Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1039

Search results for: María Estela Rodríguez

1039 Cultural Studies in the Immigration Movements: Memories and Social Collectives

Authors: María Eugenia Peltzer, María Estela Rodríguez


This work presents an approach to the cultural aspects of the Immigrants as part of the Cultural Intangible Heritage of Argentina. The intangible cultural heritage consists of the manifestations, practices, uses, representations, expressions, knowledge, techniques and cultural spaces that communities and groups recognize as an integral part of their cultural heritage. This heritage generates feelings of identity and establishes links with the collective memory, as well as being transmitted and recreated over time according to its environment, its interaction with nature and its history contributing to promote respect for cultural diversity and Human creativity. The Immigrants brings together those who came from other lands and their descendants, thus maintaining their traditions through time and linking the members of each cultural group with a strong sense of belonging through a communicative and effective process.

Keywords: cultural, immigration, memories, social

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1038 Applying Hybrid Graph Drawing and Clustering Methods on Stock Investment Analysis

Authors: Mouataz Zreika, Maria Estela Varua


Stock investment decisions are often made based on current events of the global economy and the analysis of historical data. Conversely, visual representation could assist investors’ gain deeper understanding and better insight on stock market trends more efficiently. The trend analysis is based on long-term data collection. The study adopts a hybrid method that combines the Clustering algorithm and Force-directed algorithm to overcome the scalability problem when visualizing large data. This method exemplifies the potential relationships between each stock, as well as determining the degree of strength and connectivity, which will provide investors another understanding of the stock relationship for reference. Information derived from visualization will also help them make an informed decision. The results of the experiments show that the proposed method is able to produced visualized data aesthetically by providing clearer views for connectivity and edge weights.

Keywords: clustering, force-directed, graph drawing, stock investment analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1037 Design of a New Vegetable Snack

Authors: Patricia Calvo, Francisco M. Sánchez, María J. Rodríguez


Nowadays, food intake is becoming more irregular due to changes in family organization and lifestyle. Snacking is part of the day-to-day lives of people, however, most of the snacks have a high saturated fat, salt and refined sugar content; these dietary factors are believed to have negative health consequences. For this reason, there has been an increase in consumer demand for healthy, natural and convenient foods, so the development of a significant portion of new products focuses on improving the nutritional value of food snacks through modification its nutritional composition. In this paper, a new product made from vegetables has been designed. This new product would be an ideal food format to include ingredients with positive health benefits.

Keywords: healthy, pepper, dried, carotenes, polyphenols

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1036 Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumption of Nutraceuticals: The Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Medellin- Colombia, 2013

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Juan Guillermo Jiménez Jiménez, Johan Sebastián Lopera Valle, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Sara Rojas Jiménez, Alejandra Uribe Ocampo, Sara Correa Pérez, Natalia Perilla Hernández, Juan Sebastián Marín Cárdenas


The relationship between diet and chronic or degenerative diseases has led to the development of functional foods such as nutraceuticals. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of consumption of nutraceuticals in undergraduate students. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. It was a simple random sampling with the Statcalc EpiInfo software vr 6.04. It was designed an instrument for collection of demographic data and consumption of nutraceuticals. Statistical analysis used the SPSS program. Results: 427 students, average age 20.8 years (SD 3.1), 56.1% were women. The life prevalence of nutraceuticals consumption was 66.3% and the annual 51.8%. The main reasons for consumption were as food complement 32.8% and prevent diseases 20.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nutraceuticals observed is comparable to that reported in the literature, which suggests an increasing trend in the habit of consumption of dietary supplement which have a preventive or protective effect on health.

Keywords: dietary supplements, food, health, functional food, Colombia

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1035 Characterization of Chest Pain in Patients Consulting to the Emergency Department of a Health Institution High Level of Complexity during 2014-2015, Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Jorge Iván Bañol-Betancur, Lina María Martínez-Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez-Gázquez, Estefanía Bahamonde-Olaya, Ana María Gutiérrez-Tamayo, Laura Isabel Jaramillo-Jaramillo, Camilo Ruiz-Mejía, Natalia Morales-Quintero


Acute chest pain is a distressing sensation between the diaphragm and the base of the neck and it represents a diagnostic challenge for any physician in the emergency department. Objective: To establish the main clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients who present with chest pain to the emergency department in a private clinic from the city of Medellin, during 2014-2015. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective observational study. Population and sample were patients who consulted for chest pain in the emergency department who met the eligibility criteria. The information was analyzed in SPSS program vr.21; qualitative variables were described through relative frequencies, and the quantitative through mean and standard deviation ‬or medians according to their distribution in the study population. Results: A total of 231 patients were evaluated, the mean age was 49.5 ± 19.9 years, 56.7% were females. The most frequent pathological antecedents were hypertension 35.5%, diabetes 10,8%, dyslipidemia 10.4% and coronary disease 5.2%. Regarding pain features, in 40.3% of the patients the pain began abruptly, in 38.2% it had a precordial location, for 20% of the cases physical activity acted as a trigger, and 60.6% was oppressive. Costochondritis was the most common cause of chest pain among patients with an established etiologic diagnosis, representing the 18.2%. Conclusions: Although the clinical features of pain reported coincide with the clinical presentation of an acute coronary syndrome, the most common cause of chest pain in study population was costochondritis instead, indicating that it is a differential diagnostic in the approach of patients with pain acute chest.

Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, chest pain, epidemiology, osteochondritis

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1034 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Medical Institution from the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Camilo Andres Agudelo-Velez, Lina María Martinez-Sanchez, Natalia Perilla-Hernandez, Maria De Los Angeles Rodriguez-Gazquez, Felipe Hernandez-Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero-Moreno, Camilo Ruiz-Mejia, Isabel Cristina Ortiz-Trujillo, Monica Maria Zuluaga-Quintero


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is common condition, characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow, partially reversible and progressive, that represents 5% of total deaths around the world, and it is expected to become the third leading cause of death by 2030. Objective: To establish the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a medical institution from the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed, with a sample of 50 patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. The software SPSS vr. 20 was used for the statistical analysis. For the quantitative variables, averages, standard deviations, and maximun and minimun values were calculated, while for ordinal and nominal qualitative variables, proportions were estimated. Results: The average age was 73.5±9.3 years, 52% of the patients were women, 50% of them had retired, 46% ere married and 80% lived in the city of Medellín. The mean time of diagnosis was 7.8±1.3 years and 100% of the patients were treated at the internal medicine service. The most common clinical features were: 36% were classified as class D for the disease, 34% had a FEV1 <30%, 88% had a history of smoking and 52% had oxygen therapy at home. Conclusion: It was found that class D was the most common, and the majority of the patients had a history of smoking, indicating the need to strengthen promotion and prevention strategies in this regard.

Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, pulmonary medicine, oxygen inhalation therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
1033 Calculated Structural and Electronic Properties of Mg and Bi

Authors: G. Patricia Abdel Rahim, Jairo Arbey Rodriguez M, María Guadalupe Moreno Armenta


The present study shows the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of magnesium (Mg) and bismuth (Bi) in a supercell (1X1X5). For both materials were studied in five crystalline structures: rock salt (NaCl), cesium chloride (CsCl), zinc-blende (ZB), wurtzite (WZ), and nickel arsenide (NiAs), using the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), and the Full Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method. By means of fitting the Murnaghan's state equation we determine the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and it's derived with the pressure. Also we calculated the density of states (DOS) and the band structure.

Keywords: bismuth, magnesium, pseudo-potential, supercell

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1032 About the Effect of Temperature and Heating Rate on the Pyrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Waste

Authors: María del Carmen Recio-Ruiz, Ramiro Ruiz-Rosas, Juana María Rosas, José Rodríguez-Mirasol, Tomás Cordero


At the present time, conventional fossil fuels show environmental and sustainability disadvantages with regard to renewables energies. Producing energy and chemicals from biomass is an interesting alternative for substitution of conventional fossil sources with a renewable feedstock while enabling zero net greenhouse gases emissions. Pyrolysis is a well-known process to produce fuels and chemicals from biomass. In this work, conventional and fast pyrolysis of different agro-industrial residues (almond shells, hemp hurds, olive stones, and Kraft lignin) was studied. Both processes were carried out in a fixed bed reactor under nitrogen flow and using different operating conditions to analyze the influence of temperature (400-800 ºC) and heating rate (10 and 20 ºC/minfor conventional pyrolysis and 50 ºC/s for fast pyrolysis)on the yields, products distribution, and composition of the different fractions. The results showed that for both conventional and fast pyrolysis, the solid fraction yield decreased with temperature, while the liquid and gas fractions increased. In the case of the fast pyrolysis, a higher content of liquid fraction than that obtained in conventional pyrolysis could be observed due to cracking reactions occur at a lesser extent. With respect to the composition of de non-condensable fraction, the main gases obtained were CO, CO₂ (mainly at low temperatures), CH₄, and H₂ (mainly at high temperatures).

Keywords: bio-oil, biomass, conventional pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis

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1031 Use of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in Patients with Chronic Pain in a Medical Institution in Medellin, Colombia, 2014

Authors: Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Juliana Molina Valencia, Esteban Vallejo Agudelo, Daniel Gallego González, María Isabel Pérez Palacio, Juan Ricardo Gaviria García, María De Los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez


Alternative and complementary therapies constitute a vast and complex combination of interventions, philosophies, approaches, and therapies that acquire a holistic healthcare point of view, becoming an alternative for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Objective: determine the characteristics of the use of alternative and complementary therapies in patients with chronic pain who consulted in a medical institution. Methodology: cross-sectional and descriptive study, with a population of patients that assisted to the outpatient consultation and met the eligibility criteria. Sampling was not conducted. A form was used for the collection of demographic and clinical variables and the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) was validated. The analysis and processing of information was carried out using the SPSS program vr.19. Results: 220 people with chronic pain were included. The average age was 54.7±16.2 years, 78.2% were women, and 75.5% belonged to the socioeconomic strata 1 to 3. Musculoskeletal pain (77.7%), migraine (15%) and neuralgia (9.1%) were the most frequently types of chronic pain. 33.6% of participants have used some kind of alternative and complementary therapy; the most frequent were: homeopathy (14.5%), phytotherapy (12.7%), and acupuncture (11.4%). The total average HCAMQ score for the study group was 30.2±7.0 points, which shows a moderate attitude toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The highest scores according to the type of pain were: neuralgia (32.4±5.8), musculoskeletal pain (30.5±6.7), fibromyalgia (29.6±7.3) and migraine (28.5±8.8). The reliability of the HCAMQ was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.6). Conclusion: it was noted that the types of chronic pain and the clinical or therapeutic management of patients correspond to the data available in current literature. Despite the moderate attitude toward the use of these alternative and complementary therapies, one of every three patients uses them.

