Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2966

Search results for: spirit of the place

2966 Constitution and Self-Consciousness in Hegel's Philosophy

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

According to Hegel’s philosophy, constitution of any given nation is the best expression of its national Self-Consciousness. Since constitution is the place in which freedom and Universal Rights is expressed, and since the essence of Self-consciousness is freedom, the development of self-consciousness and consequently freedom, is the direct cause of the development of constitution. Self-consciousness develops in the human history according to its own internal and external dialectic; therefore, it is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. However, constitution is supposed to be a stable foundation for the legal system of state and society. Therefore, the dilemma is: how the dynamic and contradictory nature of Self-Consciousness is the foundation of constitution that supposed to be the stable base of legal system of state and society. According to Hegel’s philosophy, the contradiction between the dynamic self- consciousness and the static constitution and state has an essential role in the formation of social movements within any given state. Self-consciousness is the phenomenology of Spirit in the human history. Subjective Spirit expresses itself in the different shapes of Self-consciousness in human spirit. These different shapes of self-consciousness must be identical with its contradiction; Objective Spirit. State is the highest form of the objective Spirit. Therefore, state and its foundation namely ‘constitution’ must be identical with Self-consciousness. "Spirit cannot remain forever alienated from its expression." Hegel states. Self-consciousness is the Subjective Spirit, it freely develops according to its internal and external contradictions, but since it must be always identical with its expression namely constitution, its development results to alienation. They way by which self-consciousness became again identical with the constitution determines the nature of legal and political development of any given society and state. In the democratic states, self-consciousness shows itself partially in the public opinion. In the process of election, this public opinion changes the ruling parties that construct the government. In democracies, self-consciousness or subjective spirit is in a dialectical relationship with state or the Objective Spirit. Therefore, it cannot remain alienated with its expression that is political system and its constitution. But, in the autocracies Self-consciousness cannot easily express itself in the government and its constitution. More Self-consciousness develops more it becomes alienated with its expression that is the state and its constitution. Rebel and revolution are the symptom of alienation of Spirit (self-consciousness) with its expression (state and its constitution).

Keywords: alienation, constitution, self-consciousness, spirit

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2965 A Study on Characteristics of Entrepreneur Spirit-Focus on Ventures

Authors: Do Jaesoo, Kim Kyoung Seok

Abstract:

Under the recent difficult economic conditions, a number of people are increasingly expecting fostering ventures as the breakthrough in economic recovery and thus more attention is socially paid to an entrepreneur spirit. However, even though the role of managers is very important for the success of a venture company, programs to cultivate their qualities and skills are quite insufficient. In recent years, programs to foster entrepreneurs and business men have proliferated, which are led mainly by national agencies, research institutions, and large corporations. However, these programs still remain at a tottering stage, since there is no accumulated knowledge in many aspects, including systemic know-how and education. Therefore, this study attempted to introduce the definition of the entrepreneur (founder’s) spirit and furthermore identify the characteristics required for entrepreneurs as the subject of management. It thus tried to examine how those characteristics have an influence on entrepreneurs as their successful conditions, and presented foreign cases after analyzing the entrepreneur spirit through case studies. The entrepreneur spirit and the venture management emerge as a new field in business administration and scholars have reported various theories. Further research activities and efforts for active exchanges are also needed thereof.

Keywords: venture, entrepreneur, entrepreneur (founder’s) spirit, characteristics of entrepreneur spirit

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2964 Aesthetics, Freedom and State in Hegel’s Philosophy

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

Many scholars consider Hegel’s philosophy of art as the greatest theory of aesthetics since Aristotle’s Poetics. ‘Freedom’ distinguishes modern, especially German Idealism with Greek philosophy. Therefore, introducing and contemplating on Hegel’s Aesthetics as a whole, freedom as the essence of art, Hegel’s controversial claim on the end of art, and the relation of art and state is the main theme of this study. Hegel’s aesthetics is to be understood in his whole system. According to Hegel’s speculative philosophy, being is to be understood as self-determining Reason or Idea. The self-determining Reason actualizes and realizes himself in the course of history. Idea in the process of self-actualization becomes more and more rational. It first actualizes itself in matter, then in non-conscious life, finally in conscious and self-conscious life. Self-conscious life is the most rational stage of development of Idea in which the subject can think and imagine, use language and exercise freedom. Hegel calls this self-conscious life Spirit (Geist). Therefore, emergence of human being is an essential moment in the process of self-determination of Reason. It is not accidental rather a necessity. The essence of spirit is freedom. Since the history is the process of the self-actualization if spirit, humankind becomes more and more, free. Spirit in its ‘Absolute’ form manifests itself into three forms; Art, Religion and philosophy. Art is the first stage in which Spirit understands itself. In fact, Art is the expression of human spirit, which is comprehended by our senses. Beauty is defined as the sensuous expression of free Spirit. The purpose of art is, therefore, to express, enjoy and contemplate on our freedom. State belongs to the realm of Objective spirit, while Art along with Religion and philosophy belong to the realm of Absolute Spirit. Absolute spirit is superior to Objective Spirit; therefore, state must not interfere in the realm of art. Limitation on art by state directly violates freedom and prevents development of national spirit. Genuine art leads us to freedom and richness of (national) Spirit. Using Hegel’s philosophy of art, we can comprehend why totalitarian states try to limit art and, why artists are the enemy of totalitarian states. In this philosophical system, we contemplate on art as a way to freedom and emancipation.

