Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 295

Search results for: walking

295 The Application of Rhizophora Wood to Design a Walking Stick for Elderly

Authors: Noppadon Sangwalpetch

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to use Rhizophora wood to design a walking stick for elderly by applying its properties on strength and toughness. The research was conducted by studying the behavior and the type of walking sticks used by 70 elderly aged between 60-80 years in Pragnamdaeng Sub-District, Ampawa District, Samudsongkram Province. Questionnaires were used to collect data which were calculated to find percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results are as follows: 1) most elderly use walking sticks due to the Osteoarthritis of the knees. 2) Most elderly need to use walking sticks because the walking sticks help to balance their positioning and prevent from stumble. 3) Most elderly agree that Rhizophora wood is suitable to make a walking stick because of its strength and toughness. In addition, it is a local plant which is available and cheap. 4) The design of the walking stick should be fine and practical with comfortable handle and the tip of the stick must not be slippery.

Keywords: rhizophora wood, the design of a walking stick, elderly, visual arts

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
294 Cepstrum Analysis of Human Walking Signal

Authors: Koichi Kurita

Abstract:

In this study, we propose a real-time data collection technique for the detection of human walking motion from the charge generated on the human body. This technique is based on the detection of a sub-picoampere electrostatic induction current, generated by the motion, flowing through the electrode of a wireless portable sensor attached to the subject. An FFT analysis of the wave-forms of the electrostatic induction currents generated by the walking motions showed that the currents generated under normal and restricted walking conditions were different. Moreover, we carried out a cepstrum analysis to detect any differences in the walking style. Results suggest that a slight difference in motion, either due to the individual’s gait or a splinted leg, is directly reflected in the electrostatic induction current generated by the walking motion. The proposed wireless portable sensor enables the detection of even subtle differences in walking motion.

Keywords: human walking motion, motion measurement, current measurement, electrostatic induction

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
293 Human Walking Vertical Force and Vertical Vibration of Pedestrian Bridge Induced by Its Higher Components

Authors: Masahiro Yoneda

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The purpose of this study is to identify human walking vertical force by using FFT power spectrum density from the experimental acceleration data of the human body. An experiment on human walking is carried out on a stationary floor especially paying attention to higher components of dynamic vertical walking force. Based on measured acceleration data of the human lumbar part, not only in-phase component with frequency of 2 fw, 3 fw, but also in-opposite-phase component with frequency of 0.5 fw, 1.5 fw, 2.5 fw where fw is the walking rate is observed. The vertical vibration of pedestrian bridge induced by higher components of human walking vertical force is also discussed in this paper. A full scale measurement for the existing pedestrian bridge with center span length of 33 m is carried out focusing on the resonance phenomenon due to higher components of human walking vertical force. Dynamic response characteristics excited by these vertical higher components of human walking are revealed from the dynamic design viewpoint of pedestrian bridge.

Keywords: simplified method, human walking vertical force, higher component, pedestrian bridge vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
292 Influence of Peripheral Vision Restrictions on the Walking Trajectory When Texting While Walking

Authors: Macky Kato, Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima

Abstract:

One major problem related to the use of smartphones is texting while simultaneously engaging in other things, resulting in serious road accidents. Apart from texting while driving being one of the most dangerous behaviors, texting while walking is also dangerous because it narrows the pedestrians’ field of vision. However, many of pedestrian text while walking very habitually. Smartphone users often overlook the potential harm associated with this behavior even while crossing roads. The successful texting while walking make them think that they are safe. The purpose of this study is to reveal of the influence of peripheral vision to the stability of walking trajectory with texting while walking. In total, 9 healthy male university students participated in the experiment. Their mean age was 21.4 years, and standard deviation was 0.7 years. They attempted to walk 10 m in three conditions. First one is the control (CTR) condition, with no phone and no restriction. The second one is the texting while walking (TWG) with no restrictions. The third one is restriction condition (PRS), with phone restricted by experimental peripheral goggles. The horizontal distances (HDS) and directions are measured as the scale of horizontal stability. The longitudinal distances (LDS) between the footprints were measured as the scale of the walking rhythm. The results showed that the HDS of the footprints from the straight line increased as the participants walked in the TWG and PRS conditions. In the PRS condition, this tendency was particularly remarkable. In addition, the LDS between the footprints decreased in the order of the CTR, TWG, and PRS conditions. The ANOVA results showed significant differences in the three conditions with respect to HDS. The differences among these conditions showed that the narrowing of the Pedestrian's vision because of smartphone use influences the walking trajectory and rhythm. It can be said that the pedestrians seem to use their peripheral vision marginally on texting while walking. Therefore, we concluded that the texting while walking narrows the peripheral vision so danger to increase the risk of the accidents.

Keywords: peripheral vision, stability, texting while walking, walking trajectory

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
291 Factors Influencing Walking in Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia

Authors: Zeinab Aliyas

Abstract:

Walking is known as the most common type of physical activity that helps mental and physical health of people. In the recent years, promoting walking activity in neighborhood areas and cities become as one of the important issues in terms of sustainable cities. Therefore the study aimed to investigate the influence of fear of crime and personal barriers as social and personal factor respectively on neighborhood walking. 464 questionnaires in Bandar Baru Bangi in Malaysia was distributed to collect data, and finally, 424 questionnaires were qualified to be used in the study. The Smart-PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that individual barriers and fear of crime both have significant influence on the level of walking behavior in the neighborhood area. It was found that fear of crime has higher influence on walking behavior in comparison to individual factors. The finding of this study can help urban researcher and planner to know the significant influence of crime safety and individual attitudes on the level of walking activity.

