Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2795

Search results for: Newcastle disease

2795 Stability Analysis of Endemic State of Modelling the Effect of Vaccination and Novel Quarantine-Adjusted Incidence on the Spread of Newcastle Disease Virus

Authors: Nurudeen Oluwasola Lasisi, Abdulkareem Afolabi Ibrahim

Abstract:

Newcastle disease is an infection of domestic poultry and other bird species with virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In this paper, we study the dynamics of modeling the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using a novel quarantine-adjusted incidence. We do a comparison of Vaccination, linear incident rate, and novel quarantine adjusted incident rate in the models. The dynamics of the models yield disease free and endemic equilibrium states. The effective reproduction numbers of the models are computed in order to measure the relative impact for the individual bird or combined intervention for effective disease control. We showed the local and global stability of endemic equilibrium states of the models, and we found that stability of endemic equilibrium states of models are globally asymptotically stable if the effective reproduction numbers of the models equations are greater than a unit.

Keywords: effective reproduction number, endemic state, mathematical model, Newcastle disease virus, novel quarantine-adjusted incidence, stability analysis

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2794 Vaccine Development for Newcastle Disease Virus in Poultry

Authors: Muhammad Asif Rasheed

Abstract:

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian orthoavulavirus, is a causative agent of Newcastle disease named (NDV) and can cause even the epidemics when the disease is not treated. Previously several vaccines based on attenuated and inactivated viruses have been reported, which are rendered useless with the passage of time due to versatile changes in viral genome. Therefore, we aimed to develop an effective multi-epitope vaccine against the haemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN) protein of 26 NDV strains from Pakistan through a modern immunoinformatic approaches. As a result, a vaccine chimaera was constructed by combining T-cell and B-cell epitopes with the appropriate linkers and adjuvant. The designed vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-allergen, and antigenic; therefore, the potential 3D-structureof multi epitope vaccine was constructed, refined, and validated. A molecular docking study of a multiepitope vaccine candidate with the chicken Toll-like receptor-4 indicated successful binding. An In silico immunological simulation was used to evaluate the candidate vaccine's ability to elicit an effective immune response. According to the computational studies, the proposed multiepitope vaccine is physically stable and may induce immune responses, whichsuggested it a strong candidate against 26 Newcastle disease virus strains from Pakistan. A wet lab study is under process to confirm the results.

Keywords: epitopes, newcastle disease virus, paramyxovirus virus, vaccine

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2793 A Field Study of Monochromatic Light Effects on Antibody Responses to Newcastle Disease by HI Test and the Correlation with ELISA

Authors: Seyed Mehrzad Pahlavani, Mozaffar Haji Jafari Anaraki, Sayma Mohammadi

Abstract:

A total of 34700 day-old broilers were exposed to green, blue and yellow light using a light-emitting diode system for 6 weeks to investigate the effects of light wave length on antibody responses to Newcastle disease by HI test and the correlation with ELISA. 3 poultry house broiler farms with the same conditions was selected and the lightening system of each was set according to the requirement. Blood samples were taken from 20 chicks on days 1, 24 and 46 and the Newcastle virus specific antibody was titered in serum using HI an ELISA test. On day 24, the probability value of more than 0/05 was observed in HI and ELISA tests of all groups while at the end of breeding period, the average HI serum antibody titer was more in the green light than the yellow one while the blue light was not significantly different from both. At the last titration, the green light has got the highest titer of Newcastle antibodies. There were no significant differences of Newcastle antibody titers between all groups and ages in broiler pullets in ELISA. According to the sampling and analysis of HI and ELISA serum tests, there were no significant relationships between all broiler pullets breeding in green, blue and yellow light on days 24 and 46 and the P-value was more than 0/05. It is suggested that the monochromatic light is effective on broilers immunity against Newcastle disease.

Keywords: monochromatic light, Newcastle disease, HI test, ELISA test

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2792 Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex Alleles with Antibody Response to Newcastle Vaccine in Chicken

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholam Reza Nikbakht Brujeni

Abstract:

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the best-characterized genetic region associated with susceptibility and/or resistance to a wide range of infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and immune responses to vaccines. It has been demonstrated that there is an association between the MHC and resistance to Marek disease, Newcastle disease, Rous sarcoma tumor, Avian leucosis, Fowl cholera, Salmonellosis and Pasteurellosis in chicken. The present study evaluated the MHC polymorphism and its association with antibody response to Newcastle (ND) vaccine in Iranian native chickens. The MHC polymorphism was investigated using LEI0258 microsatellite locus by PCR-based fragment analysis. LEI0258 microsatellite marker is a genetic indicator for MHC, which is located on microchromosome 16 and strongly associated with serologically defined MHC haplotypes. Antibody titer against ND vaccine was measured by Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 21). Total of 13 LEI0258 microsatellite alleles were identified in 72 samples which indicated a high genetic diversity in the population. The association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on immune responses to Newcastle vaccine. 311 and 313 bp alleles were significantly associated with elevated immune responses to Newcastle vaccine (p<0.05). These results would be applicable in designing and improving the populations under selective breeding.

