Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: 1HNMR

16 Synthesis and Characterization of Cyclic PNC-28 Peptide, Residues 17–26 (ETFSDLWKLL), A Binding Domain of p53

Authors: Deepshikha Verma, V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai


The present study reports the synthesis of cyclic PNC-28 peptides with solid-phase peptide synthesis method. In the first step, we synthesize the linear PNC-28 Peptide and in the second step, we cyclize (N-to-C or head-to-tail cyclization) the linear PNC-28 peptide. The molecular formula of cyclic PNC-28 peptide is C64H88N12O16 and its m/z mass is ≈1233.64. Elemental analysis of cyclic PNC-28 is C, 59.99; H, 6.92; N, 13.12; O, 19.98. The characterization of LC-MS, CD, FT-IR, and 1HNMR has been done to confirm the successful synthesis and cyclization of linear PNC-28 peptides.

Keywords: CD, FTIR, 1HNMR, cyclic peptide

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15 Synthesis of (S)-Naproxen Based Amide Bond Forming Chiral Reagent and Application for Liquid Chromatographic Resolution of (RS)-Salbutamol

Authors: Poonam Malik, Ravi Bhushan


This work describes a very efficient approach for synthesis of activated ester of (S)-naproxen which was characterized by UV, IR, ¹HNMR, elemental analysis and polarimetric studies. It was used as a C-N bond forming chiral derivatizing reagent for further synthesis of diastereomeric amides of (RS)-salbutamol (a β₂ agonist that belongs to the group β-adrenolytic and is marketed as racamate) under microwave irradiation. The diastereomeric pair was separated by achiral phase HPLC, using mobile phase in gradient mode containing methanol and aqueous triethylaminephosphate (TEAP); separation conditions were optimized with respect to pH, flow rate, and buffer concentration and the method of separation was validated as per International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. The reagent proved to be very effective for on-line sensitive detection of the diastereomers with very low limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.69 and 0.57 ng mL⁻¹ for diastereomeric derivatives of (S)- and (R)-salbutamol, respectively. The retention times were greatly reduced (2.7 min) with less consumption of organic solvents and large (α) as compared to literature reports. Besides, the diastereomeric derivatives were separated and isolated by preparative HPLC; these were characterized and were used as standard reference samples for recording ¹HNMR and IR spectra for determining absolute configuration and elution order; it ensured the success of diastereomeric synthesis and established the reliability of enantioseparation and eliminated the requirement of pure enantiomer of the analyte which is generally not available. The newly developed reagent can suitably be applied to several other amino group containing compounds either from organic syntheses or pharmaceutical industries because the presence of (S)-Npx as a strong chromophore would allow sensitive detection.This work is significant not only in the area of enantioseparation and determination of absolute configuration of diastereomeric derivatives but also in the area of developing new chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs).

Keywords: chiral derivatizing reagent, naproxen, salbutamol, synthesis

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14 The Marker Active Compound Identification of Calotropis gigantea Roots Extract as an Anticancer

Authors: Roihatul Mutiah, Sukardiman, Aty Widyawaruyanti


Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae) commonly called as “Biduri” or “giant milk weed” is a well-known weed to many cultures for treating various disorders. Several studies reported that C.gigantea roots has anticancer activity. The main aim of this research was to isolate and identify an active marker compound of C.gigantea roots for quality control purpose of its extract in the development as anticancer natural product. The isolation methods was bioactivity guided column chromatography, TLC, and HPLC. Evaluated anticancer activity of there substances using MTT assay methods. Identification structure active compound by UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, HMBC, HMQC spectral and other references. The result showed that the marker active compound was identical as Calotropin.

Keywords: calotropin, Calotropis gigantea, anticancer, marker active

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13 Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyesters Based on Diarylidene-1-Methyl-4-Piperidone

Authors: Tareg M. Elsunaki, Suleiman A. Arafa, Mohamed A. Abd-Alla


New interesting thermal stable polyesters containing 1-methyl-4-piperidone moiety in the main chain have been synthesized. These polyesters were synthesized by interfacial polycondensation technique of 3,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (I) and 3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzyli-dene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (II) with terphthaloyl, isophthaloyl, 4,4'-diphenic, adipoyl and sebacoyl dichlorides. The yield and the values of the reduced viscosity of the produced polyesters were found to be affected by the type of an organic phase. In order to characterize these polymers, the necessary model compounds (A), (B) were prepared from (I), (II) respectively and benzoyl chloride. The structure of monomers (I), (II), model compounds and resulting polyesters were confirmed by IR, elemental analysis and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The various characteristic of the resulting polymers including solubility, thermal properties, viscosity and X-ray analysis were also studied.

