Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Search results for: cartilage

66 Characterization of Articular Cartilage Based on the Response of Cartilage Surface to Loading/Unloading

Authors: Z. Arabshahi, I. Afara, A. Oloyede, H. Moody, J. Kashani, T. Klein


Articular cartilage is a fluid-swollen tissue of synovial joints that functions by providing a lubricated surface for articulation and to facilitate the load transmission. The biomechanical function of this tissue is highly dependent on the integrity of its ultrastructural matrix. Any alteration of articular cartilage matrix, either by injury or degenerative conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA), compromises its functional behaviour. Therefore, the assessment of articular cartilage is important in early stages of degenerative process to prevent or reduce further joint damage with associated socio-economic impact. Therefore, there has been increasing research interest into the functional assessment of articular cartilage. This study developed a characterization parameter for articular cartilage assessment based on the response of cartilage surface to loading/unloading. This is because the response of articular cartilage to compressive loading is significantly depth-dependent, where the superficial zone and underlying matrix respond differently to deformation. In addition, the alteration of cartilage matrix in the early stages of degeneration is often characterized by PG loss in the superficial layer. In this study, it is hypothesized that the response of superficial layer is different in normal and proteoglycan depleted tissue. To establish the viability of this hypothesis, samples of visually intact and artificially proteoglycan-depleted bovine cartilage were subjected to compression at a constant rate to 30 percent strain using a ring-shaped indenter with an integrated ultrasound probe and then unloaded. The response of articular surface which was indirectly loaded was monitored using ultrasound during the time of loading/unloading (deformation/recovery). It was observed that the rate of cartilage surface response to loading/unloading was different for normal and PG-depleted cartilage samples. Principal Component Analysis was performed to identify the capability of the cartilage surface response to loading/unloading, to distinguish between normal and artificially degenerated cartilage samples. The classification analysis of this parameter showed an overlap between normal and degenerated samples during loading. While there was a clear distinction between normal and degenerated samples during unloading. This study showed that the cartilage surface response to loading/unloading has the potential to be used as a parameter for cartilage assessment.

Keywords: cartilage integrity parameter, cartilage deformation/recovery, cartilage functional assessment, ultrasound

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65 Design and Fabrication of a Scaffold with Appropriate Features for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Authors: S. S. Salehi, A. Shamloo


Poor ability of cartilage tissue when experiencing a damage leads scientists to use tissue engineering as a reliable and effective method for regenerating or replacing damaged tissues. An artificial tissue should have some features such as biocompatibility, biodegradation and, enough mechanical properties like the original tissue. In this work, a composite hydrogel is prepared by using natural and synthetic materials that has high porosity. Mechanical properties of different combinations of polymers such as modulus of elasticity were tested, and a hydrogel with good mechanical properties was selected. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were also seeded into the pores of the sponge, and the results showed the adhesion and proliferation of cells within the hydrogel after one month. In comparison with previous works, this study offers a new and efficient procedure for the fabrication of cartilage like tissue and further cartilage repair.

Keywords: cartilage tissue engineering, hydrogel, mechanical strength, mesenchymal stem cell

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64 Measurement of Nasal Septal Cartilage in Adult Filipinos Using Computed Tomography

Authors: Miguel Limbert Ramos, Joseph Amado Galvez


Background: The nasal septal cartilage is an autologous graft that is widely used in different otolaryngologic procedures of the different subspecialties, such as in septorhinoplasty and ear rehabilitation procedures. The cartilage can be easily accessed and harvested to be utilized for such procedures. However, the dimension of the nasal septal cartilage differs, corresponding to race, gender, and age. Measurements can be done via direct measurement of harvested septal cartilage in cadavers or utilizing radiographic imaging studies giving baseline measurement of the nasal septal cartilage distinct to every race. A preliminary baseline measurement of the dimensions of Filipino nasal septal cartilage was previously established by measuring harvested nasal septal cartilage in Filipino Malay cadavers. This study intends to reinforce this baseline measurement by utilizing computed tomography (CT) scans of adult Filipinos in a tertiary government hospital in the City of Manila, Philippines, which will cover a larger sampling population. Methods: The unit of observation and analysis will be the computed tomography (CT) scans of patients ≥ 18years old who underwent cranial, facial, orbital, paranasal sinus, and temporal bone studies for the year 2019. The measurements will be done in a generated best midsagittal image (155 subjects) which is a view through the midline of the cerebrum that is simultaneously viewed with its coronal and axial views for proper orientation. The view should reveal important structures that will be used to plot the anatomic boundaries, which will be measured by a DICOM image viewing software (RadiAnt). The measured area of nasal septal cartilage will be compared by gender and age. Results: The total area of the nasal septal cartilage is larger in males compared to females, with a mean value of 6.52 cm² and 5.71 cm², respectively. The harvestable nasal septal cartilage area is also larger in males with a mean value of 3.57 cm² compared to females with only a measured mean value of 3.13 cm². The total and harvestable area of the nasal septal cartilage is largest in the 18-30 year-old age group with a mean value of 6.47 cm² and 3.60 cm² respectively and tends to decrease with the advancement of age, which can be attributed to continuous ossification changes. Conclusion: The best time to perform septorhinoplasty and other otolaryngologic procedures which utilize the nasal septal cartilage as graft material is during post-pubertal age, hence surgeries should be avoided or delayed to allow growth and maturation of the cartilage. A computed tomography scan is a cost-effective and non-invasive tool that can provide information on septal cartilage areas prior to these procedures.

Keywords: autologous graft, computed tomography, nasal septal cartilage, septorhinoplasty

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63 2D Convolutional Networks for Automatic Segmentation of Knee Cartilage in 3D MRI

Authors: Ananya Ananya, Karthik Rao


Accurate segmentation of knee cartilage in 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) images for quantitative assessment of volume is crucial for studying and diagnosing osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, one of the major causes of disability in elderly people. Radiologists generally perform this task in slice-by-slice manner taking 15-20 minutes per 3D image, and lead to high inter and intra observer variability. Hence automatic methods for knee cartilage segmentation are desirable and are an active field of research. This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of 2D convolutional neural networks based fully automated methods for knee cartilage segmentation in 3D MRI. The architectures are validated based on 40 test images and 60 training images from SKI10 dataset. The proposed methods segment 2D slices one by one, which are then combined to give segmentation for whole 3D images. Proposed methods are modified versions of U-net and dilated convolutions, consisting of a single step that segments the given image to 5 labels: background, femoral cartilage, tibia cartilage, femoral bone and tibia bone; cartilages being the primary components of interest. U-net consists of a contracting path and an expanding path, to capture context and localization respectively. Dilated convolutions lead to an exponential expansion of receptive field with only a linear increase in a number of parameters. A combination of modified U-net and dilated convolutions has also been explored. These architectures segment one 3D image in 8 – 10 seconds giving average volumetric Dice Score Coefficients (DSC) of 0.950 - 0.962 for femoral cartilage and 0.951 - 0.966 for tibia cartilage, reference being the manual segmentation.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, dilated convolutions, 3 dimensional, fully automated, knee cartilage, MRI, segmentation, U-net

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62 Shark Cartilage Modulate IL-23/IL-17 Axis by Increasing IFN-γ and Decreasing IL-4 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zareia, Hassan ZMB, Darush Moslemic, Amrollah Mostafa-Zaded


