Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: memories

121 Arousal, Encoding, And Intrusive Memories

Authors: Hannah Gutmann, Rick Richardson, Richard Bryant

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Intrusive memories following a traumatic event are not uncommon. However, in some individuals, these memories become maladaptive and lead to prolonged stress reactions. A seminal model of PTSD explains that aberrant processing during trauma may lead to prolonged stress reactions and intrusive memories. This model explains that elevated arousal at the time of the trauma promotes data driven processing, leading to fragmented and intrusive memories. This study investigated the role of elevated arousal on the development of intrusive memories. We measured salivary markers of arousal and investigated what impact this had on data driven processing, memory fragmentation, and subsequently, the development of intrusive memories. We assessed 100 healthy participants to understand their processing style, arousal, and experience of intrusive memories. Participants were randomised to a control or experimental condition, the latter of which was designed to increase their arousal. Based on current theory, participants in the experimental condition were expected to engage in more data driven processing and experience more intrusive memories than participants in the control condition. This research aims to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the development of intrusive memories to illustrate ways in which therapeutic approaches for PTSD may be augmented for greater efficacy.

Keywords: stress, cortisol, SAA, PTSD, intrusive memories

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120 Investigating Role of Traumatic Events in a Pakistani Sample

Authors: Khadeeja Munawar, Shamsul Haque

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The claim that traumatic events influence the recalled memories and mental health has received mixed empirical support. This study examines the memories of a sample drawn from Pakistan, a country that has witnessed many life-changing socio-political events, wars, and natural disasters in 72 years of its history. A sample of 210 senior citizens (Mage = 64.35, SD = 6.33) was recruited from Pakistan. The aim was to investigate if participants retrieved more memories related to past traumatic events using a word-cueing technique. Each participant reported ten memories to ten neutral cue words. The results revealed that past traumatic events were not adversely affecting the memories and mental health of participants. When memories were plotted with respect to the ages at which the events happened, a pronounced bump at 11-20 years of age was seen. Memories within as well as outside of the bump were mostly positive. The multilevel logistic regression modelling showed that the memories recalled were personally important and played a role in enhancing resilience. The findings revealed that despite facing an array of ethnic, religious, political, economic, and social conflicts, the participants were resilient, recalled predominantly positive memories, and had intact mental health. The findings have clinical implications in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The patients can be made aware of their negative emotions, troublesome/traumatic memories, and the distorted thinking patterns and their memories can be restructured. The findings can also be used to teach Memory Specificity Training (MEST) by psycho-educating the patients around changes in memory functioning and enhancing the recall of memories, which are more specific, vivid, and filled with sensory details.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, memories, mental health, resilience, trauma

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119 Reminiscence Bump in Autobiographical Memory of Freedom Fighters in Bangladesh

Authors: Eamin Zahan Heanoy, Asheek Mohammad Shimul

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The purpose of the present study was to address theoretical issues of reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory using the freedom fighters of Bangladesh as participants. It was assumed that they had a lot of negative memories during the liberation war in 1971 and those events would reflect the construction of reminiscence bump. Three hundred and twenty (320) freedom fighters were selected using mixed method (purposive and random) sampling technique. The freedom fighters were taken from 10 randomly chosen districts of 64. The participants recalled and dated autobiographical memories from across the lifespan. The age of the participants was between 50 to 80+ years. Memories were encoded at the time of the age when the events occurred. As expected the reminiscence bump, preferential recall of memories from second and third decade was observed. Results indicate that the bump for the participants was found 16 to 26 years. And most remarkably, they recalled most of the memories from 1971, the liberation war. Different retrieval curve has been found for male and female participants. The results have been discussed in the light of recent developments in reminiscence bump research.

Keywords: autobiographical memory, freedom fighters, liberation war, reminiscence bump

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118 Crossover Memories and Code-Switching in the Narratives of Arabic-Hebrew and Hebrew-English Bilingual Adults in Israel

Authors: Amani Jaber-Awida

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This study examines two bilingual phenomena in the narratives of Arabic Hebrew and Hebrew-English bilingual adults in Israel: CO memories and code-switching (CS). The study examined these phenomena in the context of autobiographical memory, using a cue word technique. Student experimenters held two sessions in the homes of the participants. In separate language sessions, the participant was asked to look first at each of 16 cue words and then to state a concrete memory. After stating the memory, participants reported whether their memories were in the same language of the experiment session or different. Memories were classified as ‘Crossovers’ (CO) or ‘Same Language’ (SL) according to participants' self-reports. Participants were also required to elaborate about the setting, interlocutors and other languages involved in the specific memory. Beyond replicating the procedure of cuing technique, one memory from a specific lifespan period was chosen per participant, and the participant was required to provide further details about it. For the more detailed memories, CS count was conducted. Both bilingual groups confirmed the Reminiscence Bump phenomenon, retrieving more memories in the 10-30 age period. CO memories prevailed in second language sessions (L2). Same language memories were more abundant in first language sessions (L1). Higher CS frequency was found in L2 sessions. Finally, as predicted, 'individual' CS was prevalent in L2 sessions, but 'community-based' CS was not higher in L1 sessions. The two bilingual measures in this study, crossovers, and CS came from different research traditions, the former from an experimental paradigm in the psychology of autobiographical memory based on self-reported judgments, the latter a behavioral measure from linguistics. This merger of approaches offers new insight into the field of bilingual autobiographical memory. In addition, the study attempted to shed light on the investigation of motivations for CS, beginning with Walters’ SPPL Model and concluding with a distinction between ‘community-based’ and individual motivations.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-switching, crossover memories, narratives

