Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: metabolomics

25 Metabolomics Profile Recognition for Cancer Diagnostics

Authors: Valentina L. Kouznetsova, Jonathan W. Wang, Igor F. Tsigelny

Abstract:

Metabolomics has become a rising field of research for various diseases, particularly cancer. Increases or decreases in metabolite concentrations in the human body are indicative of various cancers. Further elucidation of metabolic pathways and their significance in cancer research may greatly spur medicinal discovery. We analyzed the metabolomics profiles of lung cancer. Thirty-three metabolites were selected as significant. These metabolites are involved in 37 metabolic pathways delivered by MetaboAnalyst software. The top pathways are glyoxylate and dicarboxylate pathway (its hubs are formic acid and glyoxylic acid) along with Citrate cycle pathway followed by Taurine and hypotaurine pathway (the hubs in the latter are taurine and sulfoacetaldehyde) and Glycine, serine, and threonine pathway (the hubs are glycine and L-serine). We studied interactions of the metabolites with the proteins involved in cancer-related signaling networks, and developed an approach to metabolomics biomarker use in cancer diagnostics. Our analysis showed that a significant part of lung-cancer-related metabolites interacts with main cancer-related signaling pathways present in this network: PI3K–mTOR–AKT pathway, RAS–RAF–ERK1/2 pathway, and NFKB pathway. These results can be employed for use of metabolomics profiles in elucidation of the related cancer proteins signaling networks.

Keywords: cancer, metabolites, metabolic pathway, signaling pathway

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
24 NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals Dietary Effects in Liver Extracts of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Fed Different Levels of Starch

Authors: Rani Abro, Ali Ata Moazzami, Jan Erik Lindberg, Torbjörn Lundh

Abstract:

The effect of dietary starch level on liver metabolism in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was studied using 1H-NMR based metabolomics. Fingerlings were fed iso-nitrogenous diets containing 0, 10 and 20 % starch for two months before liver samples were collected for metabolite analysis. Metabolite profiling was performed using 600 MHz NMR Chenomx software. In total, 48 metabolites were profiled in liver extracts from both fish species. Following the profiling, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLC-DA) were performed. These revealed that differences in the concentration of significant metabolites were correlated to the dietary starch level in both species. The most prominent difference in metabolic response to starch feeding between the omnivorous tilapia and the carnivorous Arctic charr was an indication of higher anaerobic metabolism in Arctic charr. The data also indicated that amino acid and pyrimidine metabolism was higher in Artic charr than in tilapia.

Keywords: arctic charr, metabolomics, starch, tilapia

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
23 Load Comparison between Different Positions during Elite Male Basketball Games: A Sport Metabolomics Approach

Authors: Kayvan Khoramipour, Abbas Ali Gaeini, Elham Shirzad, Øyvind Sandbakk

Abstract:

Basketball has different positions with individual movement profiles, which may influence metabolic demands. Accordingly, the present study aimed to compare the movement and metabolic load between different positions during elite male basketball games. Five main players of 14 teams (n = 70), who participated in the 2017-18 Iranian national basketball leagues, were selected as participants. The players were defined as backcourt (Posts 1-3) and frontcourt (Posts 4-5). Video based time motion analysis (VBTMA) was performed based on players’ individual running and shuffling speed using Dartfish software. Movements were classified into high and low intensity running with and without having the ball, as well as high and low-intensity shuffling and static movements. Mean frequency, duration, and distance were calculated for each class, except for static movements where only frequency was calculated. Saliva samples were collected from each player before and after 40-minute basketball games and analyzed using metabolomics. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) (for metabolomics data) and independent T-tests (for VBTMA) were used as statistical tests. Movement frequency, duration, and distance were higher in backcourt players (all p ≤ 0.05), while static movement frequency did not differ. Saliva samples showed that the levels of Taurine, Succinic acid, Citric acid, Pyruvate, Glycerol, Acetoacetic acid, Acetone, and Hypoxanthine were all higher in backcourt players, whereas Lactate, Alanine, 3-Metyl Histidine, and Methionine were higher in frontcourt players Based on metabolomics, we demonstrate that backcourt and frontcourt players have different metabolic profiles during games, where backcourt players move clearly more during games and therefore rely more on aerobic energy, whereas frontcourt players rely more on anaerobic energy systems in line with less dynamic but more static movement patterns.

Keywords: basketball, metabolomics, saliva, sport loadomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
22 Quantified Metabolomics for the Determination of Phenotypes and Biomarkers across Species in Health and Disease

Authors: Miroslava Cuperlovic-Culf, Lipu Wang, Ketty Boyle, Nadine Makley, Ian Burton, Anissa Belkaid, Mohamed Touaibia, Marc E. Surrette

Abstract:

