Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 58

Search results for: Triticum aestivum

58 Triticum Aestivum Yield Enhanced with Irrigation Scheduling Strategy under Salinity

Authors: Taramani Yadav, Gajender Kumar, R. K. Yadav, H. S. Jat


Soil Salinity and irrigation water salinity is critical threat to enhance agricultural food production to full fill the demand of billion plus people worldwide. Salt affected soils covers 6.73 Mha in India and ~1000 Mha area around the world. Irrigation scheduling of saline water is the way to ensure food security in salt affected areas. Research experiment was conducted at ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Experimental Farm, Nain, Haryana, India with 36 treatment combinations in double split plot design. Three sets of treatments consisted of (i) three regimes of irrigation viz., 60, 80 and 100% (I1, I2 and I3, respectively) of crop ETc (crop evapotranspiration at identified respective stages) in main plot; (ii) four levels of irrigation water salinity (sub plot treatments) viz., 2, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 (iii) applications of two PBRs along with control (without PBRs) i.e. salicylic acid (G1; 1 mM) and thiourea (G2; 500 ppm) as sub-sub plot treatments. Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was increased with less amount of high salt loaded irrigation water at the same level of salinity (2 dS m-1), the trend was I3>I2>I1 at 2 dS m-1 with 8.10 and 17.07% increase at 80 and 100% ETc, respectively compared to 60% ETc. But contrary results were obtained by increasing amount of irrigation water at same level of highest salinity (12 dS m-1) showing following trend; I1>I2>I3 at 12 dS m-1 with 9.35 and 12.26% increase at 80 and 60% ETc compared to 100% ETc. Enhancement in grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is not need to increase amount of irrigation water under saline condition, with salty irrigation water less amount of irrigation water gave the maximum wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain yield.

Keywords: Irrigation Scheduling, Saline Environment, Triticum aestivum, Yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
57 Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Yield Improved with Irrigation Scheduling under Salinity

Authors: Taramani Yadav, Gajender Kumar, R.K. Yadav, H.S. Jat


Soil Salinity and irrigation water salinity is critical threat to enhance agricultural food production to full fill the demand of billion plus people worldwide. Salt affected soils covers 6.73 Mha in India and ~1000 Mha area around the world. Irrigation scheduling of saline water is the way to ensure food security in salt affected areas. Research experiment was conducted at ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Experimental Farm, Nain, Haryana, India with 36 treatment combinations in double split plot design. Three sets of treatments consisted of (i) three regimes of irrigation viz., 60, 80 and 100% (I1, I2 and I3, respectively) of crop ETc (crop evapotranspiration at identified respective stages) in main plot; (ii) four levels of irrigation water salinity (sub plot treatments) viz., 2, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 (iii) applications of two PBRs along with control (without PBRs) i.e. salicylic acid (G1; 1 mM) and thiourea (G2; 500 ppm) as sub-sub plot treatments. Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was increased with less amount of high salt loaded irrigation water at the same level of salinity (2 dS m-1), the trend was I3>I2>I1 at 2 dS m-1 with 8.10 and 17.07% increase at 80 and 100% ETc, respectively compared to 60% ETc. But contrary results were obtained by increasing amount of irrigation water at same level of highest salinity (12 dS m-1) showing following trend; I1>I2>I3 at 12 dS m-1 with 9.35 and 12.26% increase at 80 and 60% ETc compared to 100% ETc. Enhancement in grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is not need to increase amount of irrigation water under saline condition, with salty irrigation water less amount of irrigation water gave the maximum wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain yield.

Keywords: Irrigation, Salinity, Wheat, Yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
56 Complete Chloroplast DNA Sequences of Georgian Endemic Polyploid Wheats

Authors: M. Gogniashvili, I. Maisaia, A. Kotorashvili, N. Kotaria, T. Beridze


Three types of plasmon (A, B and G) is typical for genus Triticum. In polyploid species - Triticum turgidum L. and Triticum aestivum L. plasmon B is detected. In the forthcoming paper, complete nucleotide sequence of chloroplast DNA of 11 representatives of Georgian wheat polyploid species, carrying plasmon B was determined. Sequencing of chloroplast DNA was performed on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Chloroplast DNA molecules were assembled using the SOAPdenovo computer program. All contigs were aligned to the reference chloroplast genome sequence using BLASTN. For detection of SNPs and Indels and phylogeny tree construction computer programs Mafft and Blast were used. Using Triticum aestivum L. subsp. macha (Dekapr. & Menabde) Mackey var. paleocolchicum Dekapr. et Menabde as a reference, 5 SNPs can be identified in chloroplast DNA of Georgian endemic polyploid wheat. The number of noncoding substitutions is 2, coding substitutions - 3. In comparison with reference DNA two - 38 bp and 56 bp inversions were observed in paleocolchicum subspecies. There were six 1 bp indels detected in Georgian polyploid wheats, all of them at microsatellite stretches. The phylogeny tree shows that subspecies macha, carthlicum and paleocolchicum occupy different positions. According to the simplified scheme based on SNP and indel data, the ancestral, female parent of the all studied polyploid wheat is unknown X predecesor, from which four lines were formed. 1 SNP and two inversions (38 bp and 56 bp) caused the formation of subsp. paleocolchicum. Three other lines are macha, durum and carthlicum lines. Macha line is further divided into two sublines (M_1 and M_4). Carthlicum line includes subsp.carthlicum and T.aestivum - C_1 - C_2 - A_1. One of the central question of wheat domestication is which people(s) participated in wheat domestication? It is proposed that the predecessors of Georgian peoples (Proto-Kartvelians) must be placed, on the evidence of archaic lexical and toponymic data, in the mountainous regions of the western and central part of the Little Caucasus (the Transcaucasian foothills) at least 4,000 years ago. One of the possibility to explain the ‘wheat puzzle’ is that Kartvelian speakers brought domesticated wheat species and subspecis from Fertile Crescent further north to South Caucasus.

