Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Khadeeja Munawar

14 Cognitive Behavior Therapy with a Migrant Pakistani in Malaysia: A Single Case Study of Conversion Disorder

Authors: Fahad R. Choudhry., Khadeeja Munawar

Abstract:

This clinical case presents a 24 years old, Muslim Pakistani girl with a history of conversion disorder. Her symptoms comprised fits, restlessness, numbness in legs, poor coordination and balance, burning during urination and retention. A cognitive-behavioral model was used for conceptualizing her problem and devising a management plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and culturally adapted coping statements. She took 13 therapy sessions and was presented with idiosyncratic case conceptualization. Psychoeducation, coping statements, extinction, verbal challenging, and behavioral activation techniques were practiced in a collaborative way for cognitive restructuring of the client. Focus of terminal sessions was on anger management. The client needed a couple of more sessions in order to help her manage her anger. However, the therapy was terminated on the part of the client after attainment of short term goals. The client reported to have a 75 % improvement in her overall condition and remained compliant throughout the therapy.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, conversion disorder, female, Muslim, Pakistani

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13 Investigating Role of Traumatic Events in a Pakistani Sample

Authors: Khadeeja Munawar, Shamsul Haque

Abstract:

The claim that traumatic events influence the recalled memories and mental health has received mixed empirical support. This study examines the memories of a sample drawn from Pakistan, a country that has witnessed many life-changing socio-political events, wars, and natural disasters in 72 years of its history. A sample of 210 senior citizens (Mage = 64.35, SD = 6.33) was recruited from Pakistan. The aim was to investigate if participants retrieved more memories related to past traumatic events using a word-cueing technique. Each participant reported ten memories to ten neutral cue words. The results revealed that past traumatic events were not adversely affecting the memories and mental health of participants. When memories were plotted with respect to the ages at which the events happened, a pronounced bump at 11-20 years of age was seen. Memories within as well as outside of the bump were mostly positive. The multilevel logistic regression modelling showed that the memories recalled were personally important and played a role in enhancing resilience. The findings revealed that despite facing an array of ethnic, religious, political, economic, and social conflicts, the participants were resilient, recalled predominantly positive memories, and had intact mental health. The findings have clinical implications in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The patients can be made aware of their negative emotions, troublesome/traumatic memories, and the distorted thinking patterns and their memories can be restructured. The findings can also be used to teach Memory Specificity Training (MEST) by psycho-educating the patients around changes in memory functioning and enhancing the recall of memories, which are more specific, vivid, and filled with sensory details.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, memories, mental health, resilience, trauma

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12 Examining Historically Defined Periods in Autobiographical Memories for Transitional Events

Authors: Khadeeja Munawar, Shamsul Haque

Abstract:

We examined the plausibility of transition theory suggesting that memories of transitional events, which give rise to a significant and persistent change in the fabric of daily life, are organized around the historically defined autobiographical periods (H-DAPs). 141 Pakistani older adults retrieved 10 autobiographical memories (AMs) each to 10 cue words. As the history of Pakistan is dominated by various political and nationwide transitional events, it was expected that the participants would recall memories with H-DAPs references. The content analysis revealed that 0.7% of memories had H-DAP references and 0.4% memories mentioned major transitional events such as War/Natural Disaster. There was a vivid reminiscence bump between 10 - 20 years of age in lifespan distribution of AMs. There were 67.9% social-focused AMs. Significantly more self-focused memories were reported by individuals who endorsed themselves as conservatives. Only a few H-DAPs were reported, although the history of Pakistan was dominated by numerous political, historical and nationwide transitional events. Memories within and outside of the bump period were mostly positive. The participants rarely used historical/political or nationwide significant events or periods to date the memories elicited. The intense and nationwide (as well as region-wise) significant historical/political events spawned across decades in the lives of participants of the present study but these events did not produce H-DAPs. The findings contradicted the previous studies on H-DAPs and transition theory. The dominance of social-focused AMs in the present study is in line with the past studies comparing the memories of collectivist and individualist cultures (i.e., European Americans vs. Asian, African and Latin-American cultures). The past empirical evidence shows that conservative values and beliefs are adopted as a coping strategy to feel secure in the face of danger when future is dominated with uncertainty and to connect to likeminded others. In the present study, conservative political ideology is somehow assisting the participants in living a stable life midst of their complex social worlds. The reminiscence bump, as well as dominance of positive memories within and outside the bump period, are in line with the narrative/identity account which states that the events and experiences during adolescence and early adulthood assimilate into a person’s lifelong narratives. Hence these events are used as identity markers and are more easily recalled later in life. Also, according to socioemotional theory and the positivity effect, the participants evaluated past events more positively as they grow up and the intensity of negative emotions decreased with time.