Keywords: fear of crime, neighborhood walking, personal barriers, residential neighborhood

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
290 Reduction in the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking Gaits Using Quasi-Passive Upper Body Exoskeleton

Authors: Nafiseh Ebrahimi, Gautham Muthukumaran, Amir Jafari

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Human walking gait is considered to be the most efficient biped walking gait. There are various types of gait human follows during locomotion and arm swing is one of the most important factors which controls and differentiates human gaits. Earlier studies declared a 7% reduction in the metabolic cost due to the arm swing. In this research, we compared different types of arm swings in terms of metabolic cost reduction and then suggested, designed, fabricated and tested a quasi-passive upper body exoskeleton to study the metabolic cost reduction in the folded arm walking gate scenarios. Our experimental results validate a 10% reduction in the metabolic cost of walking aided by the application of the proposed exoskeleton.

Keywords: arm swing, MET (metabolic equivalent of a task), calorimeter, oxygen consumption, upper body quasi-passive exoskeleton

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
289 Non-Contact Human Movement Monitoring Technique for Security Control System Based 2n Electrostatic Induction

Authors: Koichi Kurita

Abstract:

In this study, an effective non-contact technique for the detection of human physical activity is proposed. The technique is based on detecting the electrostatic induction current generated by the walking motion under non-contact and non-attached conditions. A theoretical model for the electrostatic induction current generated because of a change in the electric potential of the human body is proposed. By comparing the obtained electrostatic induction current with the theoretical model, it becomes obvious that this model effectively explains the behavior of the waveform of the electrostatic induction current. The normal walking motions are recorded using a portable sensor measurement located in a passageway of office building. The obtained results show that detailed information regarding physical activity such as a walking cycle can be estimated using our proposed technique. This suggests that the proposed technique which is based on the detection of the walking signal, can be successfully applied to the detection of human walking motion in a secured building.

Keywords: human walking motion, access control, electrostatic induction, alarm monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
288 Rehabilitative Walking: The Development of a Robotic Walking Training Device Using Functional Electrical Stimulation for Treating Spinal Cord Injuries and Lower-Limb Paralysis

Authors: Chung Hyun Goh, Armin Yazdanshenas, X. Neil Dong, Yong Tai Wang

Abstract:

Physical rehabilitation is a necessary step in regaining lower body function after a partial paralysis caused by a spinal cord injury or a stroke. The purpose of this paper is to present the development and optimization of a training device that accurately recreates the motions in a gait cycle with the goal of rehabilitation for individuals with incomplete spinal cord injuries or who are victims of a stroke. A functional electrical stimulator was used in conjunction with the training device to stimulate muscle groups pertaining to rehabilitative walking. The feasibility and reliability of the design are presented. To validate the design functionality, motion analyses of the knee and ankle gait paths were made using motion capture systems. Key results indicate that the robotic walking training device provides a viable mode of physical rehabilitation.

Keywords: functional electrical stimulation, rehabilitative walking, robotic walking training device, spinal cord injuries

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
287 Pedestrian Behavior at Signalized Intersections in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Pelin Onelcin, Yalcin Alver

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This paper investigates the walking speed and delays of pedestrians at two signalized intersections where the vehicle speed limits are different. Data was collected during afternoon and evening peak hours on November 15, 2013 and on December 6, 2013. Observational surveys were conducted by video recording technique. Pedestrians were categorized according to their gender, group size, stuff carrying condition and age. Results showed that individuals walked fastest when the group size is taken into consideration. The smallest 15th percentile walking speed was seen in the oldest age group (over 60 years old). Pedestrians experienced high delays both at roadsides and at medians. Factors affecting the pedestrian walking speed were analyzed by ANOVA.

Keywords: pedestrian delay, pedestrian walking speed, signalized crosswalk, ANOVA

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
286 Walking Progression in Ambulatory Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury Who Daily Walked with a Walking Device

Authors: Makamas Kumprou, Pipatana Amatachaya, Sugalya Amatachaya, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Preeda Arayawichanon

Abstract:

Many individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) need an ambulatory assistive device (AAD) to promote their independence and experience of task-specific walking practice. Without a periodic follow-up for their walking progression, however, many individuals may use the same AAD even though up to 66% of them had the potential to progress walking ability. This may distort their optimal ability and increase the possibility of having negative impacts due to the long-lasting used of an AAD. However, these findings were cross-sectionally collected without data confirmation for the benefit or negative impacts of those who changed the types of AAD used. Therefore, this study prospectively assessed the proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who were able to progress their walking ability as determined using a type of AAD, and the changes of their functional ability as well as the incidence of falls over 6 months. Twenty-four subjects with SCI who daily walked with an AAD were involved in the study for 2 visits over 6 months. At the first visit (baseline assessments), the subjects were assessed for their spatiotemporal variables (i.e., cadence, step length, stride length, and step symmetry) and walking ability using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT). Then, they were assessed for the possibility of their walking progression as determined using the ability of walking with the least support AAD with no more than contact guarding assist. Those who were capable of changing an AAD were trained for the ability to walk with a new AAD. Thereafter, all subjects were monthly monitored for incidence of fall over 6 months. At the second visit (after 6 months followed-up), subjects were reassessed for their spatiotemporal variables and 10MWT. The findings indicated that, of all 24 subjects, 8 subjects (33.3%) were able to walk with less support AAD than their usual one. The walking cadence, step length symmetry, and walking ability of these subjects improved significantly greater than those who walked with the same AAD (p < 0.05). Among these subjects, one subject (12.5%) reported fell (3 times) during the follow-up period, whereas 5 subjects (31.3%) who walked with the same AAD experienced at least one fall (range 1 – 16 times). The findings indicated that a large proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who daily walked with an AAD could progress their walking ability, whereby their walking ability and safety also significantly improved after they walked with an optimal AAD. The findings suggest the need for a periodic follow-up for an appropriate AAD used for these individuals.

