Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3168

Search results for: resistance exercise

3168 Effects of Resistance Exercise Training on Blood Profile and CRP in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Mohsen Salesi, Seyyed Zoheir Rabei

Abstract:

Exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes prevention and treatment for decades, but the benefits of resistance training are less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training on blood profile and inflammatory marker (CRP) of type 2 diabetes mellitus people. Thirty diabetic male were recruited (age: 50.34±10.28 years) and randomly assigned to 8 weeks resistance exercise training (n=15) and control groups (n=15). Before and after training blood pressure, weight, lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c) and hs-CRP were measured. The resistance exercise training group took part in supervised 50–80 minutes resistance training sessions, three days a week on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. Each exercise session included approximately 10 min of warm-up and cool-down periods. Results showed that TG significantly decreased (pre 210.19±9.31 vs. 101.12±7.25, p=0.03) and HDL-c significantly increased (pre 42.37±3.15 vs. 47.50±2.19, p=0.01) after exercise training. However, there was no difference between groups in TC, LDL-c, BMI and weight. In addition, a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels showed significant difference between groups (pre 144.65±5.73 vs. 124.21±6.48 p=0.04). Regular resistance exercise training can improve the lipid profile and reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM patients.

Keywords: lipid profile, resistance exercise, type 2 diabetes mellitus, men

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3167 The Effects of Passive and Active Recoveries on Responses of Platelet Indices and Hemodynamic Variables to Resistance Exercise

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Sajad Ahmadizad, Fatemeh Hoseinzadeh, Atefe Sarvestan

Abstract:

The exercise recovery is an important variable in designing resistance exercise training. This study determined the effects of passive and active recoveries on responses of platelet indices and hemodynamic variables to resistance exercise. Twelve healthy subjects (six men and six women, age, 25.4 ±2.5 yrs) performed two types of resistance exercise protocols (six exercises including upper- and lower-body parts) at two separate sessions with one-week intervening. First resistance protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 80% of 1RM with 2 min passive rest between sets and exercises; while, the second protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 60% of 1RM followed by active recovery included six repetitions of the same exercise at 20% of 1RM. The exercise volume was equalized. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 1-hour recovery, and analyzed for fibrinogen and platelet indices. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP), were measured before, immediately after exercise and every 5 minutes during recovery. Data analyzes showed a significant increase in SBP (systolic blood pressure), HR, rate of pressure product (RPP) and PLT in response to resistance exercise (P<0.05) and that changes for HR and RPP were significantly different between two protocols (P<0.05). Furthermore, MPV and P_LCR did not change in response to resistance exercise, though significant reductions were observed after 1h recovery compared to before and after exercise (P<0.05). No significant changes in fibrinogen and PDW following two types of resistance exercise protocols were observed (P>0.05). On the other hand, no significant differences in platelet indices were found between the two protocols (P>0.05). Resistance exercise induces changes in platelet indices and hemodynamic variables, and that these changes are not related to the type of recovery and returned to normal levels after 1h recovery.

Keywords: hemodynamic variables, platelet indices, resistance exercise, recovery intensity

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3166 The Correlation between Nasal Resistance and Obligatory Oronasal Switching Point in Non-Athletic Non-Smoking Healthy Men

Authors: Amir H. Bayat, Mohammad R. Alipour, Saeed Khamneh

Abstract:

As the respiration via nose is important physiologically, many studies have been done about nasal breathing that switches to oronasal breathing during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the role of anterior nasal resistance as one of the effective factors on this switching. Twelve young, healthy, non-athletic and non-smoker male volunteers with normal BMI were selected after physical examination and participated in exercise protocol, including measurement of the ventilation, work load and oronasal switching point (OSP) during exercise, and anterior rhinomanometry at rest. The protocol was an incremental exercise with 25 watt increase in work load per minute up to OSP occurrence. There was a significant negative correlation between resting total anterior nasal resistance with OSP, work load and ventilation (p<0.05, r= -0.709). Resting total anterior nasal resistance can be considered as an important factor on OSP occurrence. So, the reducing the resistance of nasal passage may increase nasal respiration tolerance for longer time during exercise.

Keywords: anterior nasal resistance, exercise, OSP, ventilation, work load

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3165 Effect of Fenugreek Seed with Aerobic Exercise Training on Insulin Resistance in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: M. Nasiri

Abstract:

Aim: Considering the hypoglisimic ad hipolipidimic effect of the fenugreek seed and aerobic exercise training, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fenugreek and aerobic exercise training on insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Methodology: 32 patients with type II diabetes were selected and randomly divided into four groups: control, fenugreek, training and fenugreek - training. Fenugreek groups used 10 grams of fenugreek seeds daily for eight weeks on two occasions before noon and evening meal. Training of groups is also performed a regular program of aerobic exercise 65-55% of maximum heart rate (4 days per week).Two days before and after the training period, blood samples were taken from their brachial veins in a fasting state (12 hours prior to the test) in a sitting position. The data was analyzed used of t-independent and ANOVA at a significance level of α < 0.05. Results: Intra-group changes in all experimental groups showed that significant decrease insulin resistance, and the difference between groups showed significant difference between the groups of fenugreek - training than other groups there. Conclusions: According to the research findings to fenugreek combined with aerobic exercise more beneficial effect on the inhibition of insulin resistance in women with diabetes are recommended to them.