Keywords: aesthetics, freedom, spirit, state

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2963 Influence of Maturation Degree of Arbutus (Arbutus unedo L.) Fruits in Spirit Composition and Quality

Authors: Goreti Botelho, Filomena Gomes, Fernanda M. Ferreira, Ilda Caldeira

Abstract:

The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) is a small tree or shrub from botanical Ericaceae family that grows spontaneously nearby the Mediterranean basin and produce edible red fruits. A traditional processed fruit application, in Mediterranean countries, is the production of a spirit (known as aguardente de medronho, in Portugal) obtained from the fermented fruit. The main objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge about the influence of the degree of maturation of fruits in the volatile composition and quality of arbutus spirit. The major volatiles in the three distillates fractions (head, heart and tail) obtained from fermentation of two different fruit maturation levels were quantified by GC-FID analysis and ANOVA one-way was performed. Additionally, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds of both arbutus fruit spirits were determined, by ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteau method, respectively. The methanol concentration is superior (1022.39 g/hL a.a.) in the spirit made from fruits with highest total soluble solids, which is a value above the legal limit (1000 g/hL a.a.). Overall, our study emphasizes, for the first time, the influence of maturation degree of arbutus fruits in the spirit volatile composition and quality.

Keywords: arbutus fruit, maturation, quality, spirit

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2962 Looking beyond Lynch's Image of a City

Authors: Sandhya Rao

Abstract:

Kevin Lynch’s Theory on Imeageability, let on explore a city in terms of five elements, Nodes, Paths, Edges, landmarks and Districts. What happens when we try to record the same data in an Indian context? What happens when we apply the same theory of Imageability to a complex shifting urban pattern of the Indian cities and how can we as Urban Designers demonstrate our role in the image building ordeal of these cities? The organizational patterns formed through mental images, of an Indian city is often diverse and intangible. It is also multi layered and temporary in terms of the spirit of the place. The pattern of images formed is loaded with associative meaning and intrinsically linked with the history and socio-cultural dominance of the place. The embedded memory of a place in one’s mind often plays an even more important role while formulating these images. Thus while deriving an image of a city one is often confused or finds the result chaotic. The images formed due to its complexity are further difficult to represent using a single medium. Under such a scenario it’s difficult to derive an output of an image constructed as well as make design interventions to enhance the legibility of a place. However, there can be a combination of tools and methods that allows one to record the key elements of a place through time, space and one’s user interface with the place. There has to be a clear understanding of the participant groups of a place and their time and period of engagement with the place as well. How we can translate the result obtained into a design intervention at the end, is the main of the research. Could a multi-faceted cognitive mapping be an answer to this or could it be a very transient mapping method which can change over time, place and person. How does the context influence the process of image building in one’s mind? These are the key questions that this research will aim to answer.

Keywords: imageability, organizational patterns, legibility, cognitive mapping

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2961 Intangible Cultural Heritage as a Strategic Place Branding Tool

Authors: L. Ozoliņa

Abstract:

Place branding as a strategic marketing tool is applied in Latvia since 2000. The main objective of the study is to find unique connecting aspects of the intangible cultural heritage elements on the development of sustainable place branding. The study is based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latvian place branding experts and content analysis of Latvia's place brand identities. The study indicates place branding as an internal co-creational and educational process of all involved stakeholders of the place and highlights a critical view on the local place branding practices on the notability of the in-depth research of the intangible cultural heritage.

Keywords: belonging, identity, intangible cultural heritage, narrative, self-image, place branding

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2960 Sense of the Place and Human Multisensory Perceptions: The Case of Kerman Old Bazaar Scents

Authors: Sabra Saeidi

Abstract:

When we talk about tangible heritage, the first thing that comes to mind is historic places: what they look like, who made them, and what materials they are made of. But each monument is not limited to its physical constituents and is a complex and related set of human perceptions, memories, narratives, and the structure that shapes its character. In this article, based on the ideology of two great architects, Juhani Pallasmaa and Christian Norberg-Schulz, we discussed the sense of the place and how the human presence in a place with all its senses (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, taste) gives life and value to it. This value is all about feeling and definitions and is recorded in the form of our memoirs. An attempt has been made to conclude that our perception of the environment, by our sensory tools, is an intangible and thematic heritage itself, whose existence depends on our existence and has no less value than monuments' physical form and structure. The sense of smell is one of the most powerful, personal and inexplicable, unrecorded, and unexpressed senses and has a solid connection with our memories. by reviewing the case of Kerman Bazaar and its change of use in recent years, we define that one of the ways to protect the olfactory heritage of this valuable complex is to draw a Smellscape: a way to record the moment of present and past memories. Smellscapes are tools for transferring the sense of smell to a visual form to record scents and understand them in a more comprehensive, common, and artistic form.

