Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8738

Search results for: metabolic control

8738 Microbial Bioproduction with Design of Metabolism and Enzyme Engineering

Authors: Tomokazu Shirai, Akihiko Kondo


Technologies of metabolic engineering or synthetic biology are essential for effective microbial bioproduction. It is especially important to develop an in silico tool for designing a metabolic pathway producing an unnatural and valuable chemical such as fossil materials of fuel or plastics. We here demonstrated two in silico tools for designing novel metabolic pathways: BioProV and HyMeP. Furthermore, we succeeded in creating an artificial metabolic pathway by enzyme engineering.

Keywords: bioinformatics, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, genome scale model

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8737 Effect of Pioglitazone on Intracellular Na+ Homeostasis in Metabolic Syndrome-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Male Rats

Authors: Ayca Bilginoglu, Belma Turan


Metabolic syndrome, is associated impaired blood glucose level, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia caused by abdominal obesity. Also, it is related with cardiovascular risk accumulation and cardiomyopathy. The hypothesis of this study was to examine the effect of thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone which is widely used insulin-sensitizing agents that improve glycemic control, on intracellular Na+ homeostasis in metabolic syndrome-induced cardiomyopathy in male rats. Male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely control (Con, n=7), metabolic syndrome (MetS, n=7) and pioglitazone treated metabolic syndrome group (MetS+PGZ, n=7). Metabolic syndrome was induced by providing drinking water that was 32% sucrose, for 18 weeks. All of the animals were exposed to a 12 h light – 12 h dark cycle. Abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance had measured as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) is an important modulator of excitation–contraction coupling in heart. [Na+]i at rest and [Na+]i during pacing with electrical field stimulation in 0.2 Hz, 0.8 Hz, 2.0 Hz stimulation frequency were recorded in cardiomyocytes. Also, Na+ channel current (INa) density and I-V curve were measured to understand [Na+]i homeostasis. In results, high sucrose intake, as well as the normal daily diet, significantly increased body mass and blood glucose level of the rats in the metabolic syndrome group as compared with the non-treated control group. In MetS+PZG group, the blood glucose level and body inclined to decrease to the Con group. There was a decrease in INa density and there was a shift both activation and inactivation curve of INa. Pioglitazone reversed the shift to the control side. Basal [Na+]i either MetS and Con group were not significantly different, but there was a significantly increase in [Na+]i in stimulated cardiomyocytes in MetS group. Furthermore, pioglitazone had not effect on basal [Na+]i but it reversed the increase in [Na+]i in stimulated cardiomyocytes to the that of Con group. Results of the present study suggest that pioglitazone has a significant effect on the Na+ homeostasis in the metabolic syndrome induced cardiomyopathy in rats. All animal procedures and experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine (2015-2-37).

Keywords: insulin resistance, intracellular sodium, metabolic syndrome, sodium current

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8736 Is Presence of Psychotic Features Themselves Carry a Risk for Metabolic Syndrome?

Authors: Rady A., Elsheshai A., Elsawy M., Nagui R.


Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome affect around 20% of general population , authors have incriminated antipsychotics as serious risk factor that may provoke such derangement. The aim of our study is to assess metabolic syndrome in patients presenting psychotic features (delusions and hallucinations) whether schizophrenia or mood disorder and compare results in terms of drug naïf, on medication and healthy control. Subjects and Methods: The study recruited 40 schizophrenic patients, half of them drug naïf and the other half on antipsychotics, 40 patients with mood disorder with psychotic features, half of them drug naïf and the other half on medication, 20 healthy control. Exclusion criteria were put in order to exclude patients having already endocrine or metabolic disorders that my interfere with results obtain to minimize confusion bias. Metabolic syndrome assessed by measuring parameters including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride level, HDL, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance Results: No difference was found when comparing drug naïf to those on medication in both schizophrenic and psychotic mood disorder arms, schizophrenic patients whether on medication or drug naïf should difference with control group for fasting glucose, schizophrenic patients on medication also showed difference in insulin resistance compared to control group. On the other hand, patients with psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication showed difference from control group for fasting insulin level. Those on medication also differed from control for insulin resistance Conclusion: Our study didn’t reveal difference in metabolic syndrome among patients with psychotic features whether on medication or drug naïf. Only patients with Psychotic features on medication showed insulin resistance. Schizophrenic patients drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting glucose while psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting insulin. This study suggest that presence of psychotic features themselves regardless being on medication or not carries a risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Limitation: This study is limited by number of participants and larger numbers in future studies should be included in order to extrapolate results. Cohort longitudinal studies are needed in order to evaluate such hypothesis.