Keywords: chicken, LEI0258, MHC, Newcastle vaccine

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2791 Phylogenetic Analyses of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Unvaccinated Chicken Flocks in Kyrgyzstan from 2015 to 2016

Authors: Giang Tran Thi Huong, Hieu Dong Van, Tung Dao Duy, Saadanov Iskender, Isakeev Mairambek, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Yuki Ozeki, Yohei Takeda, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai

Abstract:

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a contagious viral disease of the poultry industry and other birds throughout the world. At present, very little is known about molecular epidemiological data regarding the causes of ND outbreak in commercial poultry farms in Kyrgyzstan. In the current study, the NDV isolated from the one out of three samples from the unvaccinated flock was confirmed as NDV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this NDV strain is clustered in the Class II subgenotype VIId, and closely related to the Chinese NDV isolate. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolated NDV strain has an origin different from the 4 NDV strains previously identified in Kyrgyzstan. According to the mean death time (MDT: 61.1 h) and a multibasic amino acid (aa) sequence at the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (¹¹²R-R-Q-K-R-F¹¹⁷), the NDV isolate was determined as mesogenic strain. Several mutations in the neutralizing epitopes (notably, ³⁴⁷E→K) and the global head were observed in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of the current isolate. The present study represents the molecular characterization of the coding gene region of NDV in Kyrgyzstan. Additionally, further study will be investigated on the antigenic characterization using monoclonal antibody.

Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, Newcastle disease, genotype, genome characterization

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2790 Establishment of a Thermostable Newcastle Disease Vaccine Candidate Strain and Its Adaptation to Vero Cells

Authors: Humayun Kabir, Amirul Hasan, Yu Miyaoka, Makiko Yamaguchi, Chisaki Kadota, Kazuaki Takehara

Abstract:

From field isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Japan, one avirulent strain, APMV/northern pintail/Japan/Aomori/2003 (dk-Aomori/03, NDV 261), was selected for its excellent thermostability, and the strain was heat-treated at 56℃ temperatures for 30 min with each passage into Vero cells to maintain thermostability and to adapt Vero cells. After serial 20 passages in Vero cells, it was named NDV Vero20. When growth curves were tested in Vero cells, NDV Vero20 grew well to compare the original NDV261. The HN gene was sequenced, and found motifs that show thermostability. The intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) test score was 0. The thermostability of the virus was confirmed by storing it at different temperatures, including at 37°C. When susceptible chicks were inoculated with NDV Vero20 through eye drops, induced adequate levels of antibody were measured using a serum neutralization test. The results showed that NDV Vero20, a vaccine candidate strain is thermostable, Vero cell adapted, and has immunogenic potential, which would make as an alternative to the traditional embryonated chicken eggs-based vaccine.

Keywords: Newcastle disease virus, thermostability, vaccine, Vero cell adaptability

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2789 Effect of Fatty Acids in Feed on Levels of Antibody Titers and CD4 and CD8 T-Lymphocyte against Newcastle Disease Virus of Vaccinated Broiler Chicken

Authors: Alaa A. Shamaun Al-Abboodi, Yunis A. A. Bapeer

Abstract:

400 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross-308) randomly divided to 2 main groups, 1st main group (GA) was feeding basal diet with medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at rate of 0.15% and divided to four subgroups, 3 subgroups vaccinated with different routes with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and non-vaccinated group. The 2nd main group (GB) feeding basal diet without MCFA and divided the same as 1st main group. The parameters used in this study included: ND antibody titers at 1, 10, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age and values of CD4 and CD8 at 1, 20, 30 and 42 days of age. This experiment detected increase in ND antibodies titers in (G1, G2, G3) groups were fed on basal diet MCFA comparing to groups were fed without adding MCFA (G5, G6, G7) and control groups (G4, G8). The results of cellular immune response (CD4 and CD8) T-cells in broiler chicks indicated that there was obviously significant relationship between dietary Fatty Acid (FA) versus the diet without FA on the level of CD4 parameter, for the entire experimental period. The effect of different ages was statistically significant in creating different values of CD4 level, whereas the CD4 level decreases markedly with age. However, analyzing the data of different vaccination methods, oculonasal method of vaccination led to the highest value of CD4 compared with the oral, S/C and control groups. There were statistical differences in CD8 values due to supplementation of FA versus the basal diet and due to the effect of different age periods. As for the age effect, the CD8 value at 20 days of age was significantly higher than at 42 and 30 days.

Keywords: broiler, CD4 and CD8, fatty acids, Newcastle Disease

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2788 Molecular and Serological Diagnosis of Newcastle and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Broiler in Chicken in Fars Province, Iran

Authors: Mohammadjavad Mehrabanpour, Maryam Ranjbar Bushehri, Dorsa Mehrabanpour

Abstract:

Respiratory diseases are the most important problems in the country’s poultry industry, particularly when it comes to broiler flocks. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a species that causes poor performance in growth rate, egg production, and mortality. This pathogen causes a respiratory infection including pulmonary alveolar inflammation, and pneumonia of birds throughout the world. Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease in poultry, and also, it causes considerable losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous occurrence of ORT and ND and NDV isolation by inoculation in embryonated eggs and confirmed by RT-PCR in broiler chicken flocks in Fars province. In this study, 318 blood and 85 tissue samples (brain, trachea, liver, and cecal tonsils) were collected from 15 broiler chicken farms. Survey serum antibody titers against ORT by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit performed. Evaluation of antibody titer against ND virus is performed by hemagglutination inhibition test. Virus isolation with chick embryo eggs 9-11 and RT-PCR method were carried out. A total of 318 serum samples, 135 samples (42.5%) were positive for antibodies to ORT and titer of HI antibodies against NDV in 122 serum samples (38/4%) were 7-10 (log2) and 61 serum samples (19/2%) had occurrence antibody titer against Newcastle virus and ORT. Results of the present study indicated that 20 tissue samples were positive in embryonated egg and in rapid hemagglutination (HA) test. HI test with specific ND positive serum confirmed that 6 of 20 samples. PCR confirmed that all six samples were positive and PCR products of samples indicated 535-base pair fragments in electrophrosis. Due to the great economic importance of these two diseases in the poultry industry, it is necessary to design and implement a comprehensive plan for prevention and control of these diseases.

Keywords: ELISA, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, newcastle disease, seroprevalence

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2787 In vitro Antiviral Activity of Ocimum sanctum against Animal Viruses

Authors: Anjana Goel, Ashok Kumar Bhatia

Abstract:

Ocimum sanctum, a well known medicinal plant is used for various alignments in Ayurvedic medicines. It was found to be effective in treating the humans suffering from different viral infections like chicken pox, small pox, measles and influenza. In addition, curative effect of the plant in malignant patients was also reported. In the present study, leaves of this plant were screened against animal viruses i.e. Bovine Herpes Virus-type-1 (BHV-1), Foot and Mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). BHV-1 and FMDV were screened in MDBK and BHK cell lines respectively using cytopathic inhibition test. While NDV was propagated in chick embryo fibroblast culture and tested by haemagglutination inhibition test. Maximum non toxic dose of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves was calculated by MTT assay in all the cell cultures and nontoxic doses were used for antiviral activity against viruses. 98.4% and 85.3% protection were recorded against NDV and BHV-1 respectively. However, Ocimum sanctum extract failed to show any inhibitory effect on the cytopathic effect caused by FMD virus. It can be concluded that Ocimum sanctum is a very effective remedy for curing viral infections in animals also.

Keywords: bovine herpes virus-type-1, foot and mouth disease virus, newcastle disease virus, Ocimum sanctum

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2786 Molecular-Genetics Studies of New Unknown APMV Isolated from Wild Bird in Ukraine

Authors: Borys Stegniy, Anton Gerilovych, Oleksii Solodiankin, Vitaliy Bolotin, Anton Stegniy, Denys Muzyka, Claudio Afonso

Abstract:

New APMV was isolated from white fronted goose in Ukraine. This isolate was tested serologically using monoclonal antibodies in haemagglutination-inhibition tests against APMV1-9. As the results obtained isolate showed cross reactions with APMV7. Following investigations were provided for the full genome sequencing using random primers and cloning into pCRII-TOPO. Analysis of 100 transformed colonies of E.coli using traditional sequencing gave us possibilities to find only 3 regions, which could identify by BLAST. The first region with the length of 367 bp had 70 % nucleotide sequence identity to the APMV 12 isolate Wigeon/Italy/3920_1/2005 at genome position 2419-2784. Next region (344 bp) had 66 % identity to the same APMV 12 isolate at position 4760-5103. The last region (365 bp) showed 71 % identity to Newcastle disease virus strain M4 at position 12569-12928.

Keywords: APMV, Newcastle disease virus, Ukraine, full genome sequencing

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2785 Alzheimer’s Disease Measured in Work Organizations

Authors: Katherine Denise Queri

Abstract:

The effects of sick workers have an impact in administration of labor. This study aims to provide knowledge on the disease that is Alzheimer’s while presenting an answer to the research question of when and how is the disease considered as a disaster inside the workplace. The study has the following as its research objectives: 1. Define Alzheimer’s disease, 2. Evaluate the effects and consequences of an employee suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, 3. Determine the concept of organizational effectiveness in the area of Human Resources, and 4. Identify common figures associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The researcher gathered important data from books, video presentations, and interviews of workers suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and from the internet. After using all the relevant data collection instruments mentioned, the following data emerged: 1. Alzheimer’s disease has certain consequences inside the workplace, 2. The occurrence of Alzheimer’s Disease in an employee’s life greatly affects the company where the worker is employed, and 3. The concept of workplace efficiency suggests that an employer must prepare for such disasters that Alzheimer’s disease may bring to the company where one is employed. Alzheimer’s disease can present disaster in any workplace.