Keywords: chloroplast DNA, sequencing, SNP, triticum

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
55 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Triticum Aestivum Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Prachi Sharma, Mukesh Kumar Rana


In the present study, the simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers have been used in analysis of genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Triticum aestivum. The DNA was extracted using cTAB method. The DNA was quantified using the fluorimeter. The annealing temperatures for 27 primer pairs were standardized using gradient PCR, out of which 16 primers gave satisfactory amplification at temperature ranging from 50-62⁰ C. Out of 16 polymorphic SSR markers only 10 SSR primer pairs were used in the study generating 34 reproducible amplicons among 37 genotypes out of which 30 were polymorphic. Primer pairs Xgwm533, Xgwm 160, Xgwm 408, Xgwm 120, Xgwm 186, Xgwm 261 produced maximum percent of polymorphic bands (100%). The bands ranged on an average of 3.4 bands per primer. The genetic relationship was determined using Jaccard pair wise similarity co-efficient and UPGMA cluster analysis with NTSYS Pc.2 software. The values of similarity index range from 0-1. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.97. A minimum genetic similarity (0.13) was observed between VL 804 and HPW 288, meaning they are only 13% similar. More number of available SSR markers can be useful for supporting the genetic diversity analysis in the above wheat genotypes.

Keywords: wheat, genetic diversity, microsatellite, polymorphism

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54 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová


Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: genotype identification, HMW-GS, wheat quality, polymorphism

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53 Infestation of Aphid on Wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) and Its Possible Management with Naturally Existing Beneficial Fauna

Authors: Ghulam Abbas, Ikramul Haq, Ghulam Ghouse


Bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) is the major source of the staple food for a number of countries of the world including Pakistan. Since it is the staple food of the country, it has been desired, and efforts have been made, that it does not undergo application of pesticides to ensure the food safety. Luckily, wheat does not face a serious threat of insect pests, in ecological conditions of Pakistan, except aphids and armyworm which infest the wheat prior to maturity. It has been observed that almost 5 species of aphid have been reported to attack wheat ie. Ropalosiphum maidi, R. Padi, Schizaphis graminum, Diuraphis noxia, and Sitibion miscanthi but due to natural rise in temperature in terminal season of wheat, the population of aphid gradually decreases and wheat has a safe escape from its infestation. In case, mild temperatures 15ºC to 30ºC prolong, the infestation of aphids also prolongs and it can severely damage wheat in patches, and it has potential to substantially reduce the yield of wheat in infested patch. In years 2013, 2014, and 2015 the studies were undertaken to determine the potential of damage caused by aphid complex in 10 fields in infested patches. The damage caused by aphid complex was calculated on the basis of 1000 grain weight of wheat grains taken from the infested patch and were compared with 1000 grain weight of the healthy plants of the same fields. It was observed that there was 26 to 42% decrease in the weight of grain in infested patches. This patch also escaped from general harvesting by combine harvester and enhanced the loss 13 to 46%. The quality of the wheat straw was also reduced and its acceptance to the animals was also affected up to 50 to 100%. Moreover, the population of naturally existing beneficial fauna was recorded and factors promoting establishment and manipulation of beneficial fauna were studied and analysed.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum, wheat, Pakistan, beneficial fauna, aphid complex

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52 Vegetation Index-Deduced Crop Coefficient of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Using Remote Sensing: Case Study on Four Basins of Golestan Province, Iran

Authors: Hoda Zolfagharnejad, Behnam Kamkar, Omid Abdi


Crop coefficient (Kc) is an important factor contributing to estimation of evapotranspiration, and is also used to determine the irrigation schedule. This study investigated and determined the monthly Kc of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using five vegetation indices (VIs): Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI), and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) of four basins in Golestan province, Iran. 14 Landsat-8 images according to crop growth stage were used to estimate monthly Kc of wheat. VIs were calculated based on infrared and near infrared bands of Landsat 8 images using Geographical Information System (GIS) software. The best VIs were chosen after establishing a regression relationship among these VIs with FAO Kc and Kc that was modified for the study area by the previous research based on R² and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The result showed that local modified SAVI with R²= 0.767 and RMSE= 0.174 was the best index to produce monthly wheat Kc maps.

Keywords: crop coefficient, remote sensing, vegetation indices, wheat

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51 Climate Change Impacts on Future Wheat Growing Areas

Authors: Rasha Aljaryian, Lalit Kumar


Climate is undergoing continuous change and this trend will affect the cultivation areas ofmost crops, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), in the future. The current suitable cultivation areas may become unsuitable climatically. Countries that depend on wheat cultivation and export may suffer an economic loss because of production decline. On the other hand, some regions of the world could gain economically by increasing cultivation areas. This study models the potential future climatic suitability of wheat by using CLIMEX software. Two different global climate models (GCMs) were used, CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR), with two emission scenarios (A2, A1B). The results of this research indicate that the suitable climatic areas for wheat in the southern hemisphere, such as Australia, are expected to contract by the end of this century. However, some unsuitable or marginal areas will become climatically suitable under future climate scenarios. In North America and Europe further expansion inland could occur. Also, the results illustrate that heat and dry stresses as abiotic climatic factors will play an important role in wheat distribution in the future. Providing sufficient information about future wheat distribution will be useful for agricultural ministries and organizations to manage the shift in production areas in the future. They can minimize the expected harmful economic consequences by preparing strategic plans and identifying new areas for wheat cultivation.

