Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Begüm Terzi

40 An Organic Dye-Based Staining for Plant DNA

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Kerime Özkay, Ahmet Yıldırım

Abstract:

In plant biotechnology, electrophoresis is used to detect nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used as an intercalator dye to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this study, a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye (N-719) for staining plant DNA in comparison to EtBr. When prestaining and post-staining for gel electrophoresis, N-719 stained both DNA and PCR product bands with the same clarity as EtBr. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. The organic dye was found to have staining activity suitable for the identification of DNA.Consequently, N-719 organic dye can be used to stain and visualize DNA during gel electrophoresis as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.

Keywords: agarose gel, DNA staining, organic dye, N-719

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39 Identifying of Hybrid Lines for Lpx-B1 Gene in Durum Wheat

Authors: Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Begüm Terzi, Ahmet Yıldırım, Ramazan Özbey

Abstract:

The basic criteria which determine durum wheat quality is its suitability for pasta processing that is pasta making quality. Bright yellow color is a desired property in pasta products. Durum wheat pasta making quality is affected by grain pigment content and oxidative enzymes which affect adversely bright yellow color. Of the oxidative enzymes, lipoxygenase LOX is the most effective one on oxidative bleaching of yellow pigments in durum wheat products. Thus, wheat cultivars that are high in yellow pigments but low in LOX enzyme activity should be preferred for the production of pasta with high color quality. The aim of this study was to reduce lipoxygenase activities of the backcross durum wheat lines that were previously improved for their protein quality. For this purpose, two advanced lines with different parents (TMB2 and TMB3) were used recurrent parents. Also, Gediz-75 wheat with low LOX enzyme activity was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region (Lpx-B1.1) were selected using SSR markers by marker assisted selection method. As a result, the study will be completed in three years instead of six years required in a classical backcross breeding study, leading to the development of high-quality candidate varieties. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (Project No: 112T910).

Keywords: durum wheat, lipoxygenase, LOX, Lpx-B1.1, MAS, Triticum durum

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38 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim

Abstract:

Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: bread wheat, drought, molecular marker, Triticum aestivum

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37 Marker Assisted Breeding for Grain Quality Improvement in Durum Wheat

Authors: Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Begüm Terzi, Ahmet Yıldırım, Leyla Gündüz

Abstract:

Durum wheat quality is defined as its suitability for pasta processing, that is pasta making quality. Another factor that determines the quality of durum wheat is the nutritional value of wheat or its final products. Wheat is a basic source of calories, proteins and minerals for humans in many countries of the world. For this reason, improvement of wheat nutritional value is of great importance. In recent years, deficiencies in protein and micronutrients, particularly in iron and zinc, have seriously increased. Therefore, basic foods such as wheat must be improved for micronutrient content. The effects of some major genes for grain quality established. Gpc-B1 locus is one of the genes increased protein and micronutrients content, and used in improvement studies of durum wheat nutritional value. The aim of this study was to increase the protein content and the micronutrient (Fe, Zn ve Mn) contents of an advanced durum wheat line (TMB 1) that was previously improved for its protein quality. For this purpose, TMB1 advanced durum wheat line were used as the recurrent parent and also, UC1113-Gpc-B1 line containing the Gpc-B1 gene was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region were selected by marker assisted selection (MAS). BC4F1 plants MAS method was employed in combination with embryo culture and rapid plant growth in a controlled greenhouse conditions in order to shorten the duration of the transition between generations in backcross breeding. The Gpc-B1 gene was selected specific molecular markers. Since Yr-36 gene associated with Gpc-B1 allele, it was also transferred to the Gpc-B1 transferred lines. Thus, the backcrossed plants selected by MAS are resistance to yellow rust disease. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (112T910).

Keywords: Durum wheat, Gpc-B1, MAS, Triticum durum, Yr-36

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36 Begamat-I-Bhopals': Role in the Development of Female Education under Colonialism

Authors: Munaza Mubeen

Abstract:

The colonial Urdu literature has played a significant role in uplifting the overall status of the Indians. Taking example of the Bhopal State, the contribution of the Royal ladies holds no match in the contemporary age. Similarly, the efforts of the Begamat-e-Bhopal in the field of education had been acknowledged across the Sub-continent. It had been noticed that with the downfall of the Mughal Empire at the hands of the British Raj, the local culture in the Indian sub-continent in general and in Bhopal State in proper got deteriorated. This led to uncertainty, chaos and an anti-British sentiment which created hatred against them in the entire sub-continent. Likely, in Bhopal State, the role of women in field of education also vanished. However, this change was felt by the ladies in the Royal Household where they struggled for restoration of the status quo with their personal efforts. The prominent contributors from the Royal household included Qudseya Begum, Nawab Sikander Begum, Nawab Shah Jahan Begum and Nawab Sultan Johan-they are known as Begamat-i-Bhopal. They established schools, colleges and universities to impart formal and non-formal education respectively. Their systematic approach and continued efforts constituted a dynamic aspect of women’ empowerment. Focused on the female education, however, one of the by-products of their efforts was an introduction of socio-cultural and politico-religious awareness among the middle class womenfolk. Unfortunately, the role of these Bagamat-i-Bhopal has been left untouched or ignored by the academic scholars. This study critically analyzed the role of Beghamat-i-Bhopal regarding female education in Hindustan in general and in Bhopal in particular. Similarly, the contribution of the contemporary writers in development of female education in Bhopal has also been discussed in this paper. This paper is based on the 'historico-textual' approach following structural reason which has established a justifiable argument. The researcher, therefore, has taken into consideration all the chronological nuances in order to accord greater visibility to the contents. The data has been described, analyzed and interpreted inclusively and in generalized manner.