Keywords: schizophrenia, metabolic syndrome, psychosis, insulin, resistance

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8735 Metabolic Syndrome among Some Originates of Mbo Ethnic Group Living in Yaounde-Cameroon

Authors: Mandob Enyegue Damaris, Oko Ndjollo Viviane


The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome is increasing throughout the world. The etiology of the metabolic syndrome is dependent on different factors such as ethnic group. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic syndrome among Mbo ethnic group people leaving in Yaounde, Cameroon. The study conducted on the hundred and thirty two people 40 men and 92 women aged between 18-60 years who were referred to the Andre Fouda Medical Fundation in Yaounde. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (A.T.P-III) 2001 guidelines. The mean of age, high fasting blood glucose, triglycerides levels and total cholesterol levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in women with metabolic syndrome. High blood pressure level (56.80%), high fasting glucose (20.45%) and high waist circumference (10.60%) were respectively the most frequent characteristics in comparison to others metabolic components. The overall prevalence of MetS was (4.55%) and higher in women (3.03%) than in men (1.52%). The prevalence of MetS is low in originates of Mbo ethnic group of Yaounde. High blood pressure is the most common abnormality.

Keywords: individual components, metabolic syndrome, Mbo ethnic group, Yaounde-Cameroon

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8734 Metagenomics Features of The Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Anna D. Kotrova, Alexandr N. Shishkin, Elena I. Ermolenko


The aim. To study the quantitative and qualitative colon bacteria ratio from patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. Fecal samples from patients of 2 groups were identified and analyzed: the first group was formed by patients with metabolic syndrome, the second one - by healthy individuals. The metagenomics method was used with the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The libraries of the variable sites (V3 and V4) gene 16S RNA were analyzed using the MiSeq device (Illumina). To prepare the libraries was used the standard recommended by Illumina, a method based on two rounds of PCR. Results. At the phylum level in the microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome compared to healthy individuals, the proportion of Tenericutes was reduced, the proportion of Actinobacteria was increased. At the genus level, in the group with metabolic syndrome, relative to the second group was increased the proportion of Lachnospira. Conclusion. Changes in the colon bacteria ratio in the gut microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome were found both at the type and the genus level. In the metabolic syndrome group, there is a decrease in the proportion of bacteria that do not have a cell wall. To confirm the revealed microbiota features in patients with metabolic syndrome, further study with a larger number of samples is required.

Keywords: gut microbiota, metabolic syndrome, metagenomics, tenericutes

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8733 Reduction in the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking Gaits Using Quasi-Passive Upper Body Exoskeleton

Authors: Nafiseh Ebrahimi, Gautham Muthukumaran, Amir Jafari


Human walking gait is considered to be the most efficient biped walking gait. There are various types of gait human follows during locomotion and arm swing is one of the most important factors which controls and differentiates human gaits. Earlier studies declared a 7% reduction in the metabolic cost due to the arm swing. In this research, we compared different types of arm swings in terms of metabolic cost reduction and then suggested, designed, fabricated and tested a quasi-passive upper body exoskeleton to study the metabolic cost reduction in the folded arm walking gate scenarios. Our experimental results validate a 10% reduction in the metabolic cost of walking aided by the application of the proposed exoskeleton.

Keywords: arm swing, MET (metabolic equivalent of a task), calorimeter, oxygen consumption, upper body quasi-passive exoskeleton

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8732 The Comparison between Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Training on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Overweight Sedentary Female

Authors: Marzieh Sayyad, Mohsen Salesi


Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors, is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The prevalence of MetS is on the rise with more women affected than men. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training on metabolic syndrome components in non-athlete, middle-aged woman. 51 non-athlete overweight female participated voluntarily in this study. Participants were divided randomly into three groups including resistance, aerobic and control group (number of each group 17). 24 hours before the beginning of training program, the blood sample was taken in fasting state. The two training groups participated in sport activities for eight weeks, three times a week duration 60-90 minutes. Two days following the end of the 8th week, all the measurements were performed similar to the pretest phase. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that aerobic exercise training significantly decreased weight (p=.05), triglyceride (p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (p<0.02) and HDL-c (p<0.01) was significantly increased. Also in resistance exercise training group TG decreased significantly (p<0.01) and HDL-c (p<0.05) was significantly increased. This study demonstrated that a regular physical activity program improved several metabolic and physiological parameters in healthy, previously sedentary subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, it seems that this type of training can be efficient, safe and inexpensive way in order to reduce and prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, metabolic syndrome, overweight sedentary female, resistance exercise

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8731 Effects of Turmeric on Uterine Tissue in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High Fructose Diet

Authors: Mesih Kocamuftuoglu, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan, Nalan Kaya, Sema Temizer Ozan