Keywords: chronic pain, complementary therapies, homeopathy, acupuncture analgesia

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1030 Technology in the Calculation of People Health Level: Design of a Computational Tool

Authors: Sara Herrero Jaén, José María Santamaría García, María Lourdes Jiménez Rodríguez, Jorge Luis Gómez González, Adriana Cercas Duque, Alexandra González Aguna


Background: Health concept has evolved throughout history. The health level is determined by the own individual perception. It is a dynamic process over time so that you can see variations from one moment to the next. In this way, knowing the health of the patients you care for, will facilitate decision making in the treatment of care. Objective: To design a technological tool that calculates the people health level in a sequential way over time. Material and Methods: Deductive methodology through text analysis, extraction and logical knowledge formalization and education with expert group. Studying time: September 2015- actually. Results: A computational tool for the use of health personnel has been designed. It has 11 variables. Each variable can be given a value from 1 to 5, with 1 being the minimum value and 5 being the maximum value. By adding the result of the 11 variables we obtain a magnitude in a certain time, the health level of the person. The health calculator allows to represent people health level at a time, establishing temporal cuts being useful to determine the evolution of the individual over time. Conclusion: The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow training and help in various disciplinary areas. It is important to highlight their relevance in the field of health. Based on the health formalization, care acts can be directed towards some of the propositional elements of the concept above. The care acts will modify the people health level. The health calculator allows the prioritization and prediction of different strategies of health care in hospital units.

Keywords: calculator, care, eHealth, health

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1029 First-Principles Investigation of the Structural and Electronic Properties of Mg1-xBixO

Authors: G. P. Abdel Rahim, M. María Guadalupe Moreno Armenta, Jairo Arbey Rodriguez


We investigated the structure and electronic properties of the compound Mg1-xBixO with varying concentrations of 0, ¼, ½, and ¾ x bismuth in the the NaCl (rock-salt) and WZ (wurtzite) phases. The calculations were performed using the first-principles pseudo-potential method within the framework of spin density functional theory (DFT). Our calculations predict that for Bi concentrations greater than ~70%, the WZ structure is more favorable than the NaCl one and that for x = 0 (pure MgO), x = 0.25 and x = 0.50 of Bi concentration the NaCl structure is more favorable than the WZ one. For x = 0.75 of Bi, a transition from wurtzite towards NaCl is possible, when the pressure is about 22 GPa. Also It has been observed the crystal lattice constant closely follows Vegard’s law, that the bulk modulus and the cohesion energy decrease with the concentration x of Bi.

Keywords: DFT, Mg1-xBixO, pseudo-potential, rock-salt, wurtzite

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1028 The Gender Perspective Applied to the Analysis of Occupational Accidents

Authors: María Del Carmen Pardo Ferreira, Fernando Rodriguez Cortes, Juan Carlos Rubio Romero


According to the International Labor Organization, every day there is more presence of women in the labor market although inequality between women and men persists in world labor markets. In order to try to reduce this gender inequality in the work environment, the present study is proposed, which aims to analyze the occupational accidents suffered by women and occurred in Spain between 2015 and 2018. For this, the methodology used was based on a statistical analysis of the data provided by the Government of Spain. The results will allow to know in which jobs women suffer accidents, in what type of companies and the severity of the accident. Based on these results, specific intervention policies may be defined according to the needs detected in each sector.

Keywords: Injured women, Gender perspective, Occupational accidents, Occupational health and safety

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1027 Attitude towards Doping of High-Performance Athletes in a Sports Institute of the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Yuban Sebastian Cuartas-Agudelo, Sandra Marcela López-Hincapié, Vivianna Alexandra Garrido-Altamar, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez-Gázquez, Camilo Ruiz-Mejía, Lina María Martínez-Sánchez, Gloria Inés Martínez-Domínguez, Luis Eduardo Contreras, Felipe Eduardo Marino-Isaza


Introduction: Doping is a prohibited practice in competitive sports with potential adverse effects; therefore, it is crucial to describe the attitudes of athletes towards this behavior and to determine which o these increase the susceptibility to carry out this practice. Objective: To determine the attitude of high-performance athletes towards doping in a sports institute in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study during 2016, with a sample taken to convenience consisting of athletes over 18 years old enrolled in a sports institute of the city of Medellin (Colombia). The athletes filled by themselves the Petroczi and Aidman questionnaire: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) adapted to the Spanish language by Morente-Sánchez et al. This scale has 17 items with likert answer options, with a score ranging from 1 to 6, with a higher score indicating a stronger tendency towards doping practices. Results: 112 athletes were included with an average age of 21.6 years old, a 60% of them were male and the most frequent sports were karate 17%, judo 12.5% and athletics 9.8%. The average score of the questionnaire was 35.5 points of a 102 possible points. The lowest score was obtained in the following items: Is Doping necessary 1,4 and Doping isn’t cheating, everyone does it 1,5. Conclusion: In our population, there is a low tendency towards doping practices.