Keywords: synthesis, characterization, new polyesters, chemistry

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12 Synthesis and Anti-Cancer Evaluation of Uranyle Complexes

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah


In this research, some of the inorganic complexes of uranyl with N- donor ligands were synthesized. Complexes were characteriezed by FT-IR and UV spectra, ¹HNMR, ¹³CNMR and some physical properties. The uranyl unit (UO2) is composed of a center of uranium atom with the charge (+6) and two oxygen atom by forming two U=O double bonds. The structure is linear (O=U=O, 180) and usually stable. So other ligands often coordinate to the U atom in the plane perpendicularly to the O=U=O axis. The antitumor activity of some of ligand and their complexes against a panel of human tumor cell lines (HT29: Haman colon adenocarcinoma cell line T47D: human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) were determined by MTT(3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. These data suggest that some of these compounds provide good models for the further design of potent antitumor compounds.

Keywords: inorganic, uranyl complex-donor ligands, Schiff bases, anticancer activity

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11 Development of Partial Sulphonated Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride - Hexafluoro Propylene)–Montmorillonite Nano-Composites as Proton Exchange Membranes

Authors: K. Selvakumar, J. Kalaiselvimary, B. Jansirani, M. Ramesh Prabhu


Proton conducting sulphonated poly (vinylidene fluoride- hexafluoro propylene) PVdF-HFP membranes were modified with nano – sized montmorillonite (MMT) through homogeneous dispersive mixing and solution casting technique for fuel cell applications. The prepared composite membranes were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 1HNMR technique. The suitability of the composite membranes for fuel cell application was evaluated in terms of water uptake, swelling behavior, and proton conductivity. These composites showed good conductivities and durability and expected to be used in the development of proton exchange membrane for fuel cells.

Keywords: composite, proton conduction, sulphonation, water uptake

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10 Naturally Occurring Abietic Acid for Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Curing Agents

Authors: Rasha A.Ibrahim El-Ghazawy, Ashraf M. El-Saeed, Heusin El-Shafey, M. Abdel-Raheim, Maher A. El-Sockary


Two thermotropic liquid crystalline curing agents based on abietic acid with different mesogens (LCC1 and LCC2) were synthesized for producing thermally stable liquid crystal networks suitable for high performance epoxy coatings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM) was used to identify the liquid crystal phase transformation temperatures and texture, respectively. POM micro graphs for both LCCs revealing cholesteric texture. A multifunctional epoxy resin with two abietic acid moieties was also synthesized. Dynamic mechanical (DMA) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses show that the fully bio-based cured epoxies by either LCCs possess high glass transition temperature (Tg), high modulus (G`) and improved thermal stability. The chemical structure of the synthesized LCCs and epoxy resin was investigated through FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques.

Keywords: abietic acid, dynamic mechanical analysis, epoxy resin, liquid crystal, thermo gravimetric analysis

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9 Enhancing Reused Lubricating Oil Performance Using Novel Ionic Liquids Based on Imidazolium Derivatives

Authors: Mohamed Deyab


The global lubricant additives market size was USD 14.35 billion in 2015. The industry is characterized by increasing additive usage in base oil blending for longer service life and performance. These additives improve the viscosity of oil, act as detergents, defoamers, antioxidants, and antiwear agents. Since additives play a significant role in base oil blending and subsequent formulations as they are critical materials in improving specification and performance of oils. Herein, we report on the synthesis and characterization of three imidazolium derivatives and their application as antioxidants, detergents and antiwear agents. The molecular structure and characterizations of these ionic liquids were confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 1HNMR spectroscopy. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), is used to study the degradation and thermal stability of the studied base stock samples. It was found that all the prepared ionic liquids additives have excellent power of dispersion and detergency. The ionic liquids as additives to engine oil reduced the friction (38%) and wear volume (76%) of steel balls. The obtained results show that the ionic liquids have an oxidation inhibitor up to 95%.