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117 Examining Historically Defined Periods in Autobiographical Memories for Transitional Events

Authors: Khadeeja Munawar, Shamsul Haque

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We examined the plausibility of transition theory suggesting that memories of transitional events, which give rise to a significant and persistent change in the fabric of daily life, are organized around the historically defined autobiographical periods (H-DAPs). 141 Pakistani older adults retrieved 10 autobiographical memories (AMs) each to 10 cue words. As the history of Pakistan is dominated by various political and nationwide transitional events, it was expected that the participants would recall memories with H-DAPs references. The content analysis revealed that 0.7% of memories had H-DAP references and 0.4% memories mentioned major transitional events such as War/Natural Disaster. There was a vivid reminiscence bump between 10 - 20 years of age in lifespan distribution of AMs. There were 67.9% social-focused AMs. Significantly more self-focused memories were reported by individuals who endorsed themselves as conservatives. Only a few H-DAPs were reported, although the history of Pakistan was dominated by numerous political, historical and nationwide transitional events. Memories within and outside of the bump period were mostly positive. The participants rarely used historical/political or nationwide significant events or periods to date the memories elicited. The intense and nationwide (as well as region-wise) significant historical/political events spawned across decades in the lives of participants of the present study but these events did not produce H-DAPs. The findings contradicted the previous studies on H-DAPs and transition theory. The dominance of social-focused AMs in the present study is in line with the past studies comparing the memories of collectivist and individualist cultures (i.e., European Americans vs. Asian, African and Latin-American cultures). The past empirical evidence shows that conservative values and beliefs are adopted as a coping strategy to feel secure in the face of danger when future is dominated with uncertainty and to connect to likeminded others. In the present study, conservative political ideology is somehow assisting the participants in living a stable life midst of their complex social worlds. The reminiscence bump, as well as dominance of positive memories within and outside the bump period, are in line with the narrative/identity account which states that the events and experiences during adolescence and early adulthood assimilate into a person’s lifelong narratives. Hence these events are used as identity markers and are more easily recalled later in life. Also, according to socioemotional theory and the positivity effect, the participants evaluated past events more positively as they grow up and the intensity of negative emotions decreased with time.

Keywords: autobiographical memory, historically defined autobiographical periods, narrative/identity account, Pakistan, reminiscence bump, SMS framework, transition theory

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116 Enhanced Test Scheme based on Programmable Write Time for Future Computer Memories

Authors: Nor Zaidi Haron, Fauziyah Salehuddin, Norsuhaidah Arshad, Sani Irwan Salim

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Resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are one of the main candidates for future computer memories. However, due to their tiny size and immature device technology, the quality of the outgoing RRAM chips is seen as a serious issue. Defective RRAM cells might behave differently than existing semiconductor memories (Dynamic RAM, Static RAM, and Flash), meaning that they are difficult to be detected using existing test schemes. This paper presents an enhanced test scheme, referred to as Programmable Short Write Time (PSWT) that is able to improve the detection of faulty RRAM cells. It is developed by applying multiple weak write operations, each with different time durations. The test circuit embedded in the RRAM chip is made programmable in order to supply different weak write times during testing. The RRAM electrical model is described using Verilog-AMS language and is simulated using HSPICE simulation tools. Simulation results show that the proposed test scheme offers better open-resistive fault detection compared to existing test schemes.

Keywords: memory fault, memory test, design-for-testability, resistive random access memory

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115 Short-Term and Working Memory Differences Across Age and Gender in Children

Authors: Farzaneh Badinloo, Niloufar Jalali-Moghadam, Reza Kormi-Nouri

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The aim of this study was to explore the short-term and working memory performances across age and gender in school aged children. Most of the studies have been interested in looking into memory changes in adult subjects. This study was instead focused on exploring both short-term and working memories of children over time. Totally 410 school child participants belonging to four age groups (approximately 8, 10, 12 and 14 years old) among which were 201 girls and 208 boys were employed in the study. digits forward and backward tests of the Wechsler children intelligence scale-revised were conducted respectively as short-term and working memory measures. According to results, there was found a general increment in both short-term and working memory scores across age (p ˂ .05) by which whereas short-term memory performance was shown to increase up to 12 years old, working memory scores showed no significant increase after 10 years old of age. No difference was observed in terms of gender (p ˃ .05). In conclusion, this study suggested that both short-term and working memories improve across age in children where 12 and 10 years of old are likely the crucial age periods in terms of short-term and working memories development.

