Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2102

Search results for: aromatic compounds

2102 Study of Some Aromatic Thiourea Derivatives as Lube Oil Antioxidant

Authors: Rasha S. Kamal, Nehal S. Ahmed, Amal M. Nassar, Nour E. A. Abd El-Sattar


In the present work, some lube oil antioxidants based on ester of some aromatic thiourea derivative were prepared by two steps: the first step is the reaction of succinyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate in addition to anthranilic acid as three component system to prepare thiourea derivative (A); the second step is esterification of compound (A) by different alcohol (decyl C₁₀, tetradecyl C₁₄, and octadecyl C₁₈) alcohol. The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by infra-red spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and determination of the molecular weights. All the prepared compounds were soluble in lube oil. The efficiency of the prepared compounds as antioxidants lube oil additives was investigated and it was found that these prepared compounds give good result as lube oil antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant lube oil, three component system, aromatic thiourea derivatives, esterification

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2101 Preparation and Characterization of Copper-Nanoparticle on Extracted Carrageenan and Its Catalytic Activity for Reducing Aromatic Nitro Group

Authors: Vida Jodaeian, Behzad Sani


Copper nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and characterized on green-extracted Carrageenan from seaweed by precipitation method without using any supporter and template with precipitation method. The crystallinity, optical properties, morphology, and composition of products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The effects of processing parameters on the size and shape of Cu- nanostructures such as effect of pH were investigated. It is found that the reaction at lower pH values (acidic) could not be completed and pH = 8.00 was the best pH value to prepare very fine nanoparticles. They as synthesized Cu-nanoparticles were used as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds in presence of NaBH4. The results showed that Cu-nanoparticles are very active for reduction of these nitro aromatic compounds.

Keywords: nanoparticles, carrageenan, seaweed, nitro aromatic compound

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2100 Substitution of Formaldehyde in Phenolic Resins with Innovative and Bio-Based Vanillin Derived Compounds

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Ghislain David


Phenolic resins are industrially used in a wide range of applications from commodity and construction materials to high-technology aerospace industry. They are mainly produced from the reaction between phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. Nevertheless, formaldehyde is a highly volatile and hazardous compound, classified as a Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reprotoxic chemical (CMR). Vanillin is a bio-based and non-toxic aromatic aldehyde compound obtained from the abundant lignin resources. Also, its aromaticity is very interesting for the synthesis of phenolic resins with high thermal stability. However, because of the relatively low reactivity of its aldehyde function toward phenolic compounds, it has never been used to synthesize phenolic resins. We developed innovative functionalization reactions and designed new bio-based aromatic aldehyde compounds from vanillin. Those innovative compounds present improved reactivity toward phenolic compounds compared to vanillin. Moreover, they have target structures to synthesize highly cross-linked phenolic resins with high aromatic densities. We have obtained phenolic resins from substituted vanillin, thus without the use of any aldehyde compound classified as CMR. The analytical tests of the cured resins confirmed that those bio-based resins exhibit high levels of performance with high thermal stability and high rigidity properties

Keywords: phenolic resins, formaldehyde-free, vanillin, bio-based, non-toxic

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2099 Antioxidant Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Four Indian Aromatic Plants

Authors: Harleen Kaur, Richa


Plants produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Phenolics are the compounds that contain hydroxyl functional group on an aromatic ring. These are chemically heterogeneous compounds. Some are soluble only in organic solvents, some are water soluble and others are large insoluble polymers. Flavonoids are one of the largest classes of plant phenolics. The carbon skeleton of a flavonoid contains 15 carbons arranged in two aromatic rings connected by a three carbon ridge. Both phenolics and flavonoids are good natural antioxidants. Four Indian aromatic plants were selected for the study i.e, Achillea species, Jasminum primulinum, Leucas cephalotes and Leonotis nepetaefolia. All the plant species were collected from Chail region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The identifying features and anatomical studies were done of the part containing the essential oils. Phenolic cotent was estimated by Folin Ciocalteu’s method and flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. Antioxidant property was checked by using DPPH method. Maximum antioxidant potential was found in Achillea species, followed by Leonotis nepetaefolia, Jaminum primulinum and Leucas cephalotes. Phenolics and flavonoids are important compounds that serve as defences against herbivores and pathogens. Others function in attracting pollinators and absorbing harmful radiations.

