Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 158

Search results for: viruses

158 Diverse Sensitivity to Ultraviolet Radiation of DNA and RNA Viruses

Authors: Nickolay Nosik, Dmitry Nosik, Marina Bochkova, Nina Kondrashina, Olga Lobach


The bactericidal effect of UV radiation is known for long time and widely used for inactivation of pathogens but for viruses it is not so uniform. Due to a wide variety of viruses their sensitivity to UV radiation is quite different and not quite predictable. The goal of the study was to determine the inactivation kinetics of UV radiation ( 254 nm) of the viruses of social importance (HIV), as well as test-viruses (poliovirus, adenovirus) used for the evaluation of the viral inactivation efficacy of germicides. Methods: DNA viruses- adenovirus, type 5; Herpes simplex virus (HSV), type 1, and RNA viruses–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), type 1 and poliovirus, type 1 (Sabin strain) were obtained from State collection of viruses ( The D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology). The source of UV radiation was a 15-watt low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (over 60% 254nm). The samples of 5cm2 were placed direct under the UV lamp flow (h-0.3m). Log reduction value was used as a marker for the rate of virus inactivation. Results: The data obtained indicate that poliovirus (one of the viruses most resistant to chemical germicides) and HSV are rather sensitive to UV radiation ( D90 =250-311 J/m2). Adenovirus is much more resistant to UV radiation (750 J/m2 ). The kinetics of adenovirus inactivation : 0 min- 5.0 lg TCID50, 10 min - 5,0, 15 min -4,0, 30 min – 3.5, 60 min – 1,0, 75 min -0,5 lg TCID50, 90 min –virus not detectable. HIV is most resistant to UV radiation among the studied viruses. It takes more than 4 hrs to inactivate the virus on the surface. D90 = 2000 J/m2 Conclusion: The results of the study show that there is no direct dependence between sensitivity to UV light and the size of the virion or presence\absence of the envelope of the virus. Poliovirus and adenovirus are small viruses (20-30nm poliovirus and 70-90nm adenovirus) and both are non-enveloped viruses but adenovirus 3-fold more resistant to UV radiation than poliovirus. It can be expected that viruses with more complicate structure, like Herpes virus (200nm) or HIV (80-100 nm), would be more sensitive to UV light. However, the very high resistance of HIV to UV radiation needs further investigation. The diverse resistance of the different viruses to UV radiation should be taken into the account when UV light is used to inactivate infectious viruses in hospitals and other public environments.

Keywords: HIV, HSV, inhibition of viruses, UV radiation

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157 A Comparative Study of Virus Detection Techniques

Authors: Sulaiman Al amro, Ali Alkhalifah


The growing number of computer viruses and the detection of zero day malware have been the concern for security researchers for a large period of time. Existing antivirus products (AVs) rely on detecting virus signatures which do not provide a full solution to the problems associated with these viruses. The use of logic formulae to model the behaviour of viruses is one of the most encouraging recent developments in virus research, which provides alternatives to classic virus detection methods. In this paper, we proposed a comparative study about different virus detection techniques. This paper provides the advantages and drawbacks of different detection techniques. Different techniques will be used in this paper to provide a discussion about what technique is more effective to detect computer viruses.

Keywords: computer viruses, virus detection, signature-based, behaviour-based, heuristic-based

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156 Rapid Detection System of Airborne Pathogens

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Kei Takenaka


We developed new processes which can collect and detect rapidly airborne pathogens such as the avian flu virus for the pandemic prevention. The fluorescence antibody technique is known as one of high-sensitive detection methods for viruses, but this needs up to a few hours to bind sufficient fluorescence dyes to viruses for detection. In this paper, we developed a mist-labeling can detect substitution viruses in a short time to improve the binding rate of fluorescent dyes and substitution viruses by the micro reaction process. Moreover, we developed the rapid detection system with the above 'mist labeling'. The detection system set with a sampling bag collecting patient’s breath and a cartridge can detect automatically pathogens within 10 minutes.

Keywords: viruses, sampler, mist, detection, fluorescent dyes, microreaction

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155 Efficiency on the Enteric Viral Removal in Four Potable Water Treatment Plants in Northeastern Colombia

Authors: Raquel Amanda Villamizar Gallardo, Oscar Orlando Ortíz Rodríguez


Enteric viruses are cosmopolitan agents present in several environments including water. These viruses can cause different diseases including gastroenteritis, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, respiratory problems among others. Although in Colombia there are not regulations concerning to routine viral analysis of drinking water, an enhanced understanding of viral pollution and resistance to treatments is desired in order to assure pure water to the population. Viral detection is often complex due to the need of specialized and time-consuming procedures. In addition, viruses are highly diluted in water which is a drawback from the analytical point of view. To this end, a fast and selective detection method for detection enteric viruses (i.e. Hepatitis A and Rotavirus) were applied. Micro- magnetic particles were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies anti-Hepatitis and anti-Rotavirus and they were used to capture, concentrate and separate whole viral particles in raw water and drinking water samples from four treatment plants identified as CAR-01, MON-02, POR-03, TON-04 and located in the Northeastern Colombia. Viruses were molecularly by using RT-PCR One Step Superscript III. Each plant was analyzed at the entry and exit points, in order to determine the initial presence and eventual reduction of Hepatitis A and Rotavirus after disinfection. The results revealed the presence of both enteric viruses in a 100 % of raw water analyzed in all plants. This represents a potential health hazard, especially for those people whose use this water for agricultural purposes. However, in drinking water analysis, enteric viruses was only positive in CAR-01, where was found the presence of Rotavirus. As a conclusion, the results confirm Rotavirus as the best indicator to evaluate the efficacy of potable treatment plant in eliminating viruses. CAR potable water plant should improve their disinfection process in order to remove efficiently enteric viruses.

Keywords: drinking water, hepatitis A, rotavirus, virus removal

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154 The New Insight about Interspecies Transmission of Iranian H9N2 Influenza Viruses from Avian to Human

Authors: Masoud Soltanialvar, Ali Bagherpour


Documented cases of human infection with H9N2 avian influenza viruses, first detected in 1999 in Hong Kong and China, indicate that these viruses can be directly transmitted from birds to humans. In this study, we characterized the mutation in the Hemagglutinin (HA) genes and proteins that correlates with a shift in affinity of the Hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the “avian” type sialic receptors to the “human” type in 10 Iranian isolates. We delineated the genomes and receptor binding profile of HA gene of some field isolates and established their phylogenetic relationship to the other Asian H9N2 sub lineages. A total of 1200 tissue samples collected from 40 farms located in various states of Iran during 2008 – 2010 as part of a program to monitor Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV) infection. To determine the genetic relationship of Iranian viruses, the Hemagglutinin (HA) genes from ten isolates were amplified and sequenced (by RT-PCR method). Nucleotide sequences (orf) of the (HA) genes were used for phylogenetic tree construction. Deduced amino acid sequences showed the presence of L226 (234 in H9 numbering) in all ten Iranian isolates which indicates a preference to binding of α (2–6) sialic acid receptors, so these Iranian H9N2 viruses have the potential to infect human beings. These isolates showed high degree of homology with 2 human H9N2 isolates A/HK/1073/99, A/HK/1074/99. Phylogenetic analysis of showed that all the HA genes of the Iranian H9N2 viruses fall into a single group within a G1-like sublineage which had contributed as donor of six internal genes to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza. The results of this study indicated that all Iranian viruses have the potential to emerge as highly pathogenic influenza virus, and considering the homology of these isolates with human H9N2 strains, it seems that the potential of these avian influenza isolates to infect human should not be overlooked.

Keywords: influenza virus, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, Iran

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153 Evolutionary Analysis of Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm 09 in Post Pandemic Period in Pakistan

Authors: Nazish Badar


In early 2009, Pandemic type A (H1N1) Influenza virus emerged globally. Since then, it has continued circulation causing considerable morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolutionary changes in Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses from 2009-15 and their relevance with the current vaccine viruses. Methods: Respiratory specimens were collected with influenza-like illness and Severe Acute Respiratory Illness. Samples were processed according to CDC protocol. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes was carried out comparing representative isolates from Pakistan viruses. Results: Between Jan2009 - Feb 2016, 1870 (13.2%) samples were positive for influenza A out of 14086. During the pandemic period (2009–10), Influenza A/ H1N1pdm 09 was the dominant strain with 366 (45%) of total influenza positives. In the post-pandemic period (2011–2016), a total of 1066 (59.6%) cases were positive Influenza A/ H1N1pdm 09 with co-circulation of different Influenza A subtypes. Overall, the Pakistan A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses grouped in two genetic clades. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses only ascribed to Clade 7 during the pandemic period whereas viruses belong to clade 7 (2011) and clade 6B (2015) during the post-pandemic years. Amino acid analysis of the HA gene revealed mutations at positions S220T, I338V and P100S specially associated with outbreaks in all the analyzed strains. Sequence analyses of post-pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses showed additional substitutions at antigenic sites; S179N,K180Q (SA), D185N, D239G (CA), S202A (SB) and at receptor binding sites; A13T, S200P when compared with pandemic period. Substitution at Genetic markers; A273T (69%), S200P/T (15%) and D239G (7.6%) associated with severity and E391K (69%) associated with virulence was identified in viruses isolated during 2015. Analysis of NA gene revealed outbreak markers; V106I (23%) among pandemic and N248D (100%) during post-pandemic Pakistan viruses. Additional N-Glycosylation site; HA S179N (23%), NA I23T(7.6%) and N44S (77%) in place of N386K(77%) were only found in post-pandemic viruses. All isolates showed histidine (H) at position 275 in NA indicating sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors. Conclusion: This study shows that the Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses from Pakistan clustered into two genetic clades, with co-circulation of some variants. Certain key substitutions in the receptor binding site and few changes indicative of virulence were also detected in post-pandemic strains. Therefore, it is imperative to continue monitoring of the viruses for early identification of potential variants of high virulence or emergence of drug-resistant variants.

Keywords: Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, evolutionary analysis, post pandemic period, Pakistan

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152 Inactivation Kinetics of DNA and RNA Viruses by Ozone-Air Mixture in a Flow Mixer

Authors: Nikolai Nosik, Vladislav Podmasterjev, Nina Kondrashina, Marina Chataeva, Olga Lobach, Dmitry Noosik, Sergei Razumovskii


Virucidal activity of ozone is well known: dissolved in water it kill viruses very fast. The virucidal capacity of ozone in ozone-air mixture is less known. The goal of the study was to investigate the virucidal potentials of the ozone–air mixture and kinetics of virus inactivation. Materials and methods. Ozone (O3 ) was generated from oxygen with ozonizer ( 1.0 – 75.0 mg\l). The ozone concentration was determined by the spectrophotometric methods. Virus contaminated samples were placed into the flowing reactor. Viruses: poliovirus type 1, vaccine strain (Sabin) and adenovirus, type 5, were obtained from the State virus collection. Titrations of viruses were carried out in appropriate cell cultures. CxT value ( mg\l x min) was calculated. Results. Metallic, polycarbonic and fiber “Kevlar” samples were contaminated with virus, dried and treated with ozone-air mixture in the flowing reactor. Kinetics of poliovirus inactivation: in 15 min at 5.0 mg\l -2.0 lg TCID50 inhibition , in 15 min at 10 mg\l – 2.5 lg TCID50 , 4.0 lg TCID50 inactivation of poliovirus was achieved after 75min at ozone concentration 20.0mg\l (99.99%). ( CxT = 75, 150 and 1500 mg\l x min on all three types of surfaces). It was found that the inactivation of poliovirus was more effective when the virus contaminated samples were wet (in 15 min at 20mg\l inhibition of virus in dry samples was 2.0 TCID50 , in wet samples – 4.0 TCID50). Adenovirus was less resistant to ozone treatment then poliovirus: 4.0 lg TCID50 inhibition was observed after 30 min of the treatment with ozone at 20mg\l ( CxT mg\l x min = 300 for adenovirus as for poliovirus it was 1500). Conclusion. It was found that ozone-air mixture inactivates viruses at rather high concentrations (compared to the reported effect of ozone dissolved in water). Despite of that there is a difference in the resistance to ozone action between viruses – poliovirus is more resistant then adenovirus-ozone-air mixture can be used for disinfection of large rooms. The maintaining of the virus-contaminated surfaces in wet condition allow to decrease the ozone load for virus inactivation.

Keywords: adenovirus, disinfection, ozone, poliovirus

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151 Cellular RNA-Binding Domains with Distant Homology in Viral Proteomes

Authors: German Hernandez-Alonso, Antonio Lazcano, Arturo Becerra


Until today, viruses remain controversial and poorly understood; about their origin, this problem represents an enigma and one of the great challenges for the contemporary biology. Three main theories have tried to explain the origin of viruses: regressive evolution, escaped host gene, and pre-cellular origin. Under the perspective of the escaped host gene theory, it can be assumed a cellular origin of viral components, like protein RNA-binding domains. These universal distributed RNA-binding domains are related to the RNA metabolism processes, including transcription, processing, and modification of transcripts, translation, RNA degradation and its regulation. In the case of viruses, these domains are present in important viral proteins like helicases, nucleases, polymerases, capsid proteins or regulation factors. Therefore, they are implicated in the replicative cycle and parasitic processes of viruses. That is why it is possible to think that those domains present low levels of divergence due to selective pressures. For these reasons, the main goal for this project is to create a catalogue of the RNA-binding domains found in all the available viral proteomes, using bioinformatics tools in order to analyze its evolutionary process, and thus shed light on the general virus evolution. ProDom database was used to obtain larger than six thousand RNA-binding domain families that belong to the three cellular domains of life and some viral groups. From the sequences of these families, protein profiles were created using HMMER 3.1 tools in order to find distant homologous within greater than four thousand viral proteomes available in GenBank. Once accomplished the analysis, almost three thousand hits were obtained in the viral proteomes. The homologous sequences were found in proteomes of the principal Baltimore viral groups, showing interesting distribution patterns that can contribute to understand the evolution of viruses and their host-virus interactions. Presence of cellular RNA-binding domains within virus proteomes seem to be explained by closed interactions between viruses and their hosts. Recruitment of these domains is advantageous for the viral fitness, allowing viruses to be adapted to the host cellular environment.

Keywords: bioinformatics tools, distant homology, RNA-binding domains, viral evolution

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150 Some Tips for Increasing Online Services Safety

Authors: Mohsen Rezaee


Although robust security softwares, including anti-viruses, anti-spywares, anti-spam and firewalls are amalgamated with new technologies such as safe zone, hybrid cloud, sand box and etc., and although it can be said that they have managed to prepare highest level of security against viruses, spywares and other malwares in 2012, in fact, hacker attacks to websites are increasingly becoming more and more complicated. Because of security matters developments it can be said it was expected to happen so. Here in this work we try to point out some functional and vital notes to enhance security on the web, enabling the user to browse safely in unlimited web world and to use virtual space securely.

Keywords: firewalls, security, web services, computer science

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149 Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Camel Pox, Contagious Ecthyma and Papilloma Viruses in Clinical Samples of Camels Using a Multiplex PCR

Authors: A. I. Khalafalla, K. A. Al-Busada, I. M. El-Sabagh


Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. They may be caused by three distinct viruses: camelpox virus (CMPV), camel contagious ecthyma virus (CCEV) and camel papillomavirus (CAPV). These diseases are difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify CMPV and CCEV, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost- and time–saving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation a multiplex PCR assays able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets, and was applied to the detection of 110 tissue samples. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. In conclusion, this rapid, sensitive and specific assay is considered a useful method for identifying three important viruses in specimens from camels and as part of a molecular diagnostic regime.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, diagnosis, pox and pox-like diseases, camels

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148 Simple Ways to Enhance the Security of Web Services

Authors: Majid Azarniush, Soroush Mokallaei


Although robust security software, including anti-viruses, anti spy wares, anti-spam and firewalls, are amalgamated with new technologies such as Safe Zone, Hybrid Cloud, Sand Box etc., and it can be said that they have managed to prepare highest level of security against viruses, spy wares and other malwares in 2012, but in fact hackers' attacks to websites are increasingly becoming more and more complicated. Because of security matters and developments, it can be said that it was expected to happen so. Here in this work, we try to point out to some functional and vital notes to enhance security on the web enabling the user to browse safely in no limit web world and to use virtual space securely.

Keywords: firewalls, security, web services, software

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147 Enhanced Near-Infrared Upconversion Emission Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Background-Free Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses

Authors: Jaeyoung Kim, Heeju Lee, Huijin Jung, Heesoo Pyo, Seungki Kim, Joonseok Lee


Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are the primary cause of highly contagious respiratory diseases caused by type A influenza viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AIV are categorized on the basis of types of surface glycoproteins such as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Certain H5 and H7 subtypes of AIV have evolved to the high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, which has caused considerable economic loss to the poultry industry and led to severe public health crisis. Several commercial kits have been developed for on-site detection of AIV. However, the sensitivity of these methods is too low to detect low virus concentrations in clinical samples and opaque stool samples. Here, we introduced a background-free near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR upconversion nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay (NNLFA) platform to yield a sensor that detects AIV within 20 minutes. Ca²⁺ ion in the shell was used to enhance the NIR-to-NIR upconversion photoluminescence (PL) emission as a heterogeneous dopant without inducing significant changes in the morphology and size of the UCNPs. In a mixture of opaque stool samples and gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are components of commercial AIV LFA, the background signal of the stool samples mask the absorption peak of GNPs. However, UCNPs dispersed in the stool samples still show strong emission centered at 800 nm when excited at 980 nm, which enables the NNLFA platform to detect 10-times lower viral load than a commercial GNP-based AIV LFA. The detection limit of NNLFA for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 and HPAI H5N6 viruses was 10² EID₅₀/mL and 10³.⁵ EID₅₀/mL, respectively. Moreover, when opaque brown-colored samples were used as the target analytes, strong NIR emission signal from the test line in NNLFA confirmed the presence of AIV, whereas commercial AIV LFA detected AIV with difficulty. Therefore, we propose that this rapid and background-free NNLFA platform has the potential of detecting AIV in the field, which could effectively prevent the spread of these viruses at an early stage.

Keywords: avian influenza viruses, lateral flow immunoassay on-site detection, upconversion nanoparticles

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146 The Involvement of Viruses and Fungi in the Pathogenesis of Dental Infections

Authors: Wael Khalil, Elias Rahal, Ghassan Matar


Tooth related infections or commonly named dental infections have been described as the most common causes of tooth loss in adults. These pathologies were mostly periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. The involvement of various bacteria in the pathogenesis of these pathologies has been thoroughly mentioned and approved in the literature. However, the variability in the severity and prognosis of these lesions among patients suggests the association of other pathogens, like viruses and fungi, in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Several studies in the literature investigated the association of multiple viruses and fungi with the above-mentioned lesions, yet, a vast controversy was reached concerning this subject.Aim: Our study aims to fill the gap in the literature concerning the contribution of adenovirus, HPV-16, EBV, fungi, and candida in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. For this purpose, we utilized the quantitative PCR for pathogen detection in saliva, gingival, and lesions samples of involved subjects. Results: Some of these pathogens appeared to have an association with the investigated dental pathologies, while others showed no contribution to the pathogenesis of these lesions. Further investigation is required in order to identify the subtype of the involved pathogens in these tooth related oral pathology.

Keywords: periodontitis, pericoronitis, dental abscess, PCR, microbiology

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145 Development of Bioactive Medical Textiles by Immobilizing Nanoparticles at Cotton Fabric

Authors: Munir Ashraf, Shagufta Riaz


Personal protective equipment (PPE) and bioactive textiles are highly important for the health care of front line hospital workers, patients, and the general population to be safe from highly infectious diseases. This was even more critical in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak. Most of the medical textiles are inactive against various viruses and bacteria, hence there is a need to wash them frequently to avoid the spread of microorganisms. According to survey conducted by the world health organization, more than 500 million people get infected from hospitals, and more than 13 million died due to these hospitals’ acquired deadly diseases. The market available PPE are though effective against the penetration of pathogens and to kill bacteria but, they are not breathable and active against different viruses. Therefore, there was a great need to develop textiles that are not only effective against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also are comfortable to the medical personnel and patients. In the present study, waterproof breathable, and biologically active textiles were developed using antiviral and antibacterial nanomaterials. These nanomaterials like TiO₂, ZnO, Cu, and Ag were immobilized at the surface of cotton fabric by using different silane coupling agents and electroless deposition that they retained their functionality even after 30 industrial laundering cycles. Afterwards, the treated fabrics were coated with a waterproof breathable film to prevent the permeation of liquid droplets, any particle or microorganisms greater than 80 nm. The developed cotton fabric was highly active against bacteria and viruses. The good durability of nanomaterials at the cotton surface after several industrial washing cycles makes this fabric an ideal candidate for bioactive textiles used in the medical field.

Keywords: antibacterial, antiviral, cotton, durable

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144 Correlation between Resistance to Non-Specific Inhibitor and Mammalian Pathogenicity of an Egg Adapted H9N2 Virus

Authors: Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee Ahn, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Hyuk-Joon Kwon, Jae-Hong Kim


A/chicken/Korea/01310/2001 (H9N2) (01310) was passaged through embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) by 20 times (01310-E20), and it has been used for an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine in Korea. After sequential passages, 01310-E20 showed higher pathogenicity in ECEs and acquired multiple mutations including a potential N-glycosylation at position 133 (H3 numbering) in HA and 18aa-deletion in NA stalk. To evaluate the effect of these mutations on the mammalian pathogenicity and resistance to non-specific inhibitors, we generated four PR8-derived recombinant viruses with different combinations of HA and NA from 01310-E2 and 01310-E20 (rH2N2, rH2N20, rH20N2, and rH20N20). According to our results, recombinant viruses containing 01310 E20 HA showed higher growth property in MDCK cells and higher virulence on mice than those containing 01310 E2 HA regardless of NA. The hemagglutination activity of rH20N20 was less inhibited by egg white and mouse lung extract than that of other recombinant viruses. Thus, the increased pathogenicity of 01310-E20 may be related to both higher replication efficiency and resistance to non-specific inhibitors in mice.

Keywords: avian influenza virus, egg adaptation, H9N2, N-glycosylation, stalk deletion of neuraminidase

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143 Modeling and Simulation for Infection Processes of Bird Flu within a Poultry Farm

Authors: Tertia Delia Nova, Masaji Watanabge


Infection of bird flu within a poultry farm involves hosts, virus, and medium. Intrusion of bird flu into a poultry farm divides the population into two groups; healthy and susceptible chickens and infected chickens. A healthy and susceptible bird is infected to become an infected bird. Bird flu viruses spread among chickens through medium such as air and droppings, and increase in hosts. A model for an infection process of bird flu within a poultry farm is described, numerical techniques are illustrated, and numerical results are introduced.

Keywords: bird flu, poultry farm, model for an infection process, flu viruses

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142 In vitro Antiviral Activity of Ocimum sanctum against Animal Viruses

Authors: Anjana Goel, Ashok Kumar Bhatia


Ocimum sanctum, a well known medicinal plant is used for various alignments in Ayurvedic medicines. It was found to be effective in treating the humans suffering from different viral infections like chicken pox, small pox, measles and influenza. In addition, curative effect of the plant in malignant patients was also reported. In the present study, leaves of this plant were screened against animal viruses i.e. Bovine Herpes Virus-type-1 (BHV-1), Foot and Mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). BHV-1 and FMDV were screened in MDBK and BHK cell lines respectively using cytopathic inhibition test. While NDV was propagated in chick embryo fibroblast culture and tested by haemagglutination inhibition test. Maximum non toxic dose of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves was calculated by MTT assay in all the cell cultures and nontoxic doses were used for antiviral activity against viruses. 98.4% and 85.3% protection were recorded against NDV and BHV-1 respectively. However, Ocimum sanctum extract failed to show any inhibitory effect on the cytopathic effect caused by FMD virus. It can be concluded that Ocimum sanctum is a very effective remedy for curing viral infections in animals also.

Keywords: bovine herpes virus-type-1, foot and mouth disease virus, newcastle disease virus, Ocimum sanctum

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141 Identification of Viruses Infecting Garlic Plants in Colombia

Authors: Diana M. Torres, Anngie K. Hernandez, Andrea Villareal, Magda R. Gomez, Sadao Kobayashi


Colombian Garlic crops exhibited mild mosaic, yellow stripes, and deformation. This group of symptoms suggested a viral infection. Several viruses belonging to the genera Potyvirus, Carlavirus and Allexivirus are known to infect garlic and lower their yield worldwide, but in Colombia, there are no studies of viral infections in this crop, only leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) has been reported to our best knowledge. In Colombia, there are no management strategies for viral diseases in garlic because of the lack of information about viral infections on this crop, which is reflected in (i) high prevalence of viral related symptoms in garlic fields and (ii) high dispersal rate. For these reasons, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the viral status of garlic in Colombia, which can represent a major threat on garlic yield and quality for this country 55 symptomatic leaf samples were collected for virus detection by RT-PCR and mechanical inoculation. Total RNA isolated from infected samples were subjected to RT-PCR with primers 1-OYDV-G/2-OYDV-G for Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) (expected size 774pb), 1LYSV/2LYSV for LYSV (expected size 1000pb), SLV 7044/SLV 8004 for Shallot latent virus (SLV) (expected size 960pb), GCL-N30/GCL-C40 for Garlic common latent virus (GCLV) (expected size 481pb) and EF1F/EF1R for internal control (expected size 358pb). GCLV, SLV, and LYSV were detected in infected samples; in 95.6% of the analyzed samples was detected at least one of the viruses. GCLV and SLV were detected in single infection with low prevalence (9.3% and 7.4%, respectively). Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses. Four viral complexes were identified: three double infection (64% of analyzed samples) and one triple infection (15%). The most frequent viral complex was SLV + GCLV infecting 48.1% of the samples. The other double complexes identified had a prevalence of 7% (GCLV + LYSV and SLV + LYSV) and 5.6% of the samples were free from these viruses. Mechanical transmission experiments were set up using leaf tissues of collected samples from infected fields, different test plants were assessed to know the host range, but it was restricted to C. quinoa, confirming the presence of detected viruses which have limited host range and were detected in C. quinoa by RT-PCR. The results of molecular and biological tests confirm the presence of SLV, LYSV, and GCLV; this is the first report of SLV and LYSV in garlic plants in Colombia, which can represent a serious threat for this crop in this country.

Keywords: SLV, GCLV, LYSV, leek yellow stripe virus, Allium sativum

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140 Molecular Detection of Acute Virus Infection in Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in North India during 2014-2016

Authors: Ali Ilter Akdag, Pratima Ray


Background:This acute gastroenteritis viruses such as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus are mainly responsible for diarrhea in children below < 5 years old. Molecular detection of these viruses is crucially important to the understand development of the effective cure. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of common these viruses in children < 5 years old presented with diarrhea from Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre (Meerut) North India, India Methods: Total 312 fecal samples were collected from diarrheal children duration 3 years: in year 2014 (n = 118), 2015 (n = 128) and 2016 (n = 66) ,< 5 years of age who presented with acute diarrhea at the Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre(Meerut) North India, India. All samples were the first detection by EIA/RT-PCR for rotaviruses, adenovirus and astrovirus. Results: In 312 samples from children with acute diarrhea in sample viral agent was found, rotavirus A was the most frequent virus identified (57 cases; 18.2%), followed by Astrovirus in 28 cases (8.9%), adenovirus in 21 cases (6.7%). Mixed infections were found in 14 cases, all of which presented with acute diarrhea (14/312; 4.48%). Conclusions: These viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children <5 years old in North India. Rotavirus A is the most common etiological agent, follow by astrovirus. This surveillance is important to vaccine development of the entire population. There is variation detection of virus year wise due to differences in the season of sampling, method of sampling, hygiene condition, socioeconomic level of the entire people, enrolment criteria, and virus detection methods. It was found Astrovirus higher then Rotavirus in 2015, but overall three years study Rotavirus A is mainly responsible for causing severe diarrhea in children <5 years old in North India. It emphasizes the required for cost-effective diagnostic assays for Rotaviruses which would help to determine the disease burden.

Keywords: adenovirus, Astrovirus, hospitalized children, Rotavirus

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139 Household Low Temperature MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) Virus Inactivation Using a Hot Bubble Column Evaporator

Authors: Adrian Garrido Sanchis, Richard Pashley


The MS2 (ATCC15597-B1) virus was used as a surrogate to estimate the inactivation rates for enteric viruses when using a hot air bubble column evaporator (HBCE) system in the treatment of household wastewater. In this study, we have combined MS2 virus surface charging properties with thermal inactivation rates, using an improved double layer plaque assay technique, in order to assess the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water. When bubbling a continuous flow of dry air, at 200°C, only heats the aqueous solution in the bubble column to about 50°C. Viruses are not inactivated by this solution temperature, as confirmed separately from water bath heating experiments. Hence, the efficiency of the HBCE process for virus removal in water appeared to be caused entirely by collisions between the hot air bubbles and the virus organisms. This new energy efficient treatment for water reuse applications can reduce the thermal energy required to only 25% (about 113.7 kJ/L) of that required for boiling (about 450 kJ/L).

Keywords: MS2 virus inactivation, water reuse, hot bubble column evaporator, water treatment

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138 Metagenomics-Based Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases

Authors: Vyacheslav Furtak, Merja Roivainen, Olga Mirochnichenko, Majid Laassri, Bella Bidzhieva, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Vladimir Chizhikov, Konstantin Chumakov


Molecular epidemiology and environmental surveillance are parts of a rational strategy to control infectious diseases. They have been widely used in the worldwide campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, which otherwise would be complicated by the inability to rapidly respond to outbreaks and determine sources of the infection. The conventional scheme involves isolation of viruses from patients and the environment, followed by their identification by nucleotide sequences analysis to determine phylogenetic relationships. This is a tedious and time-consuming process that yields definitive results when it may be too late to implement countermeasures. Because of the difficulty of high-throughput full-genome sequencing, most such studies are conducted by sequencing only capsid genes or their parts. Therefore the important information about the contribution of other parts of the genome and inter- and intra-species recombination to viral evolution is not captured. Here we propose a new approach based on the rapid concentration of sewage samples with tangential flow filtration followed by deep sequencing and reconstruction of nucleotide sequences of viruses present in the samples. The entire nucleic acids content of each sample is sequenced, thus preserving in digital format the complete spectrum of viruses. A set of rapid algorithms was developed to separate deep sequence reads into discrete populations corresponding to each virus and assemble them into full-length consensus contigs, as well as to generate a complete profile of sequence heterogeneities in each of them. This provides an effective approach to study molecular epidemiology and evolution of natural viral populations.

Keywords: poliovirus, eradication, environmental surveillance, laboratory diagnosis

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137 Peptide-Based Platform for Differentiation of Antigenic Variations within Influenza Virus Subtypes (Flutype)

Authors: Henry Memczak, Marc Hovestaedt, Bernhard Ay, Sandra Saenger, Thorsten Wolff, Frank F. Bier


The influenza viruses cause flu epidemics every year and serious pandemics in larger time intervals. The only cost-effective protection against influenza is vaccination. Due to rapid mutation continuously new subtypes appear, what requires annual reimmunization. For a correct vaccination recommendation, the circulating influenza strains had to be detected promptly and exactly and characterized due to their antigenic properties. During the flu season 2016/17, a wrong vaccination recommendation has been given because of the great time interval between identification of the relevant influenza vaccine strains and outbreak of the flu epidemic during the following winter. Due to such recurring incidents of vaccine mismatches, there is a great need to speed up the process chain from identifying the right vaccine strains to their administration. The monitoring of subtypes as part of this process chain is carried out by national reference laboratories within the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). To this end, thousands of viruses from patient samples (e.g., throat smears) are isolated and analyzed each year. Currently, this analysis involves complex and time-intensive (several weeks) animal experiments to produce specific hyperimmune sera in ferrets, which are necessary for the determination of the antigen profiles of circulating virus strains. These tests also bear difficulties in standardization and reproducibility, which restricts the significance of the results. To replace this test a peptide-based assay for influenza virus subtyping from corresponding virus samples was developed. The differentiation of the viruses takes place by a set of specifically designed peptidic recognition molecules which interact differently with the different influenza virus subtypes. The differentiation of influenza subtypes is performed by pattern recognition guided by machine learning algorithms, without any animal experiments. Synthetic peptides are immobilized in multiplex format on various platforms (e.g., 96-well microtiter plate, microarray). Afterwards, the viruses are incubated and analyzed comparing different signaling mechanisms and a variety of assay conditions. Differentiation of a range of influenza subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, as well as fine differentiation of single strains within these subtypes is possible using the peptide-based subtyping platform. Thereby, the platform could be capable of replacing the current antigenic characterization of influenza strains using ferret hyperimmune sera.

Keywords: antigenic characterization, influenza-binding peptides, influenza subtyping, influenza surveillance

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136 Metamorphic Computer Virus Classification Using Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Babak Bashari Rad


A metamorphic computer virus uses different code transformation techniques to mutate its body in duplicated instances. Characteristics and function of new instances are mostly similar to their parents, but they cannot be easily detected by the majority of antivirus in market, as they depend on string signature-based detection techniques. The purpose of this research is to propose a Hidden Markov Model for classification of metamorphic viruses in executable files. In the proposed solution, portable executable files are inspected to extract the instructions opcodes needed for the examination of code. A Hidden Markov Model trained on portable executable files is employed to classify the metamorphic viruses of the same family. The proposed model is able to generate and recognize common statistical features of mutated code. The model has been evaluated by examining the model on a test data set. The performance of the model has been practically tested and evaluated based on False Positive Rate, Detection Rate and Overall Accuracy. The result showed an acceptable performance with high average of 99.7% Detection Rate.

Keywords: malware classification, computer virus classification, metamorphic virus, metamorphic malware, Hidden Markov Model

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135 Investigation of Possible Precancerous Viral Markers in Dental Follicles of Asymptomatic Impacted Teeth

Authors: Serap Keskin Tunç, Cennet Neslihan Eroğlu, Sevinç Şahin, Selda Seçkin


It has been suggested that various viruses may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancerous oral lesions in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of both possible precancerous viral markers (HPV, HHV8, HSV1, HSV2, and EBV), and p53 and Ki-67 in the dental follicles of asymptomatic impacted teeth. A hundred healthy volunteers, older than 18 years old, included in the study. Dental follicles of extracted impacted teeth were excised and fixated in 10% formaldehyde. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations using HPV (containing HPV 8 and HPV 11), p16 (containing HPV 16), HHV8, HSV1, HSV2, EBV, p53 and Ki-67 antibodies were carried out. Also, the immunohistochemical results were correlated with the clinicopathological feature by Chi-square test statistically No dysplasia or neoplasm was observed. 62% of the cases were positive for p16, 32% were positive for EBV, 26% were positive for HSV1, immunohistochemically. All cases were immunonegative for HPV, HSV2, and HHV8. There was statistically significant correlation between overexpression of p53 with both EBV and p16 positivity (p<0.05). Direct correlation between higher expression of Ki-67 between EBV immunopositivity was detected (p<0.05). Thus, these viruses may be suggested to show trophism to the dental follicles acting as a reservoir. In conclusion, all dental follicles of extracted impacted teeth should be examined histopathologically in order to detect and prevent possible viral oncogenesis.

Keywords: dental follicles, Ki67, p53, precancerous markers viral markers

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134 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Infectious Bronchitis Virus from Libya

Authors: Abdulwahab Kammon, Tan Sheau Wei, Abdul Rahman Omar, Abdunaser Dayhum, Ibrahim Eldghayes, Monier Sharif


Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a very dynamic and evolving virus which causing major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Recently, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreak of respiratory distress associated with high mortality and dramatic drop in egg production. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were analyzed for several poultry viruses. IBV was detected using SYBR Green I real-time PCR detection based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Sequence analysis of the partial N gene indicated high similarity (~ 94%) to IBV strain 3382/06 that was isolated from Taiwan. Even though the IBV strain 3382/06 is more similar to that of the Mass type H120, the isolate has been implicated associated with intertypic recombinant of 3 putative parental IBV strains namely H120, Taiwan strain 1171/92 and China strain CK/CH/LDL/97I. Complete sequencing and antigenicity studies of the Libya IBV strains are currently underway to determine the evolution of the virus and its importance in vaccine induced immunity. In this paper, we documented for the first time the presence of possibly variant IBV strain from Libya which required a dramatic change in the vaccination program.

Keywords: Libya, infectious bronchitis, molecular characterization, viruses, vaccine

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133 Phenolic Acids of Plant Origin as Promising Compounds for Elaboration of Antiviral Drugs against Influenza

Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Pavel Alexyuk, Madina Alexyuk, Irina Zaitceva, Nadezhda Sokolova


Introduction: Influenza viruses could infect approximately 5% to 10% of the global human population annually, resulting in serious social and economic damage. Vaccination and etiotropic antiviral drugs are used for the prevention and treatment of influenza. Vaccination is important; however, antiviral drugs represent the second line of defense against new emerging influenza virus strains for which vaccines may be unsuccessful. However, the significant drawback of commercial synthetic anti-flu drugs is the appearance of drug-resistant influenza virus strains. Therefore, the search and development of new anti-flu drugs efficient against drug-resistant strains is an important medical problem for today. The aim of this work was a study of four phenolic acids of plant origin (Gallic, Syringic, Vanillic, and Protocatechuic acids) as a possible tool for treatment against influenza virus. Methods: Phenolic acids; gallic, syringic, vanillic, and protocatechuic have been prepared by extraction from plant tissues and purified using high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation. Avian influenza virus, strain A/Tern/South Africa/1/1961 (H5N3) and human epidemic influenza virus, strain A/Almaty/8/98 (H3N2) resistant to commercial anti-flu drugs (Rimantadine, Oseltamivir) were used for testing antiviral activity. Viruses were grown in the allantoic cavity of 10 days old chicken embryos. The chemotherapeutic index (CTI), determined as the ratio of an average toxic concentration of the tested compound (TC₅₀) to the average effective virus-inhibition concentration (EC₅₀), has been used as a criteria of specific antiviral action. Results: The results of study have shown that the structure of phenolic acids significantly affected their ability to suppress the reproduction of tested influenza virus strains. The highest antiviral activity among tested phenolic acids was detected for gallic acid, which contains three hydroxyl groups in the molecule at C3, C4, and C5 positions. Antiviral activity of gallic acid against A/H5N3 and A/H3N2 influenza virus strains was higher than antiviral activity of Oseltamivir and Rimantadine. gallic acid inhibited almost 100% of the infection activity of both tested viruses. Protocatechuic acid, which possesses 2 hydroxyl groups (C3 and C4) have shown weaker antiviral activity in comparison with gallic acid and inhibited less than 10% of virus infection activity. Syringic acid, which contains two hydroxyl groups (C3 and C5), was able to suppress up to 12% of infection activity. Substitution of two hydroxyl groups by methoxy groups resulted in the complete loss of antiviral activity. Vanillic acid, which is different from protocatechuic acid by replacing of C3 hydroxyl group to methoxy group, was able to suppress about 30% of infection activity of tested influenza viruses. Conclusion: For pronounced antiviral activity, the molecular of phenolic acid must have at least two hydroxyl groups. Replacement of hydroxyl groups to methoxy group leads to a reduction of antiviral properties. Gallic acid demonstrated high antiviral activity against influenza viruses, including Rimantadine and Oseltamivir resistant strains, and could be used as a potential candidate for the development of antiviral drug against influenza virus.

Keywords: antiviral activity, influenza virus, drug resistance, phenolic acids

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132 The Effect of Different Levels of Seed and Extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on Immune Responses of Broiler Chicks

Authors: M. Toghyani, A. Ghasemi, S. A. Tabeidian


The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of dietary seed and extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on immunity of broiler chicks. A total of 350 one-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates pen of 14 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of control, 1 and 2 g/kg Harmal seed in diet, 100 and 200 mg/L Harmal seed extract in water. Broilers received dietary treatments from 1 to 42 d. Two birds from each pen were randomly weighed and sacrificed at 42 d of age, the relative weight of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabercius and spleen) to live weight were calculated. Antibody titers against Newcastle and influenza viruses and sheep red blood cell were measured at 30 d of age. Results showed that the relative weights of lymphoid organs were not affected by dietary treatments. Furthermore, antibody titer against Newcastle and influenza viruses as well as sheep red blood cell antigen were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by feeding Harmal seed and extract. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary inclusion of Harmal seed and extract enhanced immunological responses in broiler chicks.

Keywords: broiler chicks, Harmal, immunity, Peganum harmala

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131 Stack Overflow Detection and Prevention on Operating Systems Using Machine Learning and Control-Flow Enforcement Technology

Authors: Cao Jiayu, Lan Ximing, Huang Jingjia, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


The first virus to attack personal computers was born in early 1986, called C-Brain, written by a pair of Pakistani brothers. In those days, people still used dos systems, manipulating computers with the most basic command lines. In the 21st century today, computer performance has grown geometrically. But computer viruses are also evolving and escalating. We never stop fighting against security problems. Stack overflow is one of the most common security vulnerabilities in operating systems. It may result in serious security issues for an operating system if a program in it has a vulnerability with administrator privileges. Certain viruses change the value of specific memory through a stack overflow, allowing computers to run harmful programs. This study developed a mechanism to detect and respond to time whenever a stack overflow occurs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of standard machine learning algorithms and control flow enforcement techniques in predicting computer OS security using generating suspicious vulnerability functions (SVFS) and associated suspect areas (SAS). The method can minimize the possibility of stack overflow attacks occurring.

Keywords: operating system, security, stack overflow, buffer overflow, machine learning, control-flow enforcement technology

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130 Qualitative Detection of HCV and GBV-C Co-infection in Cirrhotic Patients Using a SYBR Green Multiplex Real Time RT-PCR Technique

Authors: Shahzamani Kiana, Esmaeil Lashgarian Hamed, Merat Shahin


HCV and GBV-C belong to the Flaviviridae family of viruses and GBV-C is the closest virus to HCV genetically. Accumulative research is in progress all over the world to clarify clinical aspects of GBV-C. Possibility of interaction between HCV and GBV-C and also its consequence with other liver diseases are the most important clinical aspects which encourage researchers to develop a technique for simultaneous detection of these viruses. In this study a SYBR Green multiplex real time RT-PCR technique as a new economical and sensitive method was optimized for simultaneous detection of HCV/GBV-C in HCV positive plasma samples. After designing and selection of two pairs of specific primers for HCV and GBV-C, SYBR Green Real time RT-PCR technique optimization was performed separately for each virus. Establishment of multiplex PCR was the next step. Finally our technique was performed on positive and negative plasma samples. 89 cirrhotic HCV positive plasma samples (29 of genotype 3 a and 27 of genotype 1a) were collected from patients before receiving treatment. 14% of genotype 3a and 17.1% of genotype 1a showed HCV/GBV-C co-infection. As a result, 13.48% of 89 samples had HCV/GBV-C co-infection that was compatible with other results from all over the world. Data showed no apparent influence of HGV co-infection on the either clinical or virological aspect of HCV infection. Furthermore, with application of multiplex Real time RT-PCR technique, more time and cost could be saved in clinical-research settings.

Keywords: HCV, GBV-C, cirrhotic patients, multiplex real time RT- PCR

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129 Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses Among Pregnant Women at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi

Authors: Charles Bijjah Nkhata, Memory Nekati Mvula, Milton Masautso Kalongonda, Martha Masamba, Isaac Thom Shawa


Viral Hepatitis is a serious public health concern globally with deaths estimated at 1.4 million annually due to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B and C are the most common viruses that cause liver damage. However, the majority of infected individuals are unaware of their serostatus. Viral Hepatitis has contributed to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is no updated data on the Epidemiology of hepatitis B and C among pregnant mothers in Malawi. To assess the epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C viruses among pregnant women at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. Specific Objectives • To determine sero-prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in pregnant women at QECH. • To investigate risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infection in pregnant women. • To determine the distribution of HBsAg and Anti-HCV infection among pregnant women of different age group. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women at QECH in last quarter of 2021. Of the 114 pregnant women, 96 participants were consented and enrolled using a convenient sampling technique. 12 participants were dropped due to various reasons; therefore 84 completed the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and behavior characteristics to assess the risk of exposure. Serum was processed from venous blood samples and tested for HBsAg and Anti-HCV markers utilizing Rapid screening assays for screening and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for confirmatory. A total of 84 pregnant consenting pregnant women participated in the study, with 1.2% (n=1/84) testing positive for HBsAg and nobody had detectable anti-HCV antibodies. There was no significant link between HBV and HCV in any of the socio-demographic data or putative risk variables. The findings indicate a viral hepatitis prevalence lower than the set range by the WHO. This suggests that HBV and HCV are rare in pregnant women at QECH. Nevertheless, accessible screening for all pregnant women should be provided. The prevention of MTCT is key for reduction and prevention of the global burden of chronic viral Hepatitis.

Keywords: viral hepatitis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, pregnancy, malawi, liver disease, mother to child transmission

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