Introduction: Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, at least, in vitro. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the immune-effectiveness on imbalance between IL-23/IL-17 axis, as an inflammatory pathway and TGF/Foxp3 T regulatory as a inhibitory pathway of commercial shark cartilage that is available as a non-common dietary supplement in IRAN. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-4, and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: The simultaneously presented up-regulation IL-17A indicated, at least cytokine level without changing in TGF-β amount or CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T regulatory cells, that there are not a direct correlation between IL-23/IL-17 axis and Treg/TGF-β pathway in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage, but IL-23 was not expressed differentially in this group. So, accompany these changes, an imbalance between Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) evaluated in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage. Conclusion: On the basis of results, we propose that shark cartilage, by reducing IL-4, decreasing IL-17 a central cytokine in angiogenesis and increasing γ-IFN amplify anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4+CD25+Foxp3high T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage, gastric cancer

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61 Collagen Gel in Hip Cartilage Repair: in vivo Preliminary Study

Authors: A. Bajek, J. Skopinska-Wisniewska, A. Rynkiewicz, A. Jundzill, M. Bodnar, A. Marszalek, T. Drewa


Traumatic injury and age-related degenerative diseases associated with cartilage are major health problems worldwide. The articular cartilage is comprised of a relatively small number of cells, which have a relatively slow rate of turnover. Therefore, damaged articular cartilage has a limited capacity for self-repair. New clinical methods have been designed to achieve better repair of injured cartilage. However, there is no treatment that enables full restoration of it. The aim of this study was to evaluate how collagen gel with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and collagen gel alone will influence on the hip cartilage repair after injury. Collagen type I was isolated from rats’ tails and cross-linked with N-hydroxysuccinimide in 24-hour process. MSCs were isolated from rats’ bone marrow. The experiments were conducted according to the guidelines for animal experiments of Ethics Committee. Fifteen 8-week-old Wistar rats were used in this study. All animals received hip joint surgery with a total of 30 created cartilage defects. Then, animals were randomly divided into three groups and filled, respectively, with collagen gel (group 1), collagen gel cultured with MSCs (group II) or left untreated as a control (control group). Immunohistochemy and radiological evaluation was carried out 11 weeks post implantation. It has been proved that the surface of the matrix is non-toxic, and its porosity promotes cell adhesion and growth. However, the in vivo regeneration process was poor. We observed the low integration rate of biomaterial. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cartilage after 11 weeks of treatment showed low II and high X collagen expression in two tested groups in comparison to the control one, in which we observed the high II collagen expression. What is more, after radiological analysis, we observed the best regeneration process in control group. The biomaterial construct and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as the use of the biomaterial itself was not sufficient to regenerate the hip cartilage surfaces. These results suggest that the collagen gel based biomaterials, even with MSCs, are not satisfactory in repar of hip cartilage defect. However, additional evaluation is needed to confirm these results.

Keywords: collafen gel, MSCs, cartilage repair, hip cartilage

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60 Morphology of the Acetabular Cartilage Surface in Elderly Cadavers Analyzing the Contact between the Acetabulum and Femoral Head

Authors: Keisuke Akiyama, Takashi Sakai, Junichiro Koyanagi, Hideki Yoshikawa, Kazuomi Sugamoto


The geometry of acetabular cartilage surface plays an important role in hip joint biomechanics. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology of acetabular articular cartilage surface in elderly subjects using a 3D-digitizer. Twenty hemipelves from 12 subjects (mean ages 85 years) were scanned with 3D-digitizer. Each acetabular surface model was divided into four regions: anterosuperior (AS), anteroinferior (AI), posterosuperior (PS), and posteroinferior (PI). In the global acetabulum and each region, the acetabular sphere radius and the standard deviation (SD) of the distance from the acetabular sphere center to the acetabular cartilage surface were calculated. In the global acetabulum, the distance between the acetabular surface model and the maximum sphere which did not penetrate over the acetabular surface model was calculated as the inferred femoral head, and then the distribution was mapped at intervals of 0.5 mm. The SD in AS was significantly larger than that in AI (p = 0.006) and PI (p = 0.001). The SD in PS was significantly larger than that in PI (p = 0.005). The closest region (0-0.5 mm) tended to be distributed at anterior or posterosuperior acetabular edge. The contact between the femoral head and acetabulum might start at the periphery of the lunate surface, especially in the anterior or posterosuperior region. From viewpoint of acetabular morphology, the acetabular articular cartilage in the anterior or posterosuperior edge could be more vulnerable due to direct contact mechanism.

Keywords: acetabulum, cartilage, morphology, 3D-digitizer

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59 Two-Component Biocompartible Material for Reconstruction of Articular Hyaline Cartilage

Authors: Alena O. Stepanova, Vera S. Chernonosova, Tatyana S. Godovikova, Konstantin A. Bulatov, Andrey Y. Patrushev, Pavel P. Laktionov


Trauma and arthrosis, not to mention cartilage destruction in overweight and elders put hyaline cartilage lesion among the most frequent diseases of locomotor system. These problems combined with low regeneration potential of the cartilage make regeneration of articular cartilage a high-priority task of tissue engineering. Many types of matrices, the procedures of their installation and autologous chondrocyte implantation protocols were offered, but certain aspects including adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage/bone, prevention of the ossification and fibrosis were not resolved. Simplification and acceleration of the procedures resulting in restoration of normal cartilage are also required. We have demonstrated that human chondroblasts can be successfully cultivated at the surface of electrospun scaffolds and produce extracellular matrix components in contrast to chondroblasts grown in homogeneous hydrogels. To restore cartilage we offer to use stacks of electrospun scaffolds fixed with photopolymerized solution of prepared from gelatin and chondroitin-4-sulfate both modified by glycidyl methacrylate and non-toxic photoinitator Darocur 2959. Scaffolds were prepared from nylon 6, polylactide-co-glicolide and their mixtures with modified gelatin. Illumination of chondroblasts in photopolymerized solution using 365 nm LED light had no effect on cell viability at compressive strength of the gel less than0,12 MPa. Stacks of electrospun scaffolds provide good compressive strength and have the potential for substitution with cartilage when biodegradable scaffolds are used. Vascularization can be prevented by introduction of biostable scaffolds in the layers contacting the subchondral bone. Studies of two-component materials (2-3 sheets of electrospun scaffold) implanted in the knee-joints of rabbits and fixed by photopolymerization demonstrated good crush resistance, biocompatibility and good adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage. Histological examination of the implants 3 month after implantation demonstrates absence of any inflammation and signs of replacement of the biodegradable scaffolds with normal cartilage. The possibility of intraoperative population of the implants with autologous cells is being investigated.

Keywords: chondroblasts, electrospun scaffolds, hyaline cartilage, photopolymerized gel

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58 Design of 3D Bioprinted Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration

Authors: Gloria Pinilla, Jose Manuel Baena, Patricia Gálvez-Martín, Juan Antonio Marchad


Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair properties. Currently, the therapeutic use of autologous or allogenic chondrocytes makes up an alternative therapy to the pharmacological treatment. The design of a bioprinted 3D cartilage with chondrocytes and biodegradable biomaterials offers a new therapeutic alternative able of bridging the limitations of current therapies in the field. We have developed an enhanced printing processes-Injection Volume Filling (IVF) to increase the viability and survival of the cells when working with high-temperature thermoplastics without the limitation of the scaffold geometry in contact with cells. We have demonstrated the viability of the printing process using chondrocytes for cartilage regeneration. This development will accelerate the clinical uptake of the technology and overcomes the current limitation when using thermoplastics as scaffolds. An alginate-based hydrogel combined with human chondrocytes (isolated from osteoarthritis patients) was formulated as bioink-A and the polylactic acid as bioink-B. The bioprinting process was carried out with the REGEMAT V1 bioprinter (Regemat 3D, Granada-Spain) through a IVF. The printing capacity of the bioprinting plus the viability and cell proliferation of bioprinted chondrociytes was evaluated after five weeks by confocal microscopy and Alamar Blue Assay (Biorad). Results showed that the IVF process does not decrease the cell viability of the chondrocytes during the printing process as the cells do not have contact with the thermoplastic at elevated temperatures. The viability and cellular proliferation of the bioprinted artificial 3D cartilage increased after 5 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential use of Regemat V1 for 3D bioprinting of cartilage and the viability of bioprinted chondrocytes in the scaffolds for application in regenerative medicine.