Keywords: administration, Alzheimer's disease, conflict, disaster, employment

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2784 Investigation of Yard Seam Workings for the Proposed Newcastle Light Rail Project

Authors: David L. Knott, Robert Kingsland, Alistair Hitchon

Abstract:

The proposed Newcastle Light Rail is a key part of the revitalisation of Newcastle, NSW and will provide a frequent and reliable travel option throughout the city centre, running from Newcastle Interchange at Wickham to Pacific Park in Newcastle East, a total of 2.7 kilometers in length. Approximately one-third of the route, along Hunter and Scott Streets, is subject to potential shallow underground mine workings. The extent of mining and seams mined is unclear. Convicts mined the Yard Seam and overlying Dudley (Dirty) Seam in Newcastle sometime between 1800 and 1830. The Australian Agricultural Company mined the Yard Seam from about 1831 to the 1860s in the alignment area. The Yard Seam was about 3 feet (0.9m) thick, and therefore, known as the Yard Seam. Mine maps do not exist for the workings in the area of interest and it was unclear if both or just one seam was mined. Information from 1830s geological mapping and other data showing shaft locations were used along Scott Street and information from the 1908 Royal Commission was used along Hunter Street to develop an investigation program. In addition, mining was encountered for several sites to the south of the alignment at depths of about 7 m to 25 m. Based on the anticipated depths of mining, it was considered prudent to assess the potential for sinkhole development on the proposed alignment and realigned underground utilities and to obtain approval for the work from Subsidence Advisory NSW (SA NSW). The assessment consisted of a desktop study, followed by a subsurface investigation. Four boreholes were drilled along Scott Street and three boreholes were drilled along Hunter Street using HQ coring techniques in the rock. The placement of boreholes was complicated by the presence of utilities in the roadway and traffic constraints. All the boreholes encountered the Yard Seam, with conditions varying from unmined coal to an open void, indicating the presence of mining. The geotechnical information obtained from the boreholes was expanded by using various downhole techniques including; borehole camera, borehole sonar, and downhole geophysical logging. The camera provided views of the rock and helped to explain zones of no recovery. In addition, timber props within the void were observed. Borehole sonar was performed in the void and provided an indication of room size as well as the presence of timber props within the room. Downhole geophysical logging was performed in the boreholes to measure density, natural gamma, and borehole deviation. The data helped confirm that all the mining was in the Yard Seam and that the overlying Dudley Seam had been eroded in the past over much of the alignment. In summary, the assessment allowed the potential for sinkhole subsidence to be assessed and a mitigation approach developed to allow conditional approval by SA NSW. It also confirmed the presence of mining in the Yard Seam, the depth to the seam and mining conditions, and indicated that subsidence did not appear to have occurred in the past.

Keywords: downhole investigation techniques, drilling, mine subsidence, yard seam

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2783 Genome Sequencing of Infectious Bronchitis Virus QX-Like Strain Isolated in Malaysia

Authors: M. Suwaibah, S. W. Tan, I. Aiini, K. Yusoff, A. R. Omar

Abstract:

Respiratory diseases are the most important infectious diseases affecting poultry worldwide. One of the avian respiratory virus of global importance causing significant economic losses is Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV). The virus causes a wide spectrum disease known as Infectious Bronchitis (IB), affecting not only the respiratory system but also the kidney and the reproductive system, depending on its strain. IB and Newcastle disease are two of the most prevalent diseases affecting poultry in Malaysia. However, a study on the molecular characterization of Malaysian IBV is lacking. In this study, an IBV strain IBS130 which was isolated in 2015 was fully sequenced using next-gene sequencing approach. Sequence analysis of IBS130 based on the complete genome, polyprotein 1ab and S1 genes were compared with other IBV sequences available in Genbank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). IBV strain IBS130 is characterised as QX-like strain based on whole genome and S1 gene sequence analysis. Comparisons of the virus with other IBV strains showed that the nucleotide identity ranged from 67% to 99.2%, depending on the region analysed. The similarity in whole genome nucleotide ranging from 84.9% to 90.7% with the least similar was from Singapore strains (84.9%) and highly similar with China QX-like strains. Meanwhile, the similarity in polyprotein 1ab ranging from 85.3% to 89.9% with the least similar to Singapore strains (85.3%) and highly similar with Mass strains from USA.

Keywords: infectious bronchitis virus, phylogenetic analysis, chicken, Malaysia

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2782 Varietal Screening of Watermelon against Powdery Mildew Disease and Its Management

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Amer Habib, Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Sufyan, Iqra, Hasnain Sajjad

Abstract:

Except for few scattered cases, powdery mildew disease was not a big problem for watermelon in the past but with the outbreaks of its pathotypes, races 1W and 2W, this disease becomes a serious issue all around the globe. The severe outbreak of this disease also increased the rate of fungicide application for its proper management. Twelve varieties of watermelon were screened in Research Area of Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to check the incidence of powdery mildew disease. Disease inoculum was prepared and applied with the help of foliar spray method. Fungicides and plants extracts were also applied after the disease incidence. Percentage leaf surface area diseased was assessed visually with a modified Horsfall-Barratt scale. The results of the experiment revealed that among all varieties, WT2257 and Zcugma F1 were highly resistant showing less than 5% disease incidence while Anar Kali and Sugar baby were highly susceptible with disease incidence of more than 65%. Among botanicals neem extract gave best results with disease incidence of less than 20%. Besides neem, all other botanicals also gave significant control of powdery mildew disease than the untreated check. In case of fungicides, Gemstar showed least disease incidence i.e. < 10%, however besides control maximum disease incidence was observed in Curzate (> 30%).