Keywords: sence of the place, spirit of the place, smellscape, multisensory perception

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2959 The Role of the Founding Ideals of a University in Higher Education

Authors: Masanori Kimura

Abstract:

The “founding spirit” of a Japanese university is similar to the mission statement of a Western university, but the difference between the two is that the former more closely reflects the founder’s inner world because it usually originates from the strong personal beliefs that the founder held when establishing the university. To find how much this ideology actually valued in today’s higher education, this paper surveys 2091 job openings for foreign language full-time faculty positions, posted by Japanese private universities from 2012 to 2016. The results suggest that women’s universities and universities with religious affiliations have a tendency to request that successful candidates observe their founding spirit, or at least demonstrate some understanding of the ideology after being hired. On the other hand, co-ed universities and universities with no religious affiliations do not show such a distinct tendency. A chi-square test revealed that this difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p<.01). Furthermore, the paper argues that it is not always appropriate for universities to evaluate themselves based on a single evaluation scale such as university rankings, and that both faculty and staff members need to be more aware of the founding spirit to improve the quality of the education the university provides.

Keywords: founding spirit, higher education, university administrative management, university evaluation

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2958 (Re)connecting to the Spirit of the Language: Decolonizing from Eurocentric Indigenous Language Revitalization Methodologies

Authors: Lana Whiskeyjack, Kyle Napier

Abstract:

The Spirit of the language embodies the motivation for indigenous people to connect with the indigenous language of their lineage. While the concept of the spirit of the language is often woven into the discussion by indigenous language revitalizationists, particularly those who are indigenous, there are few tangible terms in academic research conceptually actualizing the term. Through collaborative work with indigenous language speakers, elders, and learners, this research sets out to identify the spirit of the language, the catalysts of disconnection from the spirit of the language, and the sources of reconnection to the spirit of the language. This work fundamentally addresses the terms of engagement around collaboration with indigenous communities, itself inviting a decolonial approach to community outreach and individual relationships. As indigenous researchers, this means beginning, maintain, and closing this work in the ceremony while being transparent with community members in this work and related publishing throughout the project’s duration. Decolonizing this approach also requires maintaining explicit ongoing consent by the elders, knowledge keepers, and community members when handling their ancestral and indigenous knowledge. The handling of this knowledge is regarded in this work as stewardship, both in the handling of digital materials and the handling of ancestral Indigenous knowledge. This work observes recorded conversations in both nêhiyawêwin and English, resulting from 10 semi-structured interviews with fluent nêhiyawêwin speakers as well as three structured dialogue circles with fluent and emerging speakers. The words were transcribed by a speaker fluent in both nêhiyawêwin and English. The results of those interviews were categorized thematically to conceptually actualize the spirit of the language, catalysts of disconnection to thespirit of the language, and community voices methods of reconnection to the spirit of the language. Results of these interviews vastly determine that the spirit of the language is drawn from the land. Although nêhiyawêwin is the focus of this work, Indigenous languages are by nature inherently related to the land. This is further reaffirmed by the Indigenous language learners and speakers who expressed having ancestries and lineages from multiple Indigenous communities. Several other key differences embody this spirit of the language, which include ceremony and spirituality, as well as the semantic worldviews tied to polysynthetic verb-oriented morphophonemics most often found in indigenous languages — and of focus, nêhiyawêwin. The catalysts of disconnection to the spirit of the language are those whose histories have severed connections between Indigenous Peoples and the spirit of their languages or those that have affected relationships with the land, ceremony, and ways of thinking. Results of this research and its literature review have determined the three most ubiquitously damaging interdependent factors, which are catalysts of disconnection from the spirit of the language as colonization, capitalism, and Christianity. As voiced by the Indigenous language learners, this work necessitates addressing means to reconnect to the spirit of the language. Interviewees mentioned that the process of reconnection involves a whole relationship with the land, the practice of reciprocal-relational methodologies for language learning, and indigenous-protected and -governed learning. This work concludes in support of those reconnection methodologies.

Keywords: indigenous language acquisition, indigenous language reclamation, indigenous language revitalization, nêhiyawêwin, spirit of the language

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2957 The Kadiria Zawiya: Architecture and Islamic Sufi Paradigm

Authors: Ghada Chater, Mounir Dhouib

Abstract:

Zawiyas are mausoleums where saints called 'waly' are buried and where ritual practices of Sufi Islamic movement take place. These funerary monuments have constituted since the medieval period a fundamental component of rural and urban Islamic landscape, especially that of Tunisia.The hypothesis is that these monuments reflect in their architecture the Sufi underlying thought. The paper’s target is to verify the validity of this hypothesis and possibly show the incarnation mode of Islamic Sufi paradigm in the zawiya’s architecture. This study considers the main Zawiya of one of the most important religious brotherhoods in Tunisia, which is Kadiria. A morphological analysis has been conducted and crossed later to a spiritual hermeneutic test. The result of this confrontation was significant: the paradigmatic element of the zawiya, materialized by the esoteric / exoteric dome 'kubba', returns in its geometry and structure to one of the Sufism key concepts: the unity of the creative spirit in the diversity and plurality of evanescent bodies. Thus, the creative act finds its reflection not only in the spirit of the perfect human microcosm (the waly microcosm), but also within the building dedicated to him.

