Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: hypogonadism

7 Comparing of Hypogonadism Frequency between Metabolic Syndrome Men with Normal Men

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Bahman Ghaderian, Homeira Rashidi, Mahmoud Mapar

Abstract:

Background and Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is considered the most important public health threat of the 21st century. This syndrome is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including increased central abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein, high blood pressure, increased fasting glucose, and hyperinsulinemia. MetS has been associated with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED), and MetS may be considered a risk factor for ED. The aim of this study was finding an association between metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism in Khouzestan, Iran. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 60 patients divided into two groups consisted of 30 cases (with metabolic syndrome) and 30 controls. Total and free Serum Testosterone and FBS in all of them were measured. Data was analyzed with SPSS20 program. Results: There was a significant difference between two groups about free Testosterone (P=0.01), FBS (P=0.002) and LH (P=0.03). Conclusion: According to this finding, it is thought the prevalence of hypogonadism in men with metabolic syndrome is more than the general population.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, fasting blood sugar, hypogonadism, testosterone

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6 The Effect of Malaria Parasitaemia on Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels of Asymptomatic HIV Subjects in Nauth Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ezeugwunne Ifeoma Priscilla, Charles Chinedum Onyenekwe, Joseph Eberendu Ahaneku, Rosemary Adanma Analike, Adesuwa Peace Eidangbe

Abstract:

This study was designed to assess the effect of malaria parasitaemia on serum reproductive hormone levels of asymptomatic HIV adult subjects. A total of 271 participants aged between 17 and 58 ears were conveniently recruited. 135 asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects participated in the study; 67 of them had malaria parasitaemia. 136 HIV seropositive control subjects, 68 of them had malaria parasitaemia. Blood samples were collected from the participants for the determination of HIV status by immunoassay and immunochromatography. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assay for serum LH, FSH, Estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, and PSA levels, CD4+T cell counts by Cyflow method, thick and thin films determination of malaria parasitaemia count and density by WHO. Student's t-tests and ANOVA were used to compare means. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed significant differences in serum levels of LH, FSH, PSA, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone amongst the groups at P<0.05, respectively. The serum levels of LH, FSH, and PSA were significantly higher in malaria-infected asymptomatic HIV subjects than in asymptomatic HIV subjects with malaria parasitaemia (P<0.05 in each case). Also, the serum levels of LH, FSH, PSA, estrogen, and progesterone were significantly higher in malaria-infected asymptomatic HIV subjects compared with malaria-infected HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, respectively). The mean MP counts and MP density were significantly higher in asymptomatic HIV subjects compared to HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, in each case). The mean serum levels of testosterone were significantly lower in both malaria-infected and malaria uninfected HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, in each case). In conclusion, Malaria and HIV co-infection might increase the burden of hypogonadism as well as primary testicular failure, hyperprogesteronaemia, elevated levels of estrogen, and PSA in adult males asymptomatic HIV subjects.

Keywords: malaria parasitaemia, HIV, CD4, reproductive hormones

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5 Dependence of Androgen Status in Men with Primary Hypothyroidism on Duration and Condition of Compensation

Authors: Krytskyy T.

Abstract:

Introduction: The role of androgen deficiency in men as a factor in the pathogenesis of many somatic diseases is unmistakable. The interaction of thyroid and sex hormones with hypothyroidism in men is still the subject of discussions. The purpose of the study is to assess the androgen status of men with primary hypothyroidism, depending on its duration and the state of compensation. Materials and methods: 45 men with primary hypothyroidism aged 35 to 60 years, as well as 25 healthy men, who formed a control group, were under supervision. A selection of men for examination was conducted in the process of outpatient and in-patient treatment at the endocrinology department of the University Hospital in Ternopil. The functional state of the pituitary-gonadal system was evaluated in order to characterize the androgen status of patients. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone was determined in blood with the help of enzyme-linked method. Also, the content of hormones: total testosterone, linking sex hormones globulin were determined. Results: Reduced total testosterone (TT) content was found in 42.2% of patients with hypothyroidism. Herewith in 17.8% of patients, blood TT levels were lower than 8.0 nmol / L, and in 11 (24.4%) men, the rate was in the range of 8.0 to 12.0 nmol / L. Based on the results of the determination of the content of free testosterone (FT), the frequency of laboratory hypogonadism in men with hypothyroidism was higher than the results of the determination of TT. The degree of compensation of hypothyroidism probably did not affect the average levels of gonadotropic and sex hormones. Conclusions: Reduced total testosterone content was found in 42.2% of patients with primary hypothyroidism. Herewith, in 17.8% of patients blood TT levels were lower than 8.0 nmol / L, which is a sign of absolute deficiency of testosterone, and in 24.4% of men the rate ranged from 8.0 to 12.0 nmol / l , indicating partial androgen deficiency. Linking sex hormones globulin levels were believed to be lower in 46.7% of patients with hypothyroidism compared to control group. The average levels of E2 in the examined patients did not significantly differ from the mean of control group. FSH, LH, and prolactin levels in men with hypothyroidism were within the normal age limits and probably did not differ from those of control group. The degree of compensation of hypothyroidism probably did not affect the average levels of gonadotropic and sex hormones. The mean LH content in the blood was significantly increased in men with a duration of hypothyroidism up to 5 years and did not differ from that of the control group and in men with a duration of hypothyroidism over 5 years. In men with hypothyroidism, a probable reduction in T / LH coefficient is found. The obtained data may indicate a combined lesion of the central and peripheral parts of the pituitary-gonadal system in men with hypothyroidism.

Keywords: androgenic status, hypothyroidism, testosterone, linking sex hormones globulin

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4 Contributory Antioxidant Role of Testosterone and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Males Exposed to Mixed Chemicals in an Automobile Repair Community

Authors: Saheed A. Adekola, Mabel A. Charles-Davies, Ridwan A. Adekola

Abstract:

Background: Testosterone is a known androgenic and anabolic steroid, primarily secreted in the testes. It plays an important role in the development of testes and prostate and has a range of biological actions. There is evidence that exposure to mixed chemicals in the workplace leads to the generation of free radicals and inadequate antioxidants leading to oxidative stress, which may serve as an early indicator of a pathophysiologic state. Based on findings, testosterone shows direct antioxidant effects by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, thus indirectly contributing to antioxidant capacity. Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant role of testosterone as well as the relationship between testosterone and oxidative stress biomarkers in males exposed to mixed chemicals in the automobile repair community. Methods: The study included 43 participants aged 22- 60years exposed to mixed chemicals (EMC) from the automobile repair community. Forty (40) apparently healthy, unexposed, age-matched controls were recruited after informed consent. Demographic, sexual and anthropometric characteristics were obtained from pre-test structured questionnaires using standard methods. Blood samples (10mls) were collected from each subject into plain bottles and sera obtained were used for biochemical analyses. Serum levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by enzyme immunoassay method, EIA (Immunometrics UK.LTD). Levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total plasma peroxide (TPP), Malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione peroxide (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined using spectrophotometric methods respectively. Results obtained were analyzed using the Student’s t-test and Chi-square test for quantitative variables and qualitative variables respectively. Multiple regression was used to find associations and relationships between the variables. Results: Significant higher concentrations of TPP, MDA, OSI, H2O2 and GST were observed in EMC compared with controls (p < 0.001). Within EMC, significantly higher levels of testosterone, LH and TAC were observed in eugonadic when compared with hypogonadic participants (p < 0.001). Diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, waist height ratio and waist hip ratio were significantly higher in participants EMC compared with the controls. Sexual history and dietary intake showed that the controls had normal erection during sex and took more vegetables in their diet which may therefore be beneficial. Conclusion: The significantly increased levels of total antioxidant capacity in males exposed to mixed chemicals despite their exposure may probably reflect the contributory antioxidant role testosterone that prevents oxidative stress.

