Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20327

Search results for: data protection

20327 Strengthening Legal Protection of Personal Data through Technical Protection Regulation in Line with Human Rights

Authors: Tomy Prihananto, Damar Apri Sudarmadi

Abstract:

Indonesia recognizes the right to privacy as a human right. Indonesia provides legal protection against data management activities because the protection of personal data is a part of human rights. This paper aims to describe the arrangement of data management and data management in Indonesia. This paper is a descriptive research with qualitative approach and collecting data from literature study. Results of this paper are comprehensive arrangement of data that have been set up as a technical requirement of data protection by encryption methods. Arrangements on encryption and protection of personal data are mutually reinforcing arrangements in the protection of personal data. Indonesia has two important and immediately enacted laws that provide protection for the privacy of information that is part of human rights.

Keywords: Indonesia, protection, personal data, privacy, human rights, encryption

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20326 Democracy Bytes: Interrogating the Exploitation of Data Democracy by Radical Terrorist Organizations

Authors: Nirmala Gopal, Sheetal Bhoola, Audecious Mugwagwa

Abstract:

This paper discusses the continued infringement and exploitation of data by non-state actors for destructive purposes, emphasizing radical terrorist organizations. It will discuss how terrorist organizations access and use data to foster their nefarious agendas. It further examines how cybersecurity, designed as a tool to curb data exploitation, is ineffective in raising global citizens' concerns about how their data can be kept safe and used for its acquired purpose. The study interrogates several policies and data protection instruments, such as the Data Protection Act, Cyber Security Policies, Protection of Personal Information(PPI) and General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR), to understand data use and storage in democratic states. The study outcomes point to the fact that international cybersecurity and cybercrime legislation, policies, and conventions have not curbed violations of data access and use by radical terrorist groups. The study recommends ways to enhance cybersecurity and reduce cyber risks using democratic principles.

Keywords: cybersecurity, data exploitation, terrorist organizations, data democracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
20325 Jurisdictional Issues between Competition Law and Data Protection Law in Protection of Privacy of Online Consumers

Authors: Pankhudi Khandelwal

Abstract:

The revenue models of digital giants such as Facebook and Google, use targeted advertising for revenues. Such a model requires huge amounts of consumer data. While the data protection law deals with the protection of personal data, however, this data is acquired by the companies on the basis of consent, performance of a contract, or legitimate interests. This paper analyses the role that competition law can play in evading these loopholes for the protection of data and privacy of online consumers. Digital markets have certain distinctive features such as network effects and feedback loop, which gives incumbents of these markets a first-mover advantage. This creates a situation where the winner takes it all, thus creating entry barriers and concentration in the market. It has been also seen that this dominant position is then used by the undertakings for leveraging in other markets. This can be harmful to the consumers in form of less privacy, less choice, and stifling innovation, as seen in the cases of Facebook Cambridge Analytica, Google Shopping, and Google Android. Therefore, the article aims to provide a legal framework wherein the data protection law and competition law can come together to provide a balance in regulating digital markets. The issue has become more relevant in light of the Facebook decision by German competition authority, where it was held that Facebook had abused its dominant position by not complying with data protection rules, which constituted an exploitative practice. The paper looks into the jurisdictional boundaries that the data protection and competition authorities can work from and suggests ex ante regulation through data protection law and ex post regulation through competition law. It further suggests a change in the consumer welfare standard where harm to privacy should be considered as an indicator of low quality.

Keywords: data protection, dominance, ex ante regulation, ex post regulation

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20324 The Feminism of Data Privacy and Protection in Africa

Authors: Olayinka Adeniyi, Melissa Omino

Abstract:

The field of data privacy and data protection in Africa is still an evolving area, with many African countries yet to enact legislation on the subject. While African Governments are bringing their legislation to speed in this field, how patriarchy pervades every sector of African thought and manifests in society needs to be considered. Moreover, the laws enacted ought to be inclusive, especially towards women. This, in a nutshell, is the essence of data feminism. Data feminism is a new way of thinking about data science and data ethics that is informed by the ideas of intersectional feminism. Feminising data privacy and protection will involve thinking women, considering women in the issues of data privacy and protection, particularly in legislation, as is the case in this paper. The line of thought of women inclusion is not uncommon when even international and regional human rights specific for women only came long after the general human rights. The consideration is that these should have been inserted or rather included in the original general instruments in the first instance. Since legislation on data privacy is coming in this century, having seen the rights and shortcomings of earlier instruments, then the cue should be taken to ensure inclusive wholistic legislation for data privacy and protection in the first instance. Data feminism is arguably an area that has been scantily researched, albeit a needful one. With the spate of increase in the violence against women spiraling in the cyber world, compounding the issue of COVID-19 and the needful response of governments, and the effect of these on women and their rights, fast forward, the research on the feminism of data privacy and protection in Africa becomes inevitable. This paper seeks to answer the questions, what is data feminism in the African context, why is it important in the issue of data privacy and protection legislation; what are the laws, if any, existing on data privacy and protection in Africa, are they women inclusive, if not, why; what are the measures put in place for the privacy and protection of women in Africa, and how can this be made possible. The paper aims to investigate the issue of data privacy and protection in Africa, the legal framework, and the protection or provision that it has for women if any. It further aims to research the importance and necessity of feminizing data privacy and protection, the effect of lack of it, the challenges or bottlenecks in attaining this feat and the possibilities of accessing data privacy and protection for African women. The paper also researches the emerging practices of data privacy and protection of women in other jurisprudences. It approaches the research through the methodology of review of papers, analysis of laws, and reports. It seeks to contribute to the existing literature in the field and is explorative in its suggestion. It suggests a draft of some clauses to make any data privacy and protection legislation women inclusive. It would be useful for policymaking, academic, and public enlightenment.

