealing time and temperature to obtain high-quality films of CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction pattern showed that the perovskite films have a large grain size when compared to traditional spin coated thin films. To the best of our knowledge, there are very few reports on highly quality perovskite thin films by various doping such as Br and Cl using one step CVD and there is scope for significant improvement in device efficiency. In addition, their band-gap can be conveniently and widely tuned via doping process. This deposition process produces perovskite thin films with large grain size, long diffusion length and high surface coverage. The enhancement of the output power, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) dye films when compared to spin coated films and enhancement in output power by doping in doped films was demonstrated in detail. The facile one-step method for deposition of perovskite thin films shows a potential candidate for photovoltaic and energy harvesting applications.

Keywords: perovskite thin films, chemical vapor deposition, energy harvesting, photovoltaics

Procedia PDF Downloads 236