Keywords: reused lubricating oil, waste, petroleum, ionic liquids

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8 4(3H)-Quinazolinone Derivatives' Synthesis and Evaluation as Antimalarial and Anti-Leishmanial Agents

Authors: Alemu Tadesse Feroche


In this study, some 2, 3 distributed quinazoline -4 (3H) - one derivative were synthesized using a three-step synthetic route. They were obtained in a good yield (59.5-85%) by applying different chemical reactions like cyclization and condensation reactions. The chemical structure of the final compounds was also verified by spectroscopic methods (IR, ¹HNMR) and elemental microanalysis. The in vivo antimalarial activity of these compounds on P. berghei infected mice was found to be moderate to high at an oral dose of 0.04846 mmol/kg /day. This is equal to 25 mg/kg of chloroquine phosphate, which causes 100% inhibition of the parasite. It is worth mentioning that most active compounds (E) -3 Phenyl -2- [2- (pyridine -4- yl) vinyl] -4 (3H) -quinazolinone IVa (64.02%, (E)-2-[2-(4 - Hydroxy-3 - methoxystyryl) - vinyl) -3 - phenyl -4 (3H ) - quinazolinone IVc (77.25%) and (E)-2 –[2 –(Pyridin -4-yl) –vinyl] -3 phenenylamine -4(3H) quinazolinone IVe (73.54%) showed a dose-dependent increase in present suppression in antimalarial activities. Furthermore, the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. aethiopica isolate (CL/039/09). All tested compounds (IVa (0.03766 ug/ml), IVb (0.00538 ug/ml, IVc (0.00412 ug/ml, IVd (0.00110 ug/ml), IVe (0.03017 ug/ml) and IVf (0.03894 ug/ml)) showed excellent potency that is much better than amphotericin B (IC50 = 0,04359 ug/ml). The results of acute toxicity indicated that all test compounds (IVa –IVf) proved to be nontoxic and well tolerated by the experimental animals up to 300 mg/kg in oral and 140 mg/kg in parental studies.

Keywords: 4(3H)-quinazolinone, in vivo antimalarial activity, in vitro antileishmanial activity, acute toxicity

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7 Smart Polymeric Nanoparticles Loaded with Vincristine Sulfate for Applications in Breast Cancer Drug Delivery in MDA-MB 231 and MCF7 Cell Lines

Authors: Reynaldo Esquivel, Pedro Hernandez, Aaron Martinez-Higareda, Sergio Tena-Cano, Enrique Alvarez-Ramos, Armando Lucero-Acuna


Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials play an essential role in loading, transporting and well-distribution of anti-cancer compounds in the cellular surroundings. The outstanding properties as the Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST), hydrolytic cleavage and protonation/deprotonation cycle, govern the release and delivery mechanisms of payloads. In this contribution, we experimentally determine the load efficiency and release of antineoplastic Vincristine Sulfate into PNIPAM-Interpenetrated-Chitosan (PIntC) nanoparticles. Structural analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR). ζ-Potential (ζ) and Hydrodynamic diameter (DH) measurements were monitored by Electrophoretic Mobility (EM) and Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) respectively. Mathematical analysis of the release pharmacokinetics reveals a three-phase model above LCST, while a monophasic of Vincristine release model was observed at 32 °C. Cytotoxic essays reveal a noticeable enhancement of Vincristine effectiveness at low drug concentration on HeLa cervix cancer and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer.

Keywords: nanoparticles, vincristine, drug delivery, PNIPAM

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6 Conventional and Computational Investigation of the Synthesized Organotin(IV) Complexes Derived from o-Vanillin and 3-Nitro-o-Phenylenediamine

Authors: Harminder Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Akanksha Kapila, Reenu


Schiff base with general formula H₂L was derived from condensation of o-vanillin and 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine. This Schiff base was used for the synthesis of organotin(IV) complexes with general formula R₂SnL [R=Phenyl or n-octyl] using equimolar quantities. Elemental analysis UV-Vis, FTIR, and multinuclear spectroscopic techniques (¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹⁹Sn) NMR were carried out for the characterization of the synthesized complexes. These complexes were coloured and soluble in polar solvents. Computational studies have been performed to obtain the details of the geometry and electronic structures of ligand as well as complexes. Geometry of the ligands and complexes have been optimized at the level of Density Functional Theory with B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and B3LYP/MPW1PW91 respectively followed by vibrational frequency analysis using Gaussian 09. Observed ¹¹⁹Sn NMR chemical shifts of one of the synthesized complexes showed tetrahedral geometry around Tin atom which is also confirmed by DFT. HOMO-LUMO energy distribution was calculated. FTIR, ¹HNMR and ¹³CNMR spectra were also obtained theoretically using DFT. Further IRC calculations were employed to determine the transition state for the reaction and to get the theoretical information about the reaction pathway. Moreover, molecular docking studies can be explored to ensure the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized organotin(IV) complexes.