Keywords: walking device, walker, crutches, cane, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
285 Assessing the Walkability and Urban Design Qualities of Campus Streets

Authors: Zhehao Zhang

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Walking has become an indispensable and sustainable way of travel for college students in their daily lives; campus street is an important carrier for students to walk and take part in a variety of activities, improving the walkability of campus streets plays an important role in optimizing the quality of campus space environment, promoting the campus walking system and inducing multiple walking behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of campus layout, facility distribution, and location site selection on the walkability of campus streets, and assess the street design qualities from the elements of imageability, enclosure, complexity, transparency, and human scale, and further examines the relationship between street-level urban design perceptual qualities and walkability and its effect on walking behavior in the campus. Taking Tianjin University as the research object, this paper uses the optimized walk score method based on walking frequency, variety, and distance to evaluate the walkability of streets from a macro perspective and measures the urban design qualities in terms of the calculation of street physical environment characteristics, as well as uses behavior annotation and street image data to establish temporal and spatial behavior database to analyze walking activity from the microscopic view. In addition, based on the conclusions, the improvement and design strategy will be presented from the aspects of the built walking environment, street vitality, and walking behavior.

Keywords: walkability, streetscapes, pedestrian activity, walk score

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284 Passenger Movement Pattern during Ship Evacuation Considering the Combined Effect of Ship Heeling and Trim

Authors: Jinlu Sun, Shouxiang Lu, Siuming Lo

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Large passenger ship, especially luxury cruise, is one of the most prevalent means of marine transportation and tourism nowadays. In case of an accident, an effective evacuation would be the ultimate way to minimize the consequence. Ship heeling and trim has a considerable influence on passenger walking speed and posture during ship evacuation. To investigate passenger movement pattern under the combined effect of ship heeling and trim, a ship corridor simulator was developed. Both fast and freely individual walking experiments by male and female experimental subjects under heeling and trim conditions were conducted and recorded therein. It is found that routes of experimental subjects would change due to the heeling and trim angles, although they always walk along the right side because of cultural factors. Experimental subjects would also change their posture to adapt the combined heeling and trim conditions, such as leaning forward, adopting larger arm swaying, shorter and more frequent steps. While for individual walking speed, the speed would decrease with the increasing heeling and trim angles. But the maximum individual walking speed is achieved at heeling angle of 0° with trim angle ranging from -15° to -5 °, instead of on level ground, which may be attributable to the effect of the gravitational acceleration. Female is approximately 10% slower than male due to the discrepancy in physical quality. Besides, individual walking speed shows similar trends in both fast and freely walking modes, and the speed value in freely walking mode is about 78% of that in fast walking mode under each experimental condition. Furthermore, to designate the movement pattern of passengers in heeling and trim conditions, a model of the walking speed reduction was proposed. This work would provide guidance on the development of evacuation models and the design of evacuation facilities on board.

Keywords: evacuation, heeling, individual walking speed, ship corridor simulator, trim

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
283 Agent-Based Modeling of Pedestrian Corridor Congestion on the Characteristics of Physical Space Form

Authors: Sun Shi, Sun Cheng

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The pedestrian corridor is the most crowded area in the public space. The crowded severity has been focused on the field of evacuation strategies of the entrance in large public spaces. The aim of this paper is to analyze the walking efficiency in different spaces of pedestrian corridor with the variation of spatial parameters. The congestion condition caused by the variation of walking efficiency is modeled as well. This study established the space model of the walking corridor by setting the width, slope, turning form and turning angle of the pedestrian corridor. The pedestrian preference of walking mode varied with the difference of the crowded severity, walking speed, field of vision, sight direction and the expected destination, which is influenced by the characters of physical space form. Swarm software is applied to build Agent model. According to the output of the Agent model, the relationship between the pedestrian corridor width, ground slope, turning forms, turning angle and the walking efficiency, crowded severity is acquired. The results of the simulation can be applied to pedestrian corridor design in order to reduce the crowded severity and the potential safety risks caused by crowded people.

Keywords: crowded severity, multi-agent, pedestrian preference, urban space design

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
282 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking

Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa

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The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.