Keywords: Climate change, Climate modelling, CLIMEX, Triticum aestivum, Wheat

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50 Allelopathic Effects of Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) Extract on the Germination and Early Growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Authors: Amir Halabianfar, Jamshid Razmjoo


In order to evaluate the competitive effects of Lambsqua on the germination and early growth of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties, an experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions in researches of agronomy, College of agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology in 2015. A laboratory experiment was conducted on a factorial arrangement in a randomized complete design with four replications. Testing factors include two wheat cultivars (Flat and Atila -4) and three level of Lambsqua (Chenopodium album) extract (30, 60 and 90 percent) plus control with no extract. Twenty-five seeds of each wheat varieties were placed in petri dish, then the root extract of lambsqua, which was prepared previously at three levels, was poured on the seeds in each petri dish. The result showed that allelopathic effect of Lambsquarter on germination, root, and shoot dry weight of two varieties was highly significant. Among varieties, the Atila–4 showed minimum germination at 60% while the Flat showed minimum germination at 90% concentration. In case of root dry weight, Atila–4 was more suppressed as compared to Flat at 60% concentration but at 90% concentration, the both wheat varieties were reduced non-significantly. Shoot dry weight of Flat were decreased non-significantly concentrations except Atila -4 that was more reduced at 60 % than 90% concentration.

Keywords: allelopathy, Chenopodium album, extract, germination, wheat, early growth

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49 The Efficiency of AFLP and ISSR Markers in Genetic Diversity Estimation and Gene Pool Classification of Iranian Landrace Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Germplasm

Authors: Reza Talebi


Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important food staples in Iran. Understanding genetic variability among the landrace wheat germplasm is important for breeding. Landraces endemic to Iran are a genetic resource that is distinct from other wheat germplasm. In this study, 60 Iranian landrace wheat accessions were characterized AFLP and ISSR markers. Twelve AFLP primer pairs detected 128 polymorphic bands among the sixty genotypes. The mean polymorphism rate based on AFLP data was 31%; however, a wide polymorphism range among primer pairs was observed (22–40%). Polymorphic information content (PIC value) calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.28 to 0.4, with a mean of 0.37. According to AFLP molecular data, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in five distinct clusters. .ISSR markers generated 68 bands (average of 6 bands per primer), which 31 were polymorphic (45%) across the 60 wheat genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for ISSR markers was calculated in the range of 0.14 to 0.48 with an average of 0.33. Based on data achieved by ISSR-PCR, cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in three distinct clusters. Both AFLP and ISSR markers able to showed that high level of genetic diversity in Iranian landrace wheat accessions has maintained a relatively constant level of genetic diversity during last years.

Keywords: wheat, genetic diversity, AFLP, ISSR

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48 Grains of Winter Wheat Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) for Save Food Production

Authors: D. Jablonskytė-Raščė, A. Mankevičienė, S. Supronienė, I. Kerienė, S. Maikštėnienė, S. Bliznikas, R. Česnulevičienė


Organic farming does not allow the use of conventional mineral fertilizers and crop protection products. As a result, in our experiments we chose to grow different species of cereals and to see how cereal species affects mycotoxin accumulation. From the phytopathological and entomological viewpoint, the glumes of spelt grain perform a positive role since they protect grain from the infection of pathogenic microorganisms. On the background of the above-mentioned infection, there were more Fusarium–affected grains of spelt than of common wheat. It can be assumed that spelt is more susceptible to the Fusarium fungi infection than common wheat. This study describes the occurrence of DON, ZEA and T2/HT2 toxin in a survey of spelt and common wheat and their bran as well as flour. The analysis was conducted using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The concentrations of DON, ZEA, and T2/HT2 in Triticum spelta and Triticum aestivum are influenced by species, cereal type and year interaction. The highest concentration of mycotoxin was found in spelt grain with glumes. The obtained results indicate the significantly higher concentrations of Fusarium toxins in glumes than in dehulled grain which implicate the possible protective effect of spelt wheat glumes. The lowest DON, ZEA, and T2/HT2 concentration was determined in spelt grain without glumes.

Keywords: Fusarium mycotoxins, organic farming, spelt

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47 Anticancer Effect of Isolated from the Methanolic Extract of Triticum Aestivum Straw in Mice

Authors: Savita Dixit


Rutin is the bioactive flavonoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Rutin produced a significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results of the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.

Keywords: chemoprevention, papilloma, rutin, skin carcinogenesis

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46 Allelopathic Potential of Canola and Wheat to Control Weeds in Soybean (Glycine max)

Authors: Alireza Dadkhah


A filed experiment was done to develop management practices to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides, in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of north east of Iran. Five treatments including I: chopped residues of canola (Brasica vulgaris), II: chopped residues of wheat (Triticum aestivum) both were separately incorporated to 25 cm depth soil, 20 days before sowing, III: shoot aqueous extract of canola, IV: shoot aqueous extract of wheat which were separately sprayed at post emergence stage and V: without any residues and spraying as control. The weed control treatments reduced the total weed cover, weed density and biomass of weed. The reduction in weed density with canola and wheat residues incorporation were up to 67.5 and 62.2% respectively, at 40 days after sowing and 65.3% and 75.6%, respectively, at 90 days after sowing, compared to control. However, post emergence spraying of shoot aqueous extract of canola and wheat, suppressed weed density up to 41.8 and 36.6% at 40 days after sowing and 54.2% and 52.7% at 90 days after sowing respectively, compared to control. Weed control treatments reduced weed cover (%), weed biomass and weeds stem length. Incorporation of canola and wheat residues in soil reduced weed cover (%) by 62.5% and 63% respectively, while spraying of shoot water extract of canola and wheat suppressed weed cover (%) by 39.6% and 40.4% respectively at 90 days after sowing. Application of canola and wheat residues increased soybean yield by 45.4% and 69.5% respectively, compared to control while post emergence application of shoot aqueous extract of canola and wheat increased soybean yield by 22% and 29.8% respectively.