Keywords: sports, doping in sports, athletic performance, attitude

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1026 Natural Mexican Zeolite Modified with Iron to Remove Arsenic Ions from Water Sources

Authors: Maritza Estela Garay-Rodriguez, Mirella Gutierrez-Arzaluz, Miguel Torres-Rodriguez, Violeta Mugica-Alvarez


Arsenic is an element present in the earth's crust and is dispersed in the environment through natural processes and some anthropogenic activities. Naturally released into the environment through the weathering and erosion of sulphides mineral, some activities such as mining, the use of pesticides or wood preservatives potentially increase the concentration of arsenic in air, water, and soil. The natural arsenic release of a geological material is a threat to the world's drinking water sources. In aqueous phase is found in inorganic form, as arsenate and arsenite mainly, the contamination of groundwater by salts of this element originates what is known as endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorizes the inorganic As within group I, as a substance with proven carcinogenic action for humans. It has been found the presence of As in groundwater in several countries such as Argentina, Mexico, Bangladesh, Canada and the United States. Regarding the concentration of arsenic in drinking water according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establish maximum concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹. In Mexico, in some states as Hidalgo, Morelos and Michoacán concentrations of arsenic have been found in bodies of water around 1000 μg L⁻¹, a concentration that is well above what is allowed by Mexican regulations with the NOM-127- SSA1-1994 that establishes a limit of 25 μg L⁻¹. Given this problem in Mexico, this research proposes the use of a natural Mexican zeolite (clinoptilolite type) native to the district of Etla in the central valley region of Oaxaca, as an adsorbent for the removal of arsenic. The zeolite was subjected to a conditioning with iron oxide by the precipitation-impregnation method with 0.5 M iron nitrate solution, in order to increase the natural adsorption capacity of this material. The removal of arsenic was carried out in a column with a fixed bed of conditioned zeolite, since it combines the advantages of a conventional filter with those of a natural adsorbent medium, providing a continuous treatment, of low cost and relatively easy to operate, for its implementation in marginalized areas. The zeolite was characterized by XRD, SEM/EDS, and FTIR before and after the arsenic adsorption tests, the results showed that the modification methods used are adequate to prepare adsorbent materials since it does not modify its structure, the results showed that with a particle size of 1.18 mm, an initial concentration of As (V) ions of 1 ppm, a pH of 7 and at room temperature, a removal of 98.7% was obtained with an adsorption capacity of 260 μg As g⁻¹ zeolite. The results obtained indicated that the conditioned zeolite is favorable for the elimination of arsenate in water containing up to 1000 μg As L⁻¹ and could be suitable for removing arsenate from pits of water.

Keywords: adsorption, arsenic, iron conditioning, natural zeolite

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1025 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam

Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez


In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.

Keywords: kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradation

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1024 Linac Quality Controls Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device

Authors: Domingo Planes Meseguer, Raffaele Danilo Esposito, Maria Del Pilar Dorado Rodriguez


Monthly quality control checks for a Radiation Therapy Linac may be performed is a simple and efficient way once they have been standardized and protocolized. On the other hand this checks, in spite of being imperatives, require a not negligible execution times in terms of machine time and operators time. Besides it must be taken into account the amount of disposable material which may be needed together with the use of commercial software for their performing. With the aim of optimizing and standardizing mechanical-geometric checks and multi leaves collimator checks, we decided to implement a protocol which makes use of the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) available on our Linacs. The user is step by step guided by the software during the whole procedure. Acquired images are automatically analyzed by our programs all of them written using only free software.

Keywords: quality control checks, linac, radiation oncology, medical physics, free software

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1023 Predictive Maintenance Based on Oil Analysis Applicable to Transportation Fleets

Authors: Israel Ibarra Solis, Juan Carlos Rodriguez Sierra, Ma. del Carmen Salazar Hernandez, Isis Rodriguez Sanchez, David Perez Guerrero


At the present paper we try to explain the analysis techniques use for the lubricating oil in a maintenance period of a city bus (Mercedes Benz Boxer 40), which is call ‘R-24 route’, line Coecillo Centro SA de CV in Leon Guanajuato, to estimate the optimal time for the oil change. Using devices such as the rotational viscometer and the atomic absorption spectrometer, they can detect the incipient form when the oil loses its lubricating properties and, therefore, cannot protect the mechanical components of diesel engines such these trucks. Timely detection of lost property in the oil, it allows us taking preventive plan maintenance for the fleet.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrometry, maintenance, predictive velocity rate, lubricating oils

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1022 The Conception of the Students about the Presence of Mental Illness at School