Keywords: fenugreek, training, insulin resistance, diabetes

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3164 Response of Insulin Resistance Indicators to Aerobic Exercise at Different Intensities in Obese College Students

Authors: Long-Shan Wu, Ming-Chen Ko, Chien-Chang Ho, Po-Fu Lee, Li-Yun Chen, Ching-Yu Tseng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine whether progressive aerobic exercise intensity effects the changes in insulin resistance indicators among obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) ≧ 27 kg/m2, aged 18-26 years old] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG): 40-50% of their heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG): 50-70% of their HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG): 70-80% of their HRR, and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was performed 60 minutes per day on a treadmill three days/week in a training period of 12 weeks. All subjects’ anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, all insulin resistance indicators did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG had significantly more changes in insulin level than the MITG, LITG, and CG. Our findings suggested that a short-term aerobic exercise program can play an important role in improving insulin resistance indicators; either middle-intensity training significantly increases the insulin level, but the high-intensity exercise training program effectively improves obese college students’ insulin resistance.

Keywords: aerobic training, exercise intensity, insulin resistance, obesity

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3163 The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I

Authors: Rostam Abdi, Ahmad Abdi, Zahra Vahedi Langrodi

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.

Keywords: resistance exercise, milk, NT-proBNP, Troponin I

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3162 Combined Aerobic-Resistance Exercise Training and Broccoli Supplementation on Plasma Decitin-1 and Insulin Resistance in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Ayoub Saeidi, Nikoo Khosravi, Hanieh Nohbaradar, Seyedeh Parya Barzanjeh, Hassane Zouhal

Abstract:

Exercise training and herbs supplement represent have role in the treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is unclear combined effects of exercise training and herbs supplements on diabetic risk markers. This study aimed to determine the effect of 12 weeks of combined exercise and broccoli supplementation on decitin-1 and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes. Forty-four type 2 diabetes men (age, 48.52 ± 4.36) were randomly allocated to training -supplement (TS, n = 11), training- placebo (TP, n = 11), supplement (S, n = 11) and control- placebo (CP, n = 11) groups. The combined exercise program included 12 weeks, three sessions per week, that each session contained 45 minutes of resistance training with intensity 60-70% of one maximal repetition and 30 minutes aerobic training (running) with intensity 60-70% of maximum heart rate. In addition supplement groups consumed 10 grams of Broccoli per day for 12 weeks. Plasma Decitin-1, HOMA-IR, Insulin, glucose and body composition were assessed before and after training. Plasma Dectin-1, HOMA-IR, glucose and BMI significantly decreased in TS, TP and S groups compared with CP group (P < .05). In addition Insulin and skeletal muscles mass showed significant increase in TS and TP groups compared with S and CP groups (P < .05). It is concluded that both combined exercise training (aerobic-resistance) or broccoli supplement can improve plasma Decitin-1 and insulin resistance in two diabetic patients however combine of exercise training and broccoli supplement have more effective on these markers.

Keywords: broccoli supplements, combined training, decitin-1, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

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3161 Development and Usability Assessment of a Connected Resistance Exercise Band Application for Strength-Monitoring

Authors: J. A. Batsis, G. G. Boateng, L. M. Seo, C. L. Petersen, K. L. Fortuna, E. V. Wechsler, R. J. Peterson, S. B. Cook, D. Pidgeon, R. S. Dokko, R. J. Halter, D. F. Kotz

Abstract:

Resistance exercise bands are a core component of any physical activity strengthening program. Strength training can mitigate the development of sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass or strength and function with aging. Yet, the adherence of such behavioral exercise strategies in a home-based setting are fraught with issues of monitoring and compliance. Our group developed a Bluetooth-enabled resistance exercise band capable of transmitting data to an open-source platform. In this work, we developed an application to capture this information in real-time, and conducted three usability studies in two mixed-aged groups of participants (n=6 each) and a group of older adults with obesity participating in a weight-loss intervention (n=20). The system was favorable, acceptable and provided iterative information that could assist in future deployment on ubiquitous platforms. Our formative work provides the foundation to deliver home-based monitoring interventions in a high-risk, older adult population.

Keywords: application, mHealth, older adult, resistance exercise band, sarcopenia

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3160 The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Glycemic Control in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Chun-Chin Huang

Abstract:

Individuals with prediabetes increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Exercise is a potent stimulator of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and thus good for maintaining glucose homeostasis. That could be a conducive method to improve blood glucose regulation and prevent type 2 diabetes without medication intake. The aim of this study was to summarize mechanisms of insulin resistance and investigate the beneficial effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on glycemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Aerobic exercise regulates glucose homeostasis and reduces blood glucose, insulin concentrations. Therefore, the type of aerobic exercise brings positive effects to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: insulin resistance, glucose sensitivity, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance

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3159 The Comparison between Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Training on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Overweight Sedentary Female

Authors: Marzieh Sayyad, Mohsen Salesi

Abstract:

Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors, is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The prevalence of MetS is on the rise with more women affected than men. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training on metabolic syndrome components in non-athlete, middle-aged woman. 51 non-athlete overweight female participated voluntarily in this study. Participants were divided randomly into three groups including resistance, aerobic and control group (number of each group 17). 24 hours before the beginning of training program, the blood sample was taken in fasting state. The two training groups participated in sport activities for eight weeks, three times a week duration 60-90 minutes. Two days following the end of the 8th week, all the measurements were performed similar to the pretest phase. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that aerobic exercise training significantly decreased weight (p=.05), triglyceride (p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (p<0.02) and HDL-c (p<0.01) was significantly increased. Also in resistance exercise training group TG decreased significantly (p<0.01) and HDL-c (p<0.05) was significantly increased. This study demonstrated that a regular physical activity program improved several metabolic and physiological parameters in healthy, previously sedentary subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, it seems that this type of training can be efficient, safe and inexpensive way in order to reduce and prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, metabolic syndrome, overweight sedentary female, resistance exercise