Keywords: allelopathy, Bio-herbicide, Brassica oleracea, plant residues, Triticum aestivum

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45 Macronutrient Accumulation and Partitioning for Six Wheat Genotypes Grown at Contrasting Nitrogen Supply

Authors: E. Chakwizira, D. J. Moot, M. Andrews, E. Teixeira


Partitioning of macro-nutrients in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant organs have not been extensively studied, particularly for modern genotypes grown under contrasting N supply. Nutrient accumulation and partitioning of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur (P, K, Ca, Mg and S) were determined for six wheat genotypes [12S2-2021, 12S3-3019, 13S3-2026, Discovery, Duchess and Reliance] grown with (200 kg/ha) or without (0 kg/ha) nitrogen (N), in a fully irrigated field experiment in 2017-18 season at Lincoln, New Zealand. Data were collected at three growth stages (GS): tillering (GS21), anthesis (GS60) and grain maturity (GS92). Grain yield varied with both N and genotype; from 6-7.5 t/ha for the 0 kg N/ha crops and 8.1-9.3 t/ha for the 200 kg N/ha treatments. Plant nutrient uptake at maturity responded to both N supply and genotype for all nutrients, except S which did not differ among the genotypes. For example, total P uptake averaged 13.5 (12.4-14.3) kg/ha for the 0 kg N/ha treatments and 17.8 (15.1-19.7) kg/ha when 200 kg N/ha was applied. Similarly, K uptake increased from an average of 23 (21.6-25.3) for the 0 kg N/ha treatments to 34.3 (32.4-40.8) kg/ha when 200 kg N/ha was applied. Similar trends were observed for Ca and Mg. The S content only responded to N supply but not to genotype, increasing from 7.9 kg/ha for the 0 kg N treatments to 12.8 kg/ha when 200 kg N was applied. Relative nutrient content at anthesis compared with those at maturity were 30% for P, 100% for both K and Ca and 34% of Mg. Sulphur content at anthesis decreased 29% with N supply and was highest for genotypes 12S2-2021 compared with the other five genotype. At grain maturity, the ratio of nutrients in grain to total plant nutrient, defined as the nutrient harvest index (NHI) varied with both N supply and genotype. Averaged across treatments, the NHI was 0.96 for P, 0.53 for K, 0.58 for Ca, 0.90 for Mg and 0.85 for S. These results suggest that Ca and K should be provided earlier in the season as there is limited or no uptake after anthesis. These results also show that Ca and K are important for structural functions, while P, Mg and S are remobilised to the grains and become important for quality.

Keywords: anthesis, genotype, nutrient harvests index, NHI, Triticum aestivum L.

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44 Genetic Analysis of Rust Resistance Genes in Global Wheat

Authors: Aktar-Uz-Zaman, M. Tuhina-Khatun, Mohamed Hanafi Musa


Three rust diseases: leaf (brown) rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis West, and stem (black) rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici are economically important diseases of wheat in world wide. Yield loss due to leaf rust is 40% in susceptible cultivars. Yield losses caused by the stem rust pathogens in the mid of 20 century reached 20-30% in Eastern and Central Europe and the most virulent stem rust race Ug99 emerged first in Uganda and after that in Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, in the Middle East and South Asia. Yield losses were estimated up to 100%, whereas, up to 80% have been reported in Kenya during 1999. In case of stripe rust, severity level has been recorded 60% - 70% as compared to 100% severity of susceptible check in disease screening nurseries in Kenya. Improvement of resistant varieties or cultivars is the sustainable, economical and environmentally friendly approaches for increasing the global wheat production to suppress the rust diseases. More than 68 leaf rust, 49 stripe rust and 53 stem rust resistance genes have been identified in the global wheat cultivars or varieties using different molecular breeding approaches. Among these, Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr21, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28, Lr29, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr39, Lr47, Lr51, Lr3bg, Lr18, Lr40, Lr46, and Lr50 leaf rust resistance genes have been identified by using molecular, enzymatic and microsatellite markers from African, Asian, European cultivars of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat and diploid wheat species. These genes are located on 20, of the 21 chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. Similarly, Sr1, Sr2, Sr24, and Sr3, Sr31 stem rust resistance genes have been recognized from wheat cultivars of Pakistan, India, Kenya, and Uganda etc. A race of P. striiformis (stripe rust) Yr9, Yr18, and Yr29 was first observed in East Africa, Italy, Pakistan and India wheat cultivars. These stripe rust resistance genes are located on chromosomes 1BL, 4BL, 6AL, 3BS and 6BL in bread wheat cultivars. All these identified resistant genes could be used for notable improvement of susceptible wheat cultivars in the future.