Keywords: cartilage regeneration, bioprinting, bioink, scaffold, chondrocyte

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57 Gel-Based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) in the Knee: Multicentric Short Term Study

Authors: Shaival Dalal, Nilesh Shah, Dinshaw Pardiwala, David Rajan, Satyen Sanghavi, Charul Bhanji


Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is used worldwide since 1998 to treat cartilage defect. GEL based ACI is a new tissue-engineering technique to treat full thickness cartilage defect with fibrin and thrombin as scaffold for chondrocytes. Purpose of this study is to see safety and efficacy of gel based ACI for knee cartilage defect in multiple centres with different surgeons. Gel-based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) has shown effectiveness in treating isolated cartilage defect of knee joint. Long term results are still needed to be studied. This study was followed-up up to two years and showed benefit to patients. All enrolled patients with a mean age of 28.5 years had an average defect size of3 square centimeters, and were grade IV as per ICRS grading. All patients were followed up several times and at several intervals at 6th week, 8th week, 11th week, 17th week, 29th week, 57th week after surgery. The outcomes were measured based on the IKDC (subjective and objective) and MOCART scores.

Keywords: knee, chondrocyte, autologous chondrocyte implantation, fibrin gel based

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56 Synergistic Effect of Chondroinductive Growth Factors and Synovium-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Regeneration of Cartilage Defects in Rabbits

Authors: M. Karzhauov, А. Mukhambetova, M. Sarsenova, E. Raimagambetov, V. Ogay


Regeneration of injured articular cartilage remains one of the most difficult and unsolved problems in traumatology and orthopedics. Currently, for the treatment of cartilage defects surgical techniques for stimulation of the regeneration of cartilage in damaged joints such as multiple microperforation, mosaic chondroplasty, abrasion and microfractures is used. However, as shown by clinical practice, they can not provide a full and sustainable recovery of articular hyaline cartilage. In this regard, the current high hopes in the regeneration of cartilage defects reasonably are associated with the use of tissue engineering approaches to restore the structural and functional characteristics of damaged joints using stem cells, growth factors and biopolymers or scaffolds. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of chondroinductive growth factors and synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SD-MSCs) on the regeneration of cartilage defects in rabbits. SD-MSCs were isolated from the synovium membrane of Flemish giant rabbits, and expanded in complete culture medium α-MEM. Rabbit SD-MSCs were characterized by CFU-assay and by their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. The effects of growth factors (TGF-β1, BMP-2, BMP-4 and IGF-I) on MSC chondrogenesis were examined in micromass pellet cultures using histological and biochemical analysis. Articular cartilage defect (4mm in diameter) in the intercondylar groove of the patellofemoral joint was performed with a kit for the mosaic chondroplasty. The defect was made until subchondral bone plate. Delivery of SD-MSCs and growth factors was conducted in combination with hyaloronic acid (HA). SD-MSCs, growth factors and control groups were compared macroscopically and histologically at 10, 30, 60 and 90 days aftrer intra-articular injection. Our in vitro comparative study revealed that TGF-β1 and BMP-4 are key chondroinductive factors for both the growth and chondrogenesis of SD-MSCs. The highest effect on MSC chondrogenesis was observed with the synergistic interaction of TGF-β1 and BMP-4. In addition, biochemical analysis of the chondrogenic micromass pellets also revealed that the levels of glycosaminoglycans and DNA after combined treatment with TGF-β1 and BMP-4 was significantly higher in comparison to individual application of these factors. In vivo study showed that for complete regeneration of cartilage defects with intra-articular injection of SD-MSCs with HA takes time 90 days. However, single injection of SD-MSCs in combiantion with TGF-β1, BMP-4 and HA significantly promoted regeneration rate of the cartilage defects in rabbits. In this case, complete regeneration of cartilage defects was observed in 30 days after intra-articular injection. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo study demonstrated that combined application of rabbit SD-MSC with chondroinductive growth factors and HA results in strong synergistic effect on the chondrogenesis significantly enhancing regeneration of the damaged cartilage.

Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells, synovium, chondroinductive factors, TGF-β1, BMP-2, BMP-4, IGF-I

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55 Glycosaminoglycan, a Cartilage Erosion Marker in Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients Strongly Correlates with WOMAC Function Subscale

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Narendrakumar Wagh, Dhanshri Ingle, Onkar Lande, Abhay Harsulkar


Cartilage is an extracellular matrix composed of aggrecan, which imparts it with a great tensile strength, stiffness and resilience. Disruption in cartilage metabolism leading to progressive degeneration is a characteristic feature of Osteoarthritis (OA). The process involves enzymatic depolymerisation of cartilage specific proteoglycan, releasing free glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This released GAG in synovial fluid (SF) of knee joint serves as a direct measure of cartilage loss, however, limited due to its invasive nature. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) is widely used for assessing pain, stiffness and physical-functions in OA patients. The scale is comprised of three subscales namely, pain, stiffness and physical-function, intends to measure patient’s perspective of disease severity as well as efficacy of prescribed treatment. Twenty SF samples obtained from OA patients were analysed for their GAG values in SF using DMMB based assay. LK 1.0 vernacular version was used to attain WOMAC scale. The results were evaluated using SAS University software (Edition 1.0) for statistical significance. All OA patients revealed higher GAG values compared to the control value of 78.4±30.1µg/ml (obtained from our non-OA patients). Average WOMAC calculated was 51.3 while pain, stiffness and function estimated were 9.7, 3.9 and 37.7, respectively. Interestingly, a strong statistical correlation was established between WOMAC function subscale and GAG (p = 0.0102). This subscale is based on day-to-day activities like stair-use, bending, walking, getting in/out of car, rising from bed. However, pain and stiffness subscale did not show correlation with any of the studied markers and endorsed the atypical inflammation in OA pathology. On one side, where knee pain showed poor correlation with GAG, it is often noted that radiography is insensitive to cartilage degenerative changes; thus OA remains undiagnosed for long. Moreover, active cartilage degradation phase remains elusive to both, patient and clinician. Through analysis of large number of OA patients we have established a close association of Kellgren-Lawrence grades and increased cartilage loss. A direct attempt to correlate WOMAC and radiographic progression of OA with various biomarkers has not been attempted so far. We found a good correlation in GAG levels in SF and the function subscale.