Metabolic changes are one of the major factors in the development of a variety of diseases in various species. Metabolism of agricultural plants is altered the following infection with pathogens sometimes contributing to resistance. At the same time, pathogens use metabolites for infection and progression. In humans, metabolism is a hallmark of cancer development for example. Quantified metabolomics data combined with other omics or clinical data and analyzed using various unsupervised and supervised methods can lead to better diagnosis and prognosis. It can also provide information about resistance as well as contribute knowledge of compounds significant for disease progression or prevention. In this work, different methods for metabolomics quantification and analysis from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that are used for investigation of disease development in wheat and human cells will be presented. One-dimensional 1H NMR spectra are used extensively for metabolic profiling due to their high reliability, wide range of applicability, speed, trivial sample preparation and low cost. This presentation will describe a new method for metabolite quantification from NMR data that combines alignment of spectra of standards to sample spectra followed by multivariate linear regression optimization of spectra of assigned metabolites to samples’ spectra. Several different alignment methods were tested and multivariate linear regression result has been compared with other quantification methods. Quantified metabolomics data can be analyzed in the variety of ways and we will present different clustering methods used for phenotype determination, network analysis providing knowledge about the relationships between metabolites through metabolic network as well as biomarker selection providing novel markers. These analysis methods have been utilized for the investigation of fusarium head blight resistance in wheat cultivars as well as analysis of the effect of estrogen receptor and carbonic anhydrase activation and inhibition on breast cancer cell metabolism. Metabolic changes in spikelet’s of wheat cultivars FL62R1, Stettler, MuchMore and Sumai3 following fusarium graminearum infection were explored. Extensive 1D 1H and 2D NMR measurements provided information for detailed metabolite assignment and quantification leading to possible metabolic markers discriminating resistance level in wheat subtypes. Quantification data is compared to results obtained using other published methods. Fusarium infection induced metabolic changes in different wheat varieties are discussed in the context of metabolic network and resistance. Quantitative metabolomics has been used for the investigation of the effect of targeted enzyme inhibition in cancer. In this work, the effect of 17 β -estradiol and ferulic acid on metabolism of ER+ breast cancer cells has been compared to their effect on ER- control cells. The effect of the inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase on the observed metabolic changes resulting from ER activation has also been determined. Metabolic profiles were studied using 1D and 2D metabolomic NMR experiments, combined with the identification and quantification of metabolites, and the annotation of the results is provided in the context of biochemical pathways.

Keywords: metabolic biomarkers, metabolic network, metabolomics, multivariate linear regression, NMR quantification, quantified metabolomics, spectral alignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
21 Combined Proteomic and Metabolomic Analysis Approaches to Investigate the Modification in the Proteome and Metabolome of in vitro Models Treated with Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs)

Authors: H. Chassaigne, S. Gioria, J. Lobo Vicente, D. Carpi, P. Barboro, G. Tomasi, A. Kinsner-Ovaskainen, F. Rossi

Abstract:

Emerging approaches in the area of exposure to nanomaterials and assessment of human health effects combine the use of in vitro systems and analytical techniques to study the perturbation of the proteome and/or the metabolome. We investigated the modification in the cytoplasmic compartment of the Balb/3T3 cell line exposed to gold nanoparticles. On one hand, the proteomic approach is quite standardized even if it requires precautions when dealing with in vitro systems. On the other hand, metabolomic analysis is challenging due to the chemical diversity of cellular metabolites that complicate data elaboration and interpretation. Differentially expressed proteins were found to cover a range of functions including stress response, cell metabolism, cell growth and cytoskeleton organization. In addition, de-regulated metabolites were annotated using the HMDB database. The "omics" fields hold huge promises in the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems. The combination of proteomics and metabolomics data is possible however challenging.

Keywords: data processing, gold nanoparticles, in vitro systems, metabolomics, proteomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
20 Effects of Boron Compounds in Rabbits Fed High Protein and Energy Diet: A Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Approach

Authors: Nuri Başpınar, Abdullah Başoğlu, Özgür Özdemir, Çağlayan Özel, FundaTerzi, Özgür Yaman

Abstract:

Current research is targeting new molecular mechanisms that underlie non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated metabolic disorders like nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Forty New Zealand White rabbits have been used and fed a high protein (HP) and energy diet based on grains and containing 11.76 MJ/kg. Boron added to 3 experimental groups’ drinking waters (30 mg boron/L) as boron compounds. Biochemical analysis including boron levels, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics evaluation, and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family were performed. LDL-cholesterol concentrations alone were decreased in all the experimental groups. Boron levels in serum and feces were increased. Content of acetate was in about 2x higher for anhydrous borax group, at least 3x higher for boric acid group. PPARα mRNA expression was significantly decreased in boric acid group. Anhydrous borax attenuated mRNA levels of PPARα, which was further suppressed by boric acid. Boron supplementation decreased the degenerative alterations in hepatocytes. Except borax group other boron groups did not have a pronounced change in tubular epithels of kidney. In conclusion, high protein and energy diet leads hepatocytes’ degenerative changes which can be prevented by boron supplementation. Boric acid seems to precede in this effectiveness.

Keywords: high protein and energy diet, boron, metabolomics, transcriptomic

Procedia PDF Downloads 519
19 A Systems Approach to Targeting Cyclooxygenase: Genomics, Bioinformatics and Metabolomics Analysis of COX-1 -/- and COX-2-/- Lung Fibroblasts Providing Indication of Sterile Inflammation

Authors: Abul B. M. M. K. Islam, Mandar Dave, Roderick V. Jensen, Ashok R. Amin

Abstract:

A systems approach was applied to characterize differentially expressed transcripts, bioinformatics pathways, and proteins and prostaglandins (PGs) from lung fibroblasts procured from wild-type (WT), COX-1-/- and COX-2-/- mice to understand system level control mechanism. Bioinformatics analysis of COX-2 and COX-1 ablated cells induced COX-1 and COX-2 specific signature respectively, which significantly overlapped with an 'IL-1β induced inflammatory signature'. This defined novel cross-talk signals that orchestrated coordinated activation of pathways of sterile inflammation sensed by cellular stress. The overlapping signals showed significant over-representation of shared pathways for interferon y and immune responses, T cell functions, NOD, and toll-like receptor signaling. Gene Ontology Biological Process (GOBP) and pathway enrichment analysis specifically showed an increase in mRNA expression associated with: (a) organ development and homeostasis in COX-1-/- cells and (b) oxidative stress and response, spliceosomes and proteasomes activity, mTOR and p53 signaling in COX-2-/- cells. COX-1 and COX-2 showed signs of functional pathways committed to cell cycle and DNA replication at the genomics level. As compared to WT, metabolomics analysis revealed a significant increase in COX-1 mRNA and synthesis of basal levels of eicosanoids (PGE2, PGD2, TXB2, LTB4, PGF1α, and PGF2α) in COX-2 ablated cells and increase in synthesis of PGE2, and PGF1α in COX-1 null cells. There was a compensation of PGE2 and PGF1α in COX-1-/- and COX-2-/- cells. Collectively, these results support a broader, differential and collaborative regulation of both COX-1 and COX-2 pathways at the metabolic, signaling, and genomics levels in cellular homeostasis and sterile inflammation induced by cellular stress.

Keywords: cyclooxygenases, inflammation, lung fibroblasts, systemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
18 NMR-Based Metabolomic Study of Antimalarial Plant Species Used Traditionally by Vha-Venda People in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Johanna Bapela, Heino Heyman, Marion Meyer

Abstract:

Regardless of the significant advances accomplished in reducing the burden of malaria and other tropical diseases in recent years, malaria remains a major cause of mortality in endemic countries. This is especially the case in sub-Saharan Africa where 99% of the estimated global malaria deaths occurs on an annual basis. The emergence of resistant Plasmodium species and the lack of diversified chemotherapeutic agents provide the rationale for bioprospecting for antiplasmodial scaffolds. Crude extracts from twenty indigenous antimalarial plant species were screened for antimalarial activity and then subjected to 1H NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Ten plant extracts exhibited significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity (IC50 ≤ 5 µg/ml). The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the acquired 1H NMR spectra could not separate the analyzed plant extracts according to the detected antiplasmodial bioactivity. Application of supervised Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) to the 1H NMR profiles resulted in a discrimination pattern that could be correlated to bioactivity. A contribution plot generated from the OPLS-DA scoring plot illustrated the classes of compounds responsible for the observed grouping. Given the preliminary in vitro results, Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf. (Apocynaceae) and Vangueria infausta Burch. subsp. infausta (Rubiaceae) were subjected to further phytochemical investigations. Two indole alkaloids, dregamine and tabernaemontanine possessing antiplasmodial activity were isolated from T. elegans. Two compounds were isolated from V. infausta subsp. infausta and identified as friedelin (IC50 = 3.01 µg/ml) and morindolide (IC50 = 18.5 µg/ml). While these compounds have been previously identified, this is the first account of their occurrence in the genus Vangueria and their antiplasmodial activity. Based on the results of the study, metabolomics can be used to globally identify classes of plant secondary metabolites that are responsible for antiplasmodial activity.

Keywords: ethnopharmacology, Malaria, medicinal plants, metabolomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
17 Sportomics Analysis of Metabolic Responses in Olympic Sprint Canoeists

Authors: A. Magno-França, A. M. Magalhães-Neto, F. Bachini, E. Cataldi, A. Bassini, L. C. Cameron

Abstract:

Sprint canoeing (SC) is part of the Olympic Games since 1936. Athletes compete in solo or double races of 200m and 1000m (40 sec and 240 sec, respectively). Due to its high intensity and duration, SC is extremely useful to study the blood kinetics of some metabolites in high energetic demand. Sportomics is a field of study combining “-omics” sciences with classical biochemical analyses in order to understand sports induced systemic changes. Here, we compare Sportomics findings during SC training sessions to describe metabolic responses of five top-level canoeists. Five Olympic world-class male athletes were evaluated during two days of training.

Keywords: biochemistry of exercise, metabolomics, injury markers, sportomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
16 Phytochemicals and Photosynthesis of Grape Berry Exocarp and Seed (Vitis vinifera, cv. Alvarinho): Effects of Foliar Kaolin and Irrigation

Authors: Andreia Garrido, Artur Conde, Ana Cunha, Ric De Vos

Abstract:

Climate changes predictions point to increases in abiotic stress for crop plants in Portugal, like pronounced temperature variation and decreased precipitation, which will have negative impact on grapevine physiology and consequently, on grape berry and wine quality. Short-term mitigation strategies have, therefore, been implemented to alleviate the impacts caused by adverse climatic periods. These strategies include foliar application of kaolin, an inert mineral, which has radiation reflection proprieties that decreases stress from excessive heat/radiation absorbed by its leaves, as well as smart irrigation strategies to avoid water stress. However, little is known about the influence of these mitigation measures on grape berries, neither on the photosynthetic activity nor on the photosynthesis-related metabolic profiles of its various tissues. Moreover, the role of fruit photosynthesis on berry quality is poorly understood. The main objective of our work was to assess the effects of kaolin and irrigation treatments on the photosynthetic activity of grape berry tissues (exocarp and seeds) and on their global metabolic profile, also investigating their possible relationship. We therefore collected berries of field-grown plants of the white grape variety Alvarinho from two distinct microclimates, i.e. from clusters exposed to high light (HL, 150 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹) and low light (LL, 50 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹), from both kaolin and non-kaolin (control) treated plants at three fruit developmental stages (green, véraison and mature). Plant irrigation was applied after harvesting the green berries, which also enabled comparison of véraison and mature berries from irrigated and non-irrigated growth conditions. Photosynthesis was assessed by pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis, and the metabolite profile of both tissues was assessed by complementary metabolomics approaches. Foliar kaolin application resulted in, for instance, an increased photosynthetic activity of the exocarp of LL-grown berries at green developmental stage, as compared to the control non-kaolin treatment, with a concomitant increase in the levels of several lipid-soluble isoprenoids (chlorophylls, carotenoids, and tocopherols). The exocarp of mature berries grown at HL microclimate on kaolin-sprayed non-irrigated plants had higher total sugar levels content than all other treatments, suggesting that foliar application of this mineral results in an increased accumulation of photoassimilates in mature berries. Unbiased liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based profiling of semi-polar compounds followed by ASCA (ANOVA simultaneous component analysis) and ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that kaolin had no or inconsistent effect on the flavonoid and phenylpropanoid composition in both seed and exocarp at any developmental stage; in contrast, both microclimate and irrigation influenced the level of several of these compounds depending on berry ripening stage. Overall, our study provides more insight into the effects of mitigation strategies on berry tissue photosynthesis and phytochemistry, under contrasting conditions of cluster light microclimate. We hope that this may contribute to develop sustainable management in vineyards and to maintain grape berries and wines with high quality even at increasing abiotic stress challenges.

Keywords: climate change, grape berry tissues, metabolomics, mitigation strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
15 Molecular Profiling of an Oleaginous Trebouxiophycean Alga Parachlorella kessleri Subjected to Nutrient Deprivation

Authors: Pannaga Pavan Jutur

Abstract:

Parachlorella kessleri, a marine unicellular green alga belonging to class Trebouxiophyceae, accumulates large amounts of oil, i.e., lipids under nutrient-deprived (-N, -P, and -S) conditions. Understanding their metabolic imprints is important for elucidating the physiological mechanisms of lipid accumulations in this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Metabolic and lipidomic profiles were obtained respectively using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of P. kessleri under nutrient starvation (-N, -P and -S) conditions. Relative quantities of more than 100 metabolites were systematically compared in all these three starvation conditions. Our results demonstrate that in lipid metabolism, the quantities of neutral lipids increased significantly followed by the decrease in other metabolites involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, etc. In conclusion, the metabolomics and lipidomic profiles have identified a few common metabolites such as citric acid, valine, and trehalose to play a significant role in the overproduction of oil by this microalga subjected to nutrient deprivation. Understanding the entire system through untargeted metabolome profiling will lead to identifying relevant metabolites involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of precursor molecules that may have the potential for biofuel production, aiming towards the vision of tomorrow’s bioenergy needs.

Keywords: algae, biofuels, nutrient stress, omics

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
14 A Comprehensive Review on Health Hazards and Challenges for Microbial Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants

Authors: Nisha Gaur, K.Narasimhulu, Pydi Setty Yelamarthy

Abstract:

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have become a great concern due to their toxicity, transformation and bioaccumulation property. Therefore, this review highlights the types, sources, classification health hazards and mobility of organochlorine pesticides, industrial chemicals and their by-products. Moreover, with the signing of Aarhus and Stockholm convention on POPs there is an increased demand to identify and characterise such chemicals from industries and environment which are toxic in nature or to existing biota. Due to long life, persistent nature they enter into body through food and transfer to all tropic levels of ecological unit. In addition, POPs are lipophilic in nature and accumulate in lipid-containing tissues and organs which further indicates the adverse symptoms after the threshold limit. Though, several potential enzymes are reported from various categories of microorganism and their interaction with POPs may break down the complex compounds either through biodegradation, biostimulation or bioaugmentation process, however technological advancement and human activities have also indicated to explore the possibilities for the role of genetically modified organisms and metagenomics and metabolomics. Though many studies have been done to develop low cost, effective and reliable method for detection, determination and removal of ultra-trace concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) but due to insufficient knowledge and non-feasibility of technique, the safe management of POPs is still a global challenge.

Keywords: persistent organic pollutants, bioaccumulation, biostimulation, microbial remediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
13 Metabolome-based Profiling of African Baobab Fruit (Adansonia Digitata L.) Using a Multiplex Approach of MS and NMR Techniques in Relation to Its Biological Activity

Authors: Marwa T. Badawy, Alaa F. Bakr, Nesrine Hegazi, Mohamed A. Farag, Ahmed Abdellatif

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease affecting a large population worldwide. Africa is rich in native medicinal plants with myriad health benefits, though less explored towards the development of specific drug therapy as in diabetes. This study aims to determine the in vivo antidiabetic potential of the well-reported and traditionally used fruits of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) using STZ induced diabetic model. The in-vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant properties were examined using MTT assay on L-929 fibroblast cells and DPPH antioxidant assays, respectively. The extract showed minimal cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 105.7 µg/mL. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations showed the hepatoprotective and the renoprotective effects of A. digitata fruits’ extract, implying its protective effects against diabetes complications. These findings were further supported by biochemical assays, which showed that i.p., injection of a low dose (150 mg/kg) of A. digitata twice a week lowered the fasting blood glucose levels, lipid profile, hepatic and renal markers. For a comprehensive overview of extract metabolites composition, ultrahigh performance (UHPLC) analysis coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) in synchronization with molecular networks led to the annotation of 77 metabolites, among which 50% are reported for the first time in A. digitata fruits.