Keywords: hexaploid wheat, resistance genes, rust disease, triticum aestivum

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43 Genetic Advance versus Environmental Impact toward Sustainable Protein, Wet Gluten and Zeleny Sedimentation in Bread and Durum Wheat

Authors: Gordana Branković, Dejan Dodig, Vesna Pajić, Vesna Kandić, Desimir Knežević, Nenad Đurić


The wheat grain quality properties are influenced by genotype, environmental conditions and genotype × environment interaction (GEI). The increasing request of more nutritious wheat products will direct future breeding programmes. Therefore, the aim of investigation was to determine: i) variability of the protein content (PC), wet gluten content (WG) and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZS); ii) components of variance, heritability in a broad sense (hb2), and expected genetic advance as percent of mean (GAM) for PC, WG, and ZS; iii) correlations between PC, WG, ZS, and most important agronomic traits; in order to assess expected breeding success versus environmental impact for these quality traits. The plant material consisted of 30 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). The trials were sown at the three test locations in Serbia: Rimski Šančevi, Zemun Polje and Padinska Skela during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The experiments were set as randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot consisted of five rows of 1 m2 (5 × 0.2 m × 1 m). PC, WG and ZS were determined by the use of Near infrared spectrometry (NIRS) with the Infraneo analyser (Chopin Technologies, France). PC, WG and ZS, in bread wheat, were in the range 13.4-16.4%, 22.8-30.3%, and 39.4-67.1 mL, respectively, and in durum wheat, in the range 15.3-18.1%, 28.9-36.3%, 37.4-48.3 mL, respectively. The dominant component of variance for PC, WG, and ZS, in bread wheat, was genotype with the genetic variance/GEI variance (VG/VG × E) relation of 3.2, 2.9 and 1.0, respectively, and in durum wheat was GEI with the VG/VG × E relation of 0.70, 0.69 and 0.49, respectively. hb2 and GAM values for PC, WG and ZS, in bread wheat, were 94.9% and 12.6%, 93.7% and 18.4%, and 86.2% and 28.1%, respectively, and in durum wheat, 80.7% and 7.6%, 79.7% and 10.2%, and 74% and 11.2%, respectively. The most consistent through six environments, statistically significant correlations, for bread wheat, were between PC and spike length (-0.312 to -0.637); PC, WG, ZS and grain number per spike (-0.320 to -0.620; -0.369 to -0.567; -0.301 to -0.378, respectively); PC and grain thickness (0.338 to 0.566), and for durum wheat, were between PC, WG, ZS and yield (-0.290 to -0.690; -0.433 to -0.753; -0.297 to -0.660, respectively); PC and plant height (-0.314 to -0.521); PC, WG and spike length (-0.298 to -0.597; -0.293 to -0.627, respectively); PC, WG and grain thickness (0.260 to 0.575; 0.269 to 0.498, respectively); PC, WG and grain vitreousness (0.278 to 0.665; 0.357 to 0.690, respectively). Breeding success can be anticipated for ZS in bread wheat due to coupled high values for hb2 and GAM, suggesting existence of additive genetic effects, and also for WG in bread wheat, due to very high hb2 and medium high GAM. The small, and medium, negative correlations between PC, WG, ZS, and yield or yield components, indicate difficulties to select simultaneously for high quality and yield, depending on linkage for particular genetic arrangements to be broken by recombination.

Keywords: bread and durum wheat, genetic advance, protein and wet gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation volume

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42 Effect of Ecologic Fertilizers on Productivity and Yield Quality of Common and Spelt Wheat

Authors: Danutė Jablonskytė-Raščė, Audronė MankevičIenė, Laura Masilionytė


During the period 2009–2015, in Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, the effect of ecologic fertilizers Ekoplant, bio-activators Biokal 01 and Terra Sorb Foliar and their combinations on the formation of the productivity elements, grain yield and quality of winter wheat, spelt (Triticum spelta L.), and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analysed in ecological agro-system. The soil under FAO classification – Endocalcari-Endo-hypogleyic-Cambisol. In a clay loam soil, ecological fertilizer produced from sunflower hull ash and this fertilizer in combination with plant extracts and bio-humus exerted an influence on the grain yield of spelt and common wheat and their mixture (increased the grain yield by 10.0%, compared with the unfertilized crops). Spelt grain yield was by on average 16.9% lower than that of common wheat and by 11.7% lower than that of the mixture, but the role of spelt in organic production systems is important because with no mineral fertilization it produced grains with a higher (by 4%) gluten content and exhibited a greater ability to suppress weeds (by on average 61.9% lower weed weight) compared with the grain yield and weed suppressive ability of common wheat and mixture. Spelt cultivation in a mixture with common wheat significantly improved quality indicators of the mixture (its grain contained by 2.0% higher protein content and by 4.0% higher gluten content than common wheat grain), reduced disease incidence (by 2-8%), and weed infestation level (by 34-81%).

Keywords: common and spelt-wheat, ecological fertilizers, bio-activators, productivity elements, yield, quality

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41 Identification and Classification of Gliadin Genes in Iranian Diploid Wheat

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Alireza Pour-Aboughadareh


Wheat is the first and the most important grain of the world and its bakery property is due to glutenin and gliadin qualities. Wheat seed proteins were divided into four groups according to solubility. Two groups are albumin and globulin dissolving in water and salt solutions possessing metabolic activities. Two other groups are inactive and non-dissolvable and contain glutelins or glutenins and prolamins or gliadins. Gliadins are major components of the storage proteins in wheat endosperm. Gliadin proteins are separated into three groups based on electrophoretic mobility: α/β-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and ω-gliadin. It seems that little information is available about gliadin genes in Iranian wild relatives of wheat. Thus, the aim of this study was the evaluation of the wheat wild relatives collected from different origins of Zagros Mountains in Iran, involving coding gliadin genes using specific primers. For this, forty accessions of Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu were selected. For each accession, genomic DNA was extracted and PCRs were performed in total volumes of 15 μl. The amplification products were separated on 1.5% agarose gels. In results, for Gli-2A locus, three allelic variants were detected by Gli-2As primer pairs. The sizes of PCR products for these alleles were 210, 490 and 700 bp. Only five (13%) and two accessions (5%) produced 700 and 490 bp fragments when their DNA was amplified with the Gli.As.2 primer pairs. However, 37 of the 40 accessions (93%) carried 210 bp allele, and three accessions (8%) did not yield any product for this marker. Therefore, these germplasm could be used as rich gene pool to broaden the genetic base of bread wheat.