Keywords: autobiographical memory, historically defined autobiographical periods, narrative/identity account, Pakistan, reminiscence bump, SMS framework, transition theory

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11 Universal Screening for GBS and Efficacy of GBS Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis [IAP] an Al Rahba Experience

Authors: Ritu Nambiar, Shazia Tariq, Sumaira Jamil, Farida Munawar, Imelda Israell

Abstract:

GBS has emerged as a leading cause of neonatal infections worldwide and clinical trials have demonstrated that giving IAP was effective in reducing early onset GBS (EOGBS) disease of the newborn. There is no available data on the prevalence of GBS in the UAE, therefore, a retrospective chart analysis of our parturients were done to look at our prevalence. The aim of this study is: 1. To study the prevalence of GBS colonization of parturients at al Rahba Hospital following universal screening between 35-37 week. 2. To look at efficacy of GBS intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis by NICU admission for EO GBS disease of the newborn. 1) The prevalence of GBS in our patient population is 24.15%. 2) Incidence of EO GBS disease of the newborn was 0.6%.

Keywords: GBS Screening, universal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, parturients, newborn

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10 Impact of Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Success through Entrepreneurial Mindset, Professional Growth, and Innovation

Authors: Hummaira Qudsia Yousaf, Sidra Munawar

Abstract:

The study aims to examine in which way entrepreneurial education and attitude affect the entrepreneur’s success with the help of an entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, and innovation. The target population was the entrepreneurs of successful startups in Pakistan. Data was gathered through an e-questionnaire, and 230 responses were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Resultantly, entrepreneurial education is an essential component for the development of an entrepreneurial mindset. Also, an entrepreneurial attitude is responsible for the entrepreneurial mindset, which enhances professional growth. Moreover, the study highlighted that innovation is as necessary as mindset and education are for entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the findings confirmed that professional growth brings innovation to the success of entrepreneurs. This study provides proof of how entrepreneurial education and attitude influence pupils’ success in making entrepreneurs. This study extends the scope of education by incorporating predictors, such as professional growth, innovation, and entrepreneurial success. The study is unique due to the usage of innovative techniques for professional growth that ultimately bring career success.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial attitude, entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, entrepreneurial success, innovation

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9 Physicochemical Properties of Rambutan Seed Oil (RSO)

Authors: Nadya Hajar, Naemaa Mohamad, Nurul Azlin Tokiman, Nursabrina Munawar, Noor Hasvenda Abd Rahim

Abstract:

Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) fruit is abundantly present in Malaysia during their season of the year. Its short shelf life at ambient temperature has contributed to fruit wastage. Thus, the initiative of producing canned Rambutan is an innovation that makes Rambutan fruit available throughout the year. The canned Rambutan industry leaves large amount of Rambutan seed. This study focused on utilization of Rambutan seed as a valuable product which is Rambutan Seed Oil (RSO). The RSO was extracted using Soxhlet Extraction Method for 8 hours. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of RSO: melting point (°C), Refractive Index (RI), Total Carotene Content (TCC), water activity (Aw), acid value, peroxide value and saponification value. The results showed: 38.00±1.00 – 48.83±1.61°C melting point, 1.46±0.00 RI, 1.18±0.06mg/kg TCC, 0.4721±0.0176 Aw, 1.2162±0.1520mg KOH/g acid value, 9.6000±0.4000g/g peroxide value and 146.8040±18.0182mg KOH/g saponification value, respectively. According to the results, RSO showed high industrial potential as cocoa butter replacement in chocolates and cosmetics production.