Keywords: Nordic walking, electromyogram, heart rate, RPE

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
281 Factors That Influence Choice of Walking Mode in Work Trips: Case Study of Rasht, Iran

Authors: Nima Safaei, Arezoo Masoud, Babak Safaei

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In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the role of urban planning in walking capability and the effects of individual and socioeconomic factors on the physical activity levels of city dwellers. Although considerable number of studies are conducted about walkability and for identifying the effective factors in walking mode choice in developed countries, to our best knowledge, literature lacks in the study of factors affecting choice of walking mode in developing countries. Due to the high importance of health aspects of human societies and in order to make insights and incentives for reducing traffic during rush hours, many researchers and policy makers in the field of transportation planning have devoted much attention to walkability studies; they have tried to improve the effective factors in the choice of walking mode in city neighborhoods. In this study, effective factors in walkability that have proven to have significant impact on the choice of walking mode, are studied at the same time in work trips. The data for the study is collected from the employees in their workplaces by well-instructed people using questionnaires; the statistical population of the study consists of 117 employed people who commute daily from work to home in Rasht city of Iran during the beginning of spring 2015. Results of the study which are found through the linear regression modeling, show that people who do not have freedom of choice for choosing their living locations and need to be present at their workplaces in certain hours have lower levels of walking. Additionally, unlike some of the previous studies which were conducted in developed countries, coincidental effects of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the income level of employees, do not have a significant effect on the walking level in work travels.

Keywords: BMI, linear regression, transportation, walking, work trips

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
280 Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Investigating the Efficacy of Walking-based Aerobic Exercise Interventions to Treat Postpartum Depression

Authors: V. Pentland, S. Spilsbury, A. Biswas, M. F. Mottola, S. Paplinskie, M. S. Mitchell

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Postpartum depression (PPD) is a form of major depressive disorder that afflicts 10–22% of mothers worldwide. Rising demands for traditional PPD treatment options (e.g., psychiatry), especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, are increasingly difficult to meet. More accessible treatment options (e.g., walking) are needed. The objective of this review is to determine the impact of walking on PPD severity. A structured search of seven electronic databases for randomised controlled trials published between 2000 and July 29, 2021, was completed. Studies were included if walking was the sole or primary aerobic exercise modality. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted for studies reporting PPD symptoms measured using a clinically validated tool. A simple count of positive/null effect studies was undertaken as part of a narrative summary. Five studies involving 242 participants were included (mean age=~28.9 years; 100% with mild-to-moderate depression). Interventions were 12 (n=4) and 24 (n=1) weeks long. Each assessed PPD severity using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and was included in the meta-analysis. The pooled effect estimate suggests that relative to controls, walking yielded clinically significant decreases in mean EPDS scores from baseline to intervention end (pooled MD=-4.01; 95% CI:-7.18 to -0.84, I2=86%). The narrative summary provides preliminary evidence that walking-only, supervised, and group-based interventions, including 90-120+ minutes/week of moderate-intensity walking, may produce greater EPDS reductions. While limited by a relatively small number of included studies, pooled effect estimates suggest walking may help mothers manage PPD. This is the first time walking as a treatment for PPD, an exercise modality that uniquely addresses many barriers faced by mothers has been summarized in a systematic way. Trial registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020197521) on August 16th, 2020

Keywords: postpartum, exercise, depression, walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
279 How to Evaluate Resting and Walking Energy Expenditures of Individuals with Different Body Mass Index

Authors: Zeynep Altinkaya, Ugur Dal, Figen Dag, Dilan D. Koyuncu, Merve Turkegun

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Obesity is defined as abnormal fat-tissue accumulation as a result of imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Since 50-70% daily energy expenditure of sedantary individuals is consumed as resting energy expenditure (REE), it takes an important place in the evaluation of new methods for obesity treatment. Also, it is known that walking is a prevalent activity in the prevention of obesity. The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the resting and walking energy expenditures of individuals with different body mass index (BMI). In this research, 4 groups are formed as underweight (BMI < 18,5 kg/m2), normal (BMI=18,5-24,9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI=25-29,9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 30) according to BMI of individuals. 64 healthy young adults (8 man and 8 woman per group, age 18-30 years) with no known gait disabilities were recruited in this study. The body compositions of all participants were measured via bioelectric empedance analysis method. The energy expenditure of individuals was measured with indirect calorimeter method as inspired and expired gas samples are collected breath-by-breath through a special facemask. The preferred walking speed (PWS) of each subject was determined by using infrared sensors placed in 2nd and 12th meters of 14 m walkway. The REE was measured for 15 min while subjects were lying, and walking energy expenditure was measured during subjects walk in their PWS on treadmill. The gross REE was significantly higher in obese subjects compared to underweight and normal subjects (p < 0,0001). When REE was normalized to body weight, it was higher in underweight and normal groups than overweight and obese groups (p < 0,0001). However, when REE was normalized to fat-free mass, it did not differ significantly between groups. The gross walking energy expenditure in PWS was higher in obese and overweight groups than underweight and normal groups (p < 0,0001). The regression coefficient between gross walking energy expenditure and body weight was significiant among normal and obese groups (p < 0.05). It accounted for 70,5% of gross walking energy expenditure in normal group, and 57,9% of gross walking energy expenditure in obese group. It is known that obese individuals have more metabolically inactive fat-tissue compared to other groups. While excess fat-tissue increases total body weight, it does not contribute much to REE. Therefore, REE results normalized to body weight could lead to misleading results. In order to eliminate fat-mass effect on REE of obese individuals, REE normalized to fat-free mass should be used to acquire more accurate results. On the other hand, the fat-mass increasement raises energy requirement while walking to retain the body balance. Thus, gross walking energy expenditure should be taken into consideration for the evaluating energy expenditure of walking.