Keywords: age, gender, short-term memory, working memory

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114 Reminiscence Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease Restrained on Logistic Regression Based Linear Bootstrap Aggregating

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Mingmin Pan, Xianpei Li, Yanmin Yuan, Tracy Lin Huan

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Researchers are doing enchanting research into the inherited features of Alzheimer’s disease and probable consistent therapies. In Alzheimer’s, memories are extinct in reverse order; memories formed lately are more transitory than those from formerly. Reminiscence therapy includes the conversation of past actions, trials and knowledges with another individual or set of people, frequently with the help of perceptible reminders such as photos, household and other acquainted matters from the past, music and collection of tapes. In this manuscript, the competence of reminiscence therapy for Alzheimer’s disease is measured using logistic regression based linear bootstrap aggregating. Logistic regression is used to envisage the experiential features of the patient’s memory through various therapies. Linear bootstrap aggregating shows better stability and accuracy of reminiscence therapy used in statistical classification and regression of memories related to validation therapy, supportive psychotherapy, sensory integration and simulated presence therapy.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, linear bootstrap aggregating, logistic regression, reminiscence therapy

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113 Shadows and Symbols: The Tri-Level Importance of Memory in Jane Yolen's 'the Devil's Arithmetic' and Soon-To-Be-Published 'Mapping the Bones'

Authors: Kirsten A. Bartels

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'Never again' and 'Lest we forget' have long been messages associated with the events of the Shoah. Yet as we attempt to learn from the past, we must find new ways to engage with its memories. The preservation of the culture and the value of tradition are critical factors in Jane Yolen's works of Holocaust fiction, The Devil's Arithmetic and Mapping the Bones, emphasized through the importance of remembering. That word, in its multitude of forms (remember, remembering, memories), occurs no less than ten times in the first four pages and over one hundred times in the one hundred and sixty-four-page narrative The Devil’s Arithmetic. While Yolen takes a different approach to showcasing the importance of memory in Mapping the Bones, it is of equal import in this work and arguably to the future of Holocaust knowing. The idea of remembering, the desire to remember, and the ability to remember, are explored in three divergent ways in The Devil’s Arithmetic. First, in the importance to remember a past which is not her own – to understand history or acquired memories. Second, in the protagonist's actual or initial memories, those of her life in modern-day New York. Third, in a reverse mode of forgetting and trying to reacquire that which has been lost -- as Hannah is processed in the camp and she forgets everything, all worlds prior to the camp are lost to her. As numbers replace names, Yolen stresses the importance of self-identity or owned memories. In addition, the importance of relaying memory, the transitions of memory from perspective, and the ideas of reflective telling are explored in Mapping the Bones -- through the telling of the story through the lens of one of the twins as the events are unfolding; and then the through the reflective telling from the lens of the other twin. Parallel to the exploration of the intersemiosis of memory is the discussion of literary shadows (foreshadowing, backshadowing, and side-shadowing) and their impact on the reader's experience with Yolen's narrative. For in this type of exploration, one cannot look at the events described in Yolen's work and not also contemplate the figurative shadows cast.

Keywords: holocaust literature, memory, narrative, Yolen

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112 Human Thinking Explained with Basic Drives

Authors: Peter Pfeifer, Julian Pfeifer, Niko Pfeifer

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Information processing is the focus of brain and cognition research. This work has a different perspective; it starts with behaviors. The detailed analysis of behaviors leads to the discovery that a significant proportion of them are based on only five basic drives. These basic drives are combinable, and the combinations result in the diversity of human behavior and thinking. The key elements are drive memories. They collect memories of drive-related situations and feelings. They contain variations of basic drives in numerous areas of life and build combinations with different meanings depending on the area. Human thinking could be explained with variations on these nested combinations of basic drives.

Keywords: cognition, psycholinguistics, psychology, psychophysiology of cognition

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111 Effects of Voltage Pulse Characteristics on Some Performance Parameters of LiₓCoO₂-based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

Authors: Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Alec Moradpour, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, Marcelo J. Rozenberg, John Giapintzakis, Christian N. Mihailescu, Charis M. Orfanidou, Thomas Maroutian, Philippe Lecoeur, Guillaume Agnus, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, David Alamarguy, Pascal ChréTien, Olivier Schneegans

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In the field of Nanoelectronics, a major research activity is being developed towards non-volatile memories. To face the limitations of existing Flash memory cells (endurance, downscaling, rapidity…), new approaches are emerging, among them resistive switching memories (Re-RAM). In this work, we analysed the behaviour of LixCoO2 oxide thin films in electrode/film/electrode devices. Preliminary results have been obtained concerning the influence of bias pulses characteristics (duration, value) on some performance parameters, such as endurance and resistance ratio (ROFF/RON). Besides, Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) characterizations of the devices have been carried out to better understand some causes of performance failure, and thus help optimizing the switching performance of such devices.

Keywords: non volatile resistive memories, resistive switching, thin films, endurance

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110 Robust Single/Multi bit Memristor Based Memory

Authors: Ahmed Emara, Maged Ghoneima, Mohamed Dessouky

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Demand for low power fast memories is increasing with the increase in IC’s complexity, in this paper we introduce a proposal for a compact SRAM based on memristor devices. The compact size of the proposed cell (1T2M compared to 6T of traditional SRAMs) allows denser memories on the same area. In this paper, we will discuss the proposed memristor memory cell for single/multi bit data storing configurations along with the writing and reading operations. Stored data stability across successive read operation will be illustrated, operational simulation results and a comparison of our proposed design with previously conventional SRAM and previously proposed memristor cells will be provided.

Keywords: memristor, multi-bit, single-bit, circuits, systems

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109 Cultural Studies in the Immigration Movements: Memories and Social Collectives

Authors: María Eugenia Peltzer, María Estela Rodríguez

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This work presents an approach to the cultural aspects of the Immigrants as part of the Cultural Intangible Heritage of Argentina. The intangible cultural heritage consists of the manifestations, practices, uses, representations, expressions, knowledge, techniques and cultural spaces that communities and groups recognize as an integral part of their cultural heritage. This heritage generates feelings of identity and establishes links with the collective memory, as well as being transmitted and recreated over time according to its environment, its interaction with nature and its history contributing to promote respect for cultural diversity and Human creativity. The Immigrants brings together those who came from other lands and their descendants, thus maintaining their traditions through time and linking the members of each cultural group with a strong sense of belonging through a communicative and effective process.