Keywords: antioxidants, DPPH, flavonoids, phenolics

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2098 Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacterial Isolated from Contaminated Soils

Authors: Z. Abdessemed, N. Messaâdia, M. Houhamdi


The PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) represent a persistent source of pollution for oil field soils. Their degradation, essentially dominated by the aerobic bacterial and fungal flora, exhibits certain aspects for remediation of these soils microbial oxygenases have, as their substrates, a large range of PAH. The variety and the performance of these enzymes allow the initiation of the biodegradation of any PAH through many different metabolic pathways. These pathways are very important for the recycling of the PAH in the biosphere, where substances supposed indigestible by living organisms are rapidly transformed into simples compounds, directly assimilated by the intermediate metabolism of other microorganisms.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial oxygenases, biodegradation, metabolic pathways

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2097 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities

Authors: Zhichao Li


This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.

Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technology

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2096 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods

Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab


Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, antioxidants, by-product, indigenous foods, phenolic compounds

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2095 Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Generated Waste in Nouri Petrochemical Complex, Assaluyeh, Iran

Authors: L. Heidari, M. Jalili Ghazizade


In recent years, different petrochemical complexes have been established to produce aromatic compounds. Among them, Nouri Petrochemical Complex (NPC) is the largest producer of aromatic raw materials in the world, and is located in south of Iran. Environmental concerns have been raised in this region due to generation of different types of solid waste generated in the process of aromatics production, and subsequently, industrial waste characterization has been thoroughly considered. The aim of this study is qualitative and quantitative characterization of industrial waste generated in the aromatics production process and determination of the best method for industrial waste management. For this purpose, all generated industrial waste during the production process was determined using a checklist. Four main industrial wastes were identified as follows: spent industrial soil, spent catalyst, spent molecular sieves and spent N-formyl morpholine (NFM) solvent. The amount of heavy metals and organic compounds in these wastes were further measured in order to identify the nature and toxicity of such a dangerous compound. Then industrial wastes were classified based on lab analysis results as well as using different international lists of hazardous waste identification such as EPA, UNEP and Basel Convention. Finally, the best method of waste disposal is selected based on environmental, economic and technical aspects. 

Keywords: aromatic compounds, industrial soil, molecular sieve, normal formyl morpholine solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2094 Extraction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Lub Oil Using Sursurfactant as Additive

Authors: Izza Hidaya, Korichi Mourad


Solvent extraction is an affective method for reduction of aromatic content of lube oil. Frequently with phenol, furfural, NMP(N-methyl pyrrolidone). The solvent power and selectivity can be further increased by using surfactant as additive which facilitate phase separation and to increase raffinate yield. The aromatics in lube oil were extracted at different temperatures (ranging from 333.15 to 343.15K) and different concentration of surfactant (ranging from 0.01 to 0.1% wt).The extraction temperature and the amount of sulfate lauryl éther de sodium In phenoll were investigated systematically in order to determine their optimum values. The amounts of aromatic, paraffinic and naphthenic compounds were determined using ASTM standards by measuring refractive index (RI), viscosity, molecular weight and sulfur content. It was found that using 0,01%wt. surfactant at 343.15K yields the optimum extraction conditions.

Keywords: extraction, lubricating oil, aromatics, hydrocarbons

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2093 Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air PM2.5 in an Urban Site of Győr, Hungary

Authors: A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, Zs. Csanádi, J. Erdős


In Hungary, the measurement of ambient PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations is great importance for a number of reasons related to human health, the environment and compliance with European Union legislation. However, the monitoring of PAHs associated with PM2.5 aerosol fraction is still incomplete. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of PAHs in PM2.5 urban aerosol fraction. PM2.5 and associated PAHs were monitored in November 2014 in an urban site of Győr (Northwest Hungary). The aerosol samples were collected every day for 24-hours over two weeks with a high volume air sampler provided with a PM2.5 cut-off inlet. The levels of 19 PAH compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosol fraction were quantified by a gas chromatographic method. Polluted air quality for PM2.5 (>25 g/m3) was indicated in 50% of the collected samples. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 37.3 ng/m3 with the mean value of 12.4 ng/m3. Indeno(123-cd)pyrene (IND) and sum of three benzofluoranthene isomers were the most dominant PAH species followed by benzo(ghi)perylene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Using BaP-equivalent approach on the concentration data of carcinogenic PAH species, BaP, and IND contributed the highest carcinogenic exposure equivalent (1.50 and 0.24 ng/m3 on average). A selected number of concentration ratios of specific PAH compounds were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of PAH contamination. The ratios reflected that the major source of PAH compounds in the PM2.5 aerosol fraction of Győr during the study period was fossil fuel combustion from automobiles.