Keywords: DFT, molecular docking, organotin(IV) complexes, o-vanillin, 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine

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5 Chemical Modifications of Carotol and Their Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Dalvir Kataria, Khushminder Kaur Chahal, Amit Kumar


The carrot seed essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol solvents were used for extraction of carrot seed by Soxhlet extraction methods. The major and minor compounds identified in carrot seed essential oil were carotol (52.73), daucol (5.10), daucene (5.68), (E)-β-farnesene (5.40), β-cubebene (3.19), longifolenaldehyde (3.23), β-elimene (3.23), (E)-caryophyllene (1.22), β-bisabolene (2.95) etc. The chemical composition of hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts was different. Carotol was the common compound present. Major compounds isolated were from the carrot seed essential oil by column chromatography. Chemical transformations of carotol (2) with mercuric acetate/sodium borohydride, dry hydrochloric acid gas, acetonitrile/sulfuric acid, selenium dioxide/t-butyl hydrogen peroxide, N-bromosuccinimide, hydrogen iodide, and phenol were carried out. The derivatives of carotol were designed to explore the significance of some structural modifications in relation to antioxidant activities. The structures of major compounds and derivatives were confirmed on the basis of FT-IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity of carrot seed essential oil, various extracts and isolated compounds were tested by in vitro models involving 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), hydroxyl (OH•), nitric oxide (NO•), superoxide radical scavenging methods and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Chemical transformations of major isolated compound carotol were carried out, and antioxidant activity of all compounds was undertaken. The major sesquiterpenoidcarotol isolated from carrot seed essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity in all the methods. The methanol extract showed higher antioxidant potential as compared to carrot seed essential oil, hexane, and dichloromethane extracts.

Keywords: antioxidant, carotol, carrot, DPPH

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4 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(2-[[4-(Dimethylamino)Benzylidene] Amino]Phenol) in Organic Medium: Investigation of Thermal Stability, Conductivity, and Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Nuray Yilmaz Baran, Mehmet Saçak


Schiff base polymers are one class of conjugated polymers, also called as poly(azomethines). They have drawn the attention of researchers in recent years due to their some properties such as, optoelectronic, semiconductive, and photovoltaic, antimicrobial activities and high thermal stability. In this study, Poly(2-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino] phenol) P(2-DBAP), which is a Schiff base polymer, was synthesized by an oxidative polycondensation reaction of -[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol (2-DBAP) with oxidants NaOCl, H₂O₂ and O₂ in various organic medium. At the end of the polymerizations carried out at various temperatures and time, maximum conversion of the monomer to the polymer could be obtained as around 93.7 %. The structures of the monomer and polymer were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR and ¹HNMR techniques. Thermal analysis of the polymer was identified by TG-DTG and DTA techniques, and the thermal degradation behavior was supported by Thermo-IR spectra recorded in the temperature range of 25-800 °C. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymer were found to be 26337, 9860 g/mol 2.67, respectively. The change of electrical conductivity value of the P(2-DBAP) doped with iodine vapor at different temperatures and time was investigated its maximum was measured by increasing 10¹⁰ fold as 2 x10⁻⁴ Scm⁻¹ after doping for 48 h at 60 °C. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of P(2-DBAP) Schiff base and its polymer were also investigated against Sarcina lutea, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus Faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively.

Keywords: conductive properties, polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers, thermal stability

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3 Synergistic Effects of Chrysin-Curcumin Loaded in PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles on Inhibiting Breast Cancer Cell Line Growth

Authors: N. Zarghami, M. Mohammadinejad, A. Akbarzadeh, Y. Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, F. Zarghami


Breast cancer is known to be the most common cancer in women. Cyclin D1 is a proto-oncogene and over expression of cyclin D1 is directly associated with tumorgenesis. Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in more than 50% of breast cancer cases. Curcumin is derived from turmeric (curcuma longa) and chrysin is a component that could be extracted from many plants and honey. These two plants derived compounds are believed to assist in inhibition of the cancer cells growth and reducing cyclin D1 expression. In this work, the hypothesis is to combine curcumin and chrysin in order to analyze the potential synergistic effect in inhibition of cell proliferation and down regulation of cyclin D1. In addition, use of PLGA-PEG to improve bioavailability of pure curcumin and chrysin, while reinforcing the potential effect of this combination. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized with FT-IR and 1HNMR methods. Although morphological features were analyzed by SEM. Afterward curcumin and chrysin were encapsulated with synthesized PLGA-PEG and MTT-assay was performed to measure cytotoxicity effect of these plant constitutes. T-47D cells were treated with proper concentration of these constituents and Real-time PCR was carried out to evaluate cyclin D1 expression levels. Curcumin, chrysin and combination of curcumin –chrysin in intact and nano-capsulated form affected T-47D cells in time and dose dependent manner and the combination of these compounds had synergistic effects. Real-time PCR results, revealed that curcumin, chrysin and combination of curcumin-chrysin in pure and encapsulated form inhibited cyclin D1 expression. Compared to pure components, different concentrations of nano-curcumin, nano chrysin and nano-combination caused further decline in cyclin D12 expression by 5-11%, 8-22% and 6-18% respectively. Our results demonstrated that, combination of chrysin-curcumin had synergistic effect and nano capsulated form of this component had grater inhibition on cyclin D1 expression.