Keywords: colonialism, Begamaat e Bhopal, female education, State of Bhopal

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35 Early Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia Based on Support Vector Machine and Gaussian Mixture Model by Using Features of ECG Recordings

Authors: Merve Begum Terzi, Orhan Arikan, Adnan Abaci, Mustafa Candemir

Abstract:

Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death in the world. Therefore, its fast and reliable diagnosis is a major clinical need. ECG is the most important diagnostic methodology which is used to make decisions about the management of the cardiovascular diseases. In patients with acute myocardial ischemia, temporary chest pains together with changes in ST segment and T wave of ECG occur shortly before the start of myocardial infarction. In this study, a technique which detects changes in ST/T sections of ECG is developed for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. For this purpose, a database of real ECG recordings that contains a set of records from 75 patients presenting symptoms of chest pain who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is constituted. 12-lead ECG’s of the patients were recorded before and during the PCI procedure. Two ECG epochs, which are the pre-inflation ECG which is acquired before any catheter insertion and the occlusion ECG which is acquired during balloon inflation, are analyzed for each patient. By using pre-inflation and occlusion recordings, ECG features that are critical in the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are identified and the most discriminative features for the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are extracted. A classification technique based on support vector machine (SVM) approach operating with linear and radial basis function (RBF) kernels to detect ischemic events by using ST-T derived joint features from non-ischemic and ischemic states of the patients is developed. The dataset is randomly divided into training and testing sets and the training set is used to optimize SVM hyperparameters by using grid-search method and 10fold cross-validation. SVMs are designed specifically for each patient by tuning the kernel parameters in order to obtain the optimal classification performance results. As a result of implementing the developed classification technique to real ECG recordings, it is shown that the proposed technique provides highly reliable detections of the anomalies in ECG signals. Furthermore, to develop a detection technique that can be used in the absence of ECG recording obtained during healthy stage, the detection of acute myocardial ischemia based on ECG recordings of the patients obtained during ischemia is also investigated. For this purpose, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to represent the joint pdf of the most discriminating ECG features of myocardial ischemia. Then, a Neyman-Pearson type of approach is developed to provide detection of outliers that would correspond to acute myocardial ischemia. Neyman – Pearson decision strategy is used by computing the average log likelihood values of ECG segments and comparing them with a range of different threshold values. For different discrimination threshold values and number of ECG segments, probability of detection and probability of false alarm values are computed, and the corresponding ROC curves are obtained. The results indicate that increasing number of ECG segments provide higher performance for GMM based classification. Moreover, the comparison between the performances of SVM and GMM based classification showed that SVM provides higher classification performance results over ECG recordings of considerable number of patients.

Keywords: ECG classification, Gaussian mixture model, Neyman–Pearson approach, support vector machine

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34 Prevalence and Pattern of Modern Contraceptive Use among Chittagong City Slum Dwellers in Bangladesh

Authors: Tahera Begum, Sabina Yeasmin, Jalal Uddin

Abstract:

Ten slums of ten wards of Chittagong city corporation of Bangladesh were conveniently selected to know about modern contraceptive use by the slum dwellers. Total 300 family heads or their wives were interviewed with a questionnaire in February 2014. Family size was 4.62. Among 300 families 248 eligible couples were found. 57% eligible couples use different modern contraceptive measures. Remaining 43% eligible couples do not use modern contraceptive measures. Among the users 58% use oral pill, 30% injectables, 8% use condom, 3% were found with ligation and only 1% with vasectomy. Contraceptive prevalence rate has been increased and pattern as changed. A discussion is made with literature review.

Keywords: conraceptive, Bangladesh, family, pill

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33 A Case of Apocrine Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma in a Tabby Cat

Authors: Funda Terzi, Elif Dogan, Ayse B. Kapcak

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In this report, clinical, radiological, macroscopic, and histopathological findings of apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma are presented in a 13-year-old male tabby cat. In clinical examination, soft tissue masses were detected in the caudal abdomen and left tuber coxae. On radiological examination, subcutaneous masses with soft tissue contrast appearance were detected, and the masses were surgically removed under general anesthesia. The sizes of the masses were approximately 2x2x3 cm in the caudal abdomen and approximately 1x1x2 cm in the tuber coxae region. The cross-section of the mass was whitish-yellow in color. After the masses were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, a routine histopathology procedure was applied. In histopathological examination, apocrine sweat glands in a cystic structure and extensions from the center of the cyst to the lumen were determined, and anisonucleosis, anisocytosis, and anaplastic cells with giant nuclei were observed in the epithelial cells of the gland facing the lumen. A diagnosis of papillary-cystic type apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma was made with these findings.