Keywords: cultural, immigration, memories, social

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108 The Home as Memory Palace: Three Case Studies of Artistic Representations of the Relationship between Individual and Collective Memory and the Home

Authors: Laura M. F. Bertens

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The houses we inhabit are important containers of memory. As homes, they take on meaning for those who live inside, and memories of family life become intimately tied up with rooms, windows, and gardens. Each new family creates a new layer of meaning, resulting in a palimpsest of family memory. These houses function quite literally as memory palaces, as a walk through a childhood home will show; each room conjures up images of past events. Over time, these personal memories become woven together with the cultural memory of countries and generations. The importance of the home is a central theme in art, and several contemporary artists have a special interest in the relationship between memory and the home. This paper analyses three case studies in order to get a deeper understanding of the ways in which the home functions and feels like a memory palace, both on an individual and on a collective, cultural level. Close reading of the artworks is performed on the theoretical intersection between Art History and Cultural Memory Studies. The first case study concerns works from the exhibition Mnemosyne by the artist duo Anne and Patrick Poirier. These works combine interests in architecture, archaeology, and psychology. Models of cities and fantastical architectural designs resemble physical structures (such as the brain), architectural metaphors used in representing the concept of memory (such as the memory palace), and archaeological remains, essential to our shared cultural memories. Secondly, works by Do Ho Suh will help us understand the relationship between the home and memory on a far more personal level; outlines of rooms from his former homes, made of colourful, transparent fabric and combined into new structures, provide an insight into the way these spaces retain individual memories. The spaces have been emptied out, and only the husks remain. Although the remnants of walls, light switches, doors, electricity outlets, etc. are standard, mass-produced elements found in many homes and devoid of inherent meaning, together they remind us of the emotional significance attached to the muscle memory of spaces we once inhabited. The third case study concerns an exhibition in a house put up for sale on the Dutch real estate website Funda. The house was built in 1933 by a Jewish family fleeing from Germany, and the father and son were later deported and killed. The artists Anne van As and CA Wertheim have used the history and memories of the house as a starting point for an exhibition called (T)huis, a combination of the Dutch words for home and house. This case study illustrates the way houses become containers of memories; each new family ‘resets’ the meaning of a house, but traces of earlier memories remain. The exhibition allows us to explore the transition of individual memories into shared cultural memory, in this case of WWII. Taken together, the analyses provide a deeper understanding of different facets of the relationship between the home and memory, both individual and collective, and the ways in which art can represent these.

Keywords: Anne and Patrick Poirier, cultural memory, Do Ho Suh, home, memory palace

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107 Promoting Public Participation in the Digital Memory Project: Experience from My Peking Memory Project(MPMP)

Authors: Xiaoshuang Jia, Huiling Feng, Li Niu, Wei Hai

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Led by Humanistic Beijing Studies Center in Renmin University of China, My Peking Memory Project(MPMP) is a long-time digital memory project under guarantee of public participation to enable the cultural and intellectual memory of Beijing to be collected, organized, preserved and promoted for discovery and research. Taking digital memory as a new way, MPMP is an important part of Peking Memory Project(PMP) which is aimed at using digital technologies to protect and (re)present the cultural heritage in Beijing. The key outcome of MPMP is the co-building of a total digital collection of knowledge assets about Beijing. Institutional memories are central to Beijing’s collection and consist of the official published documentary content of Beijing. These have already fall under the archival collection purview. The advances in information and communication technology and the knowledge form social memory theory have allowed us to collect more comprehensively beyond institutional collections. It is now possible to engage citizens on a large scale to collect private memories through crowdsourcing in digital formats. Private memories go beyond official published content to include personal narratives, some of which are just in people’s minds until they are captured by MPMP. One aim of MPMP is to engage individuals, communities, groups or institutions who have formed memories and content about Beijing, and would like to contribute them. The project hopes to build a culture of remembering and it believes ‘Every Memory Matters’. Digital memory contribution was achieved through the development of the MPMP. In reducing barriers to digital contribution and promoting high public Participation, MPMP has taken explored the harvesting of transcribe service for digital ingestion, mobile platform and some off-line activities like holding social forum. MPMP has also cooperated with the ‘Implementation Plan of Support Plan for Growth of Talents in Renmin University of China’ to get manpower and intellectual support. After six months of operation, now MPMP have more than 2000 memories added and 7 Special Memory Collections now online. The work of MPMP has ultimately helped to highlight the important role in safeguarding the documentary heritage and intellectual memory of Beijing.

Keywords: digital memory, public participation, MPMP, cultural heritage, collection

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106 Film, Globalization, Resistance: Emirati Film Production as a Medium of Localization

Authors: Chrysavgi Papagianni

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The tension between global and local has been a usual topic in discussions regarding globalization. Instead of reproducing the usual ‘gloom and doom’ arguments surrounding many of these discussions, the present paper will focus on Emirati film production and more particularly on the work of the acclaimed director Nojoom Alghanem, in order to highlight how local culture can, in fact, become a force of resistance, or else a medium of localization. As a matter of fact, Alghanem’s films, especially Sounds of the Sea, Hamama and Nearby Sky are apt examples of a localizing force in action as they tap into the audience’s dormant memories of the pre-oil past, in a country that has been swept by unprecedented development and globalization in the last 60 years. What becomes evident is that the remediation of memories in Alghanem’s films makes them more ‘mobile’ and thus allows them to circulate better in today’s network society.