Keywords: mixed chemicals, oxidative stress, antioxidant, hypogonadism testosterone

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3 Effects of Butea superba Roxb. on Skeletal Muscle Functions and Parvalbumin Levels of Orchidectomized Rat

Authors: Surapong Vongvatcharanon, Fardeela Binalee, Wandee Udomuksorn, Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Uraporn Vongvatcharanon

Abstract:

Hypogonadism is characterized by a decline in sex hormone levels, especially testosterone. It has been shown to be an important contributor to the decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength and performance, a condition known as sarcopenia. Preparations from Butea superba Roxb. (red Kwao Krua) have been reported to have androgenic properties. The active compounds are proposed to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. Treatment with B. superba has been shown to improve erectile dysfunction in males. Parvalbumin (PV) is a relaxing factor and identified in fast twitch fibers. Alterations of the PV levels affects skeletal muscle functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of orhchidectomy, testosterone replacement and different doses of Butea superba Roxb. on the structure, performance, levels of parvalbumin, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius muscles of orchidectomized rats. Twelve-week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomized (BS-0), orchidectomized group that was treated with testosterone replacement of 6 µg/kg (TP) or an orchidectomized group that was treated with various doses of an extract from Butea superba Roxb.; 5 mg/kg (BS-5), 50 mg/kg (BS-50) and 500 mg/kg (BS-500) all for 90 days. The testosterone level, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight, muscle fiber size, strength and endurance in both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle were decreased in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group. Treatment with the B. superba Roxb. extract replacement group improved muscle fiber size, strength and endurance, but not total testosterone levels, or the epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight. Furthermore, the parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities were reduced in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group and the B. superba Roxb. extract groups for both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle. This study indicated that the reduction of testosterone level led to a decrease of the androgen receptor density resulting in a decline in the muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The decrease of parvalbumin levels affected muscle performance. Testosterone replacement increased the androgen receptor density and led to an increase of muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The increase in the parvalbumin levels may result in an improvement of muscle performance. This may explain one mechanism of testosterone on muscle mass and strength in the testosterone dependent sarcopenia. The B. superba Roxb. extract groups also had improved muscle mass, strength and endurance, parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen immunoreactivities compared to the BS-O group . Butea superba Roxb. Extracts contains a flavonoid (3, 7, 3'-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone), flavonoiglycoside (3, 3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and isoflavanolignans (butesuperins A and butesuperins B) all known to inhibit the cAMP phosphodiesterase enzyme. Therefore, cAMP signaling may have adaptive effects on skeletal muscle by increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance.

Keywords: Butea superba, parvalbumin, skeletal muscle, orchidectomy

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2 Understanding Different Facets of Chromosome Abnormalities: A 17-year Cytogenetic Study and Indian Perspectives

Authors: Lakshmi Rao Kandukuri, Mamata Deenadayal, Suma Prasad, Bipin Sethi, Srinadh Buragadda, Lalji Singh

Abstract:

Worldwide; at least 7.6 million children are born annually with severe genetic or congenital malformations and among them 90% of these are born in mid and low-income countries. Precise prevalence data are difficult to collect, especially in developing countries, owing to the great diversity of conditions and also because many cases remain undiagnosed. The genetic and congenital disorder is the second most common cause of infant and childhood mortality and occurs with a prevalence of 25-60 per 1000 births. The higher prevalence of genetic diseases in a particular community may, however, be due to some social or cultural factors. Such factors include the tradition of consanguineous marriage, which results in a higher rate of autosomal recessive conditions including congenital malformations, stillbirths, or mental retardation. Genetic diseases can vary in severity, from being fatal before birth to requiring continuous management; their onset covers all life stages from infancy to old age. Those presenting at birth are particularly burdensome and may cause early death or life-long chronic morbidity. Genetic testing for several genetic diseases identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Several hundred genetic tests are currently in use and more are being developed. Chromosomal abnormalities are the major cause of human suffering, which are implicated in mental retardation, congenital malformations, dysmorphic features, primary and secondary amenorrhea, reproductive wastage, infertility neoplastic diseases. Cytogenetic evaluation of patients is helpful in the counselling and management of affected individuals and families. We present here especially chromosomal abnormalities which form a major part of genetic disease burden in India. Different programmes on chromosome research and human reproductive genetics primarily relate to infertility since this is a major public health problem in our country, affecting 10-15 percent of couples. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in high-risk pregnancies helps in detecting chromosomally abnormal foetuses. Such couples are counselled regarding the continuation of pregnancy. In addition to the basic research, the team is providing chromosome diagnostic services that include conventional and advanced techniques for identifying various genetic defects. Other than routine chromosome diagnosis for infertility, also include patients with short stature, hypogonadism, undescended testis, microcephaly, delayed developmental milestones, familial, and isolated mental retardation, and cerebral palsy. Thus, chromosome diagnostics has found its applicability not only in disease prevention and management but also in guiding the clinicians in certain aspects of treatment. It would be appropriate to affirm that chromosomes are the images of life and they unequivocally mirror the states of human health. The importance of genetic counseling is increasing with the advancement in the field of genetics. The genetic counseling can help families to cope with emotional, psychological, and medical consequences of genetic diseases.

Keywords: India, chromosome abnormalities, genetic disorders, cytogenetic study

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1 Erectile Dysfunction in A Middle Aged Man 6 Years After Bariatric Surgery: A Case Report

Authors: Thaminda Liyanage, Chamila Shamika Kurukulasuriya

Abstract:

Introduction: Morbid obesity has been successfully treated with bariatric surgery for over 60 years. Although operative procedures have improved and associated complications have reduced substantially, surgery still carries the risk of post-operative malabsorption, malnutrition and a range of gastrointestinal disorders. Overweight by itself can impair libido in both sexes and cause erectile dysfunction in males by inducing a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, proportional to the degree of obesity. Impact of weight reduction on libido and sexual activity remains controversial, however it is broadly accepted that weight loss improves sexual drive. Zinc deficiency, subsequent to malabsorption, may lead to impaired testosterone synthesis in men while excessive and/or rapid weight loss in females may result in reversible amenorrhoea leading to sub-fertility. Methods: We describe a 37 year old male, 6 years post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, who presented with erectile dysfunction, loss of libido, worsening fatigue and generalized weakness for 4 months. He also complained of constipation and frequent muscle cramps but denied having headache, vomiting or visual disturbances. Patient had lost 38 kg of body weight post gastric bypass surgery over four years {135kg (BMI 42.6 kg/m2) to 97 kg (BMI 30.6 kg/m2)} and the weight had been stable for past two years. He had no recognised co-morbidities at the time of the surgery and noted marked improvement in general wellbeing, physical fitness and psychological confident post surgery, up until four months before presentation. Clinical examination revealed dry pale skin with normal body hair distribution, no thyroid nodules or goitre, normal size testicles and normal neurological examination with no visual field defects or diplopia. He had low serum testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and 24-hour urine cortisol levels. Serum cortisol demonstrated an appropriate rise to ACTH stimulation test but growth hormone (GH) failed increase on insulin tolerance test. Other biochemical and haematological studies were normal, except for low zinc and folate with minimally raised liver enzymes. MRI scan of the head confirmed a solid pituitary mass with no mass effect on optic chiasm. Results: In this patient clinical, biochemical and radiological findings were consistent with anterior pituitary dysfunction. However, there were no features of raised intracranial pressure or neurological compromise. He was commenced on appropriate home replacement therapy and referred for neurosurgical evaluation. Patient reported marked improvement in his symptoms, specially libido and erectile dysfunction, on subsequent follow up visits. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction coupled with non specific constitutional symptoms has multiple aetiologies. Clinical symptoms out of proportion to nutritional deficiencies post bariatric surgery should be thoroughly investigated. Close long term follow up is crucial for overall success.

Keywords: obesity, bariatric surgery, erectile dysfunction, loss of libido

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