Keywords: apocrine sweat gland, carcinoma, cat, histopathology

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32 Consumer Innovativeness and Shopping Styles: An Empirical Study in Turkey

Authors: Hande Begum Bumin Doyduk, Elif Okan Yolbulan

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Innovation is very important for success and competitiveness of countries, as well as business sectors and individuals' firms. In order to have successful and sustainable innovations, the other side of the game, consumers, should be aware of the innovations and appreciate them. In this study, the consumer innovativeness is focused and the relationship between motivated consumer innovativeness and consumer shopping styles is analyzed. Motivated consumer innovativeness scale by (Vandecasteele & Geuens, 2010) and consumer shopping styles scale by (Sproles & Kendall, 1986) is used. Data is analyzed by SPSS 20 program through realibility, factor, and correlation analysis. According to the findings of the study, there are strong positive relationships between hedonic innovativeness and recreational shopping style; social innovativeness and brand consciousness; cognitive innovativeness and price consciousness and functional innovativeness and perfectionistic high-quality conscious shopping styles.

Keywords: consumer innovativeness, consumer decision making, shopping styles, innovativeness

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31 Conflating Voluntary Sex Work and Trafficked Sex Work in Malaysia

Authors: Haezreena Begum Abdul Hamid

Abstract:

This article will explore the conflation between voluntary sex work and trafficked sex work. In doing so, the article will analyse the meaning of trafficking according to the United Nations ‘Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children’ and the Malaysian Anti-Trafficking in Persons and Anti-Migrant Smuggling Act, 2007 (ATIP), and discuss the ambiguities that may arise in understanding the term. While the law on human trafficking has long been understood by scholars, key stakeholders, and enforcement officers, identifying a victim of trafficking is far from being straight forward. This is because of the diverse understanding on sex trafficking and sex work, and the fact that ‘consent’ by trafficked persons remains irrelevant in cases of trafficking. As a result, women who voluntarily engage in sex work are sometimes categorised as ‘trafficked’ and are ‘rescued’ by the authorities in the name of ‘protection’, while those who insist of having agency can be charged for violating the immigration laws. In light of such circumstances, this article aims to explore the conflation between voluntary sex work and trafficked sex work and how such conflation have succeeded in fostering distrust between sex workers and authorities.

Keywords: voluntary sex work, trafficked sex work, sex work, coercion, protection

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30 Beneficial Effect of Biotin in Combination with Canagliflozin on High Fat Diet Induced Diabetes in Rats

Authors: Rayhana Begum, HongBin Wang, Nur Alam Siddiquee, Md.Yasin Ahmed

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Biotin treatment has significant effects on blood glucose, and pharmacological doses of biotin improve hyperglycemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of biotin in combination with canagliflozin in improving glycemic control on High Fat Diet-induced diabetes in Rats. Thirty male rats were divided into five groups (six rats /group): control, high fat diet (HFD), canagliflozin (CAG), biotin (BIO), and CAG + BIO. The treatments with CAG and /or BIO significantly reduced the body weight gain, blood glucose and HbA1c levels, whereas CAG in combination with BIO revealed greater glycemic improvement than CAG monotherapy. The treatment with CAG and /or BIO causes significant change in lipid profile and CK level while the treatment with CAG in combination with BIO showed better results as compared with CAG monotherapy. Furthermore, combination of biotin with CAG improved the pancreatic and cardiac damage when compared with other treated groups.

Keywords: canagliflozin, biotin, HbA1c, lipid profile

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29 Amplitude and Latency of P300 Component from Auditory Stimulus in Different Types of Personality: An Event Related Potential Study

Authors: Nasir Yusoff, Ahmad Adamu Adamu, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza

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The P300 from Event related potential (ERP) explains the psycho-physiological phenomenon in human body. The present study aims to identify the differences of amplitude and latency of P300 component from auditory stimuli, between ambiversion and extraversion types of personality. Ambivert (N=20) and extravert (N=20) undergoing ERP recording at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) laboratory. Electroencephalogram data was recorded with oddball paradigm, counting auditory standard and target tones, from nine electrode sites (Fz, Cz, Pz, T3, T4, T5, T6, P3 and P4) by using the 128 HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net. The P300 latency of the target tones at all electrodes were insignificant. Similarly, the P300 latency of the standard tones were also insignificant except at Fz and T3 electrode. Likewise, the P300 amplitude of the target and standard tone in all electrode sites were insignificant. Extravert and ambivert indicate similar characteristic in cognition processing from auditory task.