Keywords: culture, film, globalization, identity

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105 Sense of the Place and Human Multisensory Perceptions: The Case of Kerman Old Bazaar Scents

Authors: Sabra Saeidi

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When we talk about tangible heritage, the first thing that comes to mind is historic places: what they look like, who made them, and what materials they are made of. But each monument is not limited to its physical constituents and is a complex and related set of human perceptions, memories, narratives, and the structure that shapes its character. In this article, based on the ideology of two great architects, Juhani Pallasmaa and Christian Norberg-Schulz, we discussed the sense of the place and how the human presence in a place with all its senses (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, taste) gives life and value to it. This value is all about feeling and definitions and is recorded in the form of our memoirs. An attempt has been made to conclude that our perception of the environment, by our sensory tools, is an intangible and thematic heritage itself, whose existence depends on our existence and has no less value than monuments' physical form and structure. The sense of smell is one of the most powerful, personal and inexplicable, unrecorded, and unexpressed senses and has a solid connection with our memories. by reviewing the case of Kerman Bazaar and its change of use in recent years, we define that one of the ways to protect the olfactory heritage of this valuable complex is to draw a Smellscape: a way to record the moment of present and past memories. Smellscapes are tools for transferring the sense of smell to a visual form to record scents and understand them in a more comprehensive, common, and artistic form.

Keywords: sence of the place, spirit of the place, smellscape, multisensory perception

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104 Imaginal and in Vivo Exposure Blended with Emdr: Becoming Unstuck, an Integrated Inpatient Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Authors: Merrylord Harb-Azar

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Traditionally, PTSD treatment has involved trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (TF CBT) to consolidate traumatic memories. A piloted integrated treatment of TF CBT and eye movement desensitisation reprocessing therapy (EMDR) of eight phases will fasten the rate memory is being consolidated and enhance cognitive functioning in patients with PTSD. Patients spend a considerable amount of time in treatment managing their traumas experienced firsthand, or from aversive details ranging from war, assaults, accidents, abuse, hostage related, riots, or natural disasters. The time spent in treatment or as inpatient affects overall quality of life, relationships, cognitive functioning, and overall sense of identity. EMDR is being offered twice a week in conjunction with the standard prolonged exposure as an inpatient in a private hospital. Prolonged exposure for up to 5 hours per day elicits the affect response required for EMDR sessions in the afternoon to unlock unprocessed memories and facilitate consolidation in the amygdala and hippocampus. Results are indicating faster consolidation of memories, reduction in symptoms in a shorter period of time, reduction in admission time, which is enhancing the quality of life and relationships, and improved cognition. The impact of events scale (IES) results demonstrate a significant reduction in symptoms, trauma symptoms inventory (TSI), and posttraumatic stressor disorder check list (PCL) that demonstrates large effect sizes to date. An integrated treatment approach for PTSD achieves a faster resolution of memories, improves cognition, and reduces the amount of time spent in therapy.

Keywords: EMDR enhances cognitive functioning, faster consolidation of trauma memory, integrated treatment of TF CBT and EMDR, reduction in inpatient admission time

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103 The Mashishing Marking Memories Project: A Culture-Centered Approach to Participation

Authors: Nongcebo Ngcobo

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This research explores the importance of including a multitude of voices in the cultural heritage narrative, particularly in South Africa. The Mashishing project is an extension of and builds on the existing ‘Biesje Poort project’ which is a rock art project that was funded by the National Heritage Council in 2010 - 2013. Hence, the Mashishing marking memories project applies comparable Biesje Poort project objectives, though in a different geographical area. The wider project objectives are to transfer skills, promote social cohesion and empowerment, and lastly to add to the knowledge base of the Mashishing region and the repository of the local museum in the Lydenburg museum. This study is located in the Mashishing area, in Mpumalanga, South Africa. In this area, there were no present multi-vocal heritage projects. This research assesses the Mashishing marking memories project through the culture-centered approach for communication for social change, which examines the impact that the diverse participants have on the operations of the Mashishing project and also investigates whether the culturally diverse participants facilitates or hinders effective participation within the project. Key findings of this research uncovered the significance of participation and diverse voices in the cultural heritage field. Furthermore, this study highlights how unequal power relations affect effective participation. As a result, this study encourages the importance of bringing the researcher and the participant in a safe space to facilitate mutual learning. It also encourages an exchange of roles, where the researcher shifts from being an authoritarian figure to being in the role of a listener.