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3158 Exercise Training for Management Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Noor F. Ilias, Mazlifah Omar, Hashbullah Ismail

Abstract:

Exercise training has been shown to improve functional capacity and is recommended as a therapy for management of blood pressure. Our purpose was to establish whether different exercise capacity produces different effect size for Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Exercise characteristic is required in order to have optimal benefit from the training, but optimal exercise capacity is still unwarranted. A MEDLINE search (1985 to 2015) was conducted for exercise based rehabilitation trials in hypertensive patients. Thirty-seven studies met the selection criteria. Of these, 31 (83.7%) were aerobic exercise and 6 (16.3%) aerobic with additional resistance exercise, providing a total of 1318 exercise subjects and 819 control, the total of subjects was 2137. We calculated exercise volume and energy expenditure through the description of exercise characteristics. 4 studies (18.2%) were 451kcal - 900 kcal, 12 (54.5%) were 900 kcal – 1350 kcal and 6 (27.3%) >1351kcal per week. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) increased by mean difference of 1.44 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 1.79 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 21.2% for aerobic exercise compare to aerobic with additional resistance exercise 4.50 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.57 to 5.42 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 14.5%. SBP was clinically reduce for both aerobic and aerobic with resistance training by mean difference of -4.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.68 to -3.63 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 6% reduction and -5.06 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.32 to -2.8 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 5% reduction respectively. Result for DBP was clinically reduce for aerobic by mean difference of -1.62 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.09 to -1.15 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 4% reduction and aerobic with resistance training reduce by mean difference of -3.26 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.87 to -1.65 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 6% reduction. Optimum exercise capacity for 451 kcal – 900 kcal showed greater improvement in peak VO2 and SBP by 2.76 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47 to 4.05 ml/kg/min; p = 0.0001) with weighted mean 40.6% and -16.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -21.72 to -11.60 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 9.8% respectively. Our data demonstrated that aerobic exercise with total volume of 451 kcal – 900 kcal/ week energy expenditure may elicit greater changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Higher exercise capacity weekly does not seem better result in management hypertensive patients.

Keywords: blood Pressure, exercise, hypertension, peak VO2

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3157 Comparison Between Vegans and Omnivores on the Recovery of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Young Females

Authors: Njeim Pressila, Hajj-Boutros Guy, Antony D. Karelis

Abstract:

Background: Acute resistance exercise is associated with an elevated inflammation response, which could lead to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). There is evidence that suggests that ingesting foods that have anti-inflammation properties may help reduce DOMS. A vegan diet has also been shown to be an anti-inflammatory diet which could, in turn, decrease DOMS. Objective and hypothesis: The purpose of the present study will be to compare markers of DOMS between vegans and omnivores after acute resistance exercise in young females. We hypothesize that vegans will have a better recovery of DOMS markers after a resistance exercise session compared to omnivores. Methods: Population: We will recruit30 vegans and 30 omnivores to participate in this study. Allvolunteers will follow either a vegan or an omnivore diet for at least 2 years. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, musclestrength (leg and chest press), markers of DOMS (swelling, pain, and stiffness), and dietary factors, as well as a wellness and anxiety questionnaire will be measured. All participants will also perform an acute resistance exercise session in order to induce DOMS. Pertinence: This project will give us a better understanding on the recovery process of vegans after a resistance training session and, as such, provide useful information to health professionals and athletes/coaches (kinesiologists and nutritionists)

Keywords: vgeans, omnivores, delayed onset muscle soreness, pain, stifness

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3156 Comparing the Efficacy of Minimally Supervised Home-Based and Closely Supervised Gym Based Exercise Programs on Weight Reduction and Insulin Resistance after Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Haleh Dadgostar, Sara Kaviani, Hanieh Adib, Ali Mazaherinezhad, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Fahimeh Soheilipour, Abdolreza Pazouki

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Effectiveness of various exercise protocols in weight reduction after bariatric surgery has not been sufficiently explored in the literature. We compared the effect of minimally supervised home-based and closely supervised Gym based exercise programs on weight reduction and insulin resistance after bariatric surgery. Methods: Women undergoing gastric bypass surgery were invited to participate in an exercise program and were randomly allocated into two groups. They were either offered a minimally supervised home-based (MSHB) or closely supervised Gym-based (CSGB) exercise program. The CSGB protocol constitute two sessions per week of training under ACSM guidelines. In the MSHB protocol participants received a notebook containing a list of recommended aerobic and resistance exercises, a log to record their activity and a schedule of follow up phone calls and clinic visits. Both groups received a pedometer. We measured their weight, BMI, lipid profile, FBS, and insulin level at the baseline and after 20 weeks of exercise and were compared at the end of the study. Results: A total of 80 patients completed our study (MSHB=38 and CSGB=42). The baseline comparison showed that the two groups are similar. Using the ANCOVA method of analysis the mean change in BMI (covariate: BMI at the beginning of the study) was slightly better in CSGB compared with the MSHB (between-group mean difference: 3.33 (95%CI 4.718 to 1.943, F: 22.844 p < 0.001)). Conclusion: Our results showed that both MSHB and CSGB exercise methods are somewhat equally effective in improvement of studied factors in the two groups. With considerably lower costs of Minimally Supervised Home Based exercise programs, these methods should be considered when adequate funding are not available.