Keywords: adansonia digital, diabetes mellitus, metabolomics, streptozotocin, Sprague, dawley rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
12 Biosynthesis of Healthy Secondary Metabolites in Olive Fruit in Response to Different Agronomic Treatments

Authors: Anna Perrone, Federico Martinelli

Abstract:

Olive fruit is well-known for the high content in secondary metabolites with high interest at nutritional, nutraceutical, antioxidant, and healthy levels. The content of secondary metabolites in olive at harvest may be affected by different water regimes, with significant effects on olive oil composition and quality and, consequently, on its healthy and nutritional features. In this work, a summary of several research studies dealing with the biosynthesis of healthy and nutraceutical metabolites of the secondary metabolism in olive fruit will be reported. The phytochemical findings have been correlated with the expression of key genes involved in polyphenol, terpenoid, and carotenoid biosynthesis and metabolism in response to different development stages and water regimes. Flavonoids were highest in immature fruits, while anthocyanins increased at ripening. In epicarp tissue, this was clearly associated with an up-regulation of the UFGT gene. Olive fruits cultivated under different water regimes were analyzed by metabolomics. This method identified several hundred metabolites in the ripe mesocarp. Among them, 46 were differentially accumulated in the comparison between rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Well-known healthy metabolites were more abundant at a higher level of water regimes. Increased content of polyphenols was observed in the rain-fed fruit; particularly, anthocyanin concentration was higher at ripening. Several secondary metabolites were differentially accumulated between different irrigation conditions. These results showed that these metabolic approaches could be efficiently used to determine the effects of agronomic treatments on olive fruit physiology and, consequently, on nutritional and healthy properties of the obtained extra-virgin olive oil.

Keywords: olea europea, anthocyanins, polyphenols, water regimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
11 Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based Metabolomics and 13C Isotopic Ratio Evaluation to Differentiate Conventional and Organic Soy Sauce

Authors: Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Xiaohua Wang, Bin Yuan, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Jie Wang, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Xu Zhang, Maili Liu

Abstract:

Organic food products are becoming increasingly popular in recent years, as consumers have turned more health conscious and environmentally aware. A lot of consumers have understood that the organic foods are healthier than conventionally produced food stuffs. Price difference between conventional and organic foods is very high. So, it is very common to cheat the consumers by mislabeling and adulteration. Our study describes the 1H NMR based approach to characterize and differentiate soy sauce prepared from organically and conventionally grown raw materials (wheat and soybean). Commercial soy sauce samples fermented from organic and conventional raw materials were purchased from local markets. Principal component analysis showed clear separation among organic and conventional soy sauce samples. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed a significant (p < 0.01) separation among two types of soy sauce yielding leucine, isoleucine, ethanol, glutamate, lactate, acetate, β-glucose, sucrose, choline, valine, phenylalanine and tyrosine as important metabolites contributing towards this separation. Abundance ratio of 13C to 12C was also evaluated by 1H NMR spectroscopy which showed an increased ratio of 13C isotope in organic soy sauce samples indicating the organically grown wheat and soybean used for the preparation of organic soy sauce. Results of the study can be helpful to the end users to select the soy sauce of their choice. This information could also pave the way to further trace and authenticate the raw materials used in production of soy sauce.

Keywords: 1H NMR, multivariate analysis, organic, conventional, 13C isotopic ratio, soy sauce

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
10 Evaluation of Serine and Branched Chain Amino Acid Levels in Depression and the Beneficial Effects of Exercise in Rats

Authors: V. A. Doss, R. Sowndarya, K. Juila Rose Mary

Abstract:

Objective: Amino acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. The objective of the present study was to identify the amino acids as possible metabolite biomarkers for depression using GCMS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) before and after exercise regimen in brain samples of depression induced animal models. Methods: Depression-like behaviour was induced by Chronic Unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Severity of depression was measured by forced swim test (FST) and sucrose consumption test (SCT). Swimming protocol was followed for 4 weeks of exercise treatment. Brain obtained from depressed and exercise treated rats were used for the metabolite analysis by GCMS. Subsequent statistical analysis obtained by ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed significant metabolic changes. Results: Amino acids such as alanine, glycine, serine, glutamate, homocysteine, proline and branched chain aminoacids (BCAs) Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine were determined in brain samples of control, depressed and exercised groups. Among these amino acids, the levels of D-Serine and branched chain amino acids were found to be decreased in depression induced rats. After four weeks of swimming exercise regimen, there were improvements in the levels of serine and Branched chain amino acids. Conclusion: We suggest that Serine and BCAs may be investigated as potential metabolite markers using GCMS and their beneficial metabolic changes in Exercise.