Keywords: air, PM2.5, benzo(a)pyrene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

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2092 Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in Morocco: Diversity and Socio-Economic Role

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb


Morocco is characterized by a great richness and diversity in aromatic and medicinal plants and it has an ancestral knowledge in the use of plants for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. In effect, the poverty of riparian, specially, mountain populations have greatly contributed to the development of traditional pharmacopoeia in Morocco. The analysis of the bibliographic data showed that a large number of plants in Morocco are exploited for aromatic and medicinal purposes and several of them are commercialized internationally. However, these potentialities of aromatic and medicinal plants are currently subjected to climate change and strong human pressures: Collecting fruits, agriculture development, harvesting plants, urbanization, overgrazing...

Keywords: aromatic, medicinal, plant, Morocco

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2091 Volatile Composition of Sucuks: A Traditional Dry-Fermented Sausage Affected by Meat and Fat Types

Authors: Mina Kargozari, Isabel Revilla Martin, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina, Antoni Szumny


The profiles of volatile compounds of differently formulated sausages including CH (camel meat-hump), CB (camel meat-beef fat), BH (beef-hump) and BB (beef-beef fat) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in order to investigate the role of meat and fat type in aroma compounds release. A total of 47 compounds identified, were consisted of 3 acids, 1 ester, 3 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 5 sulphur compounds, and 27 terpenes. The significant differences were observed in the aroma compounds among four batches. The CH sucuk samples containing the highest (p<0.05) fat amount among the others showed higher amounts of volatiles in consequence. The sausages prepared with hump showed higher amounts of aldehydes and lower amounts of terpenes compared to the sausages made with beef fat (p<0.05). It seemed that meat type had an inconsiderable effect on the volatile profile of the sausages.

Keywords: aromatic compounds, camel meat, hump, SPME

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2090 GC and GCxGC-MS Composition of Volatile Compounds from Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi by Using Techniques Assisted by Microwaves

Authors: F. Benkaci-Ali, R. Mékaoui, G. Scholl, G. Eppe


The new methods as accelerated steam distillation assisted by microwave (ASDAM) is a combination of microwave heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure at very short extraction time. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. (ASDAM) has been compared with (ASDAM) with cryogrinding of seeds (CG) and a conventional technique, hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM), hydro-distillation (HD) for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herb as caraway and cumin seeds. The essential oils extracted by (ASDAM) for 1 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar to those obtained by ASDAM-CG (1 min) and HD (for 3 h). The accelerated microwave extraction with cryogrinding inhibits numerous enzymatic reactions as hydrolysis of oils. Microwave radiations constitute the adequate mean for the extraction operations from the yields and high content in major component majority point view, and allow to minimise considerably the energy consumption, but especially heating time too, which is one of essential parameters of artifacts formation. The ASDAM and ASDAM-CG are green techniques and yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds comparable to the biosynthesis compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material.

Keywords: microwave, steam distillation, caraway, cumin, cryogrinding, GC-MS, GCxGC-MS

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2089 Bioremediation as a Treatment of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater

Authors: Hen Friman, Alex Schechter, Yeshayahu Nitzan, Rivka Cahan


The treatment of aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater resulting from oil spills and chemical manufactories is becoming a key concern in many modern countries. Benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BETX) contaminate groundwater as well as soil. These compounds have an acute effect on human health and are known to be carcinogenic. Conventional removal of these toxic materials involves separation and burning of the wastes, however, the cost of chemical treatment is very high and energy consuming. Bioremediation methods for removal of toxic organic compounds constitute an attractive alternative to the conventional chemical or physical techniques. Bioremediation methods use microorganisms to reduce the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants Toluene is biodegradable both aerobically and anaerobically, it can be growth inhibitory to microorganisms at elevated concentrations, even to those species that can use it as a substrate. In this research culture of Pseudomonas putida was grown in bath bio-reactor (BBR) with toluene 100 mg/l as a single carbon source under constant voltage of 125 mV, 250 mV and 500 mV. The culture grown in BBR reached to 0.8 OD660nm while the control culture that grown without external voltage reached only to 0.6 OD660nm. The residual toluene concentration after 147 h, in the BBR operated under external voltage (125 mV) was 22 % on average, while in the control BBR it was 81 % on average.