Keywords: Cocoa butter replacer, Rambutan, Rambutan seed, Rambutan seed oil (RSO)

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8 Augmentation of Conventional Medicine for Post-concussion Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Accelerates Symptomatic Relief in Affected Individuals

Authors: Waqas Mehdi, Muhammad Umar Hassan, Khadeeja Mustafa

Abstract:

Objective: Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is a medical term used to point out the complicated combination of physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral signs and symptoms associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury(mTBI). This study was conducted to assess the improvement or debilitating effect of behavioral therapy in addition to the conventional treatment and to document these results for increasing the efficiency of treatment provided to such cases. Method: This was primarily an interventional prospective cohort study which was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Hospital Lahore. The sample size was 200 patients who were randomly distributed into two groups. The interventional group with Cognitive behavioral therapy was added in addition to the conventional treatment regimen and the Control group receiving only conventional treatment. Results were noted initially as well as after two weeks of the follow-up period. Data were subsequently analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and associations worked out. Result and conclusion: Among the patients that were given therapy sessions along with conventional medicine, there was a significant improvement in the symptoms and their overall quality of life. It is also important to notice that the time period taken for these effects to wane is cut down by psychiatric solutions too. So we can conclude that CBT sessions not only speed up recovery in patients with post-concussion syndrome they also aid in the efficiency improvement in functional capability and quality of life.

Keywords: neurosurgery, CBT, PCS, mTBI

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7 Endometrial Thickness Cut-Off for Evacuation of Retained Product of Conception

Authors: Nambiar Ritu, Ali Ban, Munawar Farida, Israell Imelda, T. Farouk Eman Rasheeda, Jangalgi Renuka, S. Boma Nellie

Abstract:

Aim: To define the ultrasonographic endometrial thickness (USG ET) cutoff for evacuation of retained pieces of conception (ERPC). Background: Studies of conservative management of 1st trimester miscarriage have questioned the need for post miscarriage curettage. Therapeutic decision making with transvaginal scan post miscarriage endometrial thickness in patients clinically thought to be incomplete miscarriage is often not clear. Method: Retrospective analysis of all 1ST trimester ERPC at Al Rahba Hospital from June 2012 to July 2013 was done. Total of 164 patients underwent ERPC. All cases were reviewed for pre-operative USG ET and post ERPC histopathological examination. TVS was done to evaluate the maximum ET of the uterine cavity along the long axis of the uterus and features of retained products was noted. All cases without preoperative USG ET measurement were excluded from the study, therefore only 62 out of 164 cases were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups: o Group A: have retained products within endometrial cavity. o Group B: endometrial thickness equal or more than 20 mm. o Group C: endometrial thickness equal or less than 19.9 mm. o Post ERPC product was sent for HPE and the results were compared. Transvaginal sonographic findings can be used as a deciding factor in the management of patients with 1st trimester miscarriage who need ERPC. Our proposed cutoff in clinically stable patients requiring ERPC is more than 20 mm.

Keywords: ERPC, histopathological examination, long axis of the uterus, USG ET

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6 Pharmacokinetics, Dosage Regimen and in Vitro Plasma Protein Binding of Danofloxacin following Intravenous Administration in Adult Buffaloes

Authors: Zahid Manzoor, Shaukat Hussain Munawar, Zahid Iqbal, Imran Ahmad Khan, Abdul Aziz, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics behavior and optimal dosage regimen of danofloxacin in 8 adult healthy buffaloes of local breed (Nili Ravi) following single intravenous administration at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Plasma drug concentrations at various time intervals were measured by HPLC method. In vitro plasma protein binding was determined employing the ultrafiltration technique. The distribution and elimination of danofloxacin was rapid, as indicated by the values (Mean±SD) of distribution half-life (t1/2α = 0.25±0.09 hours) and elimination half life (t1/2β = 3.26±0.43 hours), respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 1.14±0.12 L/kg, displaying its extensive distribution into various body fluids and tissues. The high value of AUC (9.80±2.14 µg/ml.hr) reflected the vast area of the body covered by drug concentration. The mean residence time was noted to be 4.78±0.52 hours. On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters, a suitable intravenous regimen for danofloxacin in adult buffaloes would be 6.5 mg/kg to be repeated after 12 hours intervals. The present study is the foremost pharmacokinetic study of danofloxacin in the local species which would provide the valueable contribution in the local manufacturing of danofloxacin in Pakistan in future.