Keywords: body composition, obesity, resting energy expenditure, walking energy expenditure

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
278 Personal and Social Factors as Barriers to Leisure Walking in Residential Neighborhoods

Authors: Zeinab Aliyas, Diba Mahboubi

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Leisure walking is known as one of the most common types of physical activity that perform in purpose of recreation or health, which in turn may affect resident’s health. In the recent years, promoting leisure walking activity in neighborhood areas become as one of the important issues regarding promoting mental and physical health, however; the level of physical inactivity is rising in many societies including Iran. As it was proven that the tendency to walk out of choice is not encouraging among Iranian people. Hence; understanding the main concern of residents regarding walking activity in their neighborhoods can help in increasing the tendency to do leisure activity among residents. Built environment, social and individual factors are known as the main factors that affect decision to walk, in this regard, the study aimed to investigate the influence of personal and social factors that prevent residents to walk for recreation or exercise in their neighborhoods. Hence the fear of crime and personal barriers were examined in the current research as social and personal factors respectively. To collect the required data, 500 questionnaires by using systematic sampling were distributed from March to May 2016 in four residential neighborhoods of Bandar Abbas in Iran out which 411 questionnaire turned out to be qualified to be used in the study. The Smart-PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that personal and fear of crime both have significant influence on the level of recreation and exercise walking in the neighborhood areas. The study found that fear of crime has the higher influence on exercise and recreational walking behavior in comparison to individual factors. It was revealed that social factors such as fear of crime in the neighborhoods might be more important than the personal reason for walking optionally in the surrounding environment. The finding of this study can help urban and health researcher to know the significant influence of fear of crime and individual attitudes on the level of leisure walking activity, in addition, the findings of the study suggest that urban planners and designers, as well as public health promoters, need to highly consider the contribution of neighborhoods' social environment variables as well as individual variables to promote walking behavior changes among adult population.

Keywords: exercise walking, fear of crime, neighborhood, personal barriers, recreation walking

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277 Gender Differences in Walking Capacity and Cardiovascular Regulation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

Authors: Gabriel Cucato, Marilia Correia, Wagner Domingues, Aline Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Raphael Ritti-Dias

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Women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) present lower walking capacity in comparison with men. However, whether cardiovascular regulation is also different between genders is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare walking capacity and cardiovascular regulation between men and women with PAD. A total of 23 women (66±7 yrs) and 31 men (64±9 yrs) were recruited. Patients performed a 6-minute test and the onset claudication distance and total walking distance were measured. Additionally, cardiovascular regulation was assessed by arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and heart rate variability (frequency domain). Independent T test or Mann-Whitney U test were performed. In comparison with men, women present lower onset claudication distance (108±66m vs. 143±50m; P=0.032) and total walking distance (286±83m vs. 361±91 m, P=0.007). Regarding cardiovascular regulation, there were no differences in heart rate variability SDNN (72±160ms vs. 32±22ms, P=0.587); RMSSD (75±209 vs. 25±22ms, P=0.726); pNN50 (11±17ms vs. 8±14ms, P=0.836) in women and men, respectively. Moreover, there were no difference in augmentation index (39±10% vs. 34±11%, P=0.103); pulse pressure (59±17mmHg vs. 56±19mmHg, P=0.593) and pulse wave velocity (8.6±2.6m\s vs. 9.0±2.7m/s, P=0.580). In conclusion, women have impaired walking capacity compared to men. However, sex differences were not observed on cardiovascular regulation in patients with PAD.

Keywords: exercise, intermittent claudication, cardiovascular load, arterial stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
276 Walking Cadence to Attain a Minimum of Moderate Aerobic Intensity in People at Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

Authors: Fagner O. Serrano, Danielle R. Bouchard, Todd A. Duhame

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Walking cadence (steps/min) is an effective way to prescribe exercise so an individual can reach a moderate intensity, which is recommended to optimize health benefits. To our knowledge, there is no study on the required walking cadence to reach a moderate intensity for people that present chronic conditions or risk factors for chronic conditions such as Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD). The objectives of this study were: 1- to identify the walking cadence needed for people at risk of CVD to a reach moderate intensity, and 2- to develop and test an equation using clinical variables to help professionals working with individuals at risk of CVD to estimate the walking cadence needed to reach moderate intensity. Ninety-one people presenting a minimum of two risk factors for CVD completed a medically supervised graded exercise test to assess maximum oxygen consumption at the first visit. The last visit consisted of recording walking cadence using a foot pod Garmin FR-60 and a Polar heart rate monitor, aiming to get participants to reach 40% of their maximal oxygen consumption using a portable metabolic cart on an indoor flat surface. The equation to predict the walking cadence needed to reach moderate intensity in this sample was developed as follows: The sample was randomly split in half and the equation was developed with one half of the participants, and validated using the other half. Body mass index, height, stride length, leg height, body weight, fitness level (VO2max), and self-selected cadence (over 200 meters) were measured using objective measured. Mean walking cadence to reach moderate intensity for people age 64.3 ± 10.3 years old at risk of CVD was 115.8  10.3 steps per minute. Body mass index, height, body weight, fitness level, and self-selected cadence were associated with walking cadence at moderate intensity when evaluated in bivariate analyses (r ranging from 0.22 to 0.52; all P values ≤0.05). Using linear regression analysis including all clinical variables associated in the bivariate analyses, body weight was the significant predictor of walking cadence for reaching a moderate intensity (ß=0.24; P=.018) explaining 13% of walking cadence to reach moderate intensity. The regression model created was Y = 134.4-0.24 X body weight (kg).Our findings suggest that people presenting two or more risk factors for CVD are reaching moderate intensity while walking at a cadence above the one officially recommended (116 steps per minute vs. 100 steps per minute) for healthy adults.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, moderate intensity, older adults, walking cadence