Keywords: cartilage, Glycosaminoglycan, synovial fluid, western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

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54 Self-Healing Hydrogel Triggered by Magnetic Microspheres to Control Glutathione Release for Cartilage Repair

Authors: I-Yun Cheng, Min-Yu Chiang, Shwu-Jen Chang, San-Yuan Chen


Osteoarthritis (OA) is among the most challenging joint diseases, and as far as we know, there is currently no exact and effective cure for it because it has low self-repair ability due to lack of blood vessels and low cell density in articular cartilage. So far, there have been several methods developed to treat cartilage disorder. The most common method is to treat the high molecular weight of hyaluronic acid (HA) injection, but it will degrade after a period of time, so the patients need to inject HA repeatedly. In recent years, self-healing hydrogel has drawn considerable attention because it can recover its initial mechanical properties after damaged and further increase the lifetime of the hydrogel. Here, we aim to develop a self-healable composite hydrogel combined with magnetic microspheres to trigger glutathione(GSH) release for promoting cartilage repair. We use HA-cyclodextrin (CD) as host polymer and poly(acrylic acid)-ferrocene (pAA-Fc) as guest polymer to form the self-healable HA-pAA hydrogel by host and guest interaction where various graft amount of pAA-Fc (pAA:Fc= 1:2, 1:1.5, 1:1, 2:1, 4:1) was conducted to develop different mechanical strength hydrogel. The rheology analysis showed that the 4:1 of pAA-Fc has higher mechanical strength than other formulations. On the other hand, iron oxide nanoparticle, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) were used to synthesize porous magnetic microspheres via double emulsification water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) to increase GSH loading which acted as a reductant to control the hydrogel crosslink density and promote hydrogel self-healing. The results show that the porous magnetic microspheres can be loaded with 70% of GSH and sustained release about 50% of GSH after 24 hours. More importantly, the HA-pAA composite hydrogel can self-heal rapidly within 24 hours when suffering external force destruction by releasing GSH from the magnetic microspheres. Therefore, the developed the HA-pAA composite hydrogel combined with GSH-loaded magnetic microspheres can be in-vivo guided to damaged OA surface for inducing the cartilage repair by controlling the crosslinking of self-healing hydrogel via GSH release.

Keywords: articular cartilage, magnetic microsphere, osteoarthritis, self-healing hydrogel

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53 Acanthopanax koreanum and Major Ingredient, Impressic Acid, Possess Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Down-Regulating Capacity and Protect Cartilage Destruction

Authors: Hyun Lim, Dong Sook Min, Han Eul Yun, Kil Tae Kim, Ya Nan Sun, Young Ho Kim, Hyun Pyo Kim


Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 has an important role for degrading cartilage materials under inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. Since the 70% ethanol extract of Acanthopanax koreanum inhibited MMP-13 expression in IL-1β-treated human chondrocyte cell line, SW1353, two major constituents including acanthoic acid and impressic acid were initially isolated from the same plant materials and their MMP-13 down-regulating capacity was examined. In IL-1β-treated SW1353 cells, acanthoic acid and impressic acid significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited MMP-13 expression at 10 – 100 μM and 0.5 – 10 μM, respectively. The potent one, impressic acid, was found to inhibit MMP-13 expression by blocking the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1/-2 (STAT-1/-2) and activation of c-Jun and c-Fos among cellular signaling pathway involved, but did not affect the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB). Further, impressic acid was also found to inhibit the expression of MMP-13 mRNA (47.7% inhibition at 10 μM), the glycosaminoglycan release (42.2% reduction at 10 μM) and proteoglycan loss in IL-1-treated rabbit cartilage explants culture. For a further study, 21 impressic acid derivatives were isolated from the same plant materials and their suppressive activities against MMP-13 expression were examined. Among the derivatives, 3α-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23-oxo,28-oic acid, (20R)-3α-hydroxy-29-dimethoxylupan-23,28-dioic acid, acankoreoside F and acantrifoside A clearly down-regulated MMP-13 expression, but impressic acid being most potent. All these results suggest that impressic acid, 3α-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23-oxo,28-oic acid, (20R)-3α-hydroxy-29-dimethoxylupan-23,28-dioic acid, acankoreoside F, acantrifoside A and A. koreanum may have a potential for therapeutic agents to prevent cartilage degradation possibly by inhibiting matrix protein degradation.

Keywords: acanthoic acid, Acanthopanax koreanum, cartilage, impressic acid, matrix metalloproteinase

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52 Visco-Hyperelastic Finite Element Analysis for Diagnosis of Knee Joint Injury Caused by Meniscal Tearing

Authors: Eiji Nakamachi, Tsuyoshi Eguchi, Sayo Yamamoto, Yusuke Morita, H. Sakamoto


In this study, we aim to reveal the relationship between the meniscal tearing and the articular cartilage injury of knee joint by using the dynamic explicit finite element (FE) method. Meniscal injuries reduce its functional ability and consequently increase the load on the articular cartilage of knee joint. In order to prevent the induction of osteoarthritis (OA) caused by meniscal injuries, many medical treatment techniques, such as artificial meniscus replacement and meniscal regeneration, have been developed. However, it is reported that these treatments are not the comprehensive methods. In order to reveal the fundamental mechanism of OA induction, the mechanical characterization of meniscus under the condition of normal and injured states is carried out by using FE analyses. At first, a FE model of the human knee joint in the case of normal state – ‘intact’ - was constructed by using the magnetron resonance (MR) tomography images and the image construction code, Materialize Mimics. Next, two types of meniscal injury models with the radial tears of medial and lateral menisci were constructed. In FE analyses, the linear elastic constitutive law was adopted for the femur and tibia bones, the visco-hyperelastic constitutive law for the articular cartilage, and the visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive law for the meniscus, respectively. Material properties of articular cartilage and meniscus were identified using the stress-strain curves obtained by our compressive and the tensile tests. The numerical results under the normal walking condition revealed how and where the maximum compressive stress occurred on the articular cartilage. The maximum compressive stress and its occurrence point were varied in the intact and two meniscal tear models. These compressive stress values can be used to establish the threshold value to cause the pathological change for the diagnosis. In this study, FE analyses of knee joint were carried out to reveal the influence of meniscal injuries on the cartilage injury. The following conclusions are obtained. 1. 3D FE model, which consists femur, tibia, articular cartilage and meniscus was constructed based on MR images of human knee joint. The image processing code, Materialize Mimics was used by using the tetrahedral FE elements. 2. Visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive equation was formulated by adopting the generalized Kelvin model. The material properties of meniscus and articular cartilage were determined by curve fitting with experimental results. 3. Stresses on the articular cartilage and menisci were obtained in cases of the intact and two radial tears of medial and lateral menisci. Through comparison with the case of intact knee joint, two tear models show almost same stress value and higher value than the intact one. It was shown that both meniscal tears induce the stress localization in both medial and lateral regions. It is confirmed that our newly developed FE analysis code has a potential to be a new diagnostic system to evaluate the meniscal damage on the articular cartilage through the mechanical functional assessment.