Keywords: amplitude, event related potential, p300 component, latency

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28 Prophet and Philosopher Mohammed: A Precursor of Feminism

Authors: Mohammad Mozammel Haque

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That feminism is nothing but the name of a belief that women should have the same rights as men needs no telling. The history of modern western feminism is divided into three waves and each is described as dealing with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave refers to the movement of the 19th through early 20th centuries, which dealt mainly with suffrage, working conditions and educational rights for women. The second wave (1960s-1980s) dealt with the inequality of laws and the role of women in society. The third wave (late 1980s-early 2000s) is seen as both a continuation of the second wave and a response to the perceived failures. Mary Wollstonecraft struggled for the emancipation and freedom of the women of Europe, Begum Rokeya brought about revolution for the women of the East and West Bengal, Jeremy Bentham wrote for the independence of women in England. But if feminism refers to the movement of giving women what they deserve, then it won’t be an overstatement to state that Mohammad is the precursor of what we call feminism. This paper investigates the background of official starting of feminism, and also the backdrop of the women of Muhammad’s time. The article, besides showing that this great prophet and philosopher firstly brought about a movement for the education and rights of women and took them out of grave where they were buried alive, also delineates Mohammedan endeavours he attempted to give the women what they ought to have.

Keywords: education, equality, feminism, precursor

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27 A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Bus Rapid Transit Project from Gazipur to Airport at Dhaka Focusing on Environmental Impacts

Authors: Swapna Begum, Higano Yoshiro

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Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh. It is considered as one of the traffic congested cities in the world. The growth of the population of this city is increasing day by day. The land use pattern and the increased socio-economic characteristics increase the motor vehicle ownership of this city. The rapid unplanned urbanization and poor transportation planning have deteriorated the transport environment of this city. Also, the huge travel demand with non-motorized traffics on streets is accounted for enormous traffic congestion in this city. The land transport sector in Dhaka is mainly dependent on road transport comprised of both motorized and non-motorized modes of travel. This improper modal mix and the un-integrated system have resulted in huge traffic congestion in this city. Moreover, this city has no well-organized public transport system and any Mass Transit System to cope with this ever increasing demand. Traffic congestion causes serious air pollution and adverse impact on the economy by deteriorating the accessibility, level of service, safety, comfort and operational efficiency. Therefore, there is an imperative need to introduce a well-organized, properly scheduled mass transit system like (Bus Rapid Transit) BRT minimizing the existing problems.

Keywords: air pollution, BRT, mass transit, traffic congestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
26 ECG Based Reliable User Identification Using Deep Learning

Authors: R. N. Begum, Ambalika Sharma, G. K. Singh

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Identity theft has serious ramifications beyond data and personal information loss. This necessitates the implementation of robust and efficient user identification systems. Therefore, automatic biometric recognition systems are the need of the hour, and ECG-based systems are unquestionably the best choice due to their appealing inherent characteristics. The CNNs are the recent state-of-the-art techniques for ECG-based user identification systems. However, the results obtained are significantly below standards, and the situation worsens as the number of users and types of heartbeats in the dataset grows. As a result, this study proposes a highly accurate and resilient ECG-based person identification system using CNN's dense learning framework. The proposed research explores explicitly the calibre of dense CNNs in the field of ECG-based human recognition. The study tests four different configurations of dense CNN which are trained on a dataset of recordings collected from eight popular ECG databases. With the highest FAR of 0.04 percent and the highest FRR of 5%, the best performing network achieved an identification accuracy of 99.94 percent. The best network is also tested with various train/test split ratios. The findings show that DenseNets are not only extremely reliable but also highly efficient. Thus, they might also be implemented in real-time ECG-based human recognition systems.

Keywords: Biometrics, Dense Networks, Identification Rate, Train/Test split ratio

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25 Preparation and Characterisation of Electrospun Extracted β-Chitosan/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Blend Nanofibers for Tissue Engineering

Authors: E. Roshan Ara Begum, K. Bhavani, K. Subachitra, C. Kirthika, R. Shenbagarathai

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing concern for the production of chitosan blend nanofibrous scaffold for its favorable physicochemical properties which mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) both morphologically and chemically. Therefore, this study focused on production of β-chitosan(β-Cts) and Poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) blend nanofibrous scaffold by electrospinning. β-Cts was extracted from the squid pen waste of locally available squid variety Loligo duvauceli (Indian Squid). To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on nanofibers preparation from the extracted β-Cts. Both the β-Cts and PVA polymers were mixed in two different proportions (30:70 and 40:60 respectively. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, swelling property, in vitro enzymatic degradation, and hemo, biocompatibility properties. β-Cts/PVA nanofibers scaffolds had an average fiber diameter of 120 to 550nm.Among the two different β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers the β-Cts/PVA (40:60) blend fibers demonstrated favourable tissue engineering properties. The β-Cts/PVA (40:60) blend nanofibers exhibited a swelling ratio of 36 ± 2.5% with mass loss percentage of 20 ± 2.71% after 4 weeks of degradation. It has exhibited good hemocompatible properties. HEK-293(Human Embryonic Kidney) cells lines were able to adhere and proliferate well in the β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers. All these results indicated that electrospun β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers are a suitable scaffold to be used for tissue engineering purposes.