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275 Effects of a Brisk-Walking Program on Anxiety, Depression and Self-Concept in Adolescents: A Time-Series Design

Authors: Ming Yi Hsu, Hui Jung Chao

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The anxiety and depression adolescents in Taiwan experience can cause suicide attempts and result in unfortunate deaths. An effective method for relieving anxiety and depression is brisk walking; a moderate and low intensity aerobic exercise, which uses large muscle groups rhythmically. The research purpose was to investigate the effects of a 12-week, school-based, brisk-walking program in decreasing anxiety and depression, and in improving self-concept among high school students living in central Taiwan. A quasi-experiment using the time series design (T1 T2 X T3 T4) was conducted. The Beck Youth Inventories 2 (BYI-II) Chinese version was given four times: the first time T1 was in the 4th week prior to intervention, T2 was in the intervention week, T3 was in the 6th week after the start of the intervention period and T4 was in the 12th week post intervention. The baseline phase of the time series constituted T1 and T2. The intervention phase constituted T2, T3, and T4. The amounts of brisk walking were recorded by self-report The Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to examine the effects of brisk walking on anxiety, depression, and self-concept. The independent t-test was used to compare mean scores on three dependent variables between brisk walking over and less than 90-minutes per week. Findings revealed that levels of anxiety and self-concept had nonsignificant change during the baseline phase, while the level of depression increased significantly. In contrast, the study demonstrated significant decreases in anxiety and depression as well as increases in positive self-concept (p=.001, p<.001, p=.017) during the intervention phase. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis was completed on participants who demonstrated elevated anxiety (23.4%), and depression (29.7%), and below average self-concept (18.6%) at baseline (T2). The subgroup of anxious, depressed, or low self-concept participants who received the brisk-walking intervention demonstrated significant decreases in anxiety and depression, and significant increases in self-concept scores. Participants who engaged in brisk walking over 90 minutes per week reported decreased mean scores on anxiety (t=-2.395, p=.035) and depression (t=-2.142, p=.036) in contrast with those who engaged in brisk-walking time less than 90 minutes per week. Regarding the effects on participants whose anxiety, scores were within the normal range at baseline, there was demonstrated significant decrease in the level of anxiety when they increased their time on brisk walking before each term examination. Overall, the brisk-walking program was effective and feasible to promote adolescents’ mental health by decreasing anxiety and depression as well as elevating self-concept. It also helped adolescents from anxiety before term examinations.

Keywords: adolescents, anxiety, depression, self-concept

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274 Electromyography Analysis during Walking and Seated Stepping in the Elderly

Authors: P. Y. Chiang, Y. H. Chen, Y. J. Lin, C. C. Chang, W. C. Hsu

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The number of the elderly in the world population and the rate of falls in this increasing numbers of older people are increasing. Decreasing muscle strength and an increasing risk of falling are associated with the ageing process. Because the effects of seated stepping training on the walking performance in the elderly remain unclear, the main purpose of the proposed study is to perform electromyography analysis during walking and seated stepping in the elderly. Four surface EMG electrodes were sticked on the surface of lower limbs muscles, including vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius (GT) of both sides. Before test, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the respective muscle was obtained using manual muscle testing. The analog raw data of EMG signals were digitized with a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz. The signals were fully rectified and the linear envelope were calculated. Stepping motion cycle was separated into two phases by stepping timing (ST) and pedal return timing (PRT). ST refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the highest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to release the pedal. PRT refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the lowest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to step the pedal. We assumed that ST acted the same role in initial contact during walking, and PRT for toe-off. The period from ST to next PRT was called pushing phase (PP), during which the leg would start to step with resistance, and we compare this phase with the stance phase in level walking. The period from PRT to next ST was called returning phase (RP), during which leg would not have any resistance in this phase, and we compare this phase with the swing phase in level walking. VL and Gastro muscular activation had similar patterns in both side. The ability may transfer to those needed during loading response, mid-stance and terminal swing phase. User needed to make more effort in stepping compared with walking with similar timing; thus the strengthening of the VL and Gastro may be helpful to improve the walking endurance and efficiency for the elderly.