Keywords: bioremediation, aromatic hydrocarbons, BETX, toluene, pseudomonas putida

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2088 Role of Fish Hepatic Aldehyde Oxidase in Oxidative In Vitro Metabolism of Phenanthridine Heterocyclic Aromatic Compound

Authors: Khaled S. Al Salhen


Aldehyde oxidase is molybdo-flavoenzyme involved in the oxidation of hundreds of endogenous and exogenous and N-heterocyclic compounds and environmental pollutants. Uncharged N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds such phenanthridine are commonly distributed pollutants in soil, air, sediments, surface water and groundwater, and in animal and plant tissues. Phenanthridine as uncharged N-heterocyclic aromatic compound was incubated with partially purified aldehyde oxidase from rainbow trout fish liver. Reversed-phase HLPC method was used to separate the oxidation products from phenanthridine and the metabolite was identified. The 6(5H)-phenanthridinone was identified the major metabolite by partially purified aldehyde oxidase from fish liver. Kinetic constant for the oxidation reactions were determined spectrophotometrically and showed that this substrate has a good affinity (Km = 78 ± 7.6 µM) for hepatic aldehyde oxidase, coupled with a relatively high oxidation rate (0.77± 0.03 nmol/min/mg protein). In addition, the kinetic parameters of hepatic fish aldehyde oxidase towards the phenanthridine substrate indicate that in vitro biotransformation by hepatic fish aldehyde oxidase will be a significant pathway. This study confirms that partially purified aldehyde oxidase from fish liver is indeed the enzyme responsible for the in vitro production 6(5H)-phenanthridinone metabolite as it is a major metabolite by mammalian aldehyde oxidase.

Keywords: aldehyde oxidase, fish, phenanthridine, specificity

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2087 Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Air Particulate Matter

Authors: A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, Zs. Csanádi, J. Erdős


An assessment of the air quality of Győr (Hungary) was performed by determining the ambient concentrations of PM10-bound carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) in different seasons. A high volume sampler was used for the collection of ambient aerosol particles, and the associated cPAH compounds (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[a]anthracene, benzofluoranthene isomers, indeno[123-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[ah]anthracene) were analyzed by a gas chromatographic method. Higher mean concentrations of total cPAHs were detected in samples collected in winter (9.62 ng/m3) and autumn (2.69 ng/m3) compared to spring (1.05 ng/m3) and summer (0.21 ng/m3). The calculated BaP toxic equivalent concentrations have also reflected that the local population appears to be exposed to significantly higher cancer risk in the heating seasons. Moreover, the concentration levels of cPAHs determined in this study were compared to other Hungarian urban sites.

Keywords: air, carcinogenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PM10

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2086 Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Study in Solvent Extraction of o-Cresol from Coal Tar

Authors: Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Astrilia Damayanti


Coal tar is a liquid by-product of the process of coal gasification and carbonation, also in some industries such as steel, power plant, cement, and others. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. This research investigates thermodynamic modelling of liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) in solvent extraction of o-Cresol from the coal tar. The equilibria are modeled by ternary components of Wohl, Van Laar, and Three-Suffix Margules models. The values of the parameters involved are obtained by curve-fitting to the experimental data. Based on the comparison between calculated and experimental data, it turns out that among the three models studied, the Three-Suffix Margules seems to be the best to predict the LLE of o-Cresol for those system.

Keywords: coal tar, o-Cresol, Wohl, Van Laar, three-suffix margules

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2085 Spectroscopic Studies on Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Structurally Different Gemini Surfactants