Keywords: architecture, Islam, Sufism, waly, zawiya

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2956 Healing in Lourdes: Qualitative Research with Pilgrims and Their Carers

Authors: Emmylou Rahtz, Sarah Goldingay, Sara Warber, Ann Arbor, Paul Dieppe

Abstract:

Introduction: Lourdes is a Catholic, Marian healing venue in South West France. Many miraculous cures have been attributed to visits there. In addition, many visitors seem to experience improvements in health and wellbeing, in the absence of a cure of disease. We wanted to investigate that phenomenon. Methods: We spent 10 days in Lourdes in 2017, carrying out ethnographic research, talking to many visitors, and carrying out formal, recorded interviews with several pilgrims, doctors, nurses, helpers, and priests. Results: Profound experiences and improvements in health and wellbeing were commonly reported. A number of ‘noetic’ experiences were also described. The paper will illustrate these phenomena. In addition, many participants in the research talked about why being in Lourdes was so beneficial to them. The community spirit, ethos of prayer, flow, synchronicity, and ability to find new meaning for life’s ills were cited as likely reasons. Conclusions: We believe that the ‘real miracle’ of Lourdes is the fact that of the many hundreds of thousands of people who go there each year, many find great benefit in health and wellbeing. It is likely that this is due to the ethos of the place, the community spirit, non-judgmental approach and loving acceptance of all aspects of humanity. Acknowledgments: We thank the BIAL foundation for generous funding of this research, and Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis and his team for facilitating our work, as well as all those who participated.

Keywords: healing, miracles, noetic experiences, wellbeing

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2955 The Potential of Walkability in Evoking People’s Perception of Place Identity

Authors: Ibrahim Shinbira

Abstract:

In urban design, much has been discussed on the significance of the physical qualities in creating the place identity; however, the role of walkability as a physical quality that can evokes people's perception of place identity has not been adequately explored. This paper is based on the part findings of a doctoral research examining place identity in the city centre of Misurata, Libya. A number of 176 questionnaire and 23 face-to-face interviews were conducted with residents of the city to investigate physical qualities of place identity that evoked resident's perception. The finding demonstrates that walkability within the city centre is strong and it influences the users’ perception on the place identity. These were regarded as very important in sustaining the socio-cultural values, enjoyment, options, vitality and comfort. The paper concludes by establishing that walkability has a substantial contribution to the place identity, therefore should be considered in the design of urban places specifically the redevelopment one.

Keywords: perception, walkability, physical environment, place identity, residents

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2954 Scattered Places in Stories Singularity and Pattern in Geographic Information

Authors: I. Pina, M. Painho

Abstract:

Increased knowledge about the nature of place and the conditions under which space becomes place is a key factor for better urban planning and place-making. Although there is a broad consensus on the relevance of this knowledge, difficulties remain in relating the theoretical framework about place and urban management. Issues related to representation of places are among the greatest obstacles to overcome this gap. With this critical discussion, based on literature review, we intended to explore, in a common framework for geographical analysis, the potential of stories to spell out place meanings, bringing together qualitative text analysis and text mining in order to capture and represent the singularity contained in each person's life history, and the patterns of social processes that shape places. The development of this reasoning is based on the extensive geographical thought about place, and in the theoretical advances in the field of Geographic Information Science (GISc).

Keywords: discourse analysis, geographic information science place, place-making, stories

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2953 Raising Multilingual Awareness towards Plurilingual Competence Development: Through Which Approach and Which Pedagogical Material-A Case Study in the Greek Primary Education

Authors: Eftychia Damaskou

Abstract:

This article intends to place the question of the adequate approach for teaching multilingualism within the public education. Linguistic education, as it is defined by the Common European Framework of Reference for the Languages, is no longer the proficiency in one or two languages. It’s about the development of a linguistic repertoire, where all linguistic skills find their place. In fact, the linguistic theories that frame the development of plurilingual competence point out the affective and intercultural aspect of such a process, insisting on an awareness of linguistic diversification, rather than an acquisition of communicative competence in many languages. In this spirit, our article attempts to go beyond a mere plurilingual awareness, present a research based on an experience in class, within 115 pupils, aiming at the development of plurilingual competence in five unknown foreign languages. This experience was held through a teaching unit personally conceived and applied, and consisted of a series of 6 activities based on a cross-linguistic content approach. The data analysis proves to be very interesting, as it reveals the development of plurilingual competences, as well as positive attitudes towards less common languages by the majority of our sample.