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina, Maria Catarina Zanini


In this paper, we analyze the conceptions of high school students about mental health issues, and discuss the creation of mental basic health programs in schools. We base our findings in a quantitative survey carried out by us with 156 high school students of CTISM (Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria) school, located in Santa Maria city, Brazil. We have found that: (a) 28 students relate the subject ‘mental health’ with psychiatric hospitals and lunatic asylums; (b) 28 students have relatives affected by mental diseases; (c) 76 students believe that mental patients, if treated, can live a healthy life; (d) depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the most cited diseases; (e) 84 students have contact with mental patients, but know nothing about the disease; (f) 123 students have never been instructed about mental diseases while in the school; and (g) 135 students think that a mental health program would be important in the school. We argue that these numbers reflect a vision of mental health that can be related to the reductionist education still present in schools and to the lack of integration between health professionals, sciences teachers, and students. Furthermore, this vision can also be related to a stigmatization process, which interferes with the interactions and with the representations regarding mental disorders and mental patients in society.

Keywords: mental health, schools, mental illness, conception

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1021 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile in Patients with Preeclampsia in a Private Institution in Medellin, Colombia 2015

Authors: Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Evert Armando Jiménez Cotes, Natalia Perilla Hernández, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Duque Restrepo, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero Moreno, Juan José Builes Gómez, Camilo Ruiz Mejía, Ana Lucia Arango Gómez


Preeclampsia is a clinical complication during pregnancy with high incidence in Colombia; therefore, it is important to evaluate the influence of external conditions and medical interventions, in order to promote measures that encourage improvements in the quality of life. Objective: Determine clinical and sociodemographic variables in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 50 patients with the diagnosis of preeclampsia, from a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. We used the software SPSS ver.20 for statistical analysis. For the qualitative variables, we calculated the mean and standard deviation, while, for ordinal and nominal levels of quantitative variables, ratios were estimated. Results: The average age was 26.8±5.9 years. The predominant characteristics were socioeconomic stratum 2 (48%), students (55%), mixed race (46%) and middle school as level of education (38%). As for clinical features, 72% of the cases were mild preeclampsia, and 22% were severe forms. The most common clinical manifestations were edema (46%), headache (62%), and proteinuria (55%). As for the Gyneco-obstetric history, 8% reported previous episodes of this disease and it was the first pregnancy for 60% of the patients. Conclusions: Preeclampsia is a frequent condition in young women; on the other hand, headache and edema were the most common reasons for consultation, therefore, doctors need to be aware of these symptoms in pregnant women.

Keywords: pre-eclampsia, hypertension, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, abdominal, edema

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1020 Yields and Composition of the Gas, Liquid and Solid Fractions Obtained by Conventional Pyrolysis of Different Lignocellulosic Biomass Residues

Authors: María del Carmen Recio-Ruiz, Ramiro Ruiz-Rosas, Juana María Rosas, José Rodríguez-Mirasol, Tomás Cordero


Nowadays, fossil resources are main precursors for fuel production. Due to their contribution to the greenhouse effect and their future depletion, there is a constant search for environmentally friendly feedstock alternatives. Biomass residues constitute an interesting replacement for fossil resources because of their zero net CO₂ emissions. One of the main routes to convert biomass into energy and chemicals is pyrolysis. In this work, conventional pyrolysis of different biomass residues highly available such as almond shells, hemp hurds, olive stones, and Kraft lignin, was studied. In a typical experiment, the biomass was crushed and loaded into a fixed bed reactor under continuous nitrogen flow. The influence of temperature (400-800 ºC) and heating rate (10 and 20 ºC/min) on the pyrolysis yield and composition of the different fractions has been studied. In every case, the mass yields revealed that the solid fraction decreased with temperature, while liquid and gas fractions increased due to depolymerization and cracking reactions at high temperatures. The composition of every pyrolysis fraction was studied in detail. The results showed that the composition of the gas fraction was mainly CO, CO₂ when working at low temperatures, and mostly CH₄ and H₂at high temperatures. The solid fraction developed an incipient microporosity, with narrow micropore volume of 0.21 cm³/g. Regarding the liquid fraction, pyrolysis of almond shell, hemp hurds, and olive stones led mainly to a high content in aliphatic acids and furans, due to the high volatile matter content of these biomass (>74 %wt.), and phenols to a lesser degree, which were formed due to the degradation of lignin at higher temperatures. However, when Kraft lignin was used as bio-oil precursor, the presence of phenols was very prominent, and aliphatic compounds were also detected in a lesser extent.

Keywords: Bio-oil, biomass, conventional pyrolysis, lignocellulosic

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1019 A Relational Data Base for Radiation Therapy

Authors: Raffaele Danilo Esposito, Domingo Planes Meseguer, Maria Del Pilar Dorado Rodriguez


As far as we know, it is still unavailable a commercial solution which would allow to manage, openly and configurable up to user needs, the huge amount of data generated in a modern Radiation Oncology Department. Currently, available information management systems are mainly focused on Record & Verify and clinical data, and only to a small extent on physical data. Thus, results in a partial and limited use of the actually available information. In the present work we describe the implementation at our department of a centralized information management system based on a web server. Our system manages both information generated during patient planning and treatment, and information of general interest for the whole department (i.e. treatment protocols, quality assurance protocols etc.). Our objective it to be able to analyze in a simple and efficient way all the available data and thus to obtain quantitative evaluations of our treatments. This would allow us to improve our work flow and protocols. To this end we have implemented a relational data base which would allow us to use in a practical and efficient way all the available information. As always we only use license free software.