Keywords: β-chitosan, electrospinning, nanofibers, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)

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24 Effect of Testing Device Calibration on Liquid Limit Assessment

Authors: M. Oguzhan Bayram, Hazal Berrak Gencdal, Begum Basbug, N. Ozge Fercan

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Liquid limit which is used as a measure of soil strength can be detected by Casagrande and cone penetrometer testing methods. The two methods majorly diverge from each other in terms operator dependency. The Casagrande method that is applied according to ASTM D4318d standards, may give misleading results especially if the calibration process is not performed well. In order to reveal the effect of calibration for drop height and amount of soil paste placement in the Casagrande cup, a series of tests were carried out by multipoint method as it is specified in the ASTM standards. The tests include the combination of 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm drop heights and under-filled, half-filled and full-filled Casagrande cups by kaolin samples. It was observed that during successive tests, the drop height of the cup was deteriorated hence the device was recalibrated before and after each testing in order to provide the accuracy of the results. Besides, the tests by under-filled and full-filled samples for higher drop heights revealed lower liquid limit values then the lower drop heights. For the half-filled samples, it was clearly seen that the liquid limit values didn’t change at all as the drop height increased, and this explains the function of standard specifications.

Keywords: calibration, casagrande method, drop height, kaolin, liquid limit

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23 A Two-Stage Adaptation towards Automatic Speech Recognition System for Malay-Speaking Children

Authors: Mumtaz Begum Mustafa, Siti Salwah Salim, Feizal Dani Rahman

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Recently, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems were used to assist children in language acquisition as it has the ability to detect human speech signal. Despite the benefits offered by the ASR system, there is a lack of ASR systems for Malay-speaking children. One of the contributing factors for this is the lack of continuous speech database for the target users. Though cross-lingual adaptation is a common solution for developing ASR systems for under-resourced language, it is not viable for children as there are very limited speech databases as a source model. In this research, we propose a two-stage adaptation for the development of ASR system for Malay-speaking children using a very limited database. The two stage adaptation comprises the cross-lingual adaptation (first stage) and cross-age adaptation. For the first stage, a well-known speech database that is phonetically rich and balanced, is adapted to the medium-sized Malay adults using supervised MLLR. The second stage adaptation uses the speech acoustic model generated from the first adaptation, and the target database is a small-sized database of the target users. We have measured the performance of the proposed technique using word error rate, and then compare them with the conventional benchmark adaptation. The two stage adaptation proposed in this research has better recognition accuracy as compared to the benchmark adaptation in recognizing children’s speech.

Keywords: Automatic Speech Recognition System, children speech, adaptation, Malay

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22 Contribution of Women to Post-Colonial Education and Leadership

Authors: Naziema Begum Jappie

Abstract:

This paper explores the relationship between educational transformation and gender equity in higher education. It draws on various policies and experiences and investigates the paradox of increased female leadership in higher education and the persistence of gender discrimination in the sphere of work. The paper will also address specific aspects of culture and education in post-colonial South Africa. Traditional features of past education systems were not isolated, they became an essential component of the education system, post-democracy. This is currently contested through the call for decolonizing the education system. The debates and discussions seek to rectify the post-colonial education structure within which women suffered triple oppression. Using feminist critical policy analysis and post-colonial theory, the paper examines how transformation over the past two decades has impacted on gender equity and how educational reform is itself gendered. It considers the nature of gender restructuring and key developments in gender equity policy. The social inequality in education is highlighted throughout this discussion. Through an analysis of research and interviews, this paper argues that gender can no longer be privileged when identifying and responding to educational and workplace inequality. In conclusion, the paper discusses the important assumptions that support how social and educational change deliver equity and how social justice may inform equity policy and practice in a culturally diverse educational framework.

Keywords: culture, educational leadership, gender inequality in the workplace, policy implementation

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21 Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek, Md. Omar Faruque, Most. Fahmida Begum, Rajib Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel, silver staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

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20 Quranic Recitation Listening Relate to Memory Processing, Language Selectivity and Attentional Process

Authors: Samhani Ismail, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza, Zamzuri Idris, Hafizan Juahir, Jafri Malin Abdullah

Abstract:

Holy Quran, a rhymed prosed scripture has a complete literary structure that exemplifies the peak of literary beauty. Memorizing of its verses could enhance one’s memory capacity and cognition while those who are listening to its recitation it is also believed that the Holy Quran alter brainwave producing neuronal excitation engaging with cognitive processes. 28 normal healthy subjects (male =14 & female = 14) were recruited and EEG recording was done using 128-electrode sensor net (Electrical Geosics, Inc.) with the impedance of ≤ 50kΩ. They listened to Sura Fatiha recited by Sheikh Qari Abdul Basit bin Abdus Samad. Arabic news and no sound were chosen as positive and negative control, respectively. The waveform was analysed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to get the power in frequency bands. Bilateral frontal (F7, F8) and temporal region (T7, T8) showed decreased power significantly in alpha wave band in respondent stimulated by Sura Fatihah recitation reflects acoustic attention processing. However, decreased in alpha power in selective attention to memorized, and in familial but not memorized language, reveals the memorial processing in long-term memory. As a conclusion, Quranic recitation relates both cognitive element of memory and language in its listeners and memorizers.