Keywords: multilingual awareness, multilingual teaching material, plurilingual competence

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2952 Investigating the Relationship between Place Attachment and Sustainable Development of Urban Spaces

Authors: Hamid Reza Zeraatpisheh, Ali Akbar Heidari, Soleiman Mohammadi Doust

Abstract:

This study has examined the relationship between place attachment and sustainable development of urban spaces. To perform this, the components of place identity, emotional attachment, place attachment and social bonding which totally constitute the output of place attachment, by means of the standardized questionnaire measure place attachment in three domains of (cognitive) the place identity, (affective) emotional attachment and (behavioral) place attachment and social bonding. To measure sustainable development, three components of sustainable development, including society, economy and environment has been considered. The study is descriptive. The assessment instrument is the standard questionnaire of Safarnia which has been used to measure the variable of place attachment and to measure the variable of sustainable development, a questionnaire has been made by the researcher and been based on the combined theoretical framework. The statistical population of this research has been the city of Shiraz. The statistical sample has been Hafeziyeh. SPSS software has been used to analyze the data and examined the results of both descriptive and inferential statistics. In inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient has been used to examine the hypotheses. In this study, the variable of place attachment is high and sustainable development is also in a high level. These results suggest a positive relationship between attachment to place and sustainable development.

Keywords: place attachment, sustainable development, economy-society-environment, Hafez's tomb

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2951 Place-Making Theory behind Claremont Court

Authors: Sandra Costa-Santos, Nadia Bertolino, Stephen Hicks, Vanessa May, Camilla Lewis

Abstract:

This paper aims to elaborate the architectural theory on place-making that supported Claremont Court housing scheme (Edinburgh, United Kingdom). Claremont Court (1959-62) is a large post-war mixed development housing scheme designed by Basil Spence, which included ‘place-making’ as one of its founding principles. Although some stylistic readings of the housing scheme have been published, the theory on place-making that allegedly ruled the design has yet to be clarified. The architecture allows us to mark or make a place within space in order to dwell. Under the framework of contemporary philosophical theories of place, this paper aims to explore the relationship between place and dwelling through a cross-disciplinary reading of Claremont Court, with a view to develop an architectural theory on place-making. Since dwelling represents the way we are immersed in our world in an existential manner, this theme is not just relevant for architecture but also for philosophy and sociology. The research in this work is interpretive-historic in nature. It examines documentary evidence of the original architectural design, together with relevant literature in sociology, history, and architecture, through the lens of theories of place. First, the paper explores how the dwelling types originally included in Claremont Court supported ideas of dwelling or meanings of home. Then, it traces shared space and social ties in order to study the symbolic boundaries that allow the creation of a collective identity or sense of belonging. Finally, the relation between the housing scheme and the supporting theory is identified. The findings of this research reveal Scottish architect Basil Spence’s exploration of the meaning of home, as he changed his approach to the mass housing while acting as President of the Royal Incorporation of British Architects (1958-60). When the British Government was engaged in various ambitious building programmes, he sought to drive architecture to a wider socio-political debate as president of the RIBA, hence moving towards a more ambitious and innovative socio-architectural approach. Rather than trying to address the ‘genius loci’ with an architectural proposition, as has been stated, the research shows that the place-making theory behind the housing scheme was supported by notions of community-based on shared space and dispositions. The design of the housing scheme was steered by a desire to foster social relations and collective identities, rather than by the idea of keeping the spirit of the place. This research is part of a cross-disciplinary project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. The findings present Claremont Court as a signifier of Basil Spence’s attempt to address the post-war political debate on housing in United Kingdom. They highlight the architect’s theoretical agenda and challenge current purely stylistic readings of Claremont Court as they fail to acknowledge its social relevance.

Keywords: architectural theory, dwelling, place-making, post-war housing

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2950 Sense of Place in Historic City

Authors: Hiba Alkhalaf

Abstract:

Historic cities and places of cultural significance is continuously under the pressure of economic development and social change that threaten its natural and cultural environment. The challenge here is to find a balance between preserving the cultural character while ensuring the socio-economic gains and continuity of its uniqueness. That is by sustaining the use, character, meaning and social interaction associated with the place, in other words the sense of place. The main argument here is what we attempt to conserve is the cultural physical and non-physical dimensions of the historic city. It is based on the proposition that what give the historic city its character is its strong sense of place- whether it is historic or current. When properly identified, its various dimensions (use, meaning and form) would help determine what to sustain and what not by making the development meaningfully related to the uniqueness of the historic place. Accordingly, those socio-economic features within the context of a changing historic environment needed to be clarified. This paper, thus, explores the various perspectives of the role of sense of place within the historic city and its connection to cultural heritage. It also reviews urban conservation practice as it is currently understood in the context of historic city development. It concludes that sense of place lies in complex interrelated relationships between various users of the place and the physical, economic, cultural, political, and environmental contexts in which they interact. This calls for the need to sustain the sense of place as part of the overall urban development and conservation strategies.

Keywords: cultural heritage, historic urban areas, urban development, sense of place

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2949 God in Jesus, a Daimonion in Socrates and Their Respective Divine Communication

Authors: Yip-Mei Loh

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Jesus and Socrates shared a remarkable gift; a channel of inner spiritual communication, to afford them truthful guidance in their respective religious discourse. Jesus is part of the Trinity; he is the Son, the Son of God. In mortal life he is the son of a carpenter. He called on all peoples to repent of their sins but fell foul of the authorities and was crucified. Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher and the son of an artisan. His mission is to drive the Athenians to investigate truth, but he too incurs the displeasure of fellow citizens, to the extent of execution. The accusations made against them centre around, in Jesus’ case, proclaiming himself the Son of God, with the means to pardon, and in Socrates’, that a daimonion, an inner voice, speaks to him in his heart. Jesus talks with God directly through prayer, as the pneuma of God, i.e. to pneuma to hagion, or Holy Spirit, is with him. Socrates seems to enter what we would now think of as a trance-like condition, wherein he communicates with his inner daimonion, who directs him to take courage on the righteous path.