Keywords: feminism, women, law, data, Africa

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20323 The Right to Data Portability and Its Influence on the Development of Digital Services

Authors: Roman Bieda

Abstract:

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will come into force on 25 May 2018 which will create a new legal framework for the protection of personal data in the European Union. Article 20 of GDPR introduces a right to data portability. This right allows for data subjects to receive the personal data which they have provided to a data controller, in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format, and to transmit this data to another data controller. The right to data portability, by facilitating transferring personal data between IT environments (e.g.: applications), will also facilitate changing the provider of services (e.g. changing a bank or a cloud computing service provider). Therefore, it will contribute to the development of competition and the digital market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the right to data portability and its influence on the development of new digital services.

Keywords: data portability, digital market, GDPR, personal data

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20322 The Impact of the General Data Protection Regulation on Human Resources Management in Schools

Authors: Alexandra Aslanidou

Abstract:

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), concerning the protection of natural persons within the European Union with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, became applicable in the European Union (EU) on 25 May 2018 and transformed the way personal data were being treated under the Data Protection Directive (DPD) regime, generating sweeping organizational changes to both public sector and business. A social practice that is considerably influenced in the way of its day-to-day operations is Human Resource (HR) management, for which the importance of GDPR cannot be underestimated. That is because HR processes personal data coming in all shapes and sizes from many different systems and sources. The significance of the proper functioning of an HR department, specifically in human-centered, service-oriented environments such as the education field, is decisive due to the fact that HR operations in schools, conducted effectively, determine the quality of the provided services and consequently have a considerable impact on the success of the educational system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the decisive role that GDPR plays in HR departments that operate in schools and in order to practically evaluate the aftermath of the Regulation during the first months of its applicability; a comparative use cases analysis in five highly dynamic schools, across three EU Member States, was attempted.

Keywords: general data protection regulation, human resource management, educational system

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20321 Challenges in Providing Protection to the Conflict-Affected Refugee Children in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis of the 1951 Refugee Convention

Authors: Faiz Bakhsh, Tahira Yasmeen

Abstract:

The Afghan refugee children in Pakistan are considered as the most vulnerable persons in danger of being abused and treated badly as compared to the minimum criteria of the protection of refugee children under 1951 refugee convention. This paper explores the impact of the 1951 refugee convention on the protection of refugee children, affected by the armed conflict in Afghanistan, residing in refugee camps in Pakistan. Despite, protection available under Refugee Convention, there exist millions of refugees in the world, including a huge portion of women and children, that remain unprotected, and their protection remains a challenging task for the world community. This study investigates the status and number of refugees in Pakistan, especially children; protection and assistance of refugees under Refugee Convention; protection of the rights of refugee children in Pakistan; and implementation of the rules of Refugee Convention relating refugee children in Pakistan and measures for the protection of refugee children in Pakistan. This socio-legal study utilizes a qualitative research approach and applies mixed methods of data collection. The primary data is collected through the interpretation of the legal framework available for the protection of refugees as well as domestic laws of Pakistan. The secondary data is collected through previous studies available on the same topic. The result of this study indicates that lack of proper implementation of the rules, of the Refugee Convention, relating protection of refugee children cause sufferings to refugee children including the provision of basic health, nutrition, family life, education and protection from child abuse. Pakistan needs a comprehensive domestic legal framework for the protection of refugees, especially refugee children. Moreover, the government of Pakistan with the help of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) must prioritize the protection of Afghan refugee children as per standard criteria provided by the refugee convention 1951.