Keywords: botanicals, fungicides, pathotypes, powdery mildew

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2781 Correlation between Peripheral Arterial Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in Bangladeshi Population: A Five Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Syed Dawood M. Taimur

Abstract:

Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed in primary care practices, yet the extent of unrecognized PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiogram and to determine the relationship between the presence of PAD and severity of CAD. Material & Methods: This five years retrospective study was conducted at an invasive lab of the department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute from January 2010 to December 2014. Total 77 patients were included in this study. Study variables were age, sex, risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking habit and positive family history for ischemic heart disease, coronary artery and peripheral artery profile. Results: Mean age was 56.83±13.64 years, Male mean age was 53.98±15.08 years and female mean age was 54.5±1.73years. Hypertension was detected in 55.8%, diabetes in 87%, dyslipidaemia in 81.8%, smoking habits in 79.2% and 58.4% had a positive family history. After catheterization 88.3% had peripheral arterial disease and 71.4% had coronary artery disease. Out of 77 patients, 52 had both coronary and peripheral arterial disease which was statistically significant (p < .014). Coronary angiogram revealed 28.6% (22) patients had triple vessel disease, 23.3% (18) had single vessel disease, 19.5% (15) had double vessel disease and 28.6% (22) were normal coronary arteries. The peripheral angiogram revealed 54.5% had superficial femoral artery disease, 26% had anterior tibial artery disease, 27.3% had posterior tibial artery disease, 20.8% had common iliac artery disease, 15.6% had common femoral artery disease and 2.6% had renal artery disease. Conclusion: There is a strong and definite correlation between coronary and peripheral arterial disease. We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.

Keywords: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease(PVD), risk, factors, correlation, cathetarization

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2780 The Effect of Different Levels of Seed and Extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on Immune Responses of Broiler Chicks

Authors: M. Toghyani, A. Ghasemi, S. A. Tabeidian

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of dietary seed and extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on immunity of broiler chicks. A total of 350 one-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates pen of 14 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of control, 1 and 2 g/kg Harmal seed in diet, 100 and 200 mg/L Harmal seed extract in water. Broilers received dietary treatments from 1 to 42 d. Two birds from each pen were randomly weighed and sacrificed at 42 d of age, the relative weight of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabercius and spleen) to live weight were calculated. Antibody titers against Newcastle and influenza viruses and sheep red blood cell were measured at 30 d of age. Results showed that the relative weights of lymphoid organs were not affected by dietary treatments. Furthermore, antibody titer against Newcastle and influenza viruses as well as sheep red blood cell antigen were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by feeding Harmal seed and extract. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary inclusion of Harmal seed and extract enhanced immunological responses in broiler chicks.

Keywords: broiler chicks, Harmal, immunity, Peganum harmala

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2779 Cardiovascular Disease Is Common among Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Authors: Fathia Ehmouda Zaid, Reim Abudelnbi

Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and method: Cross-section study (68) patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who visited the outpatient clinic of rheumatology, these patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about their past and current clinically for presence of Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus and use SLEDAI, specific tests [ECG –ECHO –CXRAY] the data are analyzed statistically by Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05,during period (2013-2014). Objective: Estimation Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, correlation with disease activity, morbidity, and mortality. Result: (68) Patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus' age range from (18-48 years), M=(13±29Y), Sex were female 66/68 (97.1%), male 2/68 (2.9%),duration of disease range[1-15year], M =[7±8y], we found Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus 32/68 (47.1%), correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI,(r= 476** p=0.000),Morbidity,(r= .554**; p=0.000) and mortality (r=.181; p=.139), Cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus are pericarditis 8/68 (11.8%), pericardial effusion 6/68 (8.8%), myocarditis 4/68 (5.9 %), valvular lesions (endocarditis) 1/68 (1.5%), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) 12/68 (17.6%), coronary artery disease 1/68 (1.5%), none of patients have conduction abnormalities involvement. Correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI, pericarditis (r= .210, p=.086), pericardial effusion (r= 0.079, p=.520), myocarditis (r= 272*, p=.027), valvular lesions (endocarditis) (r= .112, p= .362), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r= .257*, p=.035) and coronary artery disease (r=.075, p=.544) correlation between cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and specific organ involvement we found Mucocutaneous (r=.091 p= .459), musculoskeletal (MSK) (r=.110 p=.373), Renal disease (r=.278*, p=.022), neurologic disease (r=.085, p=.489) and Hematologic disease (r=-.264*, p=.030). Conclusion: Cardiovascular manifestation is more frequent symptoms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is 47 % correlation with disease activity and morbidity but not with mortality. Recommendations: Focus research to evaluation and an adequate assessment of cardiovascular complications on the morbidity and mortality of the patients with SLE are still required.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, disease activity, mortality

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2778 Evaluation of Disease Risk Variables in the Control of Bovine Tuberculosis

Authors: Berrin Şentürk

Abstract:

In this study, due to the recurrence of bovine tuberculosis, in the same areas, the risk factors for the disease were determined and evaluated at the local level. This study was carried out in 32 farms where the disease was detected in the district and center of Samsun province in 2014. Predetermined risk factors, such as farm, environmental and economic risks, were investigated with the survey method. It was predetermined that risks in the three groups are similar to the risk variables of the disease on the global scale. These risk factors that increase the susceptibility of the infection must be understood by the herd owners. The risk-based contagious disease management system approach should be applied for bovine tuberculosis by farmers, animal health professionals and public and private sector decision makers.

Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, disease management, control, outbreak, risk analysis

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2777 Effect of Time of Planting on Powdery Mildew Development on Cucumber

Authors: H. Parameshwar Naik, Shripad Kulkarni

Abstract:

Powdery mildew is a serious disease among the fungal in high humid areas with varied temperature conditions. In recent days disease becomes very severe due to uncertain weather conditions and unique character of the disease is, it produces white mycelia growth on upper and lower leaf surfaces and in severe conditions it leads to defoliation. Results of the experiment revealed that sowing of crop in the I fortnight (FN) of July recorded the minimum mean disease severity (7.96 %) followed by crop sown in II FN of July (13.19 %) as against the crop sown in II FN of August (41.44 %) and I FN of September (33.78 %) and the I fortnight of October (33.77 %). In the first date of sowing infection started at 45 DAS and progressed till 73 DAS and it was up to 14.66 Percent and in second date of sowing disease progressed up to 22.66 percent and in the third date of sowing, it was up to 59.35 percent. Afterward, the disease started earlier and progressed up to 66.15 percent and in sixth and seventh date of sowing disease progressed up to 43.15 percent and 59.85 percent respectively. Disease progress is very fast after 45 days after sowing and highest disease incidence was noticed at 73 DAS irrespective of dates of sowing. From the results of the present study, it is very clear that disease development will be very high if crop sown in between 1st fortnight of August and the 1st fortnight of September.

Keywords: cucumber, India, Karnataka, powdery mildew

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2776 Nagami Kumkuat: A Source of Antiviral and Antimicrobial Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Nagwa M. M. Shalaby

Abstract:

The fruit rind of Fortunella margarita (Nagami Kumkuat) was investigated for its chemical constituents. Thirteen metabolites were obtained and classified into, a sterol; β-sitosterol (1) and twelve phenolic compounds, three coumarins; xanthotoxin (2), isopimpinellin (3), umbelliferone (4), nine flavonoids of O-glycosides of flavone; apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), apigenin-7-O-rhamnoglucoside (rhoifolin) (6), C-glycosides; vitexin (7), vicenin II (8), and the methoxylated; 6-methoxyapigenin-7-methyl ether (9) and tangeretin (10) as well as flavanones class; naringenin (11), liquiritigenin (12), hesperdin (hesperetin-7-rhamnoglucoside) (13). All compounds were identified for the first time in F. margarita except compound (8). The major glycosides 5, 6, and 13 and total crude extract showed potential antiviral activity against live Newcastle disease virus vaccine strains (Komarov and LaSota) and live infectious bursitis viruses vaccine strain D78 replication in VERO cell cultures and on specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. Antiviral inhibitory concentration fifty (IC50), cytotoxic concentration fifty (CC50), and therapeutic index (TI) were calculated. In addition, the extract and compounds 7 and 13 showed marked antimicrobial activity against different strains of fungi, Gram-positive and negative bacteria, including some foodborne pathogens of animal origin, caused human disease. These results suggested that the extract of F. margarita may be considered potentially useful as a source of natural antiviral and antimicrobial agents. It can be used as an ingredient for functional food and/or pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antiviral, Fortunella margarita, Nagami Kumkuat, phenolic secondary metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2775 Level of Awareness of Genetic Counselling in Benue State Nigeria: Its Advocacy on the Inheritance of Sickle Cell Disease

Authors: Agi Sunday

Abstract:

A descriptive analysis of reported cases of sickle cell disease and the level of awareness about genetic counselling in 30 hospitals were carried out. Additionally, 150 individuals between ages 16-45 were randomly selected for evaluation of genetic counselling awareness. The main tools for this study were questionnaires which were taken to hospitals, and individuals completed the others. The numbers of reported cases of sickle cell disease recorded in private, public and teaching hospitals were 14 and 57; 143 and 89; 272 and 57 for the periods of 1995-2000 and 2001-2005, respectively. A general informal genetic counselling took place mostly in the hospitals visited. 122 (86%) individuals had the knowledge of genetic disease and only 43 (30.3%) individuals have been exposed to genetic counselling. 64% of individuals agreed that genetic counselling would help in the prevention of genetic disease.

Keywords: sickle disease, genetic counseling, genetic testing, advocacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2774 Performance and Physiological Responses of Broiler Chickens to Diets Supplemented with Propolis in Breeding, to in Ovo Propolis Feeding or to Propolis Supplementation of Diets for Their Chicks

Authors: Kalbiye Konanc, Ergin Ozturk

Abstract:

To examine the effects of an ethanol liquid extract obtained from raw bee propolis (PE) on fattening performance and physiology such as vaccine-antibody relationship, microbial profile, immune status and some blood parameters of broiler chickens were used a total of 600 broiler (Ross 308) chicks, obtained from eggs of 288, 38-weeks-old broiler breeding. There were 6 groups: CC (Parent-Control and Offspring-Control, CP (Parent-Control and Offspring-propolis extract, Cip (Parent-Control and Offspring-in-ovo propolis extract), Cis (Parent-Control and Chickens-in-ovo saline), PeC (Parent-propolis extract and Offspring-Control), PeP (Parent-Propolis extract and Offspring-Propolis extract). Each group was consisted of 10 replications with 10 broiler offspring, and the experiment was lasted for 6 weeks with ethanol-extracted propolis concentration is 400 ppm/kg diet. While the highest feed consumptions at 0-21 days and 0-42 days were found in PeC, the best feed conversion ratio at 0-42 days was found in CP group. The live weight gains were found not to be different among the groups. The highest alanine aminotransferase activities were found in CC and CP and aspartate aminotransferase activities in PeP and PeC groups. The highest triglyceride and total antioxidant levels were found highest in CC and the highest total oxidant level in Cip group. IgA level in hatched eggs and IgM value after slaughtering were highest in Cip group. The best immune response was obtained for 21st day Newcastle Disease vaccine in CC and Cis groups and for 28th day Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine in CP group. The highest total aerobic microorganism and the lowest total fungi count were found in PeP group. In conclusion, it was determined that in-ovo propolis ethanol extract (Cip) increased the maternal antibody levels, that had not consistent effects on blood biochemical parameters except for triglyceride, that led to decrease in E. coli counts and that it can provide strong immune response against Infectious Bursal Disease.

Keywords: bee propolis, in-ovo feeding, immune parameters, poultry, maternal antibody, microorganisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
2773 Role of DatScan in the Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Shraddha Gopal, Jayam Lazarus

Abstract:

Aims: To study the referral practice and impact of DAT-scan in the diagnosis or exclusion of Parkinson’s disease. Settings and Designs: A retrospective study Materials and methods: A retrospective study of the results of 60 patients who were referred for a DAT scan over a period of 2 years from the Department of Neurology at Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS trust. The reason for DAT scan referral was noted under 5 categories against Parkinson’s disease; drug-induced Parkinson’s, essential tremors, diagnostic dilemma, not responding to Parkinson’s treatment, and others. We assessed the number of patients who were diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease against the number of patients in whom Parkinson’s disease was excluded or an alternative diagnosis was made. Statistical methods: Microsoft Excel was used for data collection and statistical analysis, Results: 30 of the 60 scans were performed to confirm the diagnosis of early Parkinson’s disease, 13 were done to differentiate essential tremors from Parkinsonism, 6 were performed to exclude drug-induced Parkinsonism, 5 were done to look for alternative diagnosis as the patients were not responding to anti-Parkinson medication and 6 indications were outside the recommended guidelines. 55% of cases were confirmed with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. 43.33% had Parkinson’s disease excluded. 33 of the 60 scans showed bilateral abnormalities and confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Conclusion: DAT scan provides valuable information in confirming Parkinson’s disease in 55% of patients along with excluding the diagnosis in 43.33% of patients aiding an alternative diagnosis.

Keywords: DATSCAN, Parkinson's disease, diagnosis, essential tremors

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2772 Prevalence Of Periodontal Disease In Felines In The Outskirts Of The City Of Manaus, Brazil: An Epidemiological Study

Authors: Pármenas Costa Macedo do Nascimento

Abstract:

Periodontal disease is the most common disease in the oral cavity of felines. It starts with the accumulation of bacteria on the tooth surface supporting the tissues of the periodontal tissue, namely gums, alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. The main clinical symptom observed by the owner is bad breath, which may lead to local and systemic consequences depending on the stage of periodontal disease, such as bleeding and bone loss. Therefore, the study is important to educate tutors to take better care of the felines oral health in order to try to prevent the disease. For this epidemiological study, the target population has been felines, located on the outskirts of Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, with a geographic area of 155.68 km², with no defined breed, from October 1st to 10th, 2021, whose samples has been randomly selected, with a detailed profile. The variables of interest for this study have been: absence or presence of periodontal disease, gender, age (delimited by age group), and condition (domiciled or homeless). Using a sample of 40 felines from 4 districts of the east side of Manaus chosen at random, an oral exam has been made to identify the studied disease. The animal's apparent age, condition, sex, and presence or absence of periodontal disease has been noted. It has been observed that 70% (28/40) of them had periodontal disease, mostly females, aged between 0 and 5 years and domiciled, totaling 30% (12/40).

Keywords: felines, oral cavity, oral exam, periodontal disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
2771 Cutaneous Crohn’s Disease in a Child: Atypical Axillary Involvement

Authors: A. Al Yousef, A. Toulon, L. Petit, S. Fraitag, F. Ruemmele, S. Hadj-Rabia, C. Bodemer

Abstract:

Cutaneous Crohn’s disease (CCD) refers to an extremely rare granulomatous inflammation of the skin that is non-contiguous to the bowel tract. These cutaneous lesions can occur prior to, concurrent with, or after the gastrointestinal manifestations. In adults, CCD most frequently occurs in the setting of well-documented intestinal disease. Only 20% of cases occur prior to its development. Review of CCD in children, reveals that 86% of cases (24 of 28) occurring in patients without a known diagnosis of intestinal Crohn’s disease. Overall, the genitalia was the most commonly involved location, representing 21 of the 28 cases with 16 vulvar and 5 penile/scrotal lesions.