Keywords: finite element analysis, hyperelastic constitutive law, knee joint injury, meniscal tear, stress concentration

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51 IL-23, an Inflammatory Cytokine, Decreased by Shark Cartilage and Vitamin A Oral Treatment in Patient with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zarei, Hassan zm, Abolghasem Ajami, Darush Moslemi, Narges Afsary, Amrollah Mostafa-zade


Introduction: IL-23 is responsible for the differentiation and expansion of Th17/ThIL-17 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. Therefore, may be IL-23/IL17 axis involve in a variety of allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as RA, MS, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asthma. TGF-β is also share for the differentiation Th17 producing IL-17 and CD4+CD25+Foxp3hiT regulatory cells from naïve CD4+ T cells which are involved in the regulation of immune response, maintaining immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis ,and the control of autoimmunity and cancer surveillance. Therefore, T regulatory cells play a key role in autoimmunity, allergy, cancer, infectious disease, and the induction of transplantation tolerance. Vitamin A and it's derivatives (retinoids) inhibit or reverse the carcinogenic process in some types of cancers in oral cavity,head and neck, breast, skin, liver, and blood cells. Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, in vitro. Our purpose is whether simultaneous oral treatment vitamin A and shark cartilage can modulate IL-23/IL-17 and CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory cell/TGF-β pathways and Th1/Th2 immunity in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23,IL-17,TGF-β,IL-4 and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: An imbalance between IL-17 secretion and TGF-β/Foxp3 t regulatory cell pathway and so, Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) was not seen in patients with gastric cancer treated by vitamin A and shark cartilage. But, the simultaneously presented down-regulation of IL-23 indicated, at least cytokine level. Conclusion: Il-23, as a pro-angiogenesis cytokine, probably, help to tumor growth. Hence, suggested that down-regulation of IL-23, at least cytokine level, is useful for anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, TGF-β/CD4CD25Foxp3 T regulatory pathway, γ-IFN, IL-4, shark cartilage and gastric cancer

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50 The Role of a Biphasic Implant Based on a Bioactive Silk Fibroin for Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration

Authors: Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Vanessa Perez-Silos, Nidia K. Moncada-Saucedo, Alejandro Garcia-Ruiz, Alberto Camacho, Jorge Lara-Arias, Ivan Marino-Martinez, Victor Romero-Diaz, Adolfo Soto-Dominguez, Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha, Hang Lin, Victor Pena-Martinez


Biphasic scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering have been designed to influence not only the recapitulation of the osteochondral architecture but also to take advantage of the healing ability of bone to promote the implant integration with the surrounding tissue and then bone restoration and cartilage regeneration. This study reports the development and characterization of a biphasic scaffold based on the assembly of a cartilage phase constituted by fibroin biofunctionalized with bovine cartilage matrix; cellularized with differentiated pre-chondrocytes from adipose tissue stem cells (autologous) and well attached to a bone phase (bone bovine decellularized) to mimic the structure of the nature of native tissue and to promote the cartilage regeneration in a model of joint damage in pigs. Biphasic scaffolds were assembled by fibroin crystallization with methanol. The histological and ultrastructural architectures were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy respectively. Mechanical tests were conducted to evaluate Young's modulus of the implant. For the biological evaluation, pre-chondrocytes were loaded onto the scaffolds and cellular adhesion, proliferation, and gene expression analysis of cartilage extracellular matrix components was performed. The scaffolds that were cellularized and matured for 10 days were implanted into critical 3 mm in diameter and 9-mm in depth osteochondral defects in a porcine model (n=4). Three treatments were applied per knee: Group 1: monophasic cellular scaffold (MS) (single chondral phase), group 2: biphasic scaffold, cellularized only in the chondral phase (BS1), group 3: BS cellularized in both bone and chondral phases (BS2). Simultaneously, a control without treatment was evaluated. After 4 weeks of surgery, integration and regeneration tissues were analyzed by x-rays, histology and immunohistochemistry evaluation. The mechanical assessment showed that the acellular biphasic composites exhibited Young's modulus of 805.01 kPa similar to native cartilage (400-800 kPa). In vitro biological studies revealed the chondroinductive ability of the biphasic implant, evidenced by an increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) and type II collagen, both secreted by the chondrocytes cultured on the scaffold during 28 days. No evidence of adverse or inflammatory reactions was observed in the in vivo trial; however, In group 1, the defects were not reconstructed. In group 2 and 3 a good integration of the implant with the surrounding tissue was observed. Defects in group 2 were fulfilled by hyaline cartilage and normal bone. Group 3 defects showed fibrous repair tissue. In conclusion; our findings demonstrated the efficacy of biphasic and bioactive scaffold based on silk fibroin, which entwined chondroinductive features and biomechanical capability with appropriate integration with the surrounding tissue, representing a promising alternative for osteochondral tissue-engineering applications.

Keywords: biphasic scaffold, extracellular cartilage matrix, silk fibroin, osteochondral tissue engineering

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49 Potential Role of IL-1β in Synovial Fluid in Modulating Multiple Joint Tissue Pathologies Leading to Inflammation and Accelerating Cartilage Degeneration

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Datta Shinde, Shantanu Deshpande, Narendrakumar Wagh, Abhay Harsulkar


Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with multiple and overlapping aetiologies. IL-1β is produced by stressed tissue and known to aggravate disease pathologies. We selected 10 patients with elevated IL-1β in their synovial fluids (SF). We hypothesized IL-1β as nodal-point connecting different pathologies. IL-1β was higher in all meniscal tear (MT) patients perhaps as the earliest response to injury. Since MT above age of 30 leads to OA in less than 5 years, it is attributed that IL-1β modulates OA pathology. Among all bilateral OA patients, an interesting case operated for Total-Knee-Replacement revealed differential cartilage degeneration demonstrating strong association with higher IL-1β. Symptoms like acute-pain, effusion and redness were correlated with higher IL-1β and NO (Nitric-oxide). However, higher IL-1β was also found without typical-inflammation characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Cultured synoviocytes responded to IL-1β by releasing NO. In conclusion, IL-1β in SF acquires central position influencing different OA pathologies and aetiologies.

Keywords: IL-1β, meniscal tear, osteoarthritis, synovial fluid

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48 Cartilage Mimicking Coatings to Increase the Life-Span of Bearing Surfaces in Joint Prosthesis

Authors: L. Sánchez-Abella, I. Loinaz, H-J. Grande, D. Dupin


Aseptic loosening remains as the principal cause of revision in total hip arthroplasty (THA). For long-term implantations, submicron particles are generated in vivo due to the inherent wear of the prosthesis. When this occurs, macrophages undergo phagocytosis and secretion of bone resorptive cytokines inducing osteolysis, hence loosening of the implanted prosthesis. Therefore, new technologies are required to reduce the wear of the bearing materials and hence increase the life-span of the prosthesis. Our strategy focuses on surface modification of the bearing materials with a hydrophilic coating based on cross-linked water-soluble (meth)acrylic monomers to improve their tribological behavior. These coatings are biocompatible, with high swelling capacity and antifouling properties, mimicking the properties of natural cartilage, i.e. wear resistance with a permanent hydrated layer that prevents prosthesis damage. Cartilage mimicking based coatings may be also used to protect medical device surfaces from damage and scratches that will compromise their integrity and hence their safety. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanical and tribological characteristics of this type of coatings. Clear beneficial advantages of this coating have been demonstrated in different conditions and different materials, such as Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), Polyethylene (XLPE), Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK), cobalt-chromium (CoCr), Stainless steel, Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) and Alumina. Using routine tribological experiments, the wear for UHMWPE substrate was decreased by 75% against alumina, ZTA and stainless steel. For PEEK-CFR substrate coated, the amount of material lost against ZTA and CrCo was at least 40% lower. Experiments on hip simulator allowed coated ZTA femoral heads and coated UHMWPE cups to be validated with a decrease of 80% of loss material. Further experiments on hip simulator adding abrasive particles (1 micron sized alumina particles) during 3 million cycles, on a total of 6 million, demonstrated a decreased of around 55% of wear compared to uncoated UHMWPE and uncoated XLPE. In conclusion, CIDETEC‘s hydrogel coating technology is versatile and can be adapted to protect a large range of surfaces, even in abrasive conditions.