Metabolic Syndrome, one of the common metabolic disorder, occurs with co-development of insulin resistance, obesity, dislipidemia and hypertension problems. Insulin resistance appears to play a pathogenic role in the metabolic syndrome. Also, there is a relationship between insulin resistance and infertility as known. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) a polyphenolic chemical is widely used for its coloring, flavoring, and medicinal properties, and exhibits a strong antioxidant activity. In this study, we assess the effects of turmeric on rat uterine tissue in metabolic syndrome model induced by high fructose diet. Thirty-two adult female Wistar rats weighing 220±20 g were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) as follows; control, fructose, turmeric, and fructose plus turmeric. Metabolic syndrome was induced by fructose solution 20% (w/v) in tap water, and turmeric (C.Longa) administered at the dose of 80 mg/kg body weight every other day by oral gavage. After the experimental period of 8 weeks, rats were decapitated, serum and uterine tissues were removed. Serum lipid profile, glucose, insülin levels were measured. Uterine tissues were fixed for histological analyzes. The uterine tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) stain, then examined and photographed on a light microscope (Novel N-800Mx20). As a result, fructose consumption effected serum lipids, insulin levels, and insulin resistance significantly. Endometrium and myometrium layers were observed in normal structure in control group of uterine tissues. Perivascular edema, peri glandular fibrosis, and inflammatory cell increase were detected in fructose group. Sections of the fructose plus turmeric group showed a significant improvement in findings when compared to the fructose group. Turmeric group cell structures were observed similar with the control group. These results demonstrated that high-fructose consumption could change the structure of the uterine tissue. On the other hand, turmeric administration has beneficial effects on uterine tissue at that dose and duration when administered with fructose.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, rat, turmeric, uterus

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8730 Effect of Variable Fluxes on Optimal Flux Distribution in a Metabolic Network

Authors: Ehsan Motamedian


Finding all optimal flux distributions of a metabolic model is an important challenge in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced to identify all alternate optimal solutions of a large scale metabolic network. The algorithm reduces the model to decrease computations for finding optimal solutions. The algorithm was implemented on the Escherichia coli metabolic model to find all optimal solutions for lactate and acetate production. There were more optimal flux distributions when acetate production was optimized. The model was reduced from 1076 to 80 variable fluxes for lactate while it was reduced to 91 variable fluxes for acetate. These 11 more variable fluxes resulted in about three times more optimal flux distributions. Variable fluxes were from 12 various metabolic pathways and most of them belonged to nucleotide salvage and extra cellular transport pathways.

Keywords: flux variability, metabolic network, mixed-integer linear programming, multiple optimal solutions

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8729 Gender Difference in the Association between Different Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Vitamin D Levels in Saudi Patients

Authors: Amal Baalash, Shazia Mukaddam, M. Adel El-Sayed


Background: Several studies have suggested non-skeletal effects of vitamin D and linked its deficiency with features of many chronic conditions. In this study, We aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and different components of the metabolic syndrome in male and female Saudi patients. Methods: the study population consisted of 111 patients with metabolic syndrome (71 females and 40 males) aged 37-63 years enrolled from patients attending the internal medicine outpatient clinics of King Fahad Medical City. The parameters for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) were measured, which included waist circumference, TG, HDL-C, Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose (FBS). The association between each parameter and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was studied in both male and female patients separately. Results: in male patients, 25(OH) D levels were inversely associated with FBS and TG and positively associated with HDL-C and diastolic blood pressure, With highest association with the HDL-C levels. On the other hand 25(OH) D, Showed no significant association with any of the measured metabolic syndrome parameters in female patients. Conclusion: in Saudi patients with metabolic syndrome, the association between the parameters of metabolic syndrome and the levels of 25 (OH) D is more pronounced in males rather than females.

Keywords: gender, metabolic syndrome, Saudi patients, vitamin D

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8728 Bone Mineral Density in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Postmenopausal Egyptian Female Patients: Correlation with Fetuin-A Level and Metabolic Parameters

Authors: Ahmed A. M. Shoaib, Heba A. Esaily, Mahmoud M. Emara, Eman A. E. Badr, Amany S. Khalifa, Mayada M. M., Abdel-Raizk


Background: DM is associated with metabolic bone diseases, osteoporosis, low-impact fractures and falls in geriatrics. Fetuin-A, which is a serum protein produced by the liver and promotes bone mineralization, is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Aim: Evaluation of fetuin-A level and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Egyptian female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their correlation with each other & with other metabolic parameters. Patients and methods: Seventy postmenopausal female patients with type II diabetes and thirty postmenopausal female as control were included in this study. Measurement of Fetuin-A together with metabolic parameters and DXA in wrist, hip and spine, ALP, CBC, FBS, PP2H and HBA1c was done in all participants. Results: - Fetuin-A level was found to be highly significant (p< 0.001) between diabetic and nondiabetic groups and negatively correlated with BMD in spine. No difference in BMD was found between patients and control groups while significant negative correlation was found between FBS and hip BMD (<0.05) and between 2hpp and HBA1c with spine BMD in the diabetic group (<0.05). Osteoporosis represented 12.9% in spine area and 7.2% in hip and wrist areas in diabetic patients, while osteopenia were found in 58.5%, 57.1%, and 37.1% in diabetic patients in spine, wrist, and hip respectively. Conclusion: - type II diabetes cannot be considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis; while glycemic parameters (FBS, 2hpp & HBA1c) and serum Fetuin-A levels were correlated with BMD in diabetics. Good glycemic control can be protective against osteoporosis in diabetic elderly.