Keywords: culture, heritage, participation, social change

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102 Examining the Relations among Autobiographical Memory Recall Types, Quality of Descriptions, and Emotional Arousal in Psychotherapy for Depression

Authors: Jinny Hong, Jeanne C. Watson

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Three types of autobiographical memory recall -specific, episodic, and generic- were examined in relation to the quality of descriptions and in-session levels of emotional arousal. Correlational analyses and general estimating equation were conducted to test the relationships between 1) quality of descriptions and type of memory, 2) type of memory and emotional arousal, and 3) quality of descriptions and emotional arousal. The data was transcripts drawn from an archival randomized-control study comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and emotion-focused therapy in a 16-week treatment for depression. Autobiographical memory recall segments were identified and sorted into three categories: specific, episodic, and generic. Quality of descriptions of these segments was then operationalized and measured using the Referential Activity Scale, and each memory segment was rated on four dimensions: concreteness, specificity, clarity, and overall imagery. Clients’ level of emotional arousal for each recall was measured using the Client’s Expression Emotion Scale. Contrary to the predictions, generic memories are associated with higher emotional arousal ratings and descriptive language ratings compared to specific memories. However, a positive relationship emerged between the quality of descriptions and expressed emotional arousal, indicating that the quality of descriptions in which memories are described in sessions is more important than the type of memory recalled in predicting clients’ level of emotional arousal. The results from this study provide a clearer understanding of the role of memory recall types and use of language in activating emotional arousal in psychotherapy sessions in a depressed sample.

Keywords: autobiographical memory recall, emotional arousal, psychotherapy for depression, quality of descriptions, referential activity

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101 Digital Memory plus City Cultural Heritage: The Peking Memory Project Experience

Authors: Huiling Feng, Xiaoshuang Jia, Jihong Liang, Li Niu

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and the world's second most populous city proper and most populous capital city. Beijing is a noted historical and cultural whose city history dates back three millennia which is extremely rich in terms of cultural heritage. In 2012, a digital memory project led by Humanistic Beijing Studies Center in Renmin University of China started with the goal to build a total digital collection of knowledge assets about Beijing and represent Beijing memories in new fresh ways. The title of the entire project is ‘Peking Memory Project(PMP)’. The main goal is for safeguarding the documentary heritage and intellectual memory of Beijing, more specifically speaking, from the perspective of historical humanities and public participation, PMP will comprehensively applied digital technologies like digital capture, digital storage, digital process, digital presentation and digital communication to transform different kinds of cultural heritage of Beijing into digital formats that can be stored, re-organized and shared. These digital memories can be interpreted with a new perspective, be organized with a new theme, be presented in a new way and be utilized with a new need. Taking social memory as theoretical basis and digital technologies as tools, PMP is framed with ‘Two Sites and A Repository’. Two sites mean the special website(s) characterized by ‘professional’ and an interactive website characterized by ‘crowdsourcing’. A Repository means the storage pool used for safety long-time preservation of the digital memories. The work of PMP has ultimately helped to highlight the important role in safeguarding the documentary heritage and intellectual memory of Beijing.

Keywords: digital memory, cultural heritage, digital technologies, peking memory project

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100 A Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders

Authors: Ryotaro Ishikawa

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INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric label for a collection of psychological symptoms following a traumatic event. PTSD is as a result of a traumatic experience such as rape or sexual assault. A victim may have PTSD if she/he has experienced the following symptoms for at least a month: a) Stressor, b) Intrusion symptoms, c) Avoidance, d) Negative alterations in cognitions and mood, e) Alterations in arousal and reactivity. Studies on the cognitive theory of PTSD emphasized the roles of (a) negative appraisals of trauma memories in maintaining the symptomatology of PTSD, and (b) disorganized trauma memories in the development of PTSD. Mental contamination is primarily caused by experiences involving humans (e.g. violators or perpetrators) as opposed to substances (e.g. dirt or bodily fluids). Feelings of mental contamination may evoke following experiences of ill-treatment, sexual assault, domination, degradation, manipulation, betrayal, or humiliation. Some studies have demonstrated that traumatic thoughts related to sexual assault are particularly strong predictors of mental contamination. Treatment protocols based on cognitive-behavioral therapy appear to be beneficial in reducing the severity of PTSD and mental contamination. Studies on the cognitive theory of PTSD emphasized the roles of (A) negative appraisals of trauma memories in maintaining the symptomatology of PTSD, and (B) disorganized trauma memories in the development of PTSD. We will demonstrate a feasibility study of individual CBT for PTSD and mental contamination in Japanese clinical settings. METHOD: The single-arm trial is a group setting CBT intervention. The primary outcome is the self-rated Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, with secondary measurements of depressive severity and mental pollution questionnaire. Assessments are conducted at baseline, after a waiting period before CBT, during CBT, and after CBT. RESULTS: Participants are eligible for the study and complete the outcome measures at all assessment points. In our hypothesis, receiving CBT would lead to improvements in primary and secondary PTSD severity. CONCLUSION: We will demonstrate a feasibility study of individual CBT for PTSD and mental contamination in Japanese clinical settings. Our treatment would achieve favorable treatment outcomes for PTSD with mental contamination in Japanese clinical settings.