Keywords: daimonion, God, Holy Spirit, pneuma, truth

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2948 Ajmer Dargah: Sustaining the Identity of a Religious Precinct

Authors: Vinod Chovvayil Panengal

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The idea of secularism in India has taken a different direction after independence when religion became a reason for a great divide in, otherwise harmonious society. Since then the religious spaces became protected and more sacred and not shared. However, there is a larger threat on beliefs, rituals, and the spirituality of these religions in the form of technology, tourism and globalization. In a way, they weaken the importance of religion from our society over a period of time. The importance of religion to a sense of place has been overlooked or diminished. Religion provides symbolic meaning to places which distinguishes certain physical environments from otherwise similar ones. The rapid transformation of urban spaces, eliminating the territorial differences of sense, spirit and identity have started creating urban centers rooting out this genre of unique urban spaces from our cities. Indian cities, with a strong identity created by rich and colorful overlays of culture through its evolution, have been threatened by this de-territorialization. This paper enquires the relationship of the symbol of the identity and religiosity of a place, through spatial form, rituals and activity, and accommodating the technology and the changing social structure within the bounds of that relationship. The subjects for this enquiry are Sufism and the Sufi city- Ajmer. The internal transformations in the ideologies of Islam and Sufism and the changes in the society surround it triggered the phenomena of de- territorialization. The need for establishing a symbiotic relationship between the spiritual content and the social life, through the manifestation of space, time and activity derived from this concern on abated territory of Sufism inside the city. Redirecting transformation catalyst such as tourism, technology, etc, towards the improvement of physical and social conditions, preservation of the heritage and the expansion of the notional idea of religion over the city will help to re- territorialize city as a Sufi city.

Keywords: sense of place, religion, Islam, identity

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2947 Place Branding and the Sense of Place in the Italian UNESCO World Heritage Site of Vicenza

Authors: A. Chtourou, K. Ben Youssef, M. Friel, T. Leicht

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These Place attributes and destination images associated with tourism destinations are often crucial important for tourist travel decisions and choice behavior. Understanding the interactions between them is fundamental for developing sustainable place brands. Despite their extensive use on an empirical ground, little research has been done in terms of analyzing the constructs that determine the sense of place in the marketing of cultural heritage sites and on how tourist experiences at such places influence tourist motivations to revisit destinations. By referring to the Italian city of Vicenza, internationally renowned for its gold jewelry production and for the Palladian architectures and buildings which have been recognized World Heritage by the UNESCO, the paper aims to identify how destination image, place familiarity and travel satisfaction influence tourists’ motivations to revisit Vicenza. After an introduction and literature review, the paper investigates the importance of the core constructs that determine the sense of place in the tourist practice. In accordance with previous research, the results provide evidence that favorable travel experiences influence revisit intentions positively. The managerial implications and recommendations for the city of Vicenza are discussed.

Keywords: consumer behavior, heritage tourism, sense of place, place branding, territorial marketing

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2946 Sustainability as an Effective Tool for a Place Branding an Application on El Gouna City, Egypt

Authors: Sherine El Sakka

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Most developing countries consider sustainability is a luxury, but El Gouna city at hurghada, Egypt, thought differently and uses sustainability as a tool for branding the place. Branding a place is new approach towards sustainable cities development (SCD); sustainability(S) requires multi-dimensional indicators to show the relationship between economic, social, environmental and cultural aspects. Sustainable development (SD) according to Brundland commission defined as" meeting the needs of current generations without negative impact on the needs of future generation’, branding a place (BP) integrate economic, social, environmental and cultural aspects into the city. In order for a city to be a good brand it must possess distinctive characteristics that can be identified, these include city appearance, people’s experience, people’s belief as well as what the city stands for. The study has found that place branding is a way to promote sustainable initiative; place branding has the potential to shape as a leading tool for the concurrence of more sustainable cities in developing countries, sustainability and green development should turn main priorities to developing countries.

Keywords: sustainable cities development (SCD), sustainability(S), sustainable development (SD), branding a place (BP)

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2945 City versus Suburb: The Effects of Neighborhood on Place Attachment and Residential Satisfaction

Authors: Elif Aksel, Çagrı Imamoglu

Abstract:

This ongoing study aims to investigate the effects of neighborhood location on place attachment and residential satisfaction. Place attachment will be examined by comparing place of residence in different areas of the city. Furthermore, the relationship between neighborhood and residential satisfaction will be investigated in terms of physical and social aspects of the places influencing residential satisfaction. This study will be carried out in two different districts of Ankara which are Çankaya, located in the city center, and Sincan, a suburb. Two-hundred adult respondents will participate in this research; 100 men and 100 women aged between 18-65 years with different socio-economic status using snowball sampling. A place attachment scale and a questionnaire related with residential satisfaction, including open-ended questions and 7-point Likert type scale, will be used as instruments. Apart from these, demographic information of the participants such as gender, age, education, the length of residence will be collected. The findings of the study are expected to demonstrate that neighborhood is seen to be influential on place attachment by affecting the intensity of attachment. The level of place attachment is expected to be greater in areas far from the city compared to areas in the center of the city. Apart from this, the neighborhood is also effective in residential satisfaction. The residents living in these neighborhoods having strong physical and social opportunities will be expected to have higher residential satisfaction.