Keywords: cartilage, hydrogel, hydrophilic coating, joint

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47 Localisation of Fluorescently Labelled Drug-Free Phospholipid Vesicles to the Cartilage Surface of Rat Synovial Joints

Authors: Sam Yurdakul, Nick Baverstock, Jim Mills


TDT 064 (FLEXISEQ®) is a drug-free gel used to treat osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain and joint stiffness. It contains ultra-deformable phospholipid Sequessome™ vesicles, which can pass through the skin barrier intact. In six randomized OA studies, topical TDT 064 was well tolerated and improved joint pain, physical function and stiffness. In the largest study, these TDT 064-mediated effects were statistically significantly greater than oral placebo and equivalent to celecoxib. To understand the therapeutic effects of TDT 064, we investigated the localisation of the drug-free vesicles within rat synovial joints. TDT 064 containing DiO-labelled Sequessome™ vesicles was applied to the knees of four 6-week-old CD® hairless rats (10 mg/kg/ joint), 2–3 times/day, for 3 days (representing the recommended clinical dose). Eighteen hours later, the animals and one untreated control were sacrificed, and the knee joints isolated, flash frozen and embedded in Acrytol Mounting Media™. Approximately 15 sections (10 µm) from each joint were analysed by fluorescence microscopy. To investigate whether the localisation of DiO fluorescence was associated with intact vesicles, an anti-PEG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to detect Tween, a constituent of Sequessome™ vesicles. Sections were visualized at 484 nm (DiO) and 647 nm (anti-PEG mAb) and analysed using inForm 1.4 (Perkin Elmer, Inc.). Significant fluorescence was observed at 484 nm in sections from TDT 064-treated animals. No non-specific fluorescence was observed in control sections. Fluorescence was detected as discrete vesicles on the cartilage surfaces, inside the cartilaginous matrix and within the synovial space. The number of DiO-labelled vesicles in multiple fields of view was consistent and >100 in sections from four different treated knees. DiO and anti-PEG mAb co-localised within the collagenous tissues in four different joint sections. Under higher magnification (40x), vesicles were seen in the intercellular spaces of the synovial joint tissue, but no fluorescence was seen inside cells. These data suggest that the phospholipid vesicles in TDT 064 localize at the surface of the joint cartilage; these vesicles may therefore be supplementing the phospholipid deficiency reported in OA and acting as a biolubricant within the synovial joint.

Keywords: joint pain, osteoarthritis, phospholipid vesicles, TDT 064

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46 Hybrid Manufacturing System to Produce 3D Structures for Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration

Authors: Pedro G. Morouço


One utmost challenge in Tissue Engineering is the production of 3D constructs capable of mimicking the functional hierarchy of native tissues. This is well stated for osteochondral tissue due to the complex mechanical functional unit based on the junction of articular cartilage and bone. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a new additive manufacturing system coupling micro-extrusion with hydrogels printing. An integrated system was developed with 2 main features: (i) the printing of up to three distinct hydrogels; (ii) in coordination with the printing of a thermoplastic structural support. The hydrogel printing module was projected with a ‘revolver-like’ system, where the hydrogel selection was made by a rotating mechanism. The hydrogel deposition was then controlled by pressured air input. The use of specific components approved for medical use was incorporated in the material dispensing system (Nordson EDF Optimum® fluid dispensing system). The thermoplastic extrusion modulus enabled the control of required extrusion temperature through electric resistances in the polymer reservoir and the extrusion system. After testing and upgrades, a hydrogel modulus with 3 syringes (3cm3 capacity each), with a pressure range of 0-2.5bar, a rotational speed of 0-5rpm, and working with needles from 200-800µm was obtained. This modulus was successfully coupled to the extrusion system that presented a temperature up to 300˚C, a pressure range of 0-12bar, and working with nozzles from 200-500µm. The applied motor could provide a velocity range 0-2000mm/min. Although, there are distinct printing requirements for hydrogels and polymers, the novel system could develop hybrid scaffolds, combining the 2 moduli. The morphological analysis showed high reliability (n=5) between the theoretical and obtained filament and pore size (350µm and 300µm vs. 342±4µm and 302±3µm, p>0.05, respectively) of the polymer; and multi-material 3D constructs were successfully obtained. Human tissues present very distinct and complex structures regarding their mechanical properties, organization, composition and dimensions. For osteochondral regenerative medicine, a multiphasic scaffold is required as subchondral bone and overlying cartilage must regenerate at the same time. Thus, a scaffold with 3 layers (bone, intermediate and cartilage parts) can be a promising approach. The developed system may give a suitable solution to construct those hybrid scaffolds with enhanced properties. The present novel system is a step-forward regarding osteochondral tissue engineering due to its ability to generate layered mechanically stable implants through the double-printing of hydrogels with thermoplastics.

Keywords: 3D bioprinting, bone regeneration, cartilage regeneration, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering

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45 Role of Interlukin-18 in Primary Knee Osteoarthritis: Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Study

Authors: Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Enas Mohamed Shahine, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Ghada Salah Attia Hussein


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by a progressive degradation of articular cartilage and is the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. IL-18 contributes to the destruction of cartilage and bone in the disease process of arthritis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of IL-18 in primary knee OA patients. Serum level of IL-18 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 30 primary knee OA patients and compared to 20 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers as a control group. Radiographic severity of OA was assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) global scale. Pain, stiffness and functional assessment were done using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). OA patients had significantly higher serum IL-18 level than in control group (420.93 ± 345.4 versus 151.03 ± 144.16 pg/ml, P=0.001). Serum level of IL-18 was positively correlated with KL global scale (P=0.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between serum level of IL-18 and pain, stiffness, function subscales and total WOMAC index scores among the studied patients. In conclusions, IL-18 has a role in the pathogenesis of OA and it is positively correlated with the radiographic damage of OA.

Keywords: Interlukin-18, knee osteoarthritis, primary osteoarthritis, WOMAC scale

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44 Piled Critical Size Bone-Biomimetic and Biominerizable Nanocomposites: Formation of Bioreactor-Induced Stem Cell Gradients under Perfusion and Compression

Authors: W. Baumgartner, M. Welti, N. Hild, S. C. Hess, W. J. Stark, G. Meier Bürgisser, P. Giovanoli, J. Buschmann


Perfusion bioreactors are used to solve problems in tissue engineering in terms of sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply. Such problems especially occur in critical size grafts because vascularization is often too slow after implantation ending up in necrotic cores. Biominerizable and biocompatible nanocomposite materials are attractive and suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering because they offer mineral components in organic carriers – mimicking natural bone tissue. In addition, human adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) can potentially be used to increase bone healing as they are capable of differentiating towards osteoblasts or endothelial cells among others. In the present study, electrospun nanocomposite disks of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/a-CaP) were seeded with human ASCs and eight disks were stacked in a bioreactor running with normal culture medium (no differentiation supplements). Under continuous perfusion and uniaxial cyclic compression, load-displacement curves as a function of time were assessed. Stiffness and energy dissipation were recorded. Moreover, stem cell densities in the layers of the piled scaffold were determined as well as their morphologies and differentiation status (endothelial cell differentiation, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis). While the stiffness of the cell free constructs increased over time caused by the transformation of the a-CaP nanoparticles into flake-like apatite, ASC-seeded constructs showed a constant stiffness. Stem cell density gradients were histologically determined with a linear increase in the flow direction from the bottom to the top of the 3.5 mm high pile (r2 > 0.95). Cell morphology was influenced by the flow rate, with stem cells getting more roundish at higher flow rates. Less than 1 % osteogenesis was found upon osteopontin immunostaining at the end of the experiment (9 days), while no endothelial cell differentiation and no chondrogenesis was triggered under these conditions. All ASCs had mainly remained in their original pluripotent status within this time frame. In summary, we have fabricated a critical size bone graft based on a biominerizable bone-biomimetic nanocomposite with preserved stiffness when seeded with human ASCs. The special feature of this bone graft was that ASC densities inside the piled construct varied with a linear gradient, which is a good starting point for tissue engineering interfaces such as bone-cartilage where the bone tissue is cell rich while the cartilage exhibits low cell densities. As such, this tissue-engineered graft may act as a bone-cartilage interface after the corresponding differentiation of the ASCs.