Keywords: CBT, cognitive theory, PTSD, mental pollution

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99 A Comparative and Doctrinal Analysis towards the Investigation of a Right to Be Forgotten in Hong Kong

Authors: Jojo Y. C. Mo

Abstract:

Memories are good. They remind us of people, places and experiences that we cherish. But memories cannot be changed and there may well be memories that we do not want to remember. This is particularly true in relation to information which causes us embarrassment and humiliation or simply because it is private – we all want to erase or delete such information. This desire to delete is recently recognised by the Court of Justice of the European Union in the 2014 case of Google Spain SL, Google Inc. v Agencia Española de Protección de Datos, Mario Costeja González in which the court ordered Google to remove links to some information about the complainant which he wished to be removed. This so-called ‘right to be forgotten’ received serious attention and significantly, the European Council and the European Parliament enacted the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to provide a more structured and normative framework for implementation of right to be forgotten across the EU. This development in data protection laws will, undoubtedly, have significant impact on companies and co-operations not just within the EU but outside as well. Hong Kong, being one of the world’s leading financial and commercial center as well as one of the first jurisdictions in Asia to implement a comprehensive piece of data protection legislation, is therefore a jurisdiction that is worth looking into. This article/project aims to investigate the following: a) whether there is a right to be forgotten under the existing Hong Kong data protection legislation b) if not, whether such a provision is necessary and why. This article utilises a comparative methodology based on a study of primary and secondary resources, including scholarly articles, government and law commission reports and working papers and relevant international treaties, constitutional documents, case law and legislation. The author will primarily engage literature and case-law review as well as comparative and doctrinal analyses. The completion of this article will provide privacy researchers with more concrete principles and data to conduct further research on privacy and data protection in Hong Kong and internationally and will provide a basis for policy makers in assessing the rationale and need for a right to be forgotten in Hong Kong.

Keywords: privacy, right to be forgotten, data protection, Hong Kong

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98 Characterization and Predictors of Paranoid Ideation in Youths

Authors: Marina Sousa, Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, Joana Cabral, Vera Pereira, Suzana Nunes Caldeira, Ermelindo Peixoto

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Paranoid ideation is a common thought process that constitutes a defense against perceived social threats. The current study aimed at the characterization of paranoid ideation in youths and to explore the possible predictors involved in the development of paranoid ideations. Paranoid ideation, shame, submission, early childhood memories and current depressive, anxious and stress symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 1516 Portuguese youths. Higher frequencies of paranoid ideation were observed, particularly in females and youths from lower socio-economic status. The main predictors identified relates to submissive behaviors and adverse childhood experiences, and especially to shame feelings. The current study emphasizes that the these predictors are similar to findings in adults and clinical populations, and future implications to research and clinical practice aiming at paranoid ideations are discussed, as well as the pertinence of the study of mediating factors that allow a wider understanding of this thought process in younger populations and the prevention of psychopathology in adulthood.

Keywords: adolescence, early memories, paranoid ideation, parenting styles, shame, submissiveness

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97 Transcending the Boundary of Traumas: Spatial Trauma in Richard Powers' 'The Echo Maker'

Authors: Nodi Islam

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This paper critically reads Richard Powers’ novel The Echo Maker to read and understand the personal traumas of the characters in the novel depending on the various situations they face throughout the story. Also, the paper attempts to read different traumas and disorders due to their different situations. With a focus on the individual experiences, this paper addresses the core issues of trauma, which triggers their reactions and reads the novel through theories of Freud, Caruth, and other critics in this field. While transcending the boundary of personal and collective trauma, this paper suggests that traumas not only arise from the core mental issues, from both past or present memories; it also depends on places too which can be called, according to Yi-Fu Tuan, topophobia. Intimate places such as home provoke not only attachment and expectation but also produce fear in a person. Failure in identifying with such places means losing a central piece of identity of the individual. In order to analyse the traumas in the novel, the characters’ association with homes and places has been provided. This paper attempts to suggest that people are not traumatised because of what Freud explained as unpleasant memories of the past but also intimacy and lost identities related to a place can trigger trauma.

Keywords: spatial trauma, traumatic stress disorder, identity and place, core mental issues

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96 Investigation of Factors Affecting the Total Ionizing Dose Threshold of Electrically Erasable Read Only Memories for Use in Dose Rate Measurement

Authors: Liqian Li, Yu Liu, Karen Colins

Abstract:

The dose rate present in a seriously contaminated area can be indirectly determined by monitoring radiation damage to inexpensive commercial electronics, instead of deploying expensive radiation hardened sensors. EEPROMs (Electrically Erasable Read Only Memories) are a good candidate for this purpose because they are inexpensive and are sensitive to radiation exposure. When the total ionizing dose threshold is reached, an EEPROM chip will show signs of damage that can be monitored and transmitted by less susceptible electronics. The dose rate can then be determined from the known threshold dose and the exposure time, assuming the radiation field remains constant with time. Therefore, the threshold dose needs to be well understood before this method can be used. There are many factors affecting the threshold dose, such as the gamma ray energy spectrum, the operating voltage, etc. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine how the threshold dose depends on dose rate, temperature, voltage, and duty factor. It was found that the duty factor has the strongest effect on the total ionizing dose threshold, while the effect of the other three factors that were investigated is less significant. The effect of temperature was found to be opposite to that expected to result from annealing and is yet to be understood.

Keywords: EEPROM, ionizing radiation, radiation effects on electronics, total ionizing dose, wireless sensor networks

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95 Evaluating Language Loss Effect on Autobiographical Memory by Examining Memory Phenomenology in Bilingual Speakers

Authors: Anastasia Sorokina

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Graduate language loss or attrition has been well documented in individuals who migrate and become emersed in a different language environment. This phenomenon of first language (L1) attrition is an example of non-pathological (not due to trauma) and can manifest itself in frequent pauses, search for words, or grammatical errors. While the widely experienced loss of one’s first language might seem harmless, there is convincing evidence from the disciplines of Developmental Psychology, Bilingual Studies, and even Psychotherapy that language plays a crucial role in the memory of self. In fact, we remember, store, and share personal memories with the help of language. Dual-Coding Theory suggests that language memory code deterioration could lead to forgetting. Yet, no one has investigated a possible connection between language loss and memory. The present study aims to address this research gap by examining a corpus of 1,495 memories of Russian-English bilinguals who are on a continuum of L1 (first language) attrition. Since phenomenological properties capture how well a memory is remembered, the following descriptors were selected - vividness, ease of recall, emotional valence, personal significance, and confidence in the event. A series of linear regression statistical analyses were run to examine the possible negative effects of L1 attrition on autobiographical memory. The results revealed that L1 attrition might compromise perceived vividness and confidence in the event, which is indicative of memory deterioration. These findings suggest the importance of heritage language maintenance in immigrant communities who might be forced to assimilate as language loss might negatively affect the memory of self.