Keywords: refugee children, refugee convention, armed conflict, Pakistan

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20320 Regulating Issues concerning Data Protection in Cloud Computing: Developing a Saudi Approach

Authors: Jumana Majdi Qutub

Abstract:

Rationale: Cloud computing has rapidly developed the past few years. Because of the importance of providing protection for personal data used in cloud computing, the role of data protection in promoting trust and confidence in users’ data has become an important policy priority. This research examines key regulatory challenges rose by the growing use and importance of cloud computing with focusing on protection of individuals personal data. Methodology: Describing and analyzing governance challenges facing policymakers and industry in Saudi Arabia, with an account of anticipated governance responses. The aim of the research is to describe and define the regulatory challenges on cloud computing for policy making in Saudi Arabia and comparing it with potential complied issues rose in respect of transported data to EU member state. In addition, it discusses information privacy issues. Finally, the research proposes policy recommendation that would resolve concerns surrounds the privacy and effectiveness of clouds computing frameworks for data protection. Results: There are still no clear regulation in Saudi Arabia specialized in legalizing cloud computing and specialty regulations in transferring data internationally and locally. Decision makers need to review the applicable law in Saudi Arabia that protect information in cloud computing. This should be from an international and a local view in order to identify all requirements surrounding this area. It is important to educate cloud computing users about their information value and rights before putting it in the cloud to avoid further legal complications, such as making an educational program to prevent giving personal information to a bank employee. Therefore, with many kinds of cloud computing services, it is important to have it covered by the law in all aspects.

Keywords: cloud computing, cyber crime, data protection, privacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
20319 Analyzing the Risk Based Approach in General Data Protection Regulation: Basic Challenges Connected with Adapting the Regulation

Authors: Natalia Kalinowska

Abstract:

The adoption of the General Data Protection Regulation, (GDPR) finished the four-year work of the European Commission in this area in the European Union. Considering far-reaching changes, which will be applied by GDPR, the European legislator envisaged two-year transitional period. Member states and companies have to prepare for a new regulation until 25 of May 2018. The idea, which becomes a new look at an attitude to data protection in the European Union is risk-based approach. So far, as a result of implementation of Directive 95/46/WE, in many European countries (including Poland) there have been adopted very particular regulations, specifying technical and organisational security measures e.g. Polish implementing rules indicate even how long password should be. According to the new approach from May 2018, controllers and processors will be obliged to apply security measures adequate to level of risk associated with specific data processing. The risk in GDPR should be interpreted as the likelihood of a breach of the rights and freedoms of the data subject. According to Recital 76, the likelihood and severity of the risk to the rights and freedoms of the data subject should be determined by reference to the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing. GDPR does not indicate security measures which should be applied – in recitals there are only examples such as anonymization or encryption. It depends on a controller’s decision what type of security measures controller considered as sufficient and he will be responsible if these measures are not sufficient or if his identification of risk level is incorrect. Data protection regulation indicates few levels of risk. Recital 76 indicates risk and high risk, but some lawyers think, that there is one more category – low risk/now risk. Low risk/now risk data processing is a situation when it is unlikely to result in a risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons. GDPR mentions types of data processing when a controller does not have to evaluate level of risk because it has been classified as „high risk” processing e.g. processing on a large scale of special categories of data, processing with using new technologies. The methodology will include analysis of legal regulations e.g. GDPR, the Polish Act on the Protection of personal data. Moreover: ICO Guidelines and articles concerning risk based approach in GDPR. The main conclusion is that an appropriate risk assessment is a key to keeping data safe and avoiding financial penalties. On the one hand, this approach seems to be more equitable, not only for controllers or processors but also for data subjects, but on the other hand, it increases controllers’ uncertainties in the assessment which could have a direct impact on incorrect data protection and potential responsibility for infringement of regulation.

Keywords: general data protection regulation, personal data protection, privacy protection, risk based approach

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20318 A Biometric Template Security Approach to Fingerprints Based on Polynomial Transformations

Authors: Ramon Santana

Abstract:

The use of biometric identifiers in the field of information security, access control to resources, authentication in ATMs and banking among others, are of great concern because of the safety of biometric data. In the general architecture of a biometric system have been detected eight vulnerabilities, six of them allow obtaining minutiae template in plain text. The main consequence of obtaining minutia templates is the loss of biometric identifier for life. To mitigate these vulnerabilities several models to protect minutiae templates have been proposed. Several vulnerabilities in the cryptographic security of these models allow to obtain biometric data in plain text. In order to increase the cryptographic security and ease of reversibility, a minutiae templates protection model is proposed. The model aims to make the cryptographic protection and facilitate the reversibility of data using two levels of security. The first level of security is the data transformation level. In this level generates invariant data to rotation and translation, further transformation is irreversible. The second level of security is the evaluation level, where the encryption key is generated and data is evaluated using a defined evaluation function. The model is aimed at mitigating known vulnerabilities of the proposed models, basing its security on the impossibility of the polynomial reconstruction.