Keywords: bioreactor, bone, cartilage, nanocomposite, stem cell gradient

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43 A Single Stage Cleft Rhinoplasty Technique for Primary Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate 'The Gujrat Technique'

Authors: Diaa Othman, Muhammad Adil Khan, Muhammad Riaz


Without an early intervention to correct the unilateral complete cleft lip and palate deformity, nasal architecture can progress to an exaggerated cleft nose deformity. We present the results of a modified unilateral cleft rhinoplasty procedure ‘the Gujrat technique’ to correct this deformity. Ninety pediatric and adult patients with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip underwent primary and secondary composite cleft rhinoplasty using the Gujrat technique as a single stage operation over a 10-year period. The technique involved an open rhinoplasty with Tennison lip repair, and employed a combination of three autologous cartilage grafts, seven cartilage-molding sutures and a prolene mesh graft for alar base support. Post-operative evaluation of nasal symmetry was undertaken using the validated computer program ‘SymNose’. Functional outcome and patient satisfaction were assessed using the NOSE scale and ROE (rhinoplasty outcome evaluation) questionnaires. The single group study design used the non-parametric matching pairs Wilcoxon Sign test (p < 0.001), and showed overall good to excellent functional and aesthetic outcomes, including nasal projection and tip definition, and higher scores of the digital SymNose grading system. Objective assessment of the Gujrat cleft rhinoplasty technique demonstrates its aesthetic appeal and functional versatility. Overall it is a simple and reproducible technique, with no significant complications.

Keywords: cleft lip and palate, congenital rhinoplasty, nasal deformity, secondary rhinoplasty

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42 Stress Evaluation at Lower Extremity during Walking with Unstable Shoe

Authors: Sangbaek Park, Seungju Lee, Soo-Won Chae


Unstable shoes are known to strengthen lower extremity muscles and improve gait ability and to change the user’s gait pattern. The change in gait pattern affects human body enormously because the walking is repetitive and steady locomotion in daily life. It is possible to estimate the joint motion including joint moment, force and inertia effect using kinematic and kinetic analysis. However, the change of internal stress at the articular cartilage has not been possible to estimate. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the internal stress of human body during gait with unstable shoes. In this study, FE analysis was combined with motion capture experiment to obtain the boundary condition and loading condition during walking. Motion capture experiments were performed with a participant during walking with normal shoes and with unstable shoes. Inverse kinematics and inverse kinetic analysis was performed with OpenSim. The joint angle and muscle forces were estimated as results of inverse kinematics and kinetics analysis. A detailed finite element (FE) lower extremity model was constructed. The joint coordinate system was added to the FE model and the joint coordinate system was coincided with OpenSim model’s coordinate system. Finally, the joint angles at each phase of gait were used to transform the FE model’s posture according to actual posture from motion capture. The FE model was transformed into the postures of three major phases (1st peak of ground reaction force, mid stance and 2nd peak of ground reaction force). The direction and magnitude of muscle force were estimated by OpenSim and were applied to the FE model’s attachment point of each muscle. Then FE analysis was performed to compare the stress at knee cartilage during gait with normal shoes and unstable shoes.

Keywords: finite element analysis, gait analysis, human model, motion capture

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41 Exploring the Prebiotic Potential of Glucosamine

Authors: Shilpi Malik, Ramneek Kaur, Archita Gupta, Deepshikha Yadav, Ashwani Mathur, Manisha Singh


Glucosamine (GS) is the most abundant naturally occurring amino monosaccharide and is normally produced in human body via cellular glucose metabolism. It is regarded as the building block of cartilage matrix and is also an essential component of cartilage matrix repair mechanism. Besides that, it can also be explored for its prebiotic potential as many bacterial species are known to utilize the amino sugar by acquiring them to form peptidoglycans and lipopolysaccharides in the bacterial cell wall. Glucosamine can therefore be considered for its fermentation by bacterial species present in the gut. Current study is focused on exploring the potential of glucosamine as prebiotic. The studies were done to optimize considerable concentration of GS to reach GI tract and being fermented by the complex gut microbiota and food grade GS was added to various Simulated Fluids of Gastro-Intestinal Tract (GIT) such as Simulated Saliva, Gastric Fluid (Fast and Fed State), Colonic fluid, etc. to detect its degradation. Since it was showing increase in microbial growth (CFU) with time, GS was Further, encapsulated to increase its residential time in the gut, which exhibited improved resistance to the simulated Gut conditions. Moreover, prepared microspehres were optimized and characterized for their encapsulation efficiency and toxicity. To further substantiate the prebiotic activity of Glucosamine, studies were also performed to determine the effect of Glucosamine on the known probiotic bacterial species, i.e. Lactobacillus delbrueckii (MTCC 911) and Bifidobacteriumbifidum (MTCC 5398). Culture conditions for glucosamine will be added in MRS media in anaerobic tube at 0.20%, 0.40%, 0.60%, 0.80%, and 1.0%, respectively. MRS media without GS was included in this experiment as the control. All samples were autoclaved at 118° C for 15 min. Active culture was added at 5% (v/v) to each anaerobic tube after cooling to room temperature and incubated at 37° C then determined biomass and pH and viable count at incubation 18h. The experiment was completed in triplicate and the results were presented as Mean ± SE (Standard error).The experimental results are conclusive and suggest Glucosamine to hold prebiotic properties.

Keywords: gastro intestinal tract, microspheres, peptidoglycans, simulated fluid

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40 Biodegradable Cross-Linked Composite Hydrogels Enriched with Small Molecule for Osteochondral Regeneration

Authors: Elena I. Oprita, Oana Craciunescu, Rodica Tatia, Teodora Ciucan, Reka Barabas, Orsolya Raduly, Anca Oancea