Keywords: elderly, electromyography, seated stepping, walking

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273 Effect of 16 Weeks Walking with Different Dosages on Psychosocial Function Related Quality of Life among 60 to 75 Years Old Men

Authors: Mohammad Ehsani, Elham Karimi, Hashem Koozechian

Abstract:

Aim: The purpose of current semi-experimental study was a survey on effect of 16 week walking on psychosocial function related quality of life among 60 to 75 years old men. Methodology: For this reason, short from of health – related quality of life questionnaire (SF – 36) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) had been distributed to the subjects at 2 times of pre – test and posttest. Statistical sample of current study was 60 to 75 years old men who placed at Kahrizak house and assessed by considering physically and medical background. Also factors of entrance to the intervention like age range, have satisfaction and have intent to participating in walking program, lack of having diabetic, cardiovascular, Parkinsonism diseases and postural, neurological, musculoskeletal disorders, lack of having clinical background like visual disorders or disordering on equilibrium system, lack of motor limitation, foot print disorders, having surgery and mental health had been determined and assessed. Finally after primary studies, 80 persons selected and categorized accidentally to the 3 experimental group (1, 2, 3 sessions per week, 30 min walking with moderate intension at every sessions) and one control group (without physical activity in period of 16 weeks). Data analysed by employing ANOVA, Pearson coefficient and Scheffe Post – Hoc tests at the significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Results showed that psychosocial function of men with 60 to 75 years old increase by influence of 16 week walking and increase of exercise sessions lead to more effectiveness of walking. Also there was no significant difference between psychosocial function of subjects within 1 session and 3 sessions experimental groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: On the basis of results, we can say that doing regular walking with efficient and standard dosage for elderly people, can increase their quality of life. Furthermore, designing and action operation regular walking program for elderly men on the basis of special, logical and systematic pattern under the supervision of aware coaches have been recommended on the basis of results.

Keywords: walking, quality of life, psychosocial function, elders

Procedia PDF Downloads 521
272 Dynamic Analysis and Design of Lower Extremity Power-Assisted Exoskeleton

Authors: Song Shengli, Tan Zhitao, Li Qing, Fang Husheng, Ye Qing, Zhang Xinglong

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Lower extremity power-assisted exoskeleton (LEPEX) is a kind of wearable electromechanical integration intelligent system, walking in synchronization with the wearer, which can assist the wearer walk by means of the driver mounted in the exoskeleton on each joint. In this paper, dynamic analysis and design of the LEPEX are performed. First of all, human walking process is divided into single leg support phase, double legs support phase and ground collision model. The three kinds of dynamics modeling is established using the Lagrange method. Then, the flat walking and climbing stairs dynamic information such as torque and power of lower extremity joints is derived for loading 75kg according to scholar Stansfield measured data of flat walking and scholars R. Riener measured data of climbing stair respectively. On this basis, the joint drive way in the sagittal plane is determined, and the structure of LEPEX is designed. Finally, the designed LEPEX is simulated under ADAMS by using a person’s joint sports information acquired under flat walking and climbing stairs. The simulation result effectively verified the correctness of the structure.

Keywords: kinematics, lower extremity exoskeleton, simulation, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
271 Determinants of Walking among Middle-Aged and Older Overweight and Obese Adults: Demographic, Health, and Socio-Environmental Factors

Authors: Samuel N. Forjuoh, Marcia G. Ory, Jaewoong Won, Samuel D. Towne, Suojin Wang, Chanam Lee

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The public health burden of obesity is well established as is the influence of physical activity (PA) on the health and wellness of individuals who are obese. This study examined the influence of selected demographic, health, and socioenvironmental factors on the walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight and obese adults. Online and paper surveys were administered to community-dwelling overweight and obese adults aged ≥ 50 years residing in four cities in central Texas and seen by a family physician in the primary care clinic from October 2013 to June 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize participants’ anthropometric and demographic data as well as their health conditions and walking, socioenvironmental, and more broadly defined PA behaviors. Then Pearson chi-square tests were used to assess differences between participants who reported walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose in a typical week as a proxy to meeting the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s PA guidelines and those who did not. Finally, logistic regression was used to predict walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose, controlling for covariates. The analysis was conducted in 2016. Of the total sample (n=253, survey response rate of 6.8%), the majority were non-Hispanic white (81.7%), married (74.5%), male (53.5%), and reported an annual household income of ≥ $50,000 (65.7%). Approximately, half were employed (49.6%), or had at least a college degree (51.8%). Slightly more than 1 in 5 (n=57, 22.5%) reported walking the recommended ≥150 minutes for any purpose in a typical week. The strongest predictors of walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose in a typical week in adjusted analysis were related to education and a high favorable perception of the neighborhood environment. Compared to those with a high school diploma or some college, participants with at least a college degree were five times as likely to walk the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose (OR=5.55, 95% CI=1.79-17.25). Walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose was significantly associated with participants who disagreed that there were many distracted drivers (e.g., on the cell phone while driving) in their neighborhood (OR=4.08, 95% CI=1.47-11.36) and those who agreed that there are sidewalks or protected walkways (e.g., walking trails) in their neighborhood (OR=3.55, 95% CI=1.10-11.49). Those employed were less likely to walk the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose compared to those unemployed (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.11-0.85) as were those who reported some difficulty walking for a quarter of a mile (OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.05-0.77). Other socio-environmental factors such as having care-giver responsibilities for elders, someone to walk with, or a dog in the household as well as Walk Score™ were not significantly associated with walking the recommended ≥ 150 minutes for any purpose in a typical week. Neighborhood perception appears to be an important factor associated with the walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight and obese individuals. Enhancing the neighborhood environment (e.g., providing walking trails) may promote walking among these individuals.