Keywords: neighborhood, neighborhood satisfaction, place attachment, residential satisfaction

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2944 Understanding Attitude about Landscape Preservation in Context of Place Attachment

Authors: Baiju Soren

Abstract:

This research investigates village residents' feelings about rural landscapes and their attitudes toward preserving them, as well as the impact of attachment on participation in preserving those environments. To understand these relationships, 100 respondents from Bandudumha village : a tribal village, Mayurbhanj district of Odisha, were interviewed with a set of questionnaires and photographs. This framework is based on the idea that establishing environmental oversight and desire to cooperate in the development and preservation process can help to establish community values and meaning tied to places. As a result, a personal connection to the rural environment will be explored through an examination of place attachment, landscape choice, and the possible conservation value of landscapes to the people who live there. The findings suggest that commitment to a place can lead to unique ideas on collaborative preservation and the creation of truly relevant, socially inclusive landscapes. Furthermore, the data show how emotional ties to locations provide social support and provide insight into people–place relationships.

Keywords: participation in preservation, place attachment, preservation, rural landscape, sense of place

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2943 The Effects of Architectural Anatomy on Improving the Quality of Place Identity: Case Study of Shiraz Opera Hall

Authors: Hamid Reza Zeraatpisheh, Shamsoddin Hashemi, Farshad Negintaji

Abstract:

This study has examined the effects of the architectural anatomy of opera hall on improving the quality of place identity. By measuring the effects of place identity on the inner aspects of human which are influenced by the physical and social environments it has investigated the results of a balance between internal and external environment. To assess the anatomical effects of urban landscape, two components of subjective landscape including perception and diversity and the component of objective landscape including form and order have been measured. The current survey is descriptive and the statistical population has been Shiraz which is a city in Iran. To analyze the data the SPSS software has been used. The results have been investigated in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics. In the inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient has been used to evaluate the research hypotheses. The results of this study indicate that between the dimensions of landscape, the component of the subjective landscape has the highest impact on the place identity and in the second place, an objective landscape has the impact on the place identity. Anatomical effects have an important role on improving the quality of place identity of Shiraz citizens and in order to enhance the place identity in the urban landscape it is also required that they will be inspired and operated.

Keywords: architectural anatomy, identity, place identity, urban landscape, perception

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2942 Community Participation and Place Identity as Mediators on the Impact of Resident Social Capital on Support Intention for Festival Tourism

Authors: Nien-Te Kuo, Yi-Sung Cheng, Kuo-Chien Chang

Abstract:

Cultural festival tourism is now seen by many as an opportunity to facilitate community development because it has significant influences on the economic, social, cultural, and political aspects of local communities. The potential for tourist attraction has been recognized as a useful tool to strengthen local economies from governments. However, most community festivals in Taiwan are short-lived, often only lasting for a few years or occasionally not making it past a one-off event. Researchers suggested that most governments and other stakeholders do not recognize the importance of building a partnership with residents when developing community tourism. Thus, the sustainable community tourism development still remains a key issue in the existing literature. The success of community tourism is related to the attitudes and lifestyles of local residents. In order to maintain sustainable tourism, residents need to be seen as development partners. Residents’ support intention for tourism development not only helps to increase awareness of local culture, history, the natural environment, and infrastructure, but also improves the interactive relationship between the host community and tourists. Furthermore, researchers have identified the social capital theory as the core of sustainable community tourism development. The social capital of residents has been seen as a good way to solve issues of tourism governance, forecast the participation behavior and improve support intention of residents. In addition, previous studies have pointed out the role of community participation and place identity in increasing resident support intention for tourism development. A lack of place identity is one of the main reasons that community tourism has become a mere formality and is not sustainable. It refers to how much residents participate during tourism development and is mainly influenced by individual interest. Scholars believed that the place identity of residents is the soul of community festivals. It shows the community spirit to visitors and has significant impacts on tourism benefits and support intention of residents in community tourism development. Although the importance of community participation and place identity have been confirmed by both governmental and non-governmental organizations, real-life execution still needs to be improved. This study aimed to use social capital theory to investigate the social structure between community residents, participation levels in festival tourism, degrees of place identity, and resident support intention for future community tourism development, and the causal relationship that these factors have with cultural festival tourism. A quantitative research approach was employed to examine the proposed model. Structural equation model was used to test and verify the proposed hypotheses. This was a case study of the Kaohsiung Zuoying Wannian Folklore Festival. The festival was located in the Zuoying District of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The target population of this study was residents who attended the festival. The results reveal significant correlations among social capital, community participation, place identity and support intention. The results also confirm that impacts of social capital on support intention were significantly mediated by community participation and place identity. Practical suggestions were provided for tourism operators and policy makers. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan, Republic of China, under the grant MOST-105-2410-H-328-013.