Keywords: danofloxacin, pharmacokinetics, plasma protein binding, buffaloes, dosage regimen

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5 Effects of Rockdust as a Soil Stabilizing Agent on Poor Subgrade Soil

Authors: Muhammad Munawar

Abstract:

Pavement destruction is normally associated with the horizontal relocation of subgrade because of pavement engrossing water and inordinate avoidance and differential settlement of material underneath the pavement. The aim of the research is to study the effect of the additives (rockdust) on the stability and the increase of bearing capacity of selected soils in Mardan City. The physical, chemical and designing properties of soil were contemplated, and the soil was treated with added admixture rockdust with the goal of stabilizing the local soil. The stabilization or modification of soil is done by blending of rock dust to soils in the scope of 0 to 85% by the rate increment of 5%, 10%, and 15% individually. The following test was done for treated sample: Atterberg limits (liquid limit, plasticity index, plastic limit), standard compaction test, the California bearing test and the direct shear test. The results demonstrated that the gradation of soil is narrow from the particle size analysis. Plasticity index (P.I), Liquid limit (L.L) and plastic limit (P.L) were shown reduction with the addition of Rock dust. It was concluded that the maximum dry density is increasing with the addition of rockdust up to 10%, beyond 10%, it shows reduction in their content. It was discovered that the Cohesion C diminished, the angle of internal friction and the California bearing ratio (C.B.R) was improved with the addition of Rock dust. The investigation demonstrated that the best stabilizer for the contextual investigation (Toru road Mardan) is the rock dust and the ideal dosage is 10 %.

Keywords: rockdust, stabilization, modification, CBR

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4 Field Efficacy Evaluation and Synergistic Effect of Two Rodenticides Zinc Phosphide and Brodifacoum against Field Rats of the Pothwar Region, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, David Galbraith, Tariq Mahmood

Abstract:

Rodenticides are often included as part of an integrated pest management approach for managing rodent species since they are relatively quick and inexpensive to apply. The current field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of formulated baits of zinc phosphide (2%) and the second generation anticoagulant brodifacoum (0.005%) against field rats inhabiting a wheat-groundnut cropping system. Burrow baiting was initiated at the early flowering stages of the respective crops, and continued through three growth stages (tillering / peg formation, flowering, and maturity). Three treatments were done at equal time intervals, with the final baiting being about 2 weeks before harvest. Treatment efficacy of the trials was assessed through counts of active rodent burrows before and after treatments at the three growth stages of these crops. The results indicated variable degrees of reduction in burrow activities following the three bait applications. The reductions in rodent activity in wheat were: 88.8% (at tillering), 92%, (at flowering/grain formation), and 95.5% (at maturity). In groundnut, the rodent activities were reduced by 91.8%, 93.5% and 95.8% at sowing, peg formation, and maturity stages, respectively. The estimated mortality at all three growth stages of both wheat and groundnut ranged between 60-85%. We recommend that a field efficacy study should be conducted with zinc phosphide and brodifacoum bait formulations to determine their field performance in the reduction of agricultural damage by rodent pest species. It is a promising alternative approach for use of the most potent second-generation anticoagulant (brodifacoum) in resistance management, particularly with respect to reducing environmental risks and secondary poisoning.

Keywords: brodifacoum, burrow baiting, second-generation anticoagulant, synergistic effect

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3 Evaluating Habitat Manipulation as a Strategy for Rodent Control in Agricultural Ecosystems of Pothwar Region, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, Tariq Mahmood

Abstract:

Habitat manipulation is an important technique that can be used for controlling rodent damage in agricultural ecosystems. It involves intentionally manipulation of vegetation cover in adjacent habitats around the active burrows of rodents to reduce shelter, food availability and to increase predation pressure. The current study was conducted in the Pothwar Plateau during the respective non-crop period of wheat-groundnut (post-harvested and un-ploughed/non-crop fallow lands) with the aim to assess the impact of the reduction in vegetation height of adjacent habitats (field borders) on rodent’s richness and abundance. The study area was divided into two sites viz. treated and non-treated. At the treated sites, habitat manipulation was carried out by removing crop cache, and non-crop vegetation’s over 10 cm in height to a distance of approximately 20 m from the fields. The trapping sessions carried out at both treated and non-treated sites adjacent to wheat-groundnut fields were significantly different (F 2, 6 = 13.2, P = 0.001) from each other, which revealed that a maximum number of rodents were captured from non-treated sites. There was a significant difference in the overall abundance of rodents (P < 0.05) between crop stages and between treatments in both crops. The manipulation effect was significantly observed on damage to crops, and yield production resulted in the reduction of damage within the associated croplands (P < 0.05). The outcomes of this study indicated a significant reduction of rodent population at treated sites due to changes in vegetation height and cover which affect important components, i.e., food, shelter, movements and increased risk sensitivity in their feeding behavior; therefore, they were unable to reach levels where they cause significant crop damage. This method is recommended for being a cost-effective and easy application.