Keywords: diploied wheat, gliadin, Triticum boeoticum, Triticum urartu

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40 Development of a New Method for the Evaluation of Heat Tolerant Wheat Genotypes for Genetic Studies and Wheat Breeding

Authors: Hameed Alsamadany, Nader Aryamanesh, Guijun Yan


Heat is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting wheat production worldwide. To identify heat tolerant genotypes, a newly designed system involving a large plastic box holding many layers of filter papers positioned vertically with wheat seeds sown in between for the ease of screening large number of wheat geno types was developed and used to study heat tolerance. A collection of 499 wheat geno types were screened under heat stress (35ºC) and non-stress (25ºC) conditions using the new method. Compared with those under non-stress conditions, a substantial and very significant reduction in seedling length (SL) under heat stress was observed with an average reduction of 11.7 cm (P<0.01). A damage index (DI) of each geno type based on SL under the two temperatures was calculated and used to rank the genotypes. Three hexaploid geno types of Triticum aestivum [Perenjori (DI= -0.09), Pakistan W 20B (-0.18) and SST16 (-0.28)], all growing better at 35ºC than at 25ºC were identified as extremely heat tolerant (EHT). Two hexaploid genotypes of T. aestivum [Synthetic wheat (0.93) and Stiletto (0.92)] and two tetraploid genotypes of T. turgidum ssp dicoccoides [G3211 (0.98) and G3100 (0.93)] were identified as extremely heat susceptible (EHS). Another 14 geno types were classified as heat tolerant (HT) and 478 as heat susceptible (HS). Extremely heat tolerant and heat susceptible geno types were used to develop re combinant inbreeding line populations for genetic studies. Four major QTLs, HTI4D, HTI3B.1, HTI3B.2 and HTI3A located on wheat chromosomes 4D, 3B (x2) and 3A, explaining up to 34.67 %, 28.93 %, 13.46% % and 11.34% phenotypic variation, respectively, were detected. The four QTLs together accounted for 88.40% of the total phenotypic variation. Random wheat geno types possessing the four heat tolerant alleles performed significantly better under the heat condition than those lacking the heat tolerant alleles indicating the importance of the four QTLs in conferring heat tolerance in wheat. Molecular markers are being developed for marker assisted breeding of heat tolerant wheat.

Keywords: bread wheat, heat tolerance, screening, RILs, QTL mapping, association analysis

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39 Inhibitory Effects of Ambrosia trifida L. on the Development of Root Hairs and Protein Patterns of Radicles

Authors: Ji-Hyon Kil, Kew-Cheol Shim, Kyoung-Ae Park, Kyoungho Kim


Ambrosia trifida L. is designated as invasive alien species by the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biodiversity by the Ministry of Environment, Korea. The purpose of present paper was to investigate the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of A.trifida on the development of root hairs of Triticum aestivum L., and Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng and the electrophoretic protein patterns of their radicles. The development of root hairs was inhibited by increasing of aqueous extract concentrations. Through SDS-PAGE, the electrophoretic protein bands of extracted proteins from their radicles were appeared in controls, but protein bands of specific molecular weight disappeared or weakened in treatments. In conclusion, inhibitory effects of A. trifida made two receptor species changed morphologically, and at the molecular level in early growth stage.

Keywords: Ambrosia trifida L., invasive alien species, inhibitory effect, root hair, electrophoretic protein, radicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
38 Trehalose Application Increased Membrane Stability and Cell Viability to Affect Growth of Wheat Genotypes under Heat Stress

Authors: S. K. Thind, Aparjot Kaur


Heat stress is one of the major environmental factors drastically reducing wheat production. Crop heat tolerance can be enhanced by preconditioning of plants by exogenous application of osmoprotectants. Presently, the effect of trehalose pretreatment (at 1 mM, and 1.5 nM) under heat stress of 35±2˚C (moderate) and 40±2˚ (severe) for four and eight hour was conducted in wheat (Tricticum aestivum L.) genotypes viz. HD2967, PBW 175, PBW 343, PBW 621, and PBW 590. Heat stress affects wide spectrum of physiological processes within plants that are irreversibly damaged by stress. Membrane thermal stability (MTS) and cell viability was significantly decreased under heat stress for eight hours. Pretreatment with trehalose improved MTS and cell viability under stress and this effect was more promotory with higher concentration. Thermal stability of photosynthetic apparatus differed markedly between genotypes and Hill reaction activity was recorded more in PBW621 followed by C306 as compared with others. In all genotypes photolysis of water showed decline with increase in temperature stress. Trehalose pretreatment helped in sustaining Hill reaction activity probably by stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus against heat-induced photo inhibition. Both plant growth and development were affected by temperature in both shoot and root under heat stress. The reduction was compensated partially by trehalose (1.5 mM) application. Adaption to heat stress is associated with the metabolic adjustment which led to accumulation of soluble sugars including non-reducing and reducing for their role in adaptive mechanism. Higher acid invertase activity in shoot of tolerant genotypes appeared to be a characteristic for stress tolerance. As sucrose synthase play central role in sink strength and in studied wheat genotype was positively related to dry matter accumulation. The duration of heat stress for eight hours had more severe effect on these parameters and trehalose application at 1.5 mM ameliorated it to certain extent.