Keywords: postoperative exercise, insulin resistance, bariatric surgery, morbid obesity

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3155 Muscle Activation Comparisons in a Lat Pull down Exercise with Machine Weights, Resistance Bands and Body Weight Exercises

Authors: Trevor R. Higgins

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare muscle activation of the latissimus dorsi between pin-loaded machine (Lat Pull Down), resistance band (Lat Pull Down) and body-weight (Chin Up) exercises. A convenient sample of male college students with >2 years resistance training experience volunteered for the study. A paired t-test with repeated measures designs was carried out on results from EMG analysis. EMG analysis was conducted with Trigno wireless sensors (Delsys) placed laterally on the latissimus dorsi (left and right) of each participant. By conventional criteria the two-tailed P value suggested that differences between pin-loaded and body-weight was not significantly different (p = 0.93) and differences between pin-loaded and resistance band was not significantly different (p = 0.17) in muscle activity. In relation to conventional criteria the two-tailed P value suggested differences between body-weight and resistance band was not quite significantly different (p = 0.06) in muscle activity. However, effect size trends indicated that both body-weight and pin-loaded exercises where more effective in stimulating muscle electrical activity than a resistance band with male college athletes with >2 years resistance training experience. Although, resistance bands have increased in popularity in health and fitness centres, that for well-trained participants, they may not be effective in stimulating muscles of the latissimus dorsi. Therefore, when considering equipment and exercise selection for experienced resistance training participants pin-loaded machines and body-weight should be prescribed.

Keywords: pin-loaded, resistance bands, body weight, EMG analysis

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3154 The Effect of Different Patterns of Upper, Lower and Whole Body Resistance Exercise Training on Systemic and Vascular Inflammatory Factors in Healthy Untrained Women

Authors: Leyla Sattarzadeh, Shahin Fathi Molk Kian, Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammadali Azarbaijani, Hasan Matin Homaee

Abstract:

Inflammation by various mechanisms may cause atherosclerosis. Systemic circulating inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular inflammatory markers as adhesion molecules like Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are the predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the conflicting results about the effect of different patterns of resistance exercise training on these inflammatory markers, present study aimed to examine the effect of different patterns of eight week resistance exercise training on CRP, IL-6, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in healthy untrained women. 56 healthy volunteered untrained female university students (aged: 21 ± 3 yr., Body Mass Index: 21.5 ± 3.5 kg/m²) were selected purposefully and divided into four groups. At the end of training protocol and after subject drop during the protocol, upper body exercise training (n=11), lower body (n=12) and whole body resistance exercise training group (n=11) completed the eight weeks of training period although the control group (n=7) did anything. Blood samples gathered pre and post-experimental period and CRP, IL-6, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were evaluated using special laboratory kits, then the difference of pre and post values of each indices analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (α < 0.05). The results of one way ANOVA for difference of pre and post values of CRP, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 showed no significant changes due to the exercise training, but there were significant differences between groups about IL-6. Tukey post- hoc test indicated that there is significant difference between the differences of pre and post values of IL-6 between lower body exercise training group and control group, and eight weeks of lower body exercise training lead to significant changes in IL-6 values. There were no changes in anthropometric indices. The findings show that the different patterns of upper, lower and whole body exercise training by involving the different amounts of muscles altered the IL-6 values in lower body exercise training group probably because of engaging the bigger amount of muscles, but showed any significant changes about CRP, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 probably due to intensity and duration of exercise or the lower levels of these markers at baseline of healthy people.

Keywords: resistance training, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

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3153 The Effect of Resistance and Progressive Training on Hsp 70 and Glucose

Authors: F. Nameni, H. Poursadra

Abstract:

The present study investigated resistance and progressive training alters the expression of chaperone proteins. These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury, and provide protection. Nineteen training female in 2 groups taking part in the intervention volunteered to give blood samples. Levels of chaperone proteins were measured in response to resistance and progressive training. Hsp 70 levels were increased immediately after 2 h progressive training but decreased after resistance training. The data showed that human skeletal muscle responds to the stress of a single period of progressive training by up-regulating and resistance training by down-regulating expression of HSP70. Physical exercise can elevate core temperature and muscle temperatures and the expression pattern of HSP70 due to training status may be attributed to adaptive mechanisms.

Keywords: resistance training, heat shock proteins, leukocytes, Hsp 70

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3152 The Effect of Two Methods of Upper and Lower Resistance Exercise Training on C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-6 and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Healthy Untrained Women

Authors: Leyla Sattarzadeh, Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammadali Azarbaijani, Hasan Matin Homaee

Abstract:

Inflammation by various mechanisms may cause atherosclerosis. Systemic circulating inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and adhesion molecules like Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are the predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the conflicting results about the effect of resistance exercise training on these inflammatory markers, the present study aimed to examine the effect of eight week different patterns of resistance exercise training on CRP, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels in healthy untrained women. 40 volunteered and healthy untrained female university students (aged: 21+ 3 yr., Body Mass Index: 21.5+ 3.5 kg/m2) were selected purposefully and divided into three groups. At the end of training protocol and after subjects drop during the protocol in upper body exercise training (n=11), lower body (n=12) completed the eight week of training period although the control group (n=7) did anything. Blood samples gathered pre and post experimental period and CRP, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels were evaluated using special laboratory kits, then the difference of pre and post values of each indices analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (α < 0.05). The results of one way ANOVA for difference of pre and post values of CRP and ICAM-1 showed no significant changes due to the exercise training. But there were significant differences between groups about IL-6. Tukey post- hoc test indicated that there is significant difference between the differences of pre and post values of IL-6 between lower body exercise training group and control group, and eight weeks of lower body exercise training lead to significant changes in IL-6 values. There were no changes in anthropometric indices. The findings show that the different patterns of upper and lower body exercise training by involving the different amount of muscles altered the IL-6 values in lower body exercise training group probably because of engaging the bigger amount of muscles, but showed any significant changes about CRP and ICAM-1 probably due to intensity and duration of exercise or the lower levels of these markers at baseline of healthy people.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, resistance training

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3151 Effects of Aerobic, Resistance, and Concurrent Training on Secretion of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Elderly Women

Authors: Kh Jalali Dehkordi, A. Jalali Dehkordi, A. Tofighi

Abstract:

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic, resistance, and concurrent training on secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in elderly women. Methods: A total number of 60 elderly women were randomly allocated to four groups of aerobic training (n = 15), resistance training (n = 15), concurrent training (n = 15), and control (n = 15). Blood samples were taken before and 4 weeks after the initiation of exercise training and also at the end of the 8-week course of training. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2Peak) was measured after 48 hours using Rockport walk test. Inferential analysis of the collected data was performed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were further evaluated by the least significant difference (LSD) test. The relation between VO2Peak and secretion of GH and IGF-1 was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The significance level was considered as P ≤ 0.05 in all tests. Findings: The results showed that 8 weeks of regular exercise significantly increased levels of GH and IGF-1. A significant increase was also observed in VO2Peak values after 8 weeks of regular exercise (P < 0.05). VO2Peak was directly correlated with GH and IGF (P < 0.001, r = 0.72). Conclusion: In conclusion, regular exercise significantly increased levels of anabolic hormones. Moreover, the combined-exercise training better enhanced GH and IGF-1. VO2Peak increased with increases in GH and IGF-1 levels.

Keywords: women, training, GH, IGF-1

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3150 The Effect of Strength Training and Consumption of Glutamine Supplement on GH/IGF1 Axis

Authors: Alireza Barari

Abstract:

Physical activity and diet are factors that influence the body's structure. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of four weeks of resistance training, and glutamine supplement consumption on growth hormone (GH), and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) Axis. 40 amateur male bodybuilders, participated in this study. They were randomly divided into four equal groups, Resistance (R), Glutamine (G), Resistance with Glutamine (RG), and Control (C). The R group was assigned to a four week resistance training program, three times/week, three sets of 10 exercises with 6-10 repetitions, at the 80-95% 1RM (One Repetition Maximum), with 120 seconds rest between sets), G group is consuming l-glutamine (0.1 g/kg-1/day-1), RG group resistance training with consuming L-glutamine, and C group continued their normal lifestyle without exercise training. GH, IGF1, IGFBP-III plasma levels were measured before and after the protocol. One-way ANOVA indicated significant change in GH, IGF, and IGFBP-III between the four groups, and the Tukey test demonstrated significant increase in GH, IGF1, IGFBP-III plasma levels in R, and RG group. Based upon these findings, we concluded that resistance training at 80-95% 1RM intensity, and resistance training along with oral glutamine shows significantly increase secretion of GH, IGF-1, and IGFBP-III in amateur males, but the addition of oral glutamine to the exercise program did not show significant difference in GH, IGF-1, and IGFBP-III.

Keywords: strength, glutamine, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1

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3149 Resistance Training Contribution to the Aerobic Component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines in Adults

Authors: Neha Bharti, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard

Abstract:

Mostly attributed to lack of time, only 15% of adults currently reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines, which state that every adult should achieve minimum of 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week at moderate to vigorous intensity in minimum bouts of 10 minutes each, in addition to two days of resistance training. Recent studies have suggested that any bout of aerobic exercise reaching moderate intensity has potential to improve health. If one could reach moderate intensity while doing resistance training, this could reduce the total weekly time involvement to reach the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Objectives: 1) To determine whether overweight and older adults can reach a minimum of moderate intensity while doing resistance training compared with young non-overweight adults, 2) To identify if the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity is different in overweight adults and older adults when compared with young non-overweight adults when lifting 70% or 80% of maximal load, 3) To determine variables associated with proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity while doing resistance training. Methods: Sixty participants already doing resistance training were recruited (20 young non-overweight adults, 20 overweight adults, and 20 older adults). Participants visited fitness facility three times, separated by at least 48 hours, and performed eight resistance exercises each time. First visit was to collect baseline measurements and to measure maximal load for each of the eight exercises. Second and third visits were performed wearing a heart rate monitor to record heart rate and to measure exercise intensity. The two exercise sessions were performed at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity. Moderate intensity was defined as 40% of heart rate reserve. Results: The proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity ranged from 51% to 93% among the three groups. No difference was observed between the young group and the overweight adults group in the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity, 82.6% (69.2-94.6) vs 92.5% (73.3-99.1). However, older adults spent lower proportion of time at moderate to vigorous intensity for both sessions 51.5% (22.0-86.6); P < .01. When doing resistance training at 70% and 80% of maximal capacity, the proportion of time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was 82.3% (56.1-94.7) and 82.0% (59.2-98.0) with no significant difference (P=.83). Conclusion: This study suggests that overweight adults and older adults can reach moderate intensity for at least 51% of the time spent doing resistance training. However, time spent at moderate to vigorous intensity was lower for older adults compared to young non-overweight adults. For adults aged 60 or less, three resistance training sessions of 60 minutes weekly could be enough to reach both aerobic and resistance training components of the International Physical Activity Guidelines. Further research is needed to test if resistance training at moderate to vigorous intensity can have the same health benefits compared with adults completing the International Physical Activity Guidelines as currently suggested.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, international physical activity guidelines, moderate to vigorous intensity, resistance training