Keywords: auditory stimulation, cognition, EEG, linguistic, memory, Quranic recitation

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19 Family, Neighbourhood and Psychosocial Environmental Factors and Their Association with Asthma in Australia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: K. M. Shahunja, Peter D. Sly, Tahmina Begum, Tuhin Biswas, Abdullah Mamun

Abstract:

Background: Various associations between different environmental exposures and asthma have been reported in different countries and populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between family, neighbourhood, and psychosocial environmental factors and asthma in Australia by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We analysed the primary research studies conducted in Australia across multiple databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus, and published between 2000 and 2020. The reviews and analyses focused on the overall association of different environmental exposures with the development or exacerbation of asthma symptoms or asthma-related hospital visits. Quality-effect meta-analysis was done to estimate the pooled odds ratio for different environmental exposures for asthma symptoms. Findings: Among the 4,799 unique published articles found, 46 were included here for systematic review and 28 for meta-analysis. Our review found that psychosocial factors, including low socioeconomic condition, maternal depression, mental stress, ethnicity, and discrimination, are associated with asthma symptoms. Pooled analysis was conducted on family and neighbourhood environmental factors and revealed that environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) (OR 1·69, 95% CI 1·19–2.38), synthetic bedding (OR 1·91, 95% CI 1·48–2·47) and gas heaters (OR 1·40, 95% CI 1·12–1·76) had significant overall associations with asthma-symptoms in Australia. Conclusion: Although the studies were heterogeneous, both systematic review and meta-analysis found several psychosocial and family environmental exposures to be significantly associated with asthma symptoms. Further study to identify their causal relationship and modification may reduce asthma symptoms in the Australian population.

Keywords: asthma, Australia, environment, systematic review

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18 Developing a Virtual Reality System to Assist in Anatomy Teaching and Evaluating the Effectiveness of That System

Authors: Tarek Abdelkader, Suresh Selvaraj, Prasad Iyer, Yong Mun Hin, Hajmath Begum, P. Gopalakrishnakone

Abstract:

Nowadays, more and more educational institutes, as well as students, rely on 3D anatomy programs as an important tool that helps students correlate the actual locations of anatomical structures in a 3D dimension. Lately, virtual reality (VR) is gaining more favor from the younger generations due to its higher interactive mode. As a result, using virtual reality as a gamified learning platform for anatomy became the current goal. We present a model where a Virtual Human Anatomy Program (VHAP) was developed to assist with the anatomy learning experience of students. The anatomy module has been built, mostly, from real patient CT scans. Segmentation and surface rendering were used to create the 3D model by direct segmentation of CT scans for each organ individually and exporting that model as a 3D file. After acquiring the 3D files for all needed organs, all the files were introduced into a Virtual Reality environment as a complete body anatomy model. In this ongoing experiment, students from different Allied Health orientations are testing the VHAP. Specifically, the cardiovascular system has been selected as the focus system of study since all of our students finished learning about it in the 1st trimester. The initial results suggest that the VHAP system is adding value to the learning process of our students, encouraging them to get more involved and to ask more questions. Involved students comments show that they are excited about the VHAP system with comments about its interactivity as well as the ability to use it solo as a self-learning aid in combination with the lectures. Some students also experienced minor side effects like dizziness.

Keywords: 3D construction, health sciences, teaching pedagogy, virtual reality

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17 Aerodynamic Heating Analysis of Hypersonic Flow over Blunt-Nosed Bodies Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Aakash Chhunchha, Assma Begum

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The qualitative aspects of hypersonic flow over a range of blunt bodies have been extensively analyzed in the past. It is well known that the curvature of a body’s geometry in the sonic region predominantly dictates the bow shock shape and its standoff distance from the body, while the surface pressure distribution depends on both the sonic region and on the local body shape. The present study is an extension to analyze the hypersonic flow characteristics over several blunt-nosed bodies using modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools to determine the shock shape and its effect on the heat flux around the body. 4 blunt-nosed models with cylindrical afterbodies were analyzed for a flow at a Mach number of 10 corresponding to the standard atmospheric conditions at an altitude of 50 km. The nose radii of curvature of the models range from a hemispherical nose to a flat nose. Appropriate numerical models and the supplementary convergence techniques that were implemented for the CFD analysis are thoroughly described. The flow contours are presented highlighting the key characteristics of shock wave shape, shock standoff distance and the sonic point shift on the shock. The variation of heat flux, due to different shock detachments for various models is comprehensively discussed. It is observed that the more the bluntness of the nose radii, the farther the shock stands from the body; and consequently, the less the surface heating at the nose. The results obtained from the CFD analyses are compared with approximated theoretical engineering correlations. Overall, a satisfactory agreement is observed between the two.