Keywords: heat stress, Triticum aestivum, trehalose, membrane thermal stability, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, reduction test, growth, sugar metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
37 Phytochemical Content and Bioactive Properties of Wheat Sprouts

Authors: Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Lidija Jevrić, Gordana Ćetković, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić


Wheat contains high amount of nutrients such as dietary fiber, resistant starch, vitamins, minerals and microconstituents, which are building blocks of body tissues, but also help in the prevention of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Sprouting enhances the nutritional value of whole wheat through biosynthesis of tocopherols, polyphenols and other valuable phytochemicals. Since the nutritional and sensory benefits of germination have been extensively documented, using of sprouted grains in food formulations is becoming a trend in healthy foods. The present work addressed the possibility of using freeze-dried sprouted wheat powder, obtained from spelt-wheat cv. ‘Nirvana’ (Triticum spelta L.) and winter wheat cv. ‘Simonida’ (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgare var. lutescens), as a source of phytochemicals, to improve the functional status of the consumer. The phytochemicals' content (total polyphenols, flavonoids, chlorophylls and carotenoids) and biological activities (antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals and antiinflammatory activity) of sprouted wheat powders were assessed spectrophotometrically. The content of flavonoids (216.52 mg RE/100 g), carotenoids (22.84 mg β-carotene/100 g) and chlorophylls (131.23 mg/100 g), as well as antiinflammatory activity (EC50=3.70 mg/ml) was found to be higher in sprouted spelt-wheat powder, while total polyphenols (607.21 mg GAE/100 g) and antioxidant activity on DDPPH radicals (EC50=0.27 mmol TE/100 g) was found to be higher in sprouted winter wheat powders. Simulation of gastro-intestinal digestion of sprouted wheat powders clearly shows that intestinal digestion caused a higher release of polyphenols than gastric digestion for both samples, which indicates their higher bioavailability in the colon. The results of the current study have shown that wheat sprouts can provide a high content of phytochemicals and considerable bioactivities. Moreover, data reported show that they contain a unique pattern of bioactive molecules, which make these cereal sprouts attractive functional foods for a health-promoting diet.

Keywords: wheat, sprouts, phytochemicals, bioactivity

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36 Growth Analysis in Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar


The study was carried out on effect of water stress and variety on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), during 2009/10 and 2010/11 dry seasons. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress) and two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kauze/Weaver) laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Water stress was assigned to the main-plot while variety was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed significant (P<0.05) effect of water stress, water stress at tillering significantly (P<0.05) reduced plant height, LAI, CGR, and NAR. Variety had a significant effect on plant height, LAI, CGR and NAR. In conclusion water stress at tillering was observed to be most critical growth stage in wheat, and water stress at this period should be avoided because it results to decrease in growth components in wheat. Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December in this area and other area with similar climate. Star II TR 77173/LM is recommended variety for the area.

Keywords: wheat, growth, water stress, variety, Sudan savannah

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
35 In silico Comparative Analysis of Chloroplast Genome (cpDNA) and Some Individual Genes (rbcL and trnH-psbA) in Pooideae Subfamily Members

Authors: Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Ilhan Dogan


An in silico analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum aestivum, Festuca arundinacea, Lolium perenne, Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare of the Pooideaea was performed based on complete chloroplast genomes including rbcL coding and trnH-psbA intergenic spacer regions alone to compare phylogenetic resolving power. Neighbor-joining, Minimum Evolution, and Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean methods were used to reconstruct phylogenies with the highest bootstrap supported the obtained data from whole chloroplast genome sequence. The highest and lowest values from nucleotide diversity (π) analysis were found to be 0.315813 and 0.043495 in rbcL coding region in chloroplast genome and complete chloroplast genome, respectively. The highest transition/transversion bias (R) value was recorded as 1.384 in complete chloroplast genomes. F. arudinacea-L. perenne clade was uncovered in all phylogenies. Sequences of rbcL and trnH-psbA regions were not able to resolve the Pooideae phylogenies due to lack of genetic variation.

Keywords: chloroplast DNA, Pooideae, phylogenetic analysis, rbcL, trnH-psbA

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
34 Impact of Corn Gluten Hydrolysate on Seedling Growth

Authors: Jyotika Chopra, Dinesh Goyal


A study was initiated to examine the effects of corn gluten hydrolysate on seedlings growth and its development. Corn gluten is the byproduct of starch industry rich in proteins was hydrolysed by acid and alkali, and the impact of hydrolysate was studied on seed germination of Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulagris (Fabaceae) and Triticum aestivum and Oryza sativa (Gramineae). For this, the optimum hydrolysis was obtained by 4NHCl and 4M NaOH where insoluble protein in gluten was broken down to glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid which was initially confirmed by biuret test, xanthoproteic, solubility and chromatographic tests. The seeds of above families were separately treated with different dilutions of corn gluten hydrolysate ranging from 1-100% to see effects produced by these dilutions on seed germination, plumule, and radical growth. The seedlings were put in the Petri plates and placed in the optimized conditions of temperature (37˚C) and photoperiod of 16:8 hours. The results indicate the plumule of all seeds shows the increase in growth pattern up to 25.75%. Whereas radical shows the increase in growth up to 25.88% till 10% of dilution of corn and wheat gluten hydrolysate with respect to water as blank. Further, there is decrease in growth from 30- 100% of dilutions of both, the hydrolysate indicates the inhibitory effects which unveil about the careful usage of gluten hydrolysate.