Keywords: fingerprint, template protection, bio-cryptography, minutiae protection

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20317 Analysis of Big Data

Authors: Sandeep Sharma, Sarabjit Singh

Abstract:

As per the user demand and growth trends of large free data the storage solutions are now becoming more challenge-able to protect, store and to retrieve data. The days are not so far when the storage companies and organizations are start saying 'no' to store our valuable data or they will start charging a huge amount for its storage and protection. On the other hand as per the environmental conditions it becomes challenge-able to maintain and establish new data warehouses and data centers to protect global warming threats. A challenge of small data is over now, the challenges are big that how to manage the exponential growth of data. In this paper we have analyzed the growth trend of big data and its future implications. We have also focused on the impact of the unstructured data on various concerns and we have also suggested some possible remedies to streamline big data.

Keywords: big data, unstructured data, volume, variety, velocity

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20316 Regulating User Experience Design, in the European Union, as a Way to Narrow Down the Gap Between Consumers’ Protection and Algorithms Employment

Authors: Prisecaru Diana-Sorina

Abstract:

The paper will show that, while the EU legislator tackled a series of UX patterns used in e-commerce to induce the consumers take actions that they would not normally undertake, it leaves out many other aspects related to misuse or poor UX design that adversely affect EU consumers. Further, the paper proposes a reevaluation of the regulatory addressability of the issue and hand and focuses on explaining why a joint strategy, based on the interplay between provisions aiming consumer protection and personal data protection is the key approach to this matter.

Keywords: algorithms, consumer protection, European Union, user experience design

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20315 Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Energy for Cathodic Protection of Oil and Gas Buried Pipelines in Southwestern of Iran

Authors: M. Goodarzi, M. Mohammadi, A. Gharib

Abstract:

Solar energy is a renewable energy which has attracted special attention in many countries. Solar cathodic protectionsystems harness the sun’senergy to protect underground pipelinesand tanks from galvanic corrosion. The object of this study is to design and the economic analysis a cathodic protection system by impressed current supplied with solar energy panels applied to underground pipelines. In the present study, the technical and economic analysis of using solar energy for cathodic protection system in southwestern of Iran (Khuzestan province) is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The economic analyses were done using computer code to investigate the feasibility analysis from the using of various energy sources in order to cathodic protection system. The overall research methodology is divided into four components: Data collection, design of elements, techno economical evaluation, and output analysis. According to the results, solar renewable energy systems can supply adequate power for cathodic protection system purposes.

Keywords: renewable energy, solar energy, solar cathodic protection station, lifecycle cost method

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20314 Design Considerations on Cathodic Protection for X65 Steel Tank Containing Fresh Water

Authors: A. M. Al-Sabagh, M. A. Deyab, M. N. Kroush

Abstract:

The present study focused on critical and detailed approach for using aluminum electrode as impressed current anode for cathodic protection of X65 steel tank containing fresh water. The impressed current design calculation showed 0.6 A of current demand and voltage of 0.33 V required to adequately protect the X65 steel tank with internal surface area of 421 m². We used here one transformer rectifier with current and voltage output of 25 A and 25 V, respectively. The data showed that the potentials ranged from -0.474 to -0.509 V (vs. Cu/CuSO₄), prior to the application of cathodic protection. When the potential was measured 1 h after the application of cathodic protection, the potential values showed considerable shift within protection range (-0.950 V vs. Cu/CuSO₄). The results confirmed that aluminum anode can be used in freshwater applications with high efficiency (current capacity) and low consumption rate.

Keywords: cathodic protection, aluminum, steel, fresh water

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
20313 Data Monetisation by E-commerce Companies: A Need for a Regulatory Framework in India

Authors: Anushtha Saxena

Abstract:

This paper examines the process of data monetisation bye-commerce companies operating in India. Data monetisation is collecting, storing, and analysing consumers’ data to use further the data that is generated for profits, revenue, etc. Data monetisation enables e-commerce companies to get better businesses opportunities, innovative products and services, a competitive edge over others to the consumers, and generate millions of revenues. This paper analyses the issues and challenges that are faced due to the process of data monetisation. Some of the issues highlighted in the paper pertain to the right to privacy, protection of data of e-commerce consumers. At the same time, data monetisation cannot be prohibited, but it can be regulated and monitored by stringent laws and regulations. The right to privacy isa fundamental right guaranteed to the citizens of India through Article 21 of The Constitution of India. The Supreme Court of India recognized the Right to Privacy as a fundamental right in the landmark judgment of Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd) and Another v. Union of India . This paper highlights the legal issue of how e-commerce businesses violate individuals’ right to privacy by using the data collected, stored by them for economic gains and monetisation and protection of data. The researcher has mainly focused on e-commerce companies like online shopping websitesto analyse the legal issue of data monetisation. In the Internet of Things and the digital age, people have shifted to online shopping as it is convenient, easy, flexible, comfortable, time-consuming, etc. But at the same time, the e-commerce companies store the data of their consumers and use it by selling to the third party or generating more data from the data stored with them. This violatesindividuals’ right to privacy because the consumers do not know anything while giving their data online. Many times, data is collected without the consent of individuals also. Data can be structured, unstructured, etc., that is used by analytics to monetise. The Indian legislation like The Information Technology Act, 2000, etc., does not effectively protect the e-consumers concerning their data and how it is used by e-commerce businesses to monetise and generate revenues from that data. The paper also examines the draft Data Protection Bill, 2021, pending in the Parliament of India, and how this Bill can make a huge impact on data monetisation. This paper also aims to study the European Union General Data Protection Regulation and how this legislation can be helpful in the Indian scenarioconcerning e-commerce businesses with respect to data monetisation.