Keywords: fetuin-A, BMD, postmenopausal, DM type II

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8727 Exploring Research Trends and Topics in Intervention on Metabolic Syndrome Using Network Analysis

Authors: Lee Soo-Kyoung, Kim Young-Su


This study established a network related to metabolic syndrome intervention by conducting a social network analysis of titles, keywords, and abstracts, and it identified emerging topics of research. It visualized an interconnection between critical keywords and investigated their frequency of appearance to construe the trends in metabolic syndrome intervention measures used in studies conducted over 38 years (1979–2017). It examined a collection of keywords from 8,285 studies using text rank analyzer, NetMiner 4.0. The analysis revealed 5 groups of newly emerging keywords in the research. By examining the relationship between keywords with reference to their betweenness centrality, the following clusters were identified. Thus if new researchers refer to existing trends to establish the subject of their study and the direction of the development of future research on metabolic syndrome intervention can be predicted.

Keywords: intervention, metabolic syndrome, network analysis, research, the trend

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8726 Comparing of Hypogonadism Frequency between Metabolic Syndrome Men with Normal Men

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Bahman Ghaderian, Homeira Rashidi, Mahmoud Mapar


Background and Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is considered the most important public health threat of the 21st century. This syndrome is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including increased central abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein, high blood pressure, increased fasting glucose, and hyperinsulinemia. MetS has been associated with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED), and MetS may be considered a risk factor for ED. The aim of this study was finding an association between metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism in Khouzestan, Iran. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 60 patients divided into two groups consisted of 30 cases (with metabolic syndrome) and 30 controls. Total and free Serum Testosterone and FBS in all of them were measured. Data was analyzed with SPSS20 program. Results: There was a significant difference between two groups about free Testosterone (P=0.01), FBS (P=0.002) and LH (P=0.03). Conclusion: According to this finding, it is thought the prevalence of hypogonadism in men with metabolic syndrome is more than the general population.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, fasting blood sugar, hypogonadism, testosterone

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8725 Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Suman, Ipseeta Ray Mohanty, Manjusha K. Borde, Ujjawala maheswari, Y. A. Deshmukh


Background: Metabolic syndrome encompasses cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease which includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The incidence of metabolic syndrome is on the rise globally. Objective: The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in a large pool of individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome; suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs beneficial in this condition. Material and Methods: A combination of high fat diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 30, 35 and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results: The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for our study to induce diabetes mellitus. Rat fed HFD (HF-DC) group showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in body weight on 4th and 7th week as compared with NC (Normal Control) group rats. However, the increase in body weight of HF-DC group rats was not sustained at the end of 10th weeks. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia {(Increased Triglyceride, total Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and decreased HDL Cholesterol)}, diabetes mellitus (Blood Glucose, HbA1c, Serum Insulin, C-peptide), hypertension {Systolic Blood pressure (p < 0.001)} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition significant cardiac injury as indicated by CPK-MB levels, artherogenic index, hs-CRP. The decline in hepatic function {(p < 0.01) increase in the level of SGPT (U/L)} and renal function {(increase in creatinine levels (p < 0.01)} when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis and inflammation in Heart, Pancreas, Liver and Kidney of HFD-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion: The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome; with diabetes as an essential component.

Keywords: diabetes, metabolic syndrome, high fat diet, streptozotocin, rats

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8724 Integration of Microarray Data into a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model to Study Flux Distribution after Gene Knockout

Authors: Mona Heydari, Ehsan Motamedian, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati


Prediction of perturbations after genetic manipulation (especially gene knockout) is one of the important challenges in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced that integrates microarray data into the metabolic model. The algorithm was used to study the change in the cell phenotype after knockout of Gss gene in Escherichia coli BW25113. Algorithm implementation indicated that gene deletion resulted in more activation of the metabolic network. Growth yield was more and less regulating gene were identified for mutant in comparison with the wild-type strain.

Keywords: metabolic network, gene knockout, flux balance analysis, microarray data, integration

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8723 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Different Criteria in Population over 20 Years Old in Ahvaz

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Hajieh Shahbazian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Leila Yazdanpanah


Objective: Metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X is a collection of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance and lipid abnormalities (elevated triglycerides, elevated LDL, and decrease the amount of HDL). That increases the incidence of diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in people over 20 years of Ahvaz according to IDF, ATPIII, Harmonized I and Harmonized II. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling in six health centers in Ahvaz was done. After obtaining informed consent, questionnaire for each person filled up including demographic data and examinations, including blood pressure in sitting position, weight, height, waist circumference, and waist circumference measurement. Results: From all participating 912 people, (434 (2/47%) male and 478 (2/52%) female) were evaluated. Mean age was 42/27± 14years (44/2±14/26 for male and 40/5±13/5 for female). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22/8%, 28/4%, 30/9% and 16/9% according to ATPIII, IDF, Harmonized I and Harmonized II criteria respectively and increased with age in both sexes. IDF and Harmonized I had most kappa coordination (0/94). Conclusion: The results show a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ahvaz. So, identification of the risk factors should be attempted to prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, IDF, ATP III, prevalence

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8722 Broccoli Sprouts Powder Could Improve Metabolic and Liver Disorder-Induced by High-Fructose Corn Syrup