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3148 Glutamine Supplementation and Resistance Traning on Anthropometric Indices, Immunoglobulins, and Cortisol Levels

Authors: Alireza Barari, Saeed Shirali, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Introduction: Exercise has contradictory effects on the immune system. Glutamine supplementation may increase the resistance of the immune system in athletes. The Glutamine is one of the most recognized immune nutrients that as a fuel source, substrate in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids and is also known to be part of the antioxidant defense. Several studies have shown that improving glutamine levels in plasma and tissues can have beneficial effects on the function of immune cells such as lymphocytes and neutrophils. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resistance training and training combined with glutamine supplementation to improve the levels of cortisol and immunoglobulin in untrained young men. The research shows that physical training can increase the cytokines in the athlete’s body of course; glutamine can counteract the negative effects of resistance training on immune function and stability of the mast cell membrane. Materials and methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted on 30 male non-athletes. They were randomly divided into three groups: control (no exercise), resistance training, resistance training and glutamine supplementation, respectively. Resistance training for 4 weeks and glutamine supplementation in 0.3 gr/kg/day after practice was applied. The resistance-training program consisted of eight exercises (leg press, lat pull, chest press, squat, seatedrow, abdominal crunch, shoulder press, biceps curl and triceps press down) four times per week. Participants performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 60–75% 1-RM. Anthropometry indexes (weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage), oxygen uptake (VO2max) Maximal, cortisol levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) were evaluated Pre- and post-test. Results: Results showed four week resistance training with and without glutamine cause significant increase in body weight, BMI and significantly decreased (P < 0/001) in BF. Vo2max also increased in both groups of exercise (P < 0/05) and exercise with glutamine (P < 0/001), such as in both groups significant reduction in IgG (P < 0/05) was observed. But no significant difference observed in levels of cortisol, IgA, IgM in any of the groups. No significant change observed in either parameter in the control group. No significant difference observed between the groups. Discussion: The alterations in the hormonal and immunological parameters can be used in order to assess the effect overload on the body, whether acute or chronically. The plasmatic concentration of glutamine has been associated to the functionality of the immunological system in individuals sub-mitted to intense physical training. resistance training has destructive effects on the immune system and glutamine supplementation cannot neutralize the damaging effects of power exercise on the immune system.

Keywords: glutamine, resistance traning, immuglobulins, cortisol

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3147 Effect of 10 Weeks of Aerobic Exercise Training on Serum Concentrations of Surfactant Protein D and Insulin Resistance in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Sajjad Rezaei, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Azadeh Jamali

Abstract:

Background and purpose: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a lung-specific protein that is detectable in human plasma. Effect of exercise training on SP-D levels as well as its relation to metabolic indices is not known. The present study then aimed to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic training on serum levels of SP-D and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: Twenty-two overweight women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited through deliberate sampling and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (11 in each group). The intervention group underwent a progressive aerobic training program for 10 weeks, 3 days per week, 30-55 min/day at 50-75% heart rate reserve (HRR). Control group continued with its everyday routine. Blood samples were obtained before and after training for biochemical analysis. Within-group and between-group differences were analyzed with paired and independent t-tests in spss software, respectively, and the relation between variables was analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (all at P = 0.05). Results: Significant differences were observed between groups in leptin, glucose, waist circumference and VO2 max after training. SP-D was decreased and VO2 max was increased significantly in intervention group. However, no significant correlation was observed between SP-D and other variables. Conclusion: Since there was no corresponding decrease in insulin resistance with decreased levels of SP-D, it seems unlikely for SP-D to mediate the association between obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics.

Keywords: exercise training, SP-D, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

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3146 Effects of Elastic, Plyometric and Strength Training on Selected Anaerobic Factors in Sanandaj Elite Volleyball Players

Authors: Majed Zobairy, Fardin Kalvandi, Kamal Azizbaigi

Abstract:

This research was carried out for evaluation of elastic, plyometric and resistance training on selected anaerobic factors in men volleyball players. For these reason 30 elite volleyball players of Sanandaj city randomly divided into 3 groups as follow: elastic training, plyometric training and resistance training. Pre-exercise tests which include vertical jumping, 50 yard speed running and scat test were done and data were recorded. Specific exercise protocol regimen was done for each group and then post-exercise tests again were done. Data analysis showed that there were significant increases in exercise test in each group. One way ANOVA analysis showed that increases in speed records in elastic group were significantly higher than the other groups (p<0/05),based on research data it seems that elastic training can be a useful method and new approach in improving functional test and training regimen.