Keywords: data monetization, e-commerce companies, regulatory framework, GDPR

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20312 Reviewing Privacy Preserving Distributed Data Mining

Authors: Sajjad Baghernezhad, Saeideh Baghernezhad

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Nowadays considering human involved in increasing data development some methods such as data mining to extract science are unavoidable. One of the discussions of data mining is inherent distribution of the data usually the bases creating or receiving such data belong to corporate or non-corporate persons and do not give their information freely to others. Yet there is no guarantee to enable someone to mine special data without entering in the owner’s privacy. Sending data and then gathering them by each vertical or horizontal software depends on the type of their preserving type and also executed to improve data privacy. In this study it was attempted to compare comprehensively preserving data methods; also general methods such as random data, coding and strong and weak points of each one are examined.

Keywords: data mining, distributed data mining, privacy protection, privacy preserving

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20311 Need for Privacy in the Technological Era: An Analysis in the Indian Perspective

Authors: Amrashaa Singh

Abstract:

In the digital age and the large cyberspace, Data Protection and Privacy have become major issues in this technological era. There was a time when social media and online shopping websites were treated as a blessing for the people. But now the tables have turned, and the people have started to look at them with suspicion. They are getting aware of the privacy implications, and they do not feel as safe as they used to initially. When Edward Snowden informed the world about the snooping United States Security Agencies had been doing, that is when the picture became clear for the people. After the Cambridge Analytica case where the data of Facebook users were stored without their consent, the doubts arose in the minds of people about how safe they actually are. In India, the case of spyware Pegasus also raised a lot of concerns. It was used to snoop on a lot of human right activists and lawyers and the company which invented the spyware claims that it only sells it to the government. The paper will be dealing with the privacy concerns in the Indian perspective with an analytical methodology. The Supreme Court here had recently declared a right to privacy a Fundamental Right under Article 21 of the Constitution of India. Further, the Government is also working on the Data Protection Bill. The point to note is that India is still a developing country, and with the bill, the government aims at data localization. But there are doubts in the minds of many people that the Government would actually be snooping on the data of the individuals. It looks more like an attempt to curb dissenters ‘lawfully’. The focus of the paper would be on these issues in India in light of the European Union (EU) General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The Indian Data Protection Bill is also said to be loosely based on EU GDPR. But how helpful would these laws actually be is another concern since the economic and social conditions in both countries are very different? The paper aims at discussing these concerns, how good or bad is the intention of the government behind the bill, and how the nations can act together and draft common regulations so that there is some uniformity in the laws and their application.

Keywords: Article 21, data protection, dissent, fundamental right, India, privacy

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20310 Measuring Flood Risk concerning with the Flood Protection Embankment in Big Flooding Events of Dhaka Metropolitan Zone

Authors: Marju Ben Sayed, Shigeko Haruyama

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Among all kinds of natural disaster, the flood is a common feature in rapidly urbanizing Dhaka city. In this research, assessment of flood risk of Dhaka metropolitan area has been investigated by using an integrated approach of GIS, remote sensing and socio-economic data. The purpose of the study is to measure the flooding risk concerning with the flood protection embankment in big flooding events (1988, 1998 and 2004) and urbanization of Dhaka metropolitan zone. In this research, we considered the Dhaka city into two parts; East Dhaka (outside the flood protection embankment) and West Dhaka (inside the flood protection embankment). Using statistical data, we explored the socio-economic status of the study area population by comparing the density of population, land price and income level. We have drawn the cross section profile of the flood protection embankment into three different points for realizing the flooding risk in the study area, especially in the big flooding year (1988, 1998 and 2004). According to the physical condition of the study area, the land use/land cover map has been classified into five classes. Comparing with each land cover unit, historical weather station data and the socio-economic data, the flooding risk has been evaluated. Moreover, we compared between DEM data and each land cover units to find out the relationship with flood. It is expected that, this study could contribute to effective flood forecasting, relief and emergency management for a future flood event in Dhaka city.