Keywords: determinants of walking, obesity, older adults, physical activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
270 Rehabilitation Robot in Primary Walking Pattern Training for SCI Patient at Home

Authors: Taisuke Sakaki, Toshihiko Shimokawa, Nobuhiro Ushimi, Koji Murakami, Yong-Kwun Lee, Kazuhiro Tsuruta, Kanta Aoki, Kaoru Fujiie, Ryuji Katamoto, Atsushi Sugyo

Abstract:

Recently attention has been focused on incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI) to the central spine caused by pressure on parts of the white matter conduction pathway, such as the pyramidal tract. In this paper, we focus on a training robot designed to assist with primary walking-pattern training. The target patient for this training robot is relearning the basic functions of the usual walking pattern; it is meant especially for those with incomplete-type SCI to the central spine, who are capable of standing by themselves but not of performing walking motions. From the perspective of human engineering, we monitored the operator’s actions to the robot and investigated the movement of joints of the lower extremities, the circumference of the lower extremities, and exercise intensity with the machine. The concept of the device was to provide mild training without any sudden changes in heart rate or blood pressure, which will be particularly useful for the elderly and disabled. The mechanism of the robot is modified to be simple and lightweight with the expectation that it will be used at home.

Keywords: training, rehabilitation, SCI patient, welfare, robot

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269 Study on Influencing Factors of Walkability of Rail Transit Station Area

Authors: Yang Wenjuan, Xu Yilun

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Based on the comparative analysis of the relevant evaluation methods of walking environment, this paper selects the combined evaluation method of macro urban morphology analysis and micro urban design quality survey, then investigates and analyzes the walking environment of three rail transit station area in Nanjing to explore the influence factor and internal relation of walkability of rail transit station area. Analysis shows that micro urban design factors have greater impact on the walkability of rail transit station area compared with macro urban morphology factors, the convenience is the key factor in the four aspects of convenience, security, identity and comfortability of the urban design factors, the convenience is not only affected by the block network form, but also related to the quality of the street space. The overall evaluation of walkability comes from the overlapping and regrouping of the walking environment at different levels, but some environmental factors play a leading role. The social attributes of pedestrians also partly influence their walking perception and evaluation.

Keywords: rail transit station area, walkability, evaluation, influence factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
268 A Study of Cost and Revenue Earned from Tourist Walking Street Activities in Songkhla City Municipality, Thailand

Authors: Weerawan Marangkun

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This study is a survey intended to investigate cost, revenue and factors affecting changes in revenue and to provide guidelines for improving factors affecting changes in revenue from tourist walking street activities in Songkhla City Municipality. Instruments used in this study were structured interviews, using Yaman table (1973) where the random sampling error was+ 10%. The sample consisting of 83 entrepreneurs were drawn from a total population of 272. The purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected during the 6-month period from December 2011 until May 2012. The findings indicate that the cost paid by an entrepreneur in connection with his/her services for tourists is mainly for travel, which stands at about 290 Baht per day. Each entrepreneur earns about 3,850 Baht per day, which means about 400,000 Baht per year. The combined total revenue from walking street tourist activities is about 108.8 million Baht per year. Such activities add economic value to tourist facilities due to expenditures by tourists and provide the entrepreneurs with considerable income. Factors affecting changes in revenue from tourist walking street activities are: the increase in the number of entrepreneurs; the holding of trade fairs, events or interesting shows in the vicinity; and weather conditions (e.g. abundant rainfall, which can contribute to a decrease in the number of tourists). Suggested measures to improve factors affecting changes in the income are: addition or creation of new activities; regulation of operations of the stalls and parking area; and generation of greater publicity through the social network.

Keywords: cost, revenue, tourist, walking street

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267 Passing the Charity Walking Tours as a Poverty Reduction Establishment in Denpasar City, Bali

Authors: I. Wayan Wiwin

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Poverty is one of the big problems faced by big cities in the world. Urbanization one cause, many rural communities trying to earn a living to the city in the hope that they can improve the level of economy, but not equipped with adequate skills so that it becomes an urban demographic problem. Denpasar as the capital of the province of Bali one of them, in the city area of Denpasar there are many slum dwellings inhabited by the poor, whereas Bali is known as one of the best tourist destinations in the world. This condition is very inversely proportional to the progress of tourism in Bali. For that it is necessary to attempt to overcome poverty in the city of Denpasar, one with the development of city tours in the form of charity walking tours, where tourists are invited to take a walk to see directly the state of the poor in the city of Denpasar and provide assistance to them in the form of home assistance, educational scholarships, health assistance, as well as skill and business capital assistance. This research is explorative-qualitative, that is exploring the potential of charity walking tour to overcome poverty in Denpasar City, which is written qualitatively. In the end based on potential data and information, then analyzed into a decision whether it is possible to develop. Therefore, this study only requires respondents or informants who are able to provide answers or qualitative information about matters related to the potential development of charity walking tour. Thus, informants in this study are tourism stakeholders, such as Municipal government officials, businessmen, community leaders and tourism actors, who are considered to be providing information relating to the development of urban tourism.

Keywords: tourism, city tours, charity walking tours, poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
266 Design and Implementation of a Control System for a Walking Robot with Color Sensing and Line following Using PIC and ATMEL Microcontrollers

Authors: Ibraheem K. Ibraheem

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The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.

Keywords: color sensing, H-bridge, line following, mobile robot, PIC microcontroller, obstacle avoidance, phototransistor

Procedia PDF Downloads 307