Keywords: breast cancer, cyclin D1, curcumin, chrysin, nanoparticles

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2 Effect of Polymer Molecular Structures on Properties of Dental Cement Restoratives

Authors: Dong Xie, Jun Zhao, Yiming Weng


One of the challenges in dental cement biomaterials is how to make a restorative with mechanical strengths and wear resistance that are comparable to contemporary dental resin composites. Currently none of the dental cement restoratives has been used in high stress-bearing sites due to their low mechanical strengths and poor wear-resistance. The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize the poly(alkenoic acid)s with different molecular structures, use these polymers to formulate a dental cement restorative, and study the effect of molecular structures on reaction kinetics, viscosity, and mechanical strengths of the formed polymers and cement restoratives. In this study, poly(alkenoic acid)s with different molecular structures were synthesized. The purified polymers were formulated with commercial Fuji II LC glass fillers to form the experimental cement restoratives. The reaction kinetics was studied via 1HNMR spectroscopy. The formed restoratives were evaluated using compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and wear-resistance tests. Specimens were conditioned in distilled water at 37 oC for 24 h prior to testing. Fuji II LC restorative was used as control. The results show that the higher the arm number and initiator concentration, the faster the reaction was. It was also found that the higher the arm number and branching that the polymer had, the lower the viscosity of the polymer in water and the lower the mechanical strengths of the formed restorative. The experimental restoratives were 31-53% in compressive strength, 37-55% in compressive modulus, 80-126% in diametral tensile strength, 76-94% in flexural strength, 4-21% in fracture toughness and 53-96% in hardness higher than Fuji II LC. For wear test, the experimental restoratives were only 5.4-13% of abrasive and 6.4-12% of attritional wear depths of Fuji II LC in each wear cycle. The aging study also showed that all the experimental restoratives increased their strength continuously during 30 days, unlike Fuji II LC. It is concluded that polymer molecular structures have significant and positive impact on mechanical properties of dental cement restoratives.

Keywords: dental materials, polymers, strength, biomaterials

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1 Tri/Tetra-Block Copolymeric Nanocarriers as a Potential Ocular Delivery System of Lornoxicam: Experimental Design-Based Preparation, in-vitro Characterization and in-vivo Estimation of Transcorneal Permeation

Authors: Alaa Hamed Salama, Rehab Nabil Shamma


Introduction: Polymeric micelles that can deliver drug to intended sites of the eye have attracted much scientific attention recently. The aim of this study was to review the aqueous-based formulation of drug-loaded polymeric micelles that hold significant promise for ophthalmic drug delivery. This study investigated the synergistic performance of mixed polymeric micelles made of linear and branched poly (ethylene oxide)-poly (propylene oxide) for the more effective encapsulation of Lornoxicam (LX) as a hydrophobic model drug. Methods: The co-micellization process of 10% binary systems combining different weight ratios of the highly hydrophilic poloxamers; Synperonic® PE/P84, and Synperonic® PE/F127 and the hydrophobic poloxamine counterpart (Tetronic® T701) was investigated by means of photon correlation spectroscopy and cloud point. The drug-loaded micelles were tested for their solubilizing capacity towards LX. Results: Results showed a sharp solubility increase from 0.46 mg/ml up to more than 4.34 mg/ml, representing about 136-fold increase. Optimized formulation was selected to achieve maximum drug solubilizing power and clarity with lowest possible particle size. The optimized formulation was characterized by 1HNMR analysis which revealed complete encapsulation of the drug within the micelles. Further investigations by histopathological and confocal laser studies revealed the non-irritant nature and good corneal penetrating power of the proposed nano-formulation. Conclusion: LX-loaded polymeric nanomicellar formulation was fabricated allowing easy application of the drug in the form of clear eye drops that do not cause blurred vision or discomfort, thus achieving high patient compliance.

Keywords: confocal laser scanning microscopy, Histopathological studies, Lornoxicam, micellar solubilization

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