Keywords: information management system, radiation oncology, medical physics, free software

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
1018 Formative Assessment in an Introductory Python Programming Course

Authors: María José Núñez-Ruiz, Luis Álvarez-González, Cristian Olivares-Rodriguez, Benjamin Lazo-Letelier


This paper begins with some concept of formative assessment and the relationship with learning objective: contents objectives, processes objectives, and metacognitive objectives. Two methodologies are describes Evidence-Based teaching and Question Drive Instruction. To do formative assessments in larges classes a Classroom Response System (CRS) is needed. But most of CRS use only Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ), True/False question, or text entry; however, this is insufficient to formative assessment. To do that a new CRS, call FAMA was developed. FAMA support six types of questions: Choice, Order, Inline choice, Text entry, Associated, and Slider. An experiment participated in 149 students from four engineering careers. For results, Kendall's Range Correlation Analysis and descriptive analysis was done. In conclusion, there is a strong relation between contents question, process questions (ask in formative assessment without a score) and metacognitive questions, asked in summative assessment. As future work, the lecturer can do personalized teaching, because knows the behavior of all students in each formative assessment

Keywords: Python language, formative assessment, classroom response systems, evidence-Based teaching, question drive instruction

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1017 Influence Study of the Molar Ratio between Solvent and Initiator on the Reaction Rate of Polyether Polyols Synthesis

Authors: María José Carrero, Ana M. Borreguero, Juan F. Rodríguez, María M. Velencoso, Ángel Serrano, María Jesús Ramos


Flame-retardants are incorporated in different materials in order to reduce the risk of fire, either by providing increased resistance to ignition, or by acting to slow down combustion and thereby delay the spread of flames. In this work, polyether polyols with fire retardant properties were synthesized due to their wide application in the polyurethanes formulation. The combustion of polyurethanes is primarily dependent on the thermal properties of the polymer, the presence of impurities and formulation residue in the polymer as well as the supply of oxygen. There are many types of flame retardants, most of them are phosphorous compounds of different nature and functionality. The addition of these compounds is the most common method for the incorporation of flame retardant properties. The employment of glycerol phosphate sodium salt as initiator for the polyol synthesis allows obtaining polyols with phosphate groups in their structure. However, some of the critical points of the use of glycerol phosphate salt are: the lower reactivity of the salt and the necessity of a solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO). Thus, the main aim in the present work was to determine the amount of the solvent needed to get a good solubility of the initiator salt. Although the anionic polymerization mechanism of polyether formation is well known, it seems convenient to clarify the role that DMSO plays at the starting point of the polymerization process. Regarding the fact that the catalyst deprotonizes the hydroxyl groups of the initiator and as a result of this, two water molecules and glycerol phosphate alkoxide are formed. This alkoxide, together with DMSO, has to form a homogeneous mixture where the initiator (solid) and the propylene oxide (PO) are soluble enough to mutually interact. The addition rate of PO increased when the solvent/initiator ratios studied were increased, observing that it also made the initiation step shorter. Furthermore, the molecular weight of the polyol decreased when higher solvent/initiator ratios were used, what revealed that more amount of salt was activated, initiating more chains of lower length but allowing to react more phosphate molecules and to increase the percentage of phosphorous in the final polyol. However, the final phosphorous content was lower than the theoretical one because only a percentage of salt was activated. On the other hand, glycerol phosphate disodium salt was still partially insoluble in DMSO studied proportions, thus, the recovery and reuse of this part of the salt for the synthesis of new flame retardant polyols was evaluated. In the recovered salt case, the rate of addition of PO remained the same than in the commercial salt but a shorter induction period was observed, this is because the recovered salt presents a higher amount of deprotonated hydroxyl groups. Besides, according to molecular weight, polydispersity index, FT-IR spectrum and thermal stability, there were no differences between both synthesized polyols. Thus, it is possible to use the recovered glycerol phosphate disodium salt in the same way that the commercial one.

Keywords: DMSO, fire retardants, glycerol phosphate disodium salt, recovered initiator, solvent

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1016 Development of Technologies for the Treatment of Nutritional Problems in Primary Care

Authors: Marta Fernández Batalla, José María Santamaría García, Maria Lourdes Jiménez Rodríguez, Roberto Barchino Plata, Adriana Cercas Duque, Enrique Monsalvo San Macario