Keywords: aero-thermodynamics, blunt-nosed bodies, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), hypersonic flow

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16 Implications of Industry 4.0 to Supply Chain Management and Human Resources Management: The State of the Art

Authors: Ayse Begum Kilic, Sevgi Ozkan

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Industry 4.0 (I4.0) is a significant and promising research topic that is expected to gain more importance due to its effects on important concepts like cost, resource management, and accessibility. Instead of focusing those effects in only one area, combining different departments, and see the big picture helps to make more realistic predictions about the future. The aim of this paper is to identify the implications of Industry 4.0 for both supply chain management and human resources management by finding out the topics that take place at the intersection of them. Another objective is helping the readers to realize the expected changes in these two areas due to I4.0 in order to take the necessary steps in advance and make recommendations to catch up the latest trends. The expected changes are concluded from the industry reports and related journal papers in the literature. As found in the literature, this study is the first to combine the Industry 4.0, supply chain management and human resources management and urges to lead future works by finding out the intersections of those three areas. Benefits of I4.0 and the amount, research areas and the publication years of papers on I4.0 in the academic journals are mentioned in this paper. One of the main findings of this research is that a change in the labor force qualifications is expected with the advancements in the technology. There will be a need for higher level of skills from the workers. This will directly affect the human resources management in a way of recruiting and managing those people. Another main finding is, as it is explained with an example in the article, the advancements in the technology will change the place of production. For instance, 'dark factories', a popular topic of I4.0, will enable manufacturers to produce in places that close to their marketplace. The supply chains are expected to be influenced by that change.

Keywords: human resources management, industry 4.0, logistics, supply chain management

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15 The Role of Parents on Fear Acquisition of Children in COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Begum Serim-Yildiz

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The aim of this study is to examine the role of parents' emotional and behavioral reactions on fears of children in the COVID-19 pandemic considering Rachman’s Three Pathways Theory. For this purpose, a phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. Thirteen participants living with their children were utilized through criterion and snowball sampling. In semi-structured interviews parents were asked about their own and their children’s beahavioral and emotional reactions in the COVID-19 pandemic, and they were expected to give detailed information about fears of their children before and in pandemic. Firstly, parents were asked about their behavioral and emotional reactions in the COVID-19 pandemic. As behavioral reactions, precautions taken by parents to protect the rest of the family from negative physical and emotional impact of the pandemic were mentioned, while emotional reactions were defined as acquisition of negative emotions like fear, anxiety, and worry. Secondly, parents were asked about their children’s behavioral and emotional reactions. Some of the parents talked about positive behavioral changes such as gaining self-control, while some others explained negative behavioral changes like increased time spent with technological tools. In the emotional changes section, all of the parents explained at least one negative emotion. All of the parents stated that their children had COVID-19 related fears. According to parents’ expressions, fears of children in pandemic were examined in two dimensions. Fears directly related to COVID-19 were fear of virus/microbes, illness or death of someone in family and death and fears. Fears indirectly related to COVID-19 were fear of going out, sleep alone at night, separation, touching stuff outside the home, and cold. Considering existing literature and based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that children’s modelling experiences have impact on acquisition of negative emotions, especially fear, therefore, preventive interventions involving caregivers should be provided by mental health professionals working with children.

Keywords: children’s fears, COVID-19 pandemic, modelling experiences, parents’ reactions

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14 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Adult Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Authors: Mehwish Azam, Muhammad Imran, Humaira Jabeen, Sumreen Begum, Rashida Qasim

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Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors including obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome ranges from 10%-50% and in Pakistan ranges from 18%-46%. The objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definitions. Methods: Obese type 2 diabetic subjects and normal healthy subjects of both genders were selected from diabetic clinics and hospitals of various localities of Karachi, Pakistan. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was estimated by the proposed definitions of IDF and NCEP-ATP III. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 85.7%. It is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (47.1%) as compared to males (38.6%). While, using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definition the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 75.7%, the prevalence is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (45.7%) than males (30.0%). Conclusion: It is concluded that, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing significantly in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using IDF and NCEP–ATP III definitions. Therefore, it is need to initiate the preventive measures by arranging public awareness programmes to highlight the significance of a healthy lifestyle and emphasis should be given to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and increase intake of healthy low-glycemic-index foods.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, obesity, IDF, NCEP-ATP III

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13 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination for the Sustainable Management of Vulnerable Mangrove Ecosystem, the Sundarbans