Keywords: metabolomics, depression, forced swim test, exercise, amino acid metabolites, GCMS, biomarker

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
9 Linking Metabolism, Pluripotency and Epigenetic Changes during Early Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

Authors: Arieh Moussaieff, Bénédicte Elena-Herrmann, Yaakov Nahmias, Daniel Aberdam

Abstract:

Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is a slow process, marked by the gradual loss of pluripotency factors over days in culture. While the first few days of differentiation show minor changes in the cellular transcriptome, intracellular signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Recently, several groups demonstrated that the metabolism of pluripotent mouse and human cells is different from that of somatic cells, showing a marked increase in glycolysis previously identified in cancer as the Warburg effect. Here, we sought to identify the earliest metabolic changes induced at the first hours of differentiation. High-resolution NMR analysis identified 35 metabolites and a distinct, gradual transition in metabolism during early differentiation. Metabolic and transcriptional analyses showed the induction of glycolysis toward acetate and acetyl-coA in pluripotent cells, and an increase in cholesterol biosynthesis during early differentiation. Importantly, this metabolic pathway regulated differentiation of human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Acetate delayed differentiation preventing differentiation-induced histone de-acetylation in a dose-dependent manner. Glycolytic inhibitors upstream of acetate caused differentiation of pluripotent cells, while those downstream delayed differentiation. Our data suggests that a rapid loss of glycolysis in early differentiation down-regulates acetate and acetyl-coA production, causing a loss of histone acetylation and concomitant loss of pluripotency. It demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells utilize a novel metabolism pathway to maintain pluripotency through acetate/acetyl-coA and highlights the important role metabolism plays in pluripotency and early differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: pluripotency, metabolomics, epigenetics, acetyl-coA

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
8 Amino Acid Responses of Wheat Cultivars under Glasshouse Drought Accurately Predict Yield-Based Drought Tolerance in the Field

Authors: Arun K. Yadav, Adam J. Carroll, Gonzalo M. Estavillo, Greg J. Rebetzke, Barry J. Pogson

Abstract:

Water limits crop productivity, so selecting for minimal yield-gap in drier environments is critical to mitigate against climate change and land-use pressures. To date, no markers measured in glasshouses have been reported to predict field-based drought tolerance. In the field, the best measure of drought tolerance is yield-gap; but this requires multisite trials that are an order of magnitude more resource intensive and can be impacted by weather variation. We investigated the responses of relative water content (RWC), stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll content and metabolites in flag leaves of commercial wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to three drought treatments in the glasshouse and field environments. We observed strong genetic associations between glasshouse-based RWC, metabolites and Yield gap-based Drought Tolerance (YDT): the ratio of yield in water-limited versus well-watered conditions across 24 field environments spanning sites and seasons. Critically, RWC response to glasshouse drought was strongly associated with both YDT (r2 = 0.85, p < 8E-6) and RWC under field drought (r2 = 0.77, p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses revealed that 98% of genetic YDT variance was explained by drought responses of four metabolites: serine, asparagine, methionine and lysine (R2 = 0.98; p < 0.01). Fitted coefficients suggested that, for given levels of serine and asparagine, stronger methionine and lysine accumulation was associated with higher YDT. Collectively, our results demonstrate that high-throughput, targeted metabolic phenotyping of glasshouse-grown plants may be an effective tool for the selection of wheat cultivars with high YDT in the field.

Keywords: drought stress, grain yield, metabolomics, stomatal conductance, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
7 MicroRNA-211 Regulates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Energy Metabolism in Human Vitiligoa

Authors: Anupama Sahoo, Bongyong Lee, Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Sanjaya K. Sahoo, Tatsuya Seki, Chunyan Wang, Soumen Das, Xianlin Han, Michael Steppie, Sudipta Seal, Alain Taieb, Ranjan J. Perera

Abstract:

Vitiligo is a common, chronic skin disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes and progressive depigmentation. Vitiligo has a complex immune, genetic, environmental, and biochemical etiology, but the exact molecular mechanisms of vitiligo development and progression, particularly those related to metabolic control, are poorly understood. Here we characterized the human vitiligo cell line PIG3V and the normal human melanocytes, HEM-l by RNA-sequencing, targeted metabolomics, and shotgun lipidomics. Melanocyte-enriched miR-211, a known metabolic switch in non-pigmented melanoma cells, was severely downregulated in vitiligo cell line PIG3V and skin biopsies from vitiligo patients, while its novel predicted targets transcriptional co-activator PGC1-α (PPARGC1A), ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 (RRM2), and serine-threonine protein kinase TAO1 (TAOK1) were reciprocally upregulated. miR-211 binds to PGC1-α 3’UTR locus and represses it. Although mitochondrial numbers were constant, mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV and respiratory responses were defective in vitiligo cells. Nanoparticle-coated miR-211 partially augmented the oxygen consumption rate in PIG3V cells. The lower oxygen consumption rate, changes in lipid and metabolite profiles, and increased reactive oxygen species production observed in vitiligo cells appear to be partly due to abnormal regulation of miR-211 and its target genes. These genes represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human vitiligo.

Keywords: metabolism, microRNA, mitochondria, vitiligo

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
6 The Advantages of Using DNA-Barcoding for Determining the Fraud in Seafood

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan

Abstract:

Although seafood is an important part of human diet and categorized highly traded food industry internationally, it is remain overlooked generally in the global food security aspect. Food product authentication is the main interest in the aim of both avoids commercial fraud and to consider the risks that might be harmful to human health safety. In recent years, with increasing consumer demand for regarding food content and it's transparency, there are some instrumental analyses emerging for determining food fraud depend on some analytical methodologies such as proteomic and metabolomics. While, fish and seafood consumed as fresh previously, within advanced technology, processed or packaged seafood consumption have increased. After processing or packaging seafood, morphological identification is impossible when some of the external features have been removed. The main fish and seafood quality-related issues are the authentications of seafood contents such as mislabelling products which may be contaminated and replacement partly or completely, by lower quality or cheaper ones. For all mentioned reasons, truthful consistent and easily applicable analytical methods are needed for assurance the correct labelling and verifying of seafood products. DNA-barcoding methods become popular robust that used in taxonomic research for endangered or cryptic species in recent years; they are used for determining food traceability also. In this review, when comparing the other proteomic and metabolic analysis, DNA-based methods are allowing a chance to identification all type of food even as raw, spiced and processed products. This privilege caused by DNA is a comparatively stable molecule than protein and other molecules. Furthermore showing variations in sequence based on different species and founding in all organisms, make DNA-based analysis more preferable. This review was performed to clarify the main advantages of using DNA-barcoding for determining seafood fraud among other techniques.