Keywords: Crohn’s disease, cutaneous manifestations, children, atypical axillary involvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
2770 Management of Coronary Heart Disease through Yoga

Authors: Subramaniam Iyer

Abstract:

The most common disease that is pertaining to all human beings is heart-related. The reasons for coronary artery disease are due to lifestyle and eating habits. Due to this, many people mentally become sick, feeling that soon they will die due to their heart problems. This results in stress and anxiety, which has become common amongst all the Indians. Medicines are the commonest curative remedy in India, but it is proposed through this article some remedies through yoga. This article does not guarantee a 100% result, but it is a preventive remedy for coronary artery disease. Yoga is giving a new lease of life to many, so to tackle chronic diseases, it provides remedies that will be lifelong. It is brought to many people by Patanjali. Yoga will provide support to patients having coronary artery disease through its various relevant postures (asanas), which can be done very easily. Yoga does not send a message that if you do it regularly, you will be relieved from a particular disease. If it is performed every day, it will add vital energy for a smooth life, even if you are suffering from any chronic disease. In this article, we will be providing 6 postures (asanas), which can be performed at any time in the day, but the early morning will always be preferred (empty stomach) to get a good result. Secondly, these postures must be implemented after due consultation with your physician. If your physician disapproves, don’t do these postures as it will be harmful to your body.

Keywords: coronary artery, yoga, disease, remedy, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2769 Trichoderma spp Consortium and Its Efficacy as Biological Control Agent of Ganoderma Disease of Oil Palm (Elaies guineensis Jacquin)

Authors: Habu Musa, Nusaibah Binti Syd Ali

Abstract:

Oil palm industries particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia are being devastated by Ganoderma disease caused by Ganoderma spp. To date, this disease has been causing serious oil palm yield losses and collapse of oil palm trees, thus affecting its contribution to the producer’s economy. Research on sustainable and eco-friendly remedy to counter Ganoderma disease is on the upsurge to avoid the current control measures via synthetic fungicides. Trichoderma species have been the most studied and valued microbes as biological control agents in an effort to combat a wide range of plant diseases sustainably. Therefore, in this current study, the potential of Trichoderma spp. (Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma virens) as a consortium approach was evaluated as biological control agents against Ganoderma disease on oil palm. The consortium of Trichoderma spp. applied found to be the most effective treatment in suppressing Ganoderma disease with 83.03% and 89.16% from the foliar and bole symptoms respectively. Besides, it exhibited tremendous enhancement in the oil palm seedling vegetative growth parameters. Also, it had highly induced significant activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and total phenolic content was recorded in the consortium treatment compared to the control treatment. Disease development was slower in the seedlings treated with consortium of Trichoderma spp. compared to the positive control, which exhibited with the highest percentage of disease severity.

Keywords: biological control, ganoderma disease, trichoderma, disease severity

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2768 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Molecular Epidemiology: An Overview

Authors: Asho Ali

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is a disease of grave concern which infects one-third of the global population. The high incidence of tuberculosis is further compounded by the increasing emergence of drug resistant strains including multi drug resistant (MDR). Global incidence MDR-TB is ~4%. Molecular epidemiological studies, based on the assumption that patients infected with clustered strains are epidemiologically linked, have helped understand the transmission dynamics of disease. It has also helped to investigate the basis of variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains, differences in transmission, and severity of disease or drug resistance mechanisms from across the globe. This has helped in developing strategies for the treatment and prevention of the disease including MDR.

Keywords: Mycobcaterium tuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, drug resistance, disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2767 Innate Immune Dysfunction in Niemann Pick Disease Type C

Authors: Stephanie Newman

Abstract:

Niemann-Pick Type C disease is a rare, usually fatal lysosomal storage disorder. Although clinically characterized by progressive neurodegeneration, there is also evidence of altered innate immune responses such as neuroinflammation that promote disease progression. We have initiated an investigation into whether phagocytosis, an important innate immune activity and the process by which particles are ingested is defective in NPC. Using an in vitro assay, we have shown that NPC macrophages have a deficiency in the phagocytosis of different particles. We plan to investigate the mechanistic basis for impaired phagocytosis, the contribution that this deficiency makes to disease pathology, and whether therapies that have shown in vivo benefit are able to restore phagocytic activity.

Keywords: Niemann Pick Disease C, phagocytosis, innate immunity, lysosomal storage disorder

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
2766 The Management of Behcet's Disease Patient's Mandibular Total Edentulism with Custom Made Implant Supported Bar Retainer: A Case Report

Authors: Faruk Emir, Simel Ayyıldız, Cem Şahin

Abstract:

Behçet’s disease or Behçet’s syndrome is a chronic and multi-systemic inflammatory disease of unknown cause. This syndrome often presents with mucous membrane ulceration and ocular problems. As a systemic disease Behcet includes triple-symptom complex of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. Nearly all patients present with some form of painful oral mucocutaneous ulcerations in the form of aphthous ulcers. The aim of the treatment plan for Behçet’s Disease patients is to eliminate oral problems and increase the patient comfort.This clinical report represents the prosthodontic rehabilitation of Behcet’s disease patients mandibular total edentulism with the use of implant supported prosthesis that planned on custom abutments and bar retainers via CAD/CAM technology and patient satisfaction has been achieved in function and aesthetics.

Keywords: Behçet’s disease, CAD/CAM, custom-made manufacturing, titanium milled bar retainer

Procedia PDF Downloads 244