Keywords: L1 attrition, autobiographical memory, language loss, memory phenomenology, dual coding

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94 From a Madwoman in the Attic to a Fairy Land: A Conversation with Antoinette in Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea

Authors: Prasenjit Panda

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Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea, a prequel to Bronte’s Jane Eyre, explores the history of the other and gives voices to the people who were silenced and kept under the darkness of negation and denial for a long time. Jean Wide Sargasso Sea provides an alternative understanding of Charlotte Brontë’s mad Creole woman, i.e., Bertha Mason of Jane Eyre in the postcolonial context. Rhys transforms Charlotte Bronte’s Victorian romance into a realistic narrative. In doing so, she re-reads Bertha as Antoinette, the unspeakable figure of otherness, into an unnameable self, and creates a new stage for the inner self. She in the novel is no longer a lunatic heiress in Rochester’s attic rather in this novel she finds her fantasy, dream and most importantly, voice. Rhys peeps through the character of Antoinette through her fragmented memories, dreams, and identity. Antoinette’s identity is mutilated constantly in the conflicts between colonizers and colonized, male and female, black and white. We shall use postcolonial theories like Bhaba’s hybridity and third space as a methodology to reveal the dialectics of struggle of a doubly colonized woman.We shall see that Bertha Mason was neglected by Bronte because of her madness and was locked in the Rochester’s Attic, but here Rhys beautifully converts her madness as a language of Antoinette, a language for her protest, a language for her liberation, a language for her dreams. In this present paper, we shall try to show how Antoinette tries to free her soul and body from the clutches of her multiple existences, identity, and narratives.

Keywords: colonizer, dislocation, fragmented memories, identity, narratives

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93 Rational Memory Therapy: The Counselling Technique to Control Psychological and Psychosomatic Illnesses

Authors: Sachin Deshmukh

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Mind and body synchronization occurs through memory and sensation production. Sensations are the guiding language of subconscious mind for conscious mind to take a proper action. Mind-mechanism is based upon memories collected so far since intrauterine life. There are three universal triggers for memory creation; they are persons, situations and objects. Memory is created as sensations experienced by special senses. Based upon experiencing comfort or discomfort, the triggers are categorized as safe or unsafe triggers. A memory comprises of ‘safe or unsafe feeling for triggers, and actions taken for that feeling’. Memories for triggers are created slowly, thoughtfully and consciously by the conscious mind, and archived in the subconscious mind for future references. Later on, similar triggers can come in contact with the individual. Subconscious mind uses these stored feelings to decide whether these triggers are safe or unsafe. It produces comfort or discomfort sensations as emotions accordingly and reacts in the same way as has been recorded in memory. Speed of sensing and processing the triggers, and reacting by subconscious mind is that of the speed of bioelectricity. Hence, formula for human emotions has been designed in this paper as follows: Emotion (Stress or Peace) = Trigger (Person or Situation or object) x Mass of feelings (stressful or peaceful) associated with the Trigger x Speed of Light². We also establish modern medical scientific facts about relationship between reflex activity and memory. This research further develops the ‘Rational Memory Therapy’ focusing on therapeutic feelings conversion techniques, for stress prevention and management.

Keywords: memory, sensations, feelings, emotions, rational memory therapy

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92 A Neuroscience-Based Learning Technique: Framework and Application to STEM

Authors: Dante J. Dorantes-González, Aldrin Balsa-Yepes

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Existing learning techniques such as problem-based learning, project-based learning, or case study learning are learning techniques that focus mainly on technical details, but give no specific guidelines on learner’s experience and emotional learning aspects such as arousal salience and valence, being emotional states important factors affecting engagement and retention. Some approaches involving emotion in educational settings, such as social and emotional learning, lack neuroscientific rigorousness and use of specific neurobiological mechanisms. On the other hand, neurobiology approaches lack educational applicability. And educational approaches mainly focus on cognitive aspects and disregard conditioning learning. First, authors start explaining the reasons why it is hard to learn thoughtfully, then they use the method of neurobiological mapping to track the main limbic system functions, such as the reward circuit, and its relations with perception, memories, motivations, sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions, and sensations, as well as the brain cortex. The authors conclude explaining the major finding: The mechanisms of nonconscious learning and the triggers that guarantee long-term memory potentiation. Afterward, the educational framework for practical application and the instructors’ guidelines are established. An implementation example in engineering education is given, namely, the study of tuned-mass dampers for earthquake oscillations attenuation in skyscrapers. This work represents an original learning technique based on nonconscious learning mechanisms to enhance long-term memories that complement existing cognitive learning methods.

Keywords: emotion, emotion-enhanced memory, learning technique, STEM

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