Keywords: community participation, place identity, social capital, support intention

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2941 An Exploration of the Dimensions of Place-Making: A South African Case Study

Authors: W. J. Strydom, K. Puren

Abstract:

Place-making is viewed here as an empowering process in which people represent, improve and maintain their spatial (natural or built) environment. With the above-mentioned in mind, place-making is multi-dimensional and include a spatial dimension (including visual properties or the end product/plan), a procedural dimension during which (negotiation/discussion of ideas with all relevant stakeholders in terms of end product/plan) and a psychological dimension (inclusion of intrinsic values and meanings related to a place in the end product/plan). These three represent dimensions of place-making. The purpose of this paper is to explore these dimensions of place-making in a case study of a local community in Ikageng, Potchefstroom, North-West Province, South Africa. This case study represents an inclusive process that strives to empower a local community (forcefully relocated due to Apartheid legislation in South Africa). This case study focussed on the inclusion of participants in the decision-making process regarding their daily environment. By means of focus group discussions and a collaborative design workshop, data is generated and ultimately creates a linkage with the theoretical dimensions of place-making. This paper contributes to the field of spatial planning due to the exploration of the dimensions of place-making and the relevancy of this process on spatial planning (especially in a South African setting).

Keywords: community engagement, place-making, planning theory, spatial planning

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2940 The Appearance of Identity in the Urban Landscape by Enjoying the Natural Factors

Authors: Mehrdad Karimi, Farshad Negintaji

Abstract:

This study has examined the appearance of identity in the urban landscape and its effects on the natural factors. For this purpose, the components of place identity, emotional attachment, place dependence and social bond which totally constitute place attachment, measures it in three domains of cognitive (place identity), affective (emotional attachment) and behavioral (place dependence and social bond). In order to measure the natural factors, three components of the absolute elements, living entities, natural elements have been measured. The study is descriptive and the statistical population has been Yasouj, a city in Iran. To analyze the data the SPSS software has been used. The results in two level of descriptive and inferential statistics have been investigated. In the inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient test has been used to evaluate the research hypotheses. In this study, the variable of identity is in high level and the natural factors are also in high level. These results indicate a positive relationship between place identity and natural factors. Development of environment and reaching the quality level of the personality or identity will develop the individual and society.

Keywords: identity, place identity, landscape, urban landscape, landscaping

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2939 Management of English Language Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: Vishal D. Pandya

Abstract:

A great deal of perceptible change has been taking place in the way our institutions of higher learning are being managed in India today. It is believed that managers, whose intuition proves to be accurate, often tend to be the most successful, and this is what makes them almost like entrepreneurs. A certain entrepreneurial spirit is what is expected and requires a degree of insight of the manager to be successful depending upon the situational and more importantly, the heterogeneity as well as the socio-cultural aspect. Teachers in Higher Education have to play multiple roles to make sure that the Learning-Teaching process becomes effective in the real sense of the term. This paper makes an effort to take a close look at that, especially in the context of the management of English language teaching in Higher Education and, therefore, focuses on the management of English language teaching in higher education by understanding target situation analyses at the socio-cultural level.

Keywords: management, language teaching, English language teaching, higher education

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2938 Segmentation of Korean Words on Korean Road Signs

Authors: Lae-Jeong Park, Kyusoo Chung, Jungho Moon

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This paper introduces an effective method of segmenting Korean text (place names in Korean) from a Korean road sign image. A Korean advanced directional road sign is composed of several types of visual information such as arrows, place names in Korean and English, and route numbers. Automatic classification of the visual information and extraction of Korean place names from the road sign images make it possible to avoid a lot of manual inputs to a database system for management of road signs nationwide. We propose a series of problem-specific heuristics that correctly segments Korean place names, which is the most crucial information, from the other information by leaving out non-text information effectively. The experimental results with a dataset of 368 road sign images show 96% of the detection rate per Korean place name and 84% per road sign image.

Keywords: segmentation, road signs, characters, classification

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2937 Cultural Resources Management of the Early Hospitals in Jordan between: 1890-1950

Authors: Jawdat Goussous, Samer Abu Ghazaleh

Abstract:

Heritage is closely linked with the national identity and because Jordan is a rich country of heritage where many civilizations had lived from early beginning of history ,therefore the conservation of this heritage is national task that gives many benefits as correlation between local inhabitance and enhance the linked with spirit of place . This study takes into account the most important concentration on some of old hospitals in Jordan ,which were constructed between 1890-1950 ,looking in their historical and architectural heritage values gained by their architectural distinguished ,longevity and their linked with events that happened in the region. then Focus on the study and analysis of some of them in terms of conservation methodology that have been followed to conserve the early hospitals such as preservation ,maintenance ,adaptive reuse , And their positive effects on these buildings, emphasize the importance of these buildings because of their historical and architectural values.

Keywords: evangelical missionary, early hospitals, medical services, renovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 391