Keywords: DNA-barcoding, genetic analysis, food fraud, mislabelling, packaged seafood

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
5 Flux Balance Network Expansion Predicts Stage-Specific Human Preimplantation Embryo Metabolism

Authors: Andisheh Dadashi, Derek Martinez

Abstract:

Metabolism is an essential cellular process for the growth and maintenance of organisms. A better understanding of metabolism during embryogenesis may shed light on the developmental origins of human disease. Metabolic networks, however, are vastly complex with many redundant pathways and interconnected circuits. Thus, computational approaches serve as a practical solution for unraveling the genetic basis of embryo metabolism to help guide future experimental investigations. To our knowledge, this study presents the first model of human peri-implantation embryo metabolism via flux balance network expansion. The model accounts for 8 separate reaction compartments (extracellular, peroxisome, mitochondria, cytosol, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nucleus) including transport and exchange reactions between compartments. We found that modulating oxygen uptake promotes lactate diffusion across the outer mitochondrial layer, providing in silico support for a proposed lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle. While RNA-sequencing and other profiling technologies make it possible to elucidate metabolic genotype-phenotype relationships; yet, our understanding of metabolism during early mammalian development is currently limited. Very few studies have examined the temporal or spatial metabolomics of the human embryo, and prohibitively small sample sizes traditionally observed in human embryo research have presented logistical challenges for metabolic flux studies, hindering progress towards the reconstruction of the human embryonic metabolome. Thus, we developed a stage-specific model to serve as a proof-of-concept for the reconstruction of future metabolic developmental models. Our work shows that it is feasible to model human metabolism with respect to time-dependent changes characteristic of peri-implantation development.

Keywords: human peri-implantation embryo metabolism, flux balance analysis, network expansion, pathway analysis.

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
4 Identification of Bioactive Metabolites from Ficus carica and Their Neuroprotective Effects of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Hanan Khojah, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel

Abstract:

Neurodegenerative disease including Alzheimer’s disease is a major cause of long-term disability. Oxidative stress is frequently implicated as one of the key contributing factors to neurodegenerative diseases. Protection against neuronal damage remains a great challenge for researchers. Ficus carica (commonly known as fig) is a species of great antioxidant nutritional value comprising a protective mechanism against innumerable health disorders related to oxidative stress as well as Alzheimer’s disease. The purpose of this work was to characterize the non-polar active metabolites in Ficus carica endocarp, mesocarp, and exocarp. Crude extracts were prepared using several extraction solvents, which included 1:1 water: ethylacetate, acetone and methanol. The dried extracts were then solvent partitioned between equivalent amounts of water and ethylacetate. Purification and fractionation were accomplished by high-throughput chromatography. The isolated metabolites were tested on their effect on human neuroblastoma cell line by cell viability test and cell cytotoxicity assay with acrolein. Molecular weights of the active metabolites were determined via LC–HRESIMS and GC-EIMS. Metabolomic profiling was performed to identify the active metabolites by using differential expression analysis software (Mzmine) and SIMCA for multivariate analysis. Structural elucidation and identification of the interested active metabolites were studied by 1-D and 2-D NMR. Significant differences in bioactivity against a concentration-dependent assay on acrolein radicals were observed between the three fruit parts. However, metabolites obtained from mesocarp and the endocarp demonstrated bioactivity to scavenge ROS radical. NMR profiling demonstrated that aliphatic compounds such as γ-sitosterol tend to induce neuronal bioactivity and exhibited bioactivity on the cell viability assay. γ-Sitosterol was found in higher concentrations in the mesocarp and was considered as one of the major phytosterol in Ficus carica.

Keywords: alzheimer, Ficus carica, γ-Sitosterol, metabolomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
3 Metabolic Profiling in Breast Cancer Applying Micro-Sampling of Biological Fluids and Analysis by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mónica P. Cala, Juan S. Carreño, Roland J.W. Meesters

Abstract:

Recently, collection of biological fluids on special filter papers has become a popular micro-sampling technique. Especially, the dried blood spot (DBS) micro-sampling technique has gained much attention and is momently applied in various life sciences reserach areas. As a result of this popularity, DBS are not only intensively competing with the venous blood sampling method but are at this moment widely applied in numerous bioanalytical assays. In particular, in the screening of inherited metabolic diseases, pharmacokinetic modeling and in therapeutic drug monitoring. Recently, microsampling techniques were also introduced in “omics” areas, whereunder metabolomics. For a metabolic profiling study we applied micro-sampling of biological fluids (blood and plasma) from healthy controls and from women with breast cancer. From blood samples, dried blood and plasma samples were prepared by spotting 8uL sample onto pre-cutted 5-mm paper disks followed by drying of the disks for 100 minutes. Dried disks were then extracted by 100 uL of methanol. From liquid blood and plasma samples 40 uL were deproteinized with methanol followed by centrifugation and collection of supernatants. Supernatants and extracts were evaporated until dryness by nitrogen gas and residues derivated by O-methyxyamine and MSTFA. As internal standard C17:0-methylester in heptane (10 ppm) was used. Deconvolution and alignment of and full scan (m/z 50-500) MS data were done by AMDIS and SpectConnect (http://spectconnect.mit.edu) software, respectively. Statistical Data analysis was done by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using R software. The results obtained from our preliminary study indicate that the use of dried blood/plasma on paper disks could be a powerful new tool in metabolic profiling. Many of the metabolites observed in plasma (liquid/dried) were also positively identified in whole blood samples (liquid/dried). Whole blood could be a potential substitute matrix for plasma in Metabolomic profiling studies as well also micro-sampling techniques for the collection of samples in clinical studies. It was concluded that the separation of the different sample methodologies (liquid vs. dried) as observed by PCA was due to different sample treatment protocols applied. More experiments need to be done to confirm obtained observations as well also a more rigorous validation .of these micro-sampling techniques is needed. The novelty of our approach can be found in the application of different biological fluid micro-sampling techniques for metabolic profiling.