Keywords: land use, land cover change, socio-economic, Dhaka city, GIS, flood

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20309 A Comparative and Doctrinal Analysis towards the Investigation of a Right to Be Forgotten in Hong Kong

Authors: Jojo Y. C. Mo

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Memories are good. They remind us of people, places and experiences that we cherish. But memories cannot be changed and there may well be memories that we do not want to remember. This is particularly true in relation to information which causes us embarrassment and humiliation or simply because it is private – we all want to erase or delete such information. This desire to delete is recently recognised by the Court of Justice of the European Union in the 2014 case of Google Spain SL, Google Inc. v Agencia Española de Protección de Datos, Mario Costeja González in which the court ordered Google to remove links to some information about the complainant which he wished to be removed. This so-called ‘right to be forgotten’ received serious attention and significantly, the European Council and the European Parliament enacted the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to provide a more structured and normative framework for implementation of right to be forgotten across the EU. This development in data protection laws will, undoubtedly, have significant impact on companies and co-operations not just within the EU but outside as well. Hong Kong, being one of the world’s leading financial and commercial center as well as one of the first jurisdictions in Asia to implement a comprehensive piece of data protection legislation, is therefore a jurisdiction that is worth looking into. This article/project aims to investigate the following: a) whether there is a right to be forgotten under the existing Hong Kong data protection legislation b) if not, whether such a provision is necessary and why. This article utilises a comparative methodology based on a study of primary and secondary resources, including scholarly articles, government and law commission reports and working papers and relevant international treaties, constitutional documents, case law and legislation. The author will primarily engage literature and case-law review as well as comparative and doctrinal analyses. The completion of this article will provide privacy researchers with more concrete principles and data to conduct further research on privacy and data protection in Hong Kong and internationally and will provide a basis for policy makers in assessing the rationale and need for a right to be forgotten in Hong Kong.

Keywords: privacy, right to be forgotten, data protection, Hong Kong

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20308 Personal Data Protection: A Legal Framework for Health Law in Turkey

Authors: Veli Durmus, Mert Uydaci

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Every patient who needs to get a medical treatment should share health-related personal data with healthcare providers. Therefore, personal health data plays an important role to make health decisions and identify health threats during every encounter between a patient and caregivers. In other words, health data can be defined as privacy and sensitive information which is protected by various health laws and regulations. In many cases, the data are an outcome of the confidential relationship between patients and their healthcare providers. Globally, almost all nations have own laws, regulations or rules in order to protect personal data. There is a variety of instruments that allow authorities to use the health data or to set the barriers data sharing across international borders. For instance, Directive 95/46/EC of the European Union (EU) (also known as EU Data Protection Directive) establishes harmonized rules in European borders. In addition, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will set further common principles in 2018. Because of close policy relationship with EU, this study provides not only information on regulations, directives but also how they play a role during the legislative process in Turkey. Even if the decision is controversial, the Board has recently stated that private or public healthcare institutions are responsible for the patient call system, for doctors to call people waiting outside a consultation room, to prevent unlawful processing of personal data and unlawful access to personal data during the treatment. In Turkey, vast majority private and public health organizations provide a service that ensures personal data (i.e. patient’s name and ID number) to call the patient. According to the Board’s decision, hospital or other healthcare institutions are obliged to take all necessary administrative precautions and provide technical support to protect patient privacy. However, this application does not effectively and efficiently performing in most health services. For this reason, it is important to draw a legal framework of personal health data by stating what is the main purpose of this regulation and how to deal with complicated issues on personal health data in Turkey. The research is descriptive on data protection law for health care setting in Turkey. Primary as well as secondary data has been used for the study. The primary data includes the information collected under current national and international regulations or law. Secondary data include publications, books, journals, empirical legal studies. Consequently, privacy and data protection regimes in health law show there are some obligations, principles and procedures which shall be binding upon natural or legal persons who process health-related personal data. A comparative approach presents there are significant differences in some EU member states due to different legal competencies, policies, and cultural factors. This selected study provides theoretical and practitioner implications by highlighting the need to illustrate the relationship between privacy and confidentiality in Personal Data Protection in Health Law. Furthermore, this paper would help to define the legal framework for the health law case studies on data protection and privacy.

Keywords: data protection, personal data, privacy, healthcare, health law

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20307 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: electro-static discharge (ESD), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), holding voltage, protection circuit

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20306 Legal Issues of Collecting and Processing Big Health Data in the Light of European Regulation 679/2016