Background: Primary Care Nursing is taking more autonomy in clinical decisions. One of the most frequent therapies to solve is related to the problems of maintaining a sufficient supply of food. Nursing diagnoses related to food are addressed by the nurse-family and community as the first responsible. Objectives and interventions are set according to each patient. To improve the goal setting and the treatment of these care problems, a technological tool is developed to help nurses. Objective: To evaluate the computational tool developed to support the clinical decision in feeding problems. Material and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at the Meco Health Center, Madrid, Spain. The study population consisted of four specialist nurses in primary care. These nurses tested the tool on 30 people with ‘need for nutritional therapy’. Subsequently, the usability of the tool and the satisfaction of the professional were sought. Results: A simple and convenient computational tool is designed for use. It has 3 main entrance fields: age, size, sex. The tool returns the following information: BMI (Body Mass Index) and caloric consumed by the person. The next step is the caloric calculation depending on the activity. It is possible to propose a goal of BMI or weight to achieve. With this, the amount of calories to be consumed is proposed. After using the tool, it was determined that the tool calculated the BMI and calories correctly (in 100% of clinical cases). satisfaction on nutritional assessment was ‘satisfactory’ or ‘very satisfactory’, linked to the speed of operations. As a point of improvement, the options of ‘stress factor’ linked to weekly physical activity. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is clear that the computational tools of decision support are useful in the clinic. Nurses are not only consumers of computational tools, but can develop their own tools. These technological solutions improve the effectiveness of nutrition assessment and intervention. We are currently working on improvements such as the calculation of protein percentages as a function of protein percentages as a function of stress parameters.

Keywords: feeding behavior health, nutrition therapy, primary care nursing, technology assessment

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1015 Hardware in the Loop Platform for Virtual Commissioning: Case Study of a Hydraulic-Press Model Simulated in Real-Time

Authors: Jorge Rodriguez-Guerra, Carlos Calleja, Aron Pujana, Ana Maria Macarulla


Hydraulic-press commissioning consumes a great amount of man-hours, due to the fact that it takes place several miles away from where it has been designed. This factor became exacerbated due to control designers’ lack of knowledge about which will be the final controller gains before they start working with it. Virtual commissioning has been postulated as an optimal solution to deal with this lack of knowledge. Here, a case study is presented in which a controller is set up against a real-time model based on a hydraulic-press. The press model is designed following manufacturer specifications and it is embedded in a real-time simulator. This methodology ensures that the model achieves similar responses as the real machine that would be placed on the industry. A deterministic communication protocol is in charge of the bidirectional information transmission between the real-time model and the controller. This platform allows the engineer to test and verify the final control responses with exactly the same hardware that is going to be installed in the hydraulic-press, in other words, realize a virtual commissioning of the electro-hydraulic actuator. The Hardware in the Loop (HiL) platform validates in laboratory conditions and harmless for the machine the control algorithms designed, which allows embedding them afterwards in the industrial environment without further modifications.

Keywords: deterministic communication protocol, electro-hydraulic actuator, hardware in the loop, real-time, virtual commissioning

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1014 Brazilian Environmental Public Policies Analysis

Authors: Estela Macedo Alves


This paper is an overview on public policy analysis focused on the study of Brazilian public policy making process. The methodology is based on the review of some theories on the subject, linking them to Brazilian reality. The study presents basic policy analysis concepts, such as policy, polity and politics. It is emphasized John Kingdon's Multiple Stream Model, because of its clarifying aspects concerning public policies formulation process in democratic countries. In this path it was possible to establish interpretations on environmental public policies in Brazil and understand its methods, instead of presenting only a case study. At the end, it is possible to connect theory with Brazilian reality, identifying negative and positive points of its political processes and structure.

Keywords: Brazilian policies, environmental public policy, multiple stream model, public policy analysis

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1013 An Ergonomic Handle Design for Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Ramon Sancibrian, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, Maria C. Gutierrez-Diez, Esther G. Sarabia, Maria A. Benito-Gonzalez, Jose C. Manuel-Palazuelos


In this paper, the design and evaluation of a handle for laparoscopic surgery is presented. The design of the handle is based on ergonomic principles and tries to avoid awkward postures for surgeons. The handle combines the so-called power-grip and accurate-grip in order to provide strength and accuracy in the performance of surgery. The handle is tested using both objective and subjective approaches. The objective approach uses motion capture techniques to obtain the angles of forearm, arm, wrist and hand. The muscular effort is obtained with electromyography electrodes. On the other hand, a subjective survey has been carried out using questionnaires. Results confirm that the handle is preferred by the majority of the surgeons.

Keywords: laparoscopic surgery, ergonomics, mechanical design, biomechanics

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1012 Exergetic and Life Cycle Assessment Analyses of Integrated Biowaste Gasification-Combustion System: A Study Case

Authors: Anabel Fernandez, Leandro Rodriguez-Ortiz, Rosa RodríGuez


Due to the negative impact of fossil fuels, renewable energies are promising sources to limit global temperature rise and damage to the environment. Also, the development of technology is focused on obtaining energetic products from renewable sources. In this study, a thermodynamic model including Exergy balance and a subsequent Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were carried out for four subsystems of the integrated gasification-combustion of pinewood. Results of exergy analysis and LCA showed the process feasibility in terms of exergy efficiency and global energy efficiency of the life cycle (GEELC). Moreover, the energy return on investment (EROI) index was calculated. The global exergy efficiency resulted in 67 %. For pretreatment, reaction, cleaning, and electric generation subsystems, the results were 85, 59, 87, and 29 %, respectively. Results of LCA indicated that the emissions from the electric generation caused the most damage to the atmosphere, water, and soil. GEELC resulted in 31.09 % for the global process. This result suggested the environmental feasibility of an integrated gasification-combustion system. EROI resulted in 3.15, which determinates the sustainability of the process.