Keywords: biofluids, breast cancer, metabolic profiling, micro-sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
2 Potential Impacts of Maternal Nutrition and Selection for Residual Feed Intake on Metabolism and Fertility Parameters in Angus Bulls

Authors: Aidin Foroutan, David S. Wishart, Leluo L. Guan, Carolyn Fitzsimmons

Abstract:

Maximizing efficiency and growth potential of beef cattle requires not only genetic selection (i.e. residual feed intake (RFI)) but also adequate nutrition throughout all stages of growth and development. Nutrient restriction during gestation has been shown to negatively affect post-natal growth and development as well as fertility of the offspring. This, when combined with RFI may affect progeny traits. This study aims to investigate the impact of selection for divergent genetic potential for RFI and maternal nutrition during early- to mid-gestation, on bull calf traits such as fertility and muscle development using multiple ‘omics’ approaches. Comparisons were made between High-diet vs. Low-diet and between High-RFI vs. Low-RFI animals. An epigenetics experiment on semen samples identified 891 biomarkers associated with growth and development. A gene expression study on Longissimus thoracis muscle, semimembranosus muscle, liver, and testis identified 4 genes associated with muscle development and immunity of which Myocyte enhancer factor 2A [MEF2A; induces myogenesis and control muscle differentiation] was the only differentially expressed gene identified in all four tissues. An initial metabolomics experiment on serum samples using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified 4 metabolite biomarkers related to energy and protein metabolism. Once all the biomarkers are identified, bioinformatics approaches will be used to create a database covering all the ‘omics’ data collected from this project. This database will be broadened by adding other information obtained from relevant literature reviews. Association analyses with these data sets will be performed to reveal key biological pathways affected by RFI and maternal nutrition. Through these association studies between the genome and metabolome, it is expected that candidate biomarker genes and metabolites for feed efficiency, fertility, and/or muscle development are identified. If these gene/metabolite biomarkers are validated in a larger animal population, they could potentially be used in breeding programs to select superior animals. It is also expected that this work will lead to the development of an online tool that could be used to predict future traits of interest in an animal given its measurable ‘omics’ traits.

Keywords: biomarker, maternal nutrition, omics, residual feed intake

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
1 Metabolomics Fingerprinting Analysis of Melastoma malabathricum L. Leaf of Geographical Variation Using HPLC-DAD Combined with Chemometric Tools

Authors: Dian Mayasari, Yosi Bayu Murti, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Sudarsono

Abstract:

Melastoma malabathricum L. is an Indo-Pacific herb that has been traditionally used to treat several ailments such as wounds, dysentery, diarrhea, toothache, and diabetes. This plant is common across tropical Indo-Pacific archipelagos and is tolerant of a range of soils, from low-lying areas subject to saltwater inundation to the salt-free conditions of mountain slopes. How the soil and environmental variation influences secondary metabolite production in the herb, and an understanding of the plant’s utility as traditional medicine, remain largely unknown and unexplored. The objective of this study is to evaluate the variability of the metabolic profiles of M. malabathricum L. across its geographic distribution. By employing high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), a highly established, simple, sensitive, and reliable method was employed for establishing the chemical fingerprints of 72 samples of M. malabathricum L. leaves from various geographical locations in Indonesia. Specimens collected from six terrestrial and archipelago regions of Indonesia were analyzed by HPLC to generate chromatogram peak profiles that could be compared across each region. Data corresponding to the common peak areas of HPLC chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by hierarchical component analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract information on the most significant variables contributing to characterization and classification of analyzed samples data. Principal component values were identified as PC1 and PC2 with 41.14% and 19.32%, respectively. Based on variety and origin, the high-performance liquid chromatography method validated the chemical fingerprint results used to screen the in vitro antioxidant activity of M. malabathricum L. The result shows that the developed method has potential values for the quality of similar M. malabathrium L. samples. These findings provide a pathway for the development and utilization of references for the identification of M. malabathricum L. Our results indicate the importance of considering geographic distribution during field-collection efforts as they demonstrate regional metabolic variation in secondary metabolites of M. malabathricum L., as illustrated by HPLC chromatogram peaks and their antioxidant activities. The results also confirm the utility of this simple approach to a rapid evaluation of metabolic variation between plants and their potential ethnobotanical properties, potentially due to the environments from whence they were collected. This information will facilitate the optimization of growth conditions to suit particular medicinal qualities.

Keywords: fingerprint, high performance liquid chromatography, Melastoma malabathricum l., metabolic profiles, principal component analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 55