Authors: Ioannis Iglezakis, Theodoros D. Trokanas, Panagiota Kiortsi

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore major legal issues arising from the collection and processing of Health Big Data in the light of the new European secondary legislation for the protection of personal data of natural persons, placing emphasis on the General Data Protection Regulation 679/2016. Whether Big Health Data can be characterised as ‘personal data’ or not is really the crux of the matter. The legal ambiguity is compounded by the fact that, even though the processing of Big Health Data is premised on the de-identification of the data subject, the possibility of a combination of Big Health Data with other data circulating freely on the web or from other data files cannot be excluded. Another key point is that the application of some provisions of GPDR to Big Health Data may both absolve the data controller of his legal obligations and deprive the data subject of his rights (e.g., the right to be informed), ultimately undermining the fundamental right to the protection of personal data of natural persons. Moreover, data subject’s rights (e.g., the right not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing) are heavily impacted by the use of AI, algorithms, and technologies that reclaim health data for further use, resulting in sometimes ambiguous results that have a substantial impact on individuals. On the other hand, as the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed, Big Data analytics can offer crucial sources of information. In this respect, this paper identifies and systematises the legal provisions concerned, offering interpretative solutions that tackle dangers concerning data subject’s rights while embracing the opportunities that Big Health Data has to offer. In addition, particular attention is attached to the scope of ‘consent’ as a legal basis in the collection and processing of Big Health Data, as the application of data analytics in Big Health Data signals the construction of new data and subject’s profiles. Finally, the paper addresses the knotty problem of role assignment (i.e., distinguishing between controller and processor/joint controllers and joint processors) in an era of extensive Big Health data sharing. The findings are the fruit of a current research project conducted by a three-member research team at the Faculty of Law of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and funded by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs.

Keywords: big health data, data subject rights, GDPR, pandemic

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
20305 Analyzing Current Transformers Saturation Characteristics for Different Connected Burden Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: D. Subedi, S. Pradhan

Abstract:

Current transformers are an integral part of power system because it provides a proportional safe amount of current for protection and measurement applications. However when the power system experiences an abnormal situation leading to huge current flow, then this huge current is proportionally injected to the protection and metering circuit. Since the protection and metering equipment’s are designed to withstand only certain amount of current with respect to time, these high currents pose a risk to man and equipment. Therefore during such instances, the CT saturation characteristics have a huge influence on the safety of both man and equipment and also on the reliability of the protection and metering system. This paper shows the effect of burden on the Accuracy Limiting factor/ Instrument security factor of current transformers and also the change in saturation characteristics of the CT’s. The response of the CT to varying levels of overcurrent at different connected burden will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer saturation characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy limiting factor, burden, current transformer, instrument security factor, saturation characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
20304 Efficient Backup Protection for Hybrid WDM/TDM GPON System

Authors: Elmahdi Mohammadine, Ahouzi Esmail, Najid Abdellah

Abstract:

This contribution aims to present a new protected hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using Wavelength Selective Switches and Optical Line Protection devices. The objective from using these technologies is to improve flexibility and enhance the protection of GPON networks.

Keywords: Wavlenght Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON), Time Division Multiplexed PON (TDM-PON), architecture, Protection, Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS), Optical Line Protection (OLP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
20303 The Relationship Between Policy Design and Poverty Reduction: The Case of Ghana

Authors: Joseph Kwame Sarfo-Adu

Abstract:

Social protection programs have been rolled out by successive governments in the quest of bridging the inequality gap in Ghana. Despite notable positive impacts of these programs across the country, there still remains worrying experience of the exclusion of the poor and vulnerable especially in rural Ghana Notwithstanding the rhetoric of participation within the discussion of social protection programs, less attention has been given to the design of these programs. In view of this, the study seeks to address how social protection programs are designed to address the needs of the poor. This study focused on five selected social protection programs in Ghana because they are programs with nationwide coverage. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied to analyze our data with the use of the Nvivo 12 version. We found out that there is a strong link between policy design and poverty alleviation. Our findings revealed that a well-designed program can significantly alleviate poverty, a poorly designed program can create more damage.

Keywords: social protection, poverty alleviation, policy design, effective outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
20302 Genetic Data of Deceased People: Solving the Gordian Knot

Authors: Inigo de Miguel Beriain

Abstract:

Genetic data of deceased persons are of great interest for both biomedical research and clinical use. This is due to several reasons. On the one hand, many of our diseases have a genetic component; on the other hand, we share genes with a good part of our biological family. Therefore, it would be possible to improve our response considerably to these pathologies if we could use these data. Unfortunately, at the present moment, the status of data on the deceased is far from being satisfactorily resolved by the EU data protection regulation. Indeed, the General Data Protection Regulation has explicitly excluded these data from the category of personal data. This decision has given rise to a fragmented legal framework on this issue. Consequently, each EU member state offers very different solutions. For instance, Denmark considers the data as personal data of the deceased person for a set period of time while some others, such as Spain, do not consider this data as such, but have introduced some specifically focused regulations on this type of data and their access by relatives. This is an extremely dysfunctional scenario from multiple angles, not least of which is scientific cooperation at the EU level. This contribution attempts to outline a solution to this dilemma through an alternative proposal. Its main hypothesis is that, in reality, health data are, in a sense, a rara avis within data in general because they do not refer to one person but to several. Hence, it is possible to think that all of them can be considered data subjects (although not all of them can exercise the corresponding rights in the same way). When the person from whom the data were obtained dies, the data remain as personal data of his or her biological relatives. Hence, the general regime provided for in the GDPR may apply to them. As these are personal data, we could go back to thinking in terms of a general prohibition of data processing, with the exceptions provided for in Article 9.2 and on the legal bases included in Article 6. This may be complicated in practice, given that, since we are dealing with data that refer to several data subjects, it may be complex to refer to some of these bases, such as consent. Furthermore, there are theoretical arguments that may oppose this hypothesis. In this contribution, it is shown, however, that none of these objections is of sufficient substance to delegitimize the argument exposed. Therefore, the conclusion of this contribution is that we can indeed build a general framework on the processing of personal data of deceased persons in the context of the GDPR. This would constitute a considerable improvement over the current regulatory framework, although it is true that some clarifications will be necessary for its practical application.