Authors: Toshikee Yadav, Deepti Tikariha, Jyotsna Lakra, Kallol K. Ghosh


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potent atmospheric pollutants that consist of two or more benzene rings. PAHs have low solubility in water. Their slow dissolution can contaminate large amounts of ground water for long period. They are hydrophobic, non-polar and neutral in nature and are known to have potential mutagenic or carcinogenic activity. In current scenario their removal from the environment, water and soil is still a great challenge and scientists worldwide are engaged to invent and design novel separation technology and decontaminating systems. Various physical, chemical, biological and their combined technologies have been applied to remediate organic-contaminated soils and groundwater. Surfactants play a vital role in the solubilization of these hydrophobic organic compounds. In the present investigation Solubilization capabilities of structurally different gemini surfactants i.e. butanediyl-1,4-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (C12-4-C12,2Br−), 2-butanol-1,4-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (C12-4(OH)-C12,2Br−), 2,3-butanediol-1,4-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (C12-4(OH)2-C12,2Br−) for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); phenanthrene (Phe),fluorene (Fluo) and acenaphthene (Ace) have been studied spectrophotometrically at 300 K. The result showed that the solubility of PAHs increases linearly with increasing surfactant concentration, as an implication of association between the PAHs and micelles. Molar solubilization ratio (MSR), micelle–water partition coefficient (Km) and Gibb's free energy of solubilization (ΔG°s) for PAHs have been determined in aqueous medium. (C12-4(OH)2-C12,2Br−) shows the higher solubilization for all PAHs. Findings of the present investigation may be useful to understand the role of appropriate surfactant system for the solubilization of toxic hydrophobic organic compounds.

Keywords: gemini surfactant, molar solubilization ratio, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, solubilization

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2084 Dehalogenation of Aromatic Compounds in Wastewater by Bacterial Cultures

Authors: Anne Elain, Magali Le Fellic


Halogenated Aromatic Compounds (HAC) are major organic pollutants that are detected in several environmental compartments as a result of their widespread use as solvents, pesticides and other industrial chemicals. The degradation of HAC simultaneously at low temperature and under saline conditions would be useful for remediation of polluted sites. Hence, microbial processes based on the metabolic activities of anaerobic bacteria are especially attractive from an economic and environmental point of view. Metabolites are generally less toxic, less likely to bioaccumulate and more susceptible for further degradation. Studies on biological reductive dehalogenation have largely been restricted to chlorinated compounds while relatively few have focussed on other HAC i.e., fluorinated, brominated or iodinated compounds. The objectives of the present work were to investigate the biodegradation of a mixture of triiodoaromatic molecules in industrial wastewater by an enriched bacterial consortium. Biodegradation of the mixture was studied during batch experiments in an anaerobic reactor. The degree of mineralization and recovery of halogen were monitored by HPLC-UV, TOC analysis and potentiometric titration. Providing ethanol as an electron donor was found to stimulate anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of HAC with a deiodination rate up to 12.4 mg.L-1 per day. Sodium chloride even at high concentration (10 mM) was found to have no influence on the degradation rates nor on the microbial viability. An analysis of the 16S rDNA (MicroSeq®) revealed that at least 6 bacteria were predominant in the enrichment, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas monteilii, Kocuria rhizophila, Ochrobacterium anthropi, Ralstonia pickettii and Rhizobium rhizogenes.

Keywords: halogenated aromatics, anaerobic biodegradation, deiodination, bacterial consortium

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2083 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid

Authors: M. S. M. Yusof, R. Ramli, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah


This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.

Keywords: methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, amino acid, threonine, antibacterial

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2082 Thermodynamic Modelling of Liquid-Liquid Equilibria (LLE) in the Separation of p-Cresol from the Coal Tar by Solvent Extraction

Authors: D. S. Fardhyanti, Megawati, W. B. Sediawan


Coal tar is a liquid by-product of the process of coal gasification and carbonation. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. This research investigates thermodynamic modelling of liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) in the separation of phenol from the coal tar by solvent extraction. The equilibria are modeled by ternary components of Wohl, Van Laar, and Three-Suffix Margules models. The values of the parameters involved are obtained by curve-fitting to the experimental data. Based on the comparison between calculated and experimental data, it turns out that among the three models studied, the Three-Suffix Margules seems to be the best to predict the LLE of p-Cresol mixtures for those system.

Keywords: coal tar, phenol, Wohl, Van Laar, Three-Suffix Margules

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2081 Synthesis of Quinazoline Derivatives as Selective Inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase-1 Enzyme

Authors: Marcela Dvorakova, Lenka Langhansova, Premysl Landa


A series of quinazoline derivatives bearing aromatic rings in 2- and 4-positions were prepared and tested for their biological activity. Firstly, the compounds were evaluated for their potential to inhibit various kinases, such as autophagy activating kinase ULK1, 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, and TANK-binding kinase 1. None of the compounds displayed any activity on these kinases. Secondly, the compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity expressed as cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition. Three of the compounds showed significant selectivity towards COX-1 isoform (COX-2/COX-1 SI = 20-30). They inhibited COX-1 in a single-digit µM range. There was also one compound that exhibited inhibitory activity towards all three tested enzymes in µM range (IC50COX-1 = 1.9 µM; IC50COX-2 and 5-LOX = 10.1µM. COX-1 inhibition was until recently considered undesirable due to COX-1 constitutive expression in most cell types and tissues. Thus, there are not many compounds known with selective COX-1 activity. However, it is now believed that COX-1 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several acute and chronic disorders, including cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the discovery of effective COX-1 selective inhibitors is desirable and important.