Authors: Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi


Background and Aim: Broccoli sprouts, rich source of bioactive compounds specially sulforaphane (SFN), have unique functional properties. This study was conducted to investigate the possible treatment effects of high-SFN broccoli sprouts powder on metabolic and liver disorders in rats fed with high-fructose corn syrup. Methods: Thirty-two male wistar rats, pretreated with an eight-week high-fructose diet (water containing 30% fructose), were randomly allocated into three groups: Baseline control (BC), control (C) (normal diet), and BSP-diet (normal diet+5% BSP). The duration of the study was 6 weeks. Biochemical measurements, liver weight and triglyceride content were evaluated and histopathological examination of liver was performed. Results: After 6-weeks, the liver weight was significantly lower in BSP group compared to controls (13.4 g vs. 11.4 g, P<0.05). After 6 weeks, a significant decrease was observed in fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both experimental groups (P<0.05). Compared to controls, serum levels of HDL-C were significantly higher in BSP group. The liver TG content in BSP compared to control group was lower (14.6 vs. 16.4 mg/mg tissue). The hepatic levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase had not considerable changes in the groups after the intervention period but the level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in BSP group (P<0.05). The histopathological examination of liver confirmed a decrease lobular and portal inflammation and ballooning in BSP group compared to control. Conclusion: High-SFN broccoli sprouts powder has beneficials effect on metabolic and liver changes-induced by high fructose corn syrup.

Keywords: broccoli sprouts, metabolic disorders, fatty liver, food science

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8721 Nutrition Intervention for Spinal Cord Injury in Critical Care

Authors: Dina Muharib


Specific metabolic challenges are present following spinal cord injury. The acute stage is characterized by a reduction in metabolic activity, as well as a negative nitrogen balance that cannot be corrected, even with aggressive nutritional support. Metabolic demands need to be accurately monitored to avoid overfeeding. Enteral feeding is the optimal route following SCI. When oral feeding is not possible, nasogastric, followed by nasojejunal, then by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, if necessary, is suggested.

Keywords: SCI, energy, protein, nutrition assessment, eneral feeding, nitrogen balance

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8720 Transgenerational Impact of Intrauterine Hyperglycaemia to F2 Offspring without Pre-Diabetic Exposure on F1 Male Offspring

Authors: Jun Ren, Zhen-Hua Ming, He-Feng Huang, Jian-Zhong Sheng


Adverse intrauterine stimulus during critical or sensitive periods in early life, may lead to health risk not only in later life span, but also further generations. Intrauterine hyperglycaemia, as a major feature of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is a typical adverse environment for both F1 fetus and F1 gamete cells development. However, there is scare information of phenotypic difference of metabolic memory between somatic cells and germ cells exposed by intrauterine hyperglycaemia. The direct transmission effect of intrauterine hyperglycaemia per se has not been assessed either. In this study, we built a GDM mice model and selected male GDM offspring without pre-diabetic phenotype as our founders, to exclude postnatal diabetic influence on gametes, thereby investigate the direct transmission effect of intrauterine hyperglycaemia exposure on F2 offspring, and we further compared the metabolic difference of affected F1-GDM male offspring and F2 offspring. A GDM mouse model of intrauterine hyperglycemia was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin after pregnancy. Pups of GDM mother were fostered by normal control mothers. All the mice were fed with standard food. Male GDM offspring without metabolic dysfunction phenotype were crossed with normal female mice to obtain F2 offspring. Body weight, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were measured in both generations at 8 week of age. Some of F1-GDM male mice showed impaired glucose tolerance (p < 0.001), none of F1-GDM male mice showed impaired insulin sensitivity. Body weight of F1-GDM mice showed no significance with control mice. Some of F2-GDM offspring exhibited impaired glucose tolerance (p < 0.001), all the F2-GDM offspring exhibited higher HOMA-IR index (p < 0.01 of normal glucose tolerance individuals vs. control, p < 0.05 of glucose intolerance individuals vs. control). All the F2-GDM offspring exhibited higher ITT curve than control (p < 0.001 of normal glucose tolerance individuals, p < 0.05 of glucose intolerance individuals, vs. control). F2-GDM offspring had higher body weight than control mice (p < 0.001 of normal glucose tolerance individuals, p < 0.001 of glucose intolerance individuals, vs. control). While glucose intolerance is the only phenotype that F1-GDM male mice may exhibit, F2 male generation of healthy F1-GDM father showed insulin resistance, increased body weight and/or impaired glucose tolerance. These findings imply that intrauterine hyperglycaemia exposure affects germ cells and somatic cells differently, thus F1 and F2 offspring demonstrated distinct metabolic dysfunction phenotypes. And intrauterine hyperglycaemia exposure per se has a strong influence on F2 generation, independent of postnatal metabolic dysfunction exposure.