Keywords: exergy analysis, life cycle assessment (LCA), renewability, sustainability

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1011 Phage Display-Derived Vaccine Candidates for Control of Bovine Anaplasmosis

Authors: Itzel Amaro-Estrada, Eduardo Vergara-Rivera, Virginia Juarez-Flores, Mayra Cobaxin-Cardenas, Rosa Estela Quiroz, Jesus F. Preciado, Sergio Rodriguez-Camarillo


Bovine anaplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused mainly by Anaplasma marginale; typical signs include anemia, fever, abortion, weight loss, decreased milk production, jaundice, and potentially death. Sick bovine can recover when antibiotics are administered; however, it usually remains as carrier for life, being a risk of infection for susceptible cattle. Anaplasma marginale is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium with genetic composition highly diverse among geographical isolates. There are currently no vaccines fully effective against bovine anaplasmosis; therefore, the economic losses due to disease are present. Vaccine formulation became a hard task for several pathogens as Anaplasma marginale, but peptide-based vaccines are an interesting proposal way to induce specific responses. Phage-displayed peptide libraries have been proved one of the most powerful technologies for identifying specific ligands. Screening of these peptides libraries is also a tool for studying interactions between proteins or peptides. Thus, it has allowed the identification of ligands recognized by polyclonal antiserums, and it has been successful for the identification of relevant epitopes in chronic diseases and toxicological conditions. Protective immune response to bovine anaplasmosis includes high levels of immunoglobulins subclass G2 (IgG2) but not subclass IgG1. Therefore, IgG2 from the serum of protected bovine can be useful to identify ligands, which can be part of an immunogen for cattle. In this work, phage display random peptide library Ph.D. ™ -12 was incubating with IgG2 or blood sera of immunized bovines against A. marginale as targets. After three rounds of biopanning, several candidates were selected for additional analysis. Subsequently, their reactivity with sera immunized against A. marginale, as well as with positive and negative sera to A. marginale was evaluated by immunoassays. A collection of recognized peptides tested by ELISA was generated. More than three hundred phage-peptides were separately evaluated against molecules which were used during panning. At least ten different peptides sequences were determined from their nucleotide composition. In this approach, three phage-peptides were selected by their binding and affinity properties. In the case of the development of vaccines or diagnostic reagents, it is important to evaluate the immunogenic and antigenic properties of the peptides. Immunogenic in vitro and in vivo behavior of peptides will be assayed as synthetic and as phage-peptide for to determinate their vaccine potential. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by grant SEP-CONACYT 252577 given to I. Amaro-Estrada.

Keywords: bovine anaplasmosis, peptides, phage display, veterinary vaccines

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1010 A Strategy to Reduce Salt Intake: The Use of a Seasoning Obtained from Wine Pomace

Authors: María Luisa Gonzalez-SanJose, Javier Garcia-Lomillo, Raquel Del Pino, Miriam Ortega-Heras, Maria Dolores Rivero-Perez, Pilar Muñiz-Rodriguez


One of the most preoccupant problems related to the diet of the occidental societies is the high salt intake. In Spain, salt intake is almost twice as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). A lot of negative health effects of high sodium intake have been described being the hypertension, cardiovascular and coronary diseases ones of the most important. Due to this fact, government and other institutions are working on the gradual reduction of this consumption. Intake of meat products have been described as the main processed products that bring salt to the diet, followed by snacks and savory crackers. However, fortunately, the food industry has also raised awareness of this problem and is working intensely, and in recent years attempts to reduce the salt content in processed products, and is developing special lines with low sodium content. It is important to consider that processed food are the main source of sodium in occidental countries. One of the possible strategies to reduce the salt content in food is to find substitutes that can emulate their taste properties without adding much sodium or products that mask or substitute salty sensations with other flavors and aromas. In this sense, multiple products have been proposed and used until now. Potassium salts produce similar salty sensations without bring sodium, however their intake should be also limited, by healthy reasons. Furthermore, some potassium salts shows some better notes. Other alternatives are the use of flavor enhancers, spices, aromatic herbs, sea-plant derivate products, etc. The wine pomace is rich in potassium salts, content organic acid and other flavored substances, therefore it could be an interesting raw material to obtain derived products that could be useful as alternative ‘seasonings’. Considering previous comments, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a natural seasoning, made from red wine pomace, in two different foods, crackers and burgers. The seasoning was made in the pilot plant of food technology of the University of Burgos, where the studied crackers and patties were also made. Different members of the University, students, docent and administrative personal, taste the products, and a trained panel evaluated salty intensity. The seasoning in addition to potassium contain significant levels of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, which also makes it interesting as a functional ingredient. Both burgers and crackers made with the seasoning showed better taste that those without salt. Obviously, they showed lower sodium content than normal formulation, and were richer in potassium, antioxidant and fiber. Then, they showed lower values of the relation Na/K. All these facts are correlated with more ‘healthy’ products especially to that people with hypertension and other coronary dysfunctions.

Keywords: healthy foods, low salt, seasoning, wine pomace

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