Keywords: collective data conceptual issues, data from deceased people, genetic data protection issues, GDPR and deceased people

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
20301 Corrosion Protection of Steel 316 by Electrochemically Synthesized Conductive Poly (O-Toluidine)

Authors: H. Acar, M. Karakışla, L. Aksu, M. Saçak

Abstract:

The corrosion protection effect of poly(o-toluidine) (POT) coated on steel 316 electrode was determined in corrosive media such as NaCl, H2SO4 and HCl with the use of Tafel curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The POT coatings were prepared with cyclic voltammetry technique in aqueous solution of oxalic acid and they were characterized by FTIR and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The Tafel curves revealed that the POT coating provides the most effective protection compared to the bare steel 316 electrode in NaCl as corrosive medium. The results were evaluated based upon data decrease of corrosion current and shift to positive potentials with the increase of number of scans. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were found to support Tafel data of POT coating.

Keywords: corrosion, impedance spectroscopy, steel 316, poly(o-toluidine)

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
20300 Privacy Protection Principles of Omnichannel Approach

Authors: Renata Mekovec, Dijana Peras, Ruben Picek

Abstract:

The advent of the Internet, mobile devices and social media is revolutionizing the experience of retail customers by linking multiple sources through various channels. Omnichannel retailing is a retailing that combines multiple channels to allow customers to seamlessly leverage all the distribution information online and offline while shopping. Therefore, today data are an asset more critical than ever for all organizations. Nonetheless, because of its heterogeneity through platforms, developers are currently facing difficulties in dealing with personal data. Considering the possibilities of omnichannel communication, this paper presents channel categorization that could enhance the customer experience of omnichannel center called hyper center. The purpose of this paper is fundamentally to describe the connection between the omnichannel hyper center and the customer, with particular attention to privacy protection. The first phase was finding the most appropriate channels of communication for hyper center. Consequently, a selection of widely used communication channels has been identified and analyzed with regard to the effect requirements for optimizing user experience. The evaluation criteria are divided into 3 groups: general, user profile and channel options. For each criterion the weight of importance for omnichannel communication was defined. The most important thing was to consider how the hyper center can make user identification while respecting the privacy protection requirements. The study carried out also shows what customer experience across digital networks would look like, based on an omnichannel approach owing to privacy protection principles.

Keywords: personal data, privacy protection, omnichannel communication, retail

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
20299 Distance Protection Performance Analysis

Authors: Abdelsalam Omar

Abstract:

This paper presents simulation-based case study that indicate the need for accurate dynamic modeling of distance protection relay. In many cases, a static analysis based on current and voltage phasors may be sufficient to assess the performance of distance protection. There are several circumstances under which such a simplified study does not provide the depth of analysis necessary to obtain accurate results, however. This letter present study of the influences of magnetizing inrush and power swing on the performance of distance protection relay. One type of numerical distance protection relay has been investigated: 7SA511. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate the relay response when dynamic model of distance relay is utilized.

Keywords: distance protection, magnitizing inrush, power swing, dynamic model of protection relays, simulatio

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
20298 Applying Different Stenography Techniques in Cloud Computing Technology to Improve Cloud Data Privacy and Security Issues

Authors: Muhammad Muhammad Suleiman

Abstract:

Cloud Computing is a versatile concept that refers to a service that allows users to outsource their data without having to worry about local storage issues. However, the most pressing issues to be addressed are maintaining a secure and reliable data repository rather than relying on untrustworthy service providers. In this study, we look at how stenography approaches and collaboration with Digital Watermarking can greatly improve the system's effectiveness and data security when used for Cloud Computing. The main requirement of such frameworks, where data is transferred or exchanged between servers and users, is safe data management in cloud environments. Steganography is the cloud is among the most effective methods for safe communication. Steganography is a method of writing coded messages in such a way that only the sender and recipient can safely interpret and display the information hidden in the communication channel. This study presents a new text steganography method for hiding a loaded hidden English text file in a cover English text file to ensure data protection in cloud computing. Data protection, data hiding capability, and time were all improved using the proposed technique.

Keywords: cloud computing, steganography, information hiding, cloud storage, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 99