Keywords: agricultural ecosystems, crop damage, habitat manipulation, rodents, trapping

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2 Evaluation of Different Food Baits by Using Kill Traps for the Control of Lesser Bandicoot Rat (Bandicota bengalensis) in Field Crops of Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain, Tariq Mahmood

Abstract:

The lesser bandicoot rat (Bandicota bengalensis) is widely distributed and a serious agricultural pest in Pakistan. It has wide adaptation with rice-wheat-sugarcane cropping systems of Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and wheat-groundnut cropping system of Pothwar area, thus inflicting heavy losses to these crops. Comparative efficacies of four food baits (onion, guava, potato and peanut butter smeared bread/Chapatti) were tested in multiple feeding tests for kill trapping of this rat species in the Pothwar Plateau between October 2013 to July 2014 at the sowing, tilling, flowering and maturity stages of wheat, groundnut and millet crops. The results revealed that guava was the most preferred bait as compared to the rest of three, presumably due to particular taste and smell of the guava. The relative efficacies of all four tested baits guava also scoring the highest trapping success of 16.94 ± 1.42 percent, followed by peanut butter, potato, and onion with trapping successes of 10.52 ± 1.30, 7.82 ± 1.21 and 4.5 ± 1.10 percent, respectively. In various crop stages and season-wise the highest trapping success was achieved at maturity stages of the crops, presumably due to higher surface activity of the rat because of favorable climatic conditions, good shelter, and food abundance. Moreover, the maturity stage of wheat crop coincided with spring breeding season and maturity stages of millet and groundnut match with monsoon/autumn breeding peak of the lesser bandicoot rat in Pothwar area. The preferred order among four baits tested was guava > peanut butter > potato > onion. The study recommends that the farmers should periodically carry out rodent trapping at the beginning of each crop season and during non-breeding seasons of this rodent pest when the populations are low in numbers and restricted under crop boundary vegetation, particularly during very hot and cold months.

Keywords: Bandicota bengalensis, efficacy, food baits, Pothwar

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1 A Review on Agricultural Landscapes as a Habitat of Rodents

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, Tariq Mahmood, Paula Rivadeneira, Ali Akhter

Abstract:

In this paper, we review on rodent species which are common inhabitants of agricultural landscapes where they are an important prey source for a wide variety of avian, reptilian, and mammalian predators. Agricultural fields are surrounded by fallow land, which provide suitable sites for shelter and breeding for rodents, while shrubs, grasses, annual weeds and forbs may provide supplementary food. The assemblage of rodent’s fauna in the cropland habitats including cropped fields, meadows and adjacent field structures like hedgerows, woodland and field margins fluctuates seasonally. The mature agricultural crops provides good source of food and shelter to the rodents and these factors along with favorable climatic factors/season facilitate breeding activities of these rodent species. Changes in vegetation height and vegetative cover affect two important aspects of a rodent’s life: food and shelter. In addition, during non-crop period vegetation can be important for building nests above or below ground and it provides thermal protection for rodents from heat and cold. The review revealed that rodents form a very diverse group of mammals, ranging from tiny pigmy mice to big capybaras, from arboreal flying squirrels to subterranean mole rats, from opportunistic omnivores (e.g. Norway rats) to specialist feeders (e.g. the North African fat sand rats that feed on a single family of plants only). It is therefore no surprise that some species thrive well under the conditions that are found in agricultural fields. The review on the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that they are agricultural pests probably due to the heterogeneous landscape and to the high rotativity of vegetable crop cultivation. They also