Authors: S. Begum, T. Biswas, M. A. Islam

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The present research investigates the distribution and contamination of heavy metals in core sediments collected from three locations of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. In this research, quality of the analysis is evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials IAEA-SL-1 (lake sediment), IAEA-Soil-7, and NIST-1633b (coal fly ash). Total concentrations of 28 heavy metals (Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U) have determined in core sediments of the Sundarbans mangrove by neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. When compared with upper continental crustal (UCC) values, it is observed that mean concentrations of K, Ti, Zn, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Hf, and Th show elevated values in the research area is high. In this research, the assessments of metal contamination levels using different environmental contamination indices (EF, Igeo, CF) indicate that Ti, Sb, Cs, REEs, and Th have minor enrichment of the sediments of the Sundarbans. The modified degree of contamination (mCd) of studied samples of the Sundarbans ecosystem show low contamination. The pollution load index (PLI) values for the cores suggested that sampling points are moderately polluted. The possible sources of the deterioration of the sediment quality can be attributed to the different chemical carrying cargo accidents, port activities, ship breaking, agricultural and aquaculture run-off of the area. Pearson correlation matrix (PCM) established relationships among elements. The PCM indicates that most of the metal's distributions have been controlled by the same factors such as Fe-oxy-hydroxides and clay minerals, and also they have a similar origin. The poor correlations of Ca with most of the elements in the sediment cores indicate that calcium carbonate has a less significant role in this mangrove sediment. Finally, the data from this research will be used as a benchmark for future research and help to quantify levels of metal pollutions, as well as to manage future ecological risks of the vulnerable mangrove ecosystem, the Sundarbans.

Keywords: contamination, core sediment, trace element, sundarbans, vulnerable

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12 Development of Ketorolac Tromethamine Encapsulated Stealth Liposomes: Pharmacokinetics and Bio Distribution

Authors: Yasmin Begum Mohammed

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Ketorolac tromethamine (KTM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to prostaglandin related inhibitory effect of drug. It is a non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor. The drug is currently used orally and intramuscularly in multiple divided doses, clinically for the management arthritis, cancer pain, post-surgical pain, and in the treatment of migraine pain. KTM has short biological half-life of 4 to 6 hours, which necessitates frequent dosing to retain the action. The frequent occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, peptic ulceration, and renal failure lead to the development of other drug delivery strategies for the appropriate delivery of KTM. The ideal solution would be to target the drug only to the cells or tissues affected by the disease. Drug targeting could be achieved effectively by liposomes that are biocompatible and biodegradable. The aim of the study was to develop a parenteral liposome formulation of KTM with improved efficacy while reducing side effects by targeting the inflammation due to arthritis. PEG-anchored (stealth) and non-PEG-anchored liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique followed by extrusion cycle and characterized for in vitro and in vivo. Stealth liposomes (SLs) exhibited increase in percent encapsulation efficiency (94%) and 52% percent of drug retention during release studies in 24 h with good stability for a period of 1 month at -20°C and 4°C. SLs showed about maximum 55% of edema inhibition with significant analgesic effect. SLs produced marked differences over those of non-SL formulations with an increase in area under plasma concentration time curve, t₁/₂, mean residence time, and reduced clearance. 0.3% of the drug was detected in arthritic induced paw with significantly reduced drug localization in liver, spleen, and kidney for SLs when compared to other conventional liposomes. Thus SLs help to increase the therapeutic efficacy of KTM by increasing the targeting potential at the inflammatory region.

Keywords: biodistribution, ketorolac tromethamine, stealth liposomes, thin film hydration technique

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11 Livestock Depredation by Large Predators: Patterns, Perceptions and Implications for Conservation and Livelihoods in Karakoram Mountain Ranges

Authors: Muhammad Zafar Khan, Babar Khan, Muhammad Saeed Awan, Farida Begum

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Livestock depredation has greater significance in pastoral societies like Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindu Kush mountain ranges. The dynamics of depredation by large predators (snow leopard and wolf) and its implications for conservation and livelihoods of local people was investigated by household surveys in Hushey valley of Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We found that, during five years (2008-12) 90% of the households in the valley had lost their livestock to snow leopard and wolf, accounting for 4.3% of the total livestock holding per year. On average each household had to bear a loss of 0.8 livestock head per year, equivalent to Pak Rupees 9,853 (US$ 101), or 10% of the average annual cash income. Majority of the predation incidences occurred during late summer in alpine pastures, mostly at night when animals were not penned properly. The prey animals in most of the cases were females or young ones. Of the total predation incidences, 60% were attributed to snow leopard, 37% to wolf, while in 3% the predator was unknown. The fear of snow leopard is greater than that of wolf. As immediate response on predation, majority of the local people (64%, n=99) preferred to report the case to their village conservation committee, 32% had no response while only 1% tended to kill the predator. The perceived causes of predation were: poor guarding practices (77%); reduction in wild prey (13%) and livestock being the favourite food of predators (10%). The most preferred strategies for predator management, according to the respondents were improved and enhanced guarding of livestock (72%), followed by increasing wild prey (18%) and lethal control (10%). To strike a balance between predator populations and pastoral livelihoods, better animal husbandry practices should be promoted including: improved guarding through collective hiring of skilled shepherds; corral improvement and use of guard dogs.

Keywords: Panthera unica, Canis lupus, Karakoram, human-carnivore conflict, predation

Procedia PDF Downloads 187