Keywords: elastic training, plyometric training, strength training, anaerobic power

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3145 Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Chronic Exercise and Myocytic Androgen Receptor Overexpression on Body Composition in Sprague dawley Rats

Authors: Sabrina Barsky, Ashley Monks

Abstract:

In humans, exercise improves symptoms of various pathological states, although exercise adaptations seem to differ in response to sex. Skeletal muscle anabolism is thought to be regulated by androgen receptor (AR) through poorly specified mechanisms. Interactions of AR and exercise on muscle phenotype remain inconclusive in males, and undetermined in females. We hypothesized that sex differences in exercise adaptations are regulated by the androgenic system and the type of exercise performed. Here we examined interactions between a muscle-specific AR overexpression transgene (HSA-AR) and forced aerobic exercise paradigm on muscle and adipose exercise adaptation in male and female rats. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to examine body composition adaptations post 9-week exercise protocol. We replicated the effects of HSA-AR on body composition, with males only having increased % lean mass and reduced % fat mass (P<0.05). Aerobic exercise improved lean body phenotype significantly, with lesser indices of total and % fat mass (P<0.01) in both sexes. Sex-specific effects of exercise included decreased total body mass (P<0.01) in males and increased lean mass % (P<0.001) in females. Surprisingly, neither AR manipulation nor exercise affected bone parameters in either sex. This varied response in total mass and lean mass according to exercise presents a sexually dimorphic response to exercise. Neither sex showed an interaction between HSA-AR and forced aerobic exercise on body composition. Future work is proposed to examine the effects of exercise type (aerobic versus resistance) and the role of gonadal androgens in sexually dimorphic exercise-mediated mitochondrial adaptations. This work implicates the development of sex-specific exercise therapies.

Keywords: androgen receptor, forced exercise, muscle physiology, sexual dimorphism

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3144 Muscle Neurotrophins Family Response to Resistance Exercise

Authors: Rasoul Eslami, Reza Gharakhanlou

Abstract:

NT-4/5 and TrkB have been proposed to be involved in the coordinated adaptations of the neuromuscular system to elevated level of activity. Despite the persistence of this neurotrophin and its receptor expression in adult skeletal muscle, little attention has been paid to the functional significance of this complex in the mature neuromuscular system. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the effect of one session of resistance exercise on mRNA expression of NT4/5 and TrkB proteins in slow and fast muscles of Wistar Rats. Male Wistar rats (10 mo of age, preparation of Pasteur Institute) were housed under similar living conditions in cages (in groups of four) at room temperature under a controlled light/dark (12-h) cycle with ad libitum access to food and water. A number of sixteen rats were randomly divided to two groups (resistance exercise (T) and control (C); n=8 for each group). The resistance training protocol consisted of climbing a 1-meter–long ladder, with a weight attached to a tail sleeve. Twenty-four hours following the main training session, rats of T and C groups were anaesthetized and the right soleus and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscles were removed under sterile conditions via an incision on the dorsolateral aspect of the hind limb. For NT-4/5 and TrkB expression, quantitative real time RT-PCR was used. SPSS software and independent-samples t-test were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Data indicate that resistance training significantly (P<0.05) decreased mRNA expression of NT4/5 in soleus muscle. However, no significant alteration was detected in FHL muscle (P>0.05). Our results also indicate that no significant alterations were detected for TrkB mRNA expression in soleus and FHL muscles (P>0.05). Decrease in mRNA expression of NT4/5 in soleus muscle may be as result of post-translation regulation following resistance training. Also, non-alteration in TrkB mRNA expression was indicated in probable roll of P75 receptor.

Keywords: neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5), TrkB receptor, resistance training, slow and fast muscles

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3143 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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3142 The Effect of High Intensity by Intervals Training on Plasma Interleukin 13 and Insulin Resistance in Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Authors: Goodarzvand Fatemeh, Soori Rahman, Effatpanah Mohammad, Ajbarnejad Ali

Abstract:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of developmentally inappropriate inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive behaviors that typically begin during the preschool ages and often persist into adulthood. This disorder is related to autism and schizophrenia and other psychological disorders and clinical conditions such as insulin resistance and they may operate through common pathways, and treatments used exclusively for one of these conditions may prove beneficial for the others. While ADHD is not fully understood as developmental disorder with an etiopathogeny, but studies show that core symptom of disorder was associated with and increased by the interleukins IL-13, where relation of IL-13 with inattention was notable. Regular exercise improves functions associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the impact of exercise on cytokines associated with the disease activity remains relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6 weeks high intensity by intervals training (HIIT) on IL-13 levels and insulin resistance in boys with ADHD. Twenty eight boys with ADHD disease in a range of 12-18 year of old participated in this study as the subject. Subjects were divided into control group (n=10) and training group (n=18) randomly. The training group performed progressive HIIT program, 3 days a week for 6 weeks. The control group was in absolute rest at the same time. The results showed that after six weeks of HIIT, IL-13 decreased in the exercise group and these changes achieved (p= 0.002) statistical significance (p < 0.005). The results suggest HIIT with specific intensity and duration utilized in this study had not significant effect on insulin resistance levels in female patients with ADHD (p=0.39), while the difference in the average control and case group was decreased.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, interleukin 13, insulin resistance, high intensity by intervals training

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3141 Paramedic Strength and Flexibility: Findings of a 6-Month Workplace Exercise Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Jayden R. Hunter, Alexander J. MacQuarrie, Samantha C. Sheridan, Richard High, Carolyn Waite

Abstract:

Workplace exercise programs have been recommended to improve the musculoskeletal fitness of paramedics with the aim of reducing injury rates, and while they have shown efficacy in other occupations, they have not been delivered and evaluated in Australian paramedics to our best knowledge. This study investigated the effectiveness of a 6-month workplace exercise program (MedicFit; MF) to improve paramedic fitness with or without health coach (HC) support. A group of regional Australian paramedics (n=76; 43 male; mean ± SD 36.5 ± 9.1 years; BMI 28.0 ± 5.4 kg/m²) were randomised at the station level to either exercise with remote health coach support (MFHC; n=30), exercise without health coach support (MF; n=23), or no-exercise control (CON; n=23) groups. MFHC and MF participants received a 6-month, low-moderate intensity resistance and flexibility exercise program to be performed ƒ on station without direct supervision. Available exercise equipment included dumbbells, resistance bands, Swiss balls, medicine balls, kettlebells, BOSU balls, yoga mats, and foam rollers. MFHC and MF participants were also provided with a comprehensive exercise manual including sample exercise sessions aimed at improving musculoskeletal strength and flexibility which included exercise prescription (i.e. sets, reps, duration, load). Changes to upper-body (push-ups), lower-body (wall squat) and core (plank hold) strength and flexibility (back scratch and sit-reach tests) after the 6-month intervention were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA to compare changes between groups and over time. Upper-body (+20.6%; p < 0.01; partial eta squared = 0.34 [large effect]) and lower-body (+40.8%; p < 0.05; partial eta squared = 0.08 (moderate effect)) strength increased significantly with no interaction or group effects. Changes to core strength (+1.4%; p=0.17) and both upper-body (+19.5%; p=0.56) and lower-body (+3.3%; p=0.15) flexibility were non-significant with no interaction or group effects observed. While upper- and lower-body strength improved over the course of the intervention, providing a 6-month workplace exercise program with or without health coach support did not confer any greater strength or flexibility benefits than exercise testing alone (CON). Although exercise adherence was not measured, it is possible that participants require additional methods of support such as face-to-face exercise instruction and guidance and individually-tailored exercise programs to achieve adequate participation and improvements in musculoskeletal fitness. This presents challenges for more remote paramedic stations without regular face-to-face access to suitably qualified exercise professionals, and future research should investigate the effectiveness of other forms of exercise delivery and guidance for these paramedic officers such as remotely-facilitated digital exercise prescription and monitoring.

Keywords: workplace exercise, paramedic health, strength training, flexibility training

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3140 Effect of Post Circuit Resistance Exercise Glucose Feeding on Energy and Hormonal Indexes in Plasma and Lymphocyte in Free-Style Wrestlers

Authors: Miesam Golzadeh Gangraj, Younes Parvasi, Mohammad Ghasemi, Ahmad Abdi, Saeid Fazelifar

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of glucose feeding on energy and hormonal indexes in plasma and lymphocyte immediately after wrestling – base techniques circuit exercise (WBTCE) in young male freestyle wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers (weight = 75/45 ± 12/92 kg, age = 22/29 ± 0/90 years, BMI = 26/23 ± 2/64 kg/m²) were randomly divided into two groups: control (water), glucose (2 gr per kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately, and 90 minutes of the post-exercise recovery period. Glucose (2 g/kg of body weight, 1W/5V) and water (equal volumes) solutions were given immediately after the second blood sampling. Data were analyzed by using an ANOVA (a repeated measure) and a suitable post hoc test (LSD). A significant decrease was observed in lymphocytes glycogen immediately after exercise (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, increase Lymphocyte glycogen concentration (P < 0.028) than in the control group in 90 min post-exercise. Plasma glucose concentrations increased in all groups immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin concentrations in both groups decreased immediately after exercise, but at 90 min after exercise, its level was significantly increased only in glucose group (P < 0.001). Our results suggested that WBTCE protocol could be affected cellular energy sources and hormonal response. Furthermore, Glucose consumption can increase the lymphocyte glycogen and better energy within the cell.

Keywords: glucose feeding, lymphocyte, Wrestling – base techniques circuit , exercise

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3139 Effect of Oral Immonoglobulin (IgY) Ingestion on Post Exercise Muscle Soreness and Muscle Damage Markers in Females

Authors: Bert H. Jacobson, Taylor Monaghan, John Sellers

Abstract:

Intense resistance-type activity generally elicits delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in individuals unaccustomed to such action. DOMS is a combination of contractile tissue microtrauma, osmotic pressure changes, alteration calcium regulation, and inflammation. Elevated muscle-specific enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is a marker of striated muscle damage. Avian immunoglobulin (IgY) mediates inflammation and may thereby reduce post-exercise DOMS. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral IgY and placebo (Pl) on CK, serum relevels, and perceived pain following induced DOMS. Methods: Healthy college-aged females (N=16) were randomly divided into an experimental group (IgY) and a control group (PL). CK serum levels were recorded followed by 14 days of supplementation of either IgY or Pl at the following doses: days 1-2 =4.5 g, days 3-5 =9.0 g, and days 6-14 =13.5 g. Following the 14 d, lower limb DOMS was induced using two methods of resistance training. After 48 hours, subjects reported for a second blood draw. Results: One-way ANOVA resulted in the IgY group posting significantly less (p < 0.05) serum CK than the PL group. Furthermore, the IgY group experienced significantly less post-test perceived soreness than the Pl group. Conclusion: IgY supplementation lessens muscle CK levels and perceived muscle soreness following exercise, possibly due to an anti-inflammatory effect. It was suggested that IgY may serve as a buffer for DOMS thereby allowing the participant to continue vigorous exercise without discomfort.

Keywords: muscle, soreness, damage, serum

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