Keywords: corn gluten, characterization, hydrolysis, seedling growth

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33 Irrigation Scheduling for Wheat in Bangladesh under Water Stress Conditions Using Water Productivity Model

Authors: S. M. T. Mustafa, D. Raes, M. Huysmans


Proper utilization of water resource is very important in agro-based Bangladesh. Irrigation schedule based on local environmental conditions, soil type and water availability will allow a sustainable use of water resources in agriculture. In this study, the FAO crop water model (AquaCrop) was used to simulate the different water and fertilizer management strategies in different location of Bangladesh to obtain a management guideline for the farmer. Model was calibrated and validated for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The statistical indices between the observed and simulated grain yields obtained were very good with R2, RMSE, and EF values of 0.92, 0.33, and 0.83, respectively for model calibration and 0.92, 0.68 and 0.77, respectively for model validations. Stem elongation (jointing) to booting and flowering stage were identified as most water sensitive for wheat. Deficit irrigation on water sensitive stage could increase the grain yield for increasing soil fertility levels both for loamy and sandy type soils. Deficit irrigation strategies provides higher water productivity than full irrigation strategies and increase the yield stability (reduce the standard deviation). The practical deficit irrigation schedule for wheat for four different stations and two different soils were designed. Farmer can produce more crops by using deficit irrigation schedule under water stress condition. Practical application and validation of proposed strategies will make them more credible.

Keywords: crop-water model, deficit irrigation, irrigation scheduling, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
32 Evaluation of Broad Leaf Weed Herbicides on Weed Control and Productivity of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

Authors: Kassahun Zewdie


-- A field experiment was conducted at Holetta research center and farmers fields during 2017 and 2018 to determine the effects of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam (QULEX 200 WG) on broadleaf weeds in wheat. The design was a Randomized Complete Block with three replications. The treatments were included haulauxifen-Methyl + florasulam @ 25gm, 50gm and 75gm ha-1, (King-D) 2, 4-D dimethyl amine @1.0 L ha-1, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid @1.0 L ha-1 rate (standard check), farmers practice twice hand weeding (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing and weedy check. Herbicides were applied with knapsack sprayer with a spray volume of 200 L ha-1. The wheat variety “Denda” was sown at 20 cm spacing. The recommended rate of fertilizer was applied. Weed density and biomass were recorded at (25-30 and 55-60) days after sowing. The results revealed that post emergence application of haulauxifen-methyl + florasulam @50gm ha-1 had a significant (P<0.05) effect on Guizotia scabra, Polygonum nepalense, Plantago lanceolata, Galinsoga parviflora, Sonchus spp., Galium spurium, Amaranthus hybridus, Raphanus raphanistrum and Medicago polymorpha population. The magnitude ranged from two to four folds when comparing with weed densities recorded in the unweeded plot. The grain yield harvested from the untreated check plot was significantly lower than the rest treatments. The grain yield was improved by 17.3% over the standard check with better performance.

Keywords: broadleaf, grass, weeds, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
31 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim


Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: bread wheat, drought, molecular marker, Triticum aestivum

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
30 Influence of Laser Treatment on the Growth of Sprouts of Different Wheat Varieties

Authors: N. Bakradze, T. Dumbadze, N. Gagelidze, L. Amiranashvili, A. D. L. Batako


Cereals are considered as a strategic product in human life and it demand is increasing with the growth of world population. There is always shortage of cereals in various areas of the globe. For example, Georgia own production meets only 15-20% of the demand for grain, despite the fact that the country is considered one of the main centers of wheat origin. In Georgia, there are 14 types of wheat and more than 150 subspecies, and 40 subspecies of common wheat. Increasing wheat production is important for the country. One of the ways to solve the problem is to develop and implement new, environmentally and economically acceptable technologies. Such technologies include pre-sowing treatment of seed with a laser and associative nitrogen-fixing of the Azospirillum brasilensse bacteria. In the region there are Dika and Lomtagora which are among the most common in Georgia. Dika is a frost-resistant wheat, with a high ability to adapt to the environment, resistant to falling and it is sown in highlands. Dicka excellent properties are due to its strong immunity to fungal diseases; Dicka grains are rich in protein and lysine. Lomtagora 126 differs with its winter and drought resistance, and, it has a great ability to germinate. Lomtagora is characterized by a strong root system and a high budding capacity. It is an early variety, fall-resistant, easy to thresh and suitable for mechanized harvesting with large and red grains. The plant is moderately resistant to fungal diseases. This paper presents some preliminary experimental results where, a continuous CO2 laser at a power of 25-40 W/cm2 was used to radiate grains at a flow rate of 10-15 cm/sec. The treatment was carried out on grains of the Triticum aestivum L. var. of Lutescens (local variety name - Lomtagora 126), and Triticum carthlicum Nevski (local variety name - Dika). Here the grains were treated with Azospirillum brasilensse isolate (108-109 CFU / ml), which was isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat. It was observed that the germination of the wheat was not significantly influenced by either laser or bacteria treatment. In the case of the variety Lomtagora 126, when irradiated at an angle of 90°, it slightly improved the growth within 38 days of sawing, and in the case of irradiation at an angle of 90°+1, by 23%. The treatment of seeds with Azospirillum brazilense in both irradiated and non-irradiated variants led to an improvement in the growth of ssprouts. However, in the case of treatment with azospiril alone - by 22%, and with joint treatment of seeds with azospiril and irradiation - by 29%. In the case of the Dika wheat, the irradiation only led to an increase in growth by 8-9%, and the combine treatment of seeds with azospiril and irradiation - by 10-15%, in comparison with the control. Thus, the combine treatment of wheat of different varieties provided the best effect on the growth. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG) (Grant number CARYS 19-573)

Keywords: laser treatment, Azospirillum brasilensse, seeds, wheat varieties, Lomtagora, Dika

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29 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ladele Ademola A., Nkiru T. Meludu, Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.


Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: blends, diversification, sensory evaluation, sweet potato, utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 362