Healing of osteochondral defects requires repair of the damaged articular cartilage, the underlying subchondral bone and the interface between these tissues (the functional calcified layer). For this purpose, developing a single monophasic scaffold that can regenerate two specific lineages (cartilage and bone) becomes a challenge. The aim of this work was to develop variants of biodegradable cross-linked composite hydrogel based on natural polypeptides (gelatin), polysaccharides components (chondroitin-4-sulphate and hyaluronic acid), in a ratio of 2:0.08:0.02 (w/w/w) and mixed with Si-hydroxyapatite (Si-Hap), in two ratios of 1:1 and 2:1 (w/w). Si-Hap was synthesized and characterized as a better alternative to conventional Hap. Subsequently, both composite hydrogel variants were cross-linked with (N, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC) and enriched with a small bioactive molecule (icariin). The small molecule icariin (Ica) (C33H40O15) is the main active constituent (flavonoid) of Herba epimedium used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure bone- and cartilage-related disorders. Ica enhances osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), facilitates matrix calcification and increases the specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components synthesis by chondrocytes. Afterward, the composite hydrogels were characterized for their physicochemical properties in terms of the enzymatic biodegradation in the presence of type I collagenase and trypsin, the swelling capacity and the degree of crosslinking (TNBS assay). The cumulative release of Ica and real-time concentration were quantified at predetermined periods of time, according to the standard curve of standard Ica, after hydrogels incubation in saline buffer at physiological parameters. The obtained cross-linked composite hydrogels enriched with small-molecule Ica were also characterized for morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their cytocompatibility was evaluated according to EN ISO 10993-5:2009 standard for medical device testing. Thus, analyses regarding cell viability (Live/Dead assay), cell proliferation (Neutral Red assay) and cell adhesion to composite hydrogels (SEM) were performed using NCTC clone L929 cell line. The final results showed that both cross-linked composite hydrogel variants enriched with Ica presented optimal physicochemical, structural and biological properties to be used as a natural scaffold able to repair osteochondral defects. The data did not reveal any toxicity of composite hydrogels in NCTC stabilized cell lines within the tested range of concentrations. Moreover, cells were capable of spreading and proliferating on both composite hydrogel surfaces. In conclusion, the designed biodegradable cross-linked composites enriched with Si and Ica are recommended for further testing as natural temporary scaffolds, which can allow cell migration and synthesis of new extracellular matrix within osteochondral defects.

Keywords: composites, gelatin, osteochondral defect, small molecule

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39 The Effect of Foot Progression Angle on Human Lower Extremity

Authors: Sungpil Ha, Ju Yong Kang, Sangbaek Park, Seung-Ju Lee, Soo-Won Chae


The growing number of obese patients in aging societies has led to an increase in the number of patients with knee medial osteoarthritis (OA). Artificial joint insertion is the most common treatment for knee medial OA. Surgery is effective for patients with serious arthritic symptoms, but it is costly and dangerous. It is also inappropriate way to prevent a disease as an early stage. Therefore Non-operative treatments such as toe-in gait are proposed recently. Toe-in gait is one of non-surgical interventions, which restrain the progression of arthritis and relieves pain by reducing knee adduction moment (KAM) to facilitate lateral distribution of load on to knee medial cartilage. Numerous studies have measured KAM in various foot progression angle (FPA), and KAM data could be obtained by motion analysis. However, variations in stress at knee cartilage could not be directly observed or evaluated by these experiments of measuring KAM. Therefore, this study applied motion analysis to major gait points (1st peak, mid –stance, 2nd peak) with regard to FPA, and to evaluate the effects of FPA on the human lower extremity, the finite element (FE) method was employed. Three types of gait analysis (toe-in, toe-out, baseline gait) were performed with markers placed at the lower extremity. Ground reaction forces (GRF) were obtained by the force plates. The forces associated with the major muscles were computed using GRF and marker trajectory data. MRI data provided by the Visible Human Project were used to develop a human lower extremity FE model. FE analyses for three types of gait simulations were performed based on the calculated muscle force and GRF. We observed the maximum stress point during toe-in gait was lower than the other types, by comparing the results of FE analyses at the 1st peak across gait types. This is the same as the trend exhibited by KAM, measured through motion analysis in other papers. This indicates that the progression of knee medial OA could be suppressed by adopting toe-in gait. This study integrated motion analysis with FE analysis. One advantage of this method is that re-modeling is not required even with changes in posture. Therefore another type of gait simulation or various motions of lower extremity can be easily analyzed using this method.

Keywords: finite element analysis, gait analysis, human model, motion capture

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38 Antioxidant Status in Synovial Fluid from Osteoarthritis Patients: A Pilot Study in Indian Demography

Authors: S. Koppikar, P. Kulkarni, D. Ingale , N. Wagh, S. Deshpande, A. Mahajan, A. Harsulkar


Crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progression Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis has been endorsed several times though its exact mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress is known to instigate classical stress factors such as cytokines, chemokines and ROS, which hampers cartilage remodelling process and ultimately results in worsening the disease. Synovial fluid (SF) is a biological communicator between cartilage and synovium that accumulates redox and biochemical signalling mediators. The present work attempts to measure several oxidative stress markers in the synovial fluid obtained from knee OA patients with varying degree of disease severity. Thirty OA and five Meniscal-tear (MT) patients were graded using Kellgren-Lawrence scale and assessed for Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrate-Nitrite (NN), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels for comparison. Out of various oxidative markers studied, NO and SOD showed significant difference between moderate and severe OA (p= 0.007 and p= 0.08, respectively), whereas CAT demonstrated significant difference between MT and mild group (p= 0.07). Interestingly, NN revealed statistically positive correlation with OA severity (p= 0.001 and p= 0.003). MDA, a lipid peroxidation by-product was estimated maximum in early OA when compared to MT (p= 0.06). However, FRAP did not show any correlation with OA severity or MT control. NO is an essential bio-regulatory molecule essential for several physiological processes, and inflammatory conditions. However, due to its short life, exact estimation of NO becomes difficult. NO and its measurable stable products are still it is considered as one of the important biomarker of oxidative damage. Levels of NO and nitrite-nitrate in SF of patients with OA indicated its involvement in the disease progression. When SF groups were compared, a significant correlation among moderate, mild and MT groups was established. To summarize, present data illustrated higher levels of NO, SOD, CAT, DPPH and MDA in early OA in comparison with MT, as a control group. NN had emerged as a prognostic bio marker in knee OA patients, which may act as futuristic targets in OA treatment.

Keywords: antioxidant, knee osteoarthritis, oxidative stress, synovial fluid

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37 Reliability of Dry Tissues Sampled from Exhumed Bodies in DNA Analysis

Authors: V. Agostini, S. Gino, S. Inturri, A. Piccinini


In cases of corpse identification or parental testing performed on exhumed alleged dead father, usually, we seek and acquire organic samples as bones and/or bone fragments, teeth, nails and muscle’s fragments. The DNA analysis of these cadaveric matrices usually leads to identifying success, but it often happens that the results of the typing are not satisfactory with highly degraded, partial or even non-interpretable genetic profiles. To aggravate the interpretative panorama deriving from the analysis of such 'classical' organic matrices, we must add a long and laborious treatment of the sample that starts from the mechanical fragmentation up to the protracted decalcification phase. These steps greatly increase the chance of sample contamination. In the present work, instead, we want to report the use of 'unusual' cadaveric matrices, demonstrating that their forensic genetics analysis can lead to better results in less time and with lower costs of reagents. We report six case reports, result of on-field experience, in which eyeswabs and cartilage were sampled and analyzed, allowing to obtain clear single genetic profiles, useful for identification purposes. In all cases we used the standard DNA tissue extraction protocols (as reported on the user manuals of the manufacturers such as QIAGEN or Invitrogen- Thermo Fisher Scientific), thus bypassing the long and difficult phases of mechanical fragmentation and decalcification of bones' samples. PCR was carried out using PowerPlex® Fusion System kit (Promega), and capillary electrophoresis was carried out on an ABI PRISM® 310 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems®), with GeneMapper ID v3.2.1 (Applied Biosystems®) software. The software Familias (version 3.1.3) was employed for kinship analysis. The genetic results achieved have proved to be much better than the analysis of bones or nails, both from the qualitative and quantitative point of view and from the point of view of costs and timing. This way, by using the standard procedure of DNA extraction from tissue, it is possible to obtain, in a shorter time and with maximum efficiency, an excellent genetic profile, which proves to be useful and can be easily decoded for later paternity tests and/or identification of human remains.

Keywords: DNA, eye swabs and cartilage, identification human remains, paternity testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 46