Keywords: cyclooxygenases, kinases, lipoxygenases, quinazolines

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2080 Green Electrochemical Nitration of Bioactive Compounds: Biological Evaluation with Molecular Modelling

Authors: Sara Torabi, Sadegh Khazalpour, Mahdi Jamshidi


Nitro aromatic compounds are valuable materials because of their applications in the preparation of chemical intermediates for the synthesis of dyes, plastics, perfumes, energetic materials, and pharmaceuticals. Chemical and electrochemical procedures are reported for nitration of aromatic compounds. Flavonoid derivatives are present in many vegetables and fruits and are constituent of many common pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements. Electrochemistry provides very versatile means for the electrosynthesis, mechanistic and kinetic studies. To the best of our knowledge, and despite the importance of these compounds in numerous scientific fields, there are no reports on the electrochemical nitration of Quercetin derivatives. Herein, we describe a green electrochemical synthesis of a nitro compound. In this work, electrochemical oxidation of Quercetin has been studied in the presence of nitrite ion as a nucleophile in acetate buffer solution (c = 0.2 M, pH = 6.0), by means of cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results indicate the participation of produced o-benzoquinones in Michael reaction with nitrite ion (in the divided cell) to form the corresponding nitro diol (EC mechanism). The purity of product and characterization was done using ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The presented strategies use a water/ethanol mixture as solvent. Ethanol as cosolvent was also used in the previous studies because of its low cost, safety, easy availability, recyclability, bioproductability, and biodegradability. These strategies represent a one-pot and facile process for the synthesis of nitro compound in high yield and purity under green conditions.

Keywords: electrochemical synthesis, green chemistry, cyclic voltammetry, molecular docking

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2079 Diffusion Mechanism of Aroma Compound (2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline) in Rice During Storage

Authors: Mary Ann U. Baradi, Arnold R. Elepaño, Manuel Jose C. Regalado


Aromatic rice has become popular and continues to command higher price than ordinary rice because of its distinctive scent that makes it special. Freshly harvested aromatic rice exhibits strong aromatic scent but decreases with time and conditions during storage. Of the many volatile compounds in aromatic rice, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a major compound that gives rice its popcorn-like aroma. The diffusion mechanism of 2AP in rice was investigated. Semi-empirical models explaining 2AP diffusion as affected by temperature and duration were developed. Storage time and temperature affected 2AP loss via diffusion. The amount of 2AP in rice decreased with time. Free 2AP, being volatile, is lost due to diffusion. Storage experiment indicated rapid 2AP loss during the first five weeks and subsequently leveled off afterwards; attaining level of starch bound 2AP. Decline of 2AP during storage followed exponential equation and exhibited four stages; i.e. the initial, second, third and final stage. Free 2AP is easily lost while bound 2AP is left, only to be released upon exposure to high temperature such as cooking. Both free and bound 2AP is found in endosperm while free 2AP is in the bran. Around 63–67% of total 2AP was lost in brown and milled rice of MS 6 paddy kept at ambient. Samples stored at higher temperature (27°C) recorded higher 2AP loss than those kept at lower temperature (15°C). The study should be able to guide processors in understanding and controlling parameters in storage to produce high quality rice.

Keywords: 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, aromatic rice, diffusion mechanism, storage

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2078 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, distillation, carvi seeds

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2077 Synthesis of 4', 6'-Bis-(2, 4-Dinitro-Aniline)-(2'-Aryl-Amine)-S-Triazine and Biological Activity Studies

Authors: Dilesh Indorkar


The aromatic, six membered ring containing three nitrogen atoms are known as triazines. Three triazines are theoretically possible, 1,3,5-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine and 1,2,3-triazine[1]. The 1,3,5-triazines are amongst the oldest known organic compounds. Originally they were called the symmetric triazines. Usuelly abbreviated to s- or sys triazines. The numbering follows the usual convention of beginning at the hetero atom as shown for the parent compound 1,3,5-triazine (I). The triazine rings, each contain 6 pi electrons which fill three bonding molecular orbital there are also three pairs of non bonding electrons in each molecule which are responsible for basic properties of the compounds.

Keywords: s-triazine, thiazoline, isoxazoline, benzoxazine heterocyclic

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2076 Analysis of Coal Tar Compositions Produced from Sub-Bituminous Kalimantan Coal Tar

Authors: Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Astrilia Damayanti


Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kind of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. Nitrogen gas has been used to obtain the inert condition and to carry the gaseous pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis transformed organic materials into gaseous components, small quantities of liquid, and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed amount of carbon and ash. The composition of gas which is produced from the pyrolysis is carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbon compounds. The gas was condensed and the liquid containing oil/tar and water was obtained. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78 chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene, naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar is 33.25% (PT KPC) and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan). The total naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC) and 17.13% (Arutmin-Kalimantan).

Keywords: coal tar, pyrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy

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2075 Seasonal Variation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Associated with PM10 in Győr, Hungary

Authors: Andrea Szabó Nagy, János Szabó, Zsófia Csanádi, József Erdős


The main objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations associated with PM10 in an urban site of Győr, Hungary. A total of 112 PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the years of 2012 and 2013 and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography method. The total PAH concentrations (sum of the concentrations of 19 individual PAH compounds) ranged from 0.19 to 70.16 ng/m3 with the mean value of 12.29 ng/m3. Higher concentrations of both total PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were detected in samples collected in the heating seasons. Using BaP-equivalent potency index on the carcinogenic PAH concentration data, the local population appears to be exposed to significantly higher cancer risk in the heating seasons. However, the comparison of the BaP and total PAH concentrations observed for Győr with other cities it was found that the PAH levels in Győr generally corresponded to the EU average.

Keywords: air quality, benzo[a]pyrene, PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

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2074 Use of Electrokinetic Technology to Enhance Chemical and Biological Remediation of Contaminated Sands and Soils

Authors: Brian Wartell, Michel Boufadel


Contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds present in crude and petroleum oils and are known to be toxic and often carcinogenic. Therefore, a major effort is placed on tracking their subsurface soil concentrations following an oil spill. The PAHs can persist for years in the subsurface especially if there is a lack of oxygen. Both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs encounter the difficulties of both nutrient transport and bioavailability (proximal access) to the organisms of the contaminants. A technology, known as electrokinetics (EK or EK-BIO for ‘electrokinetic bioremediation’) has been found to transport efficiently nutrients or other chemicals in the subsurface. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate migration patterns in both sands and clay for both ionic and nonionic compounds and aerobic biodegradation studies were conducted with soil spiked with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons yielding interesting results. In one set of experiment, Self-designed electrokinetic setups were constructed to examine the differences in electromigration and electroosmotic rates. Anionic and non-ionic dyes were used to visualize these phenomena, respectively. In another experiment, a silt-clay soil was spiked with three low-molecular-weight compounds (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene) and placed within self-designed electrokinetic setups and monitored for aerobic degradation. Plans for additional studies are in progress including the transport of peroxide through anaerobic sands.

Keywords: bioavailability, bioremediation, electrokinetics, subsurface transport

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2073 Plasma Gasification as a Sustainable Way for Energy Recovery from Scrap Tyre

Authors: Gloria James, S. K. Nema, T. S. Anantha Singh, P. Vadivel Murugan


The usage of tyre has increased enormously in day to day life. The used tyre and rubber products pose major threat to the environment. Conventional thermal techniques such as low temperature pyrolysis and incineration produce high molecular organic compounds (condensed and collected as aromatic oil) and carbon soot particles. Plasma gasification technique can dispose tyre waste and generate combustible gases and avoid the formation of high molecular aromatic compounds. These gases generated in plasma gasification process can be used to generate electricity or as fuel wherever required. Although many experiments have been done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres, very little work has been done on plasma gasification of tyres. In this work plasma gasification of waste tyres have been conducted in a fixed bed reactor having graphite electrodes and direct current (DC) arc plasma system. The output of this work has been compared with the previous work done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres by different authors. The aim of this work is to compare different process based on gas generation, efficiency of the process and explore the most effective option for energy recovery from waste tyres.

Keywords: plasma, gasification, syngas, tyre waste

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