Keywords: inheritance, insulin resistance, intrauterine hyperglycaemia, offspring

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8719 Association of Genetic Variants of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene with the Metabolic Syndrome in the Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Saqlain, Bernard M. Y. Cheung, S. M. Saqlan Naqvi, Ghazala Kaukab Raja


Background: Association of C allele of rs662799 SNP of APOA5 gene with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported in different populations around the world. A case control study was conducted to explore the relationship of rs662799 variants (T/C) with the MetS and the associated risk phenotypes in a population of Pakistani origin. Methods: MetS was defined according to the IDF criteria. Blood samples were collected from the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan for biochemical profiling and DNA extraction. Genotyping of rs662799 was performed using mass ARRAY, iPEX Gold technology. A total of 712 unrelated case and control subjects were genotyped. Data were analyzed using Plink software and SPSS 16.0. Results: The risk allele C of rs662799 showed highly significant association with MetS (OR=1.5, Ρ=0.002). Among risk phenotypes, dyslipidemia, and obesity showed strong association with SNP (OR=1.49, p=0.03; OR =1.46, p=0.01) respectively in models adjusted for age and gender. Conclusion: The rs662799C allele is a significant risk marker for MetS in the local Pakistani population studied. The effect of the SNP is more on dyslipidemia than the other components of the MetS.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, APOA5, rs662799, dyslipidemia, obesity

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8718 Metabolic Cost and Perceived Exertion during Progressive and Randomized Walking Protocols

Authors: Simeon E. H. Davies


This study investigated whether selected metabolic responses and the perception of effort varied during four different walk protocols where speed increased progressively 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 km/hr (progressive treadmill walk (PTW); and progressive land walk (PLW); or where the participant adjusted to random changes of speed e.g. 6, 3, 7, 4, and 5 km/hr during a randomized treadmill walk (RTW); and a randomized land walk (RLW). Mean stature and mass of the seven participants was 1.75m and 70kg respectively, with a mean body fat of 15%. Metabolic measures including heart rate, relative oxygen uptake, ventilation, increased in a linear fashion up to 6 km/hr, however at 7 km/hr there was a significant increase in metabolic response notably during the PLW, and to a similar, although lesser extent in RLW, probably as a consequence of the loss of kinetic energy when turning at each cone in order to maintain the speed during each shuttle. Respiration frequency appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of physical exertion, exhibiting a rapid elevation at 5 km/hr. The perception of effort during each mode and at each speed was largely congruent during each walk protocol.

Keywords: exertion, metabolic, progressive, random, walking

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8717 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Adult Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Authors: Mehwish Azam, Muhammad Imran, Humaira Jabeen, Sumreen Begum, Rashida Qasim


Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors including obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome ranges from 10%-50% and in Pakistan ranges from 18%-46%. The objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definitions. Methods: Obese type 2 diabetic subjects and normal healthy subjects of both genders were selected from diabetic clinics and hospitals of various localities of Karachi, Pakistan. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was estimated by the proposed definitions of IDF and NCEP-ATP III. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 85.7%. It is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (47.1%) as compared to males (38.6%). While, using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definition the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 75.7%, the prevalence is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (45.7%) than males (30.0%). Conclusion: It is concluded that, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing significantly in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using IDF and NCEP–ATP III definitions. Therefore, it is need to initiate the preventive measures by arranging public awareness programmes to highlight the significance of a healthy lifestyle and emphasis should be given to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and increase intake of healthy low-glycemic-index foods.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, obesity, IDF, NCEP-ATP III

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8716 Effect of Inulin-Substituted Ice Cream on Waist Circumference and Blood Pressure of Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Nur H. Ahmad, Silvia S. Inge, Vanessa A. Julliete, A. Veraditias, Laila F. Febinda


Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and mostly found in adolescents. Waist circumference is related to abdominal obesity which has a significant effect on the increase of blood pressure. Inulin is one of prebiotic, that has health benefits by offering the potential for lipid management, that can be useful to decrease the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effect of 10 gram inulin-substituted ice cream in waist circumference and blood pressure of abdominal obesity adolescents. Inulin had the ability to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid which can improve blood pressure and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the treatment group (p=0.028) with the mean of reduction 7.35 ± 11.59 mmHg. However, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference showed no significant effect. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was decreased in control group. These results suggest that inulin-substituted ice cream used as therapeutics and prevention for the early onset of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: blood pressure, inulin, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference

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8715 The Effect of Exercise, Reflexology and Chrome on Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: F. Arslan, S.D. Guven, A. Özcan, H. Vatansev, Ö. Taşgin


Weight, hypertension and dyslipidemia control and increased physical activity are required for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (METS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of core exercise, reflexology and intake chrome picolinate on METS. This study comprised a twelve-week randomized controlled trial. A total of 25 university workers with metabolic risk factors participated in this study voluntarily. They were randomly divided into three groups: Those undertaking a core exercise program (n=7), reflexology intervention group (n=8) and intake chrome group (n=10). The subjects took part in a core exercise program for one hour per day, three days a week and a reflexology interfered for thirty minutes per day, one days a week and chrome group took chrome picolinate every day in week for twelve weeks. The components of metabolic syndrome were analyzed before and after the completion of all the intervention. There were significant differences at pre-prandial blood glucose in the core exercise group and at systolic blood pressure in chrome group after the twelve week interventions (p < 0.005). While High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) excluding the components of METS decreased after the interventions on the all groups; levels of HDL and the other components of METS decreased in reflexology group. There was a clear response to the twelve-week interventions in terms of METS control. Besides, the reflexology intervention should not be applied to individuals with low HDL levels and core exercise and intake chrome picolinate suggested to improve the components of METS.

Keywords: blood pressure, body mass index, exercise, METS, pre-prandial blood glucose

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8714 Screening of Risk Phenotypes among Metabolic Syndrome Subjects in Adult Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Saqlain, Abid Mahmood, S. M. Saqlan Naqvi, Rizwan Aziz Qazi, Ghazala Kaukab Raja


Background: Metabolic Syndrome is a clustering of multiple risk factors including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. These risk phenotypes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalent world-wide, Therefore we aimed to identify the frequency of risk phenotypes among metabolic syndrome subjects in local adult Pakistani population. Methods: Screening of subjects visiting out-patient department of medicine, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad was performed to assess the occurrence of risk phenotypes among MetS subjects in Pakistani population. The Metabolic Syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anthropometric and biochemical assay results were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (16.0). Results: Our results showed that dyslipidemia (31.50%) and hyperglycemia (30.50%) was most population specific risk phenotypes of MetS. The results showed the order of association of metabolic risk phenotypes to MetS as follows hyperglycemia>dyslipidemia>obesity >hypertension. Conclusion: The hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were found be the major risk phenotypes among the MetS subjects and have greater chances of deceloping MetS among Pakistani Population.

Keywords: dyslipidemia, hypertention, metabolic syndrome, obesity

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8713 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults of Terai Region of Nepal

Authors: Birendra Kumar Jha, Mingma L. Sherpa, Binod Kumar Dahal


Background: The metabolic syndrome is emerging as a major public health concern in the world. Urbanization, surplus energy uptake, compounded by decreased physical activities, and increasing obesity are the major factors contributing to the epidemic of metabolic syndrome worldwide. However, prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors are little studied in Terai region of Nepal. The objectives of this research were to estimate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of metabolic syndrome among adults in Terai region of Nepal. Method: We used a community based cross sectional study design. A total of 225 adults (age: 18 to 80 years) were selected from three district of Terai region of Nepal using cluster sampling by camp approach. IDF criteria (central obesity with any two of following four factors: triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl or specific treatment for lipid abnormality, reduced HDL, raised blood pressure and raised fasting plasma glucose or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes) were used to assess metabolic syndrome. Interview, physical and clinical examination, measurement of fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were conducted for all participants. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were employed to explore the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Result: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 70.7%. Hypertension, increased fasting blood sugar, increased triglycerides and decreased HDL were observed in 50.7%, 32.4%, 41.8% and 79.1% of the subjects respectively. Socio-economic and behavioral risk factors significantly associated with metabolic syndrome were gender male (OR=2.56, 955 CI: 1.42-4.63; p=0.002), in service or retired from service (OR=3.72, 95% CI: 1.72-8.03; p=0.001) and smoking (OR= 4.10, 95% CI: 1.19-14.07; p=0.016). Conclusion: Higher prevalence of Metabolic syndrome along with presence of behavioral risk factors in Terai region of Nepal likely suggest lack of awareness and health promotion activities for metabolic syndrome and indicate the need to promote public health programs in this region to maintain quality of life.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Nepal, prevalence, risk factors, Terai

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8712 Identifying Metabolic Pathways Associated with Neuroprotection Mediated by Tibolone in Human Astrocytes under an Induced Inflammatory Model

Authors: Daniel Osorio, Janneth Gonzalez, Andres Pinzon


In this work, proteins and metabolic pathways associated with the neuroprotective response mediated by the synthetic neurosteroid tibolone under a palmitate-induced inflammatory model were identified by flux balance analysis (FBA). Three different metabolic scenarios (‘healthy’, ‘inflamed’ and ‘medicated’) were modeled over a gene expression data-driven constructed tissue-specific metabolic reconstruction of mature astrocytes. Astrocyte reconstruction was built, validated and constrained using three open source software packages (‘minval’, ‘g2f’ and ‘exp2flux’) released through the Comprehensive R Archive Network repositories during the development of this work. From our analysis, we predict that tibolone executes their neuroprotective effects through a reduction of neurotoxicity mediated by L-glutamate in astrocytes, inducing the activation several metabolic pathways with neuroprotective actions associated such as taurine metabolism, gluconeogenesis, calcium and the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor signaling pathways. Also, we found a tibolone associated increase in growth rate probably in concordance with previously reported side effects of steroid compounds in other human cell types.

Keywords: astrocytes, flux balance analysis, genome scale metabolic reconstruction, inflammation, neuroprotection, tibolone

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8711 Genetic Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Levels in East Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic abnormality such as changes in lipid profile, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome occurring in young women of reproductive age. Low vitamin D levels were found to be associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Variants on vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have also been related to metabolic comorbidities in general population. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate whether the VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to PCOS. Methods: Women with PCOS and a control group, all aged 16-40 years, were enrolled. Genotyping of VDR Fok-I (rs2228570), VDR Apa-I (rs7975232) as well as GC (rs2282679), DHCR7 (rs12785878) SNPs between groups were determined by using direct sequencing. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)] levels were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D in the PCOS and control samples were 19.08±7 and 23.27±6.03 (p=0.048) which were significantly lower in PCOS patients compared with controls. CC genotype of the VDR Apa-I SNP was same frequent in PCOS (25.6%) and controls (25.6%) (OR: 0.9995; 95%CI: 0.528 to 1.8921; p= 0.9987). The CC genotype was also significantly associated with both lower E2 (p=0.031) and Androstenedione levels (p=0.062). We observed a significant association of GC polymorphism with 25(OH)D levels. PCOS women carrying the GG genotype (in GC genes) had significantly higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than women carrying the TT genotype. Conclusions: In conclusion, data from this study indicate that vitamin D levels are lower, and vitamin D deficiency more frequent, in PCOS than in controls. The present findings suggest that the Apa-I, Fok-I polymorphism of the VDR gene is associated with PCOS and seems to modulate ovarian steroid secretion. Further studies are needed to better clarify the biological mechanisms by which the polymorphism influences PCOS risk.

Keywords: vitamin D receptor, polymorphism, vitamin D, polycystic ovary syndrome

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8710 Evaluation of the Weight-Based and Fat-Based Indices in Relation to Basal Metabolic Rate-to-Weight Ratio

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma


Basal metabolic rate is questioned as a risk factor for weight gain. The relations between basal metabolic rate and body composition have not been cleared yet. The impact of fat mass on basal metabolic rate is also uncertain. Within this context, indices based upon total body mass as well as total body fat mass are available. In this study, the aim is to investigate the potential clinical utility of these indices in the adult population. 287 individuals, aged from 18 to 79 years, were included into the scope of the study. Based upon body mass index values, 10 underweight, 88 normal, 88 overweight, 81 obese, and 20 morbid obese individuals participated. Anthropometric measurements including height (m), and weight (kg) were performed. Body mass index, diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index I, diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index II, basal metabolic rate-to-weight ratio were calculated. Total body fat mass (kg), fat percent (%), basal metabolic rate, metabolic age, visceral adiposity, fat mass of upper as well as lower extremities and trunk, obesity degree were measured by TANITA body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology. Statistical evaluations were performed by statistical package (SPSS) for Windows Version 16.0. Scatterplots of individual measurements for the parameters concerning correlations were drawn. Linear regression lines were displayed. The statistical significance degree was accepted as p < 0.05. The strong correlations between body mass index and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index I as well as diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index II were obtained (p < 0.001). A much stronger correlation was detected between basal metabolic rate and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index I in comparison with that calculated for basal metabolic rate and body mass index (p < 0.001). Upon consideration of the associations between basal metabolic rate-to-weight ratio and these three indices, the best association was observed between basal metabolic rate-to-weight and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index II. In a similar manner, this index was highly correlated with fat percent (p < 0.001). Being independent of the indices, a strong correlation was found between fat percent and basal metabolic rate-to-weight ratio (p < 0.001). Visceral adiposity was much strongly correlated with metabolic age when compared to that with chronological age (p < 0.001). In conclusion, all three indices were associated with metabolic age, but not with chronological age. Diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index II values were highly correlated with body mass index values throughout all ranges starting with underweight going towards morbid obesity. This index is the best in terms of its association with basal metabolic rate-to-weight ratio, which can be interpreted as basal metabolic rate unit.

Keywords: basal metabolic rate, body mass index, children, diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index, obesity

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8709 Application of KL Divergence for Estimation of Each Metabolic Pathway Genes

Authors: Shohei Maruyama, Yasuo Matsuyama, Sachiyo Aburatani


The development of the method to annotate unknown gene functions is an important task in bioinformatics. One of the approaches for the annotation is The identification of the metabolic pathway that genes are involved in. Gene expression data have been utilized for the identification, since gene expression data reflect various intracellular phenomena. However, it has been difficult to estimate the gene function with high accuracy. It is considered that the low accuracy of the estimation is caused by the difficulty of accurately measuring a gene expression. Even though they are measured under the same condition, the gene expressions will vary usually. In this study, we proposed a feature extraction method focusing on the variability of gene expressions to estimate the genes' metabolic pathway accurately. First, we estimated the distribution of each gene expression from replicate data. Next, we calculated the similarity between all gene pairs by KL divergence, which is a method for calculating the similarity between distributions. Finally, we utilized the similarity vectors as feature vectors and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway. To evaluate our developed method, we applied the method to budding yeast and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the seven metabolic pathways. As a result, the accuracy that calculated by our developed method was higher than the one that calculated from the raw gene expression data. Thus, our developed method combined with KL divergence is useful for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway.

Keywords: metabolic pathways, gene expression data, microarray, Kullback–Leibler divergence, KL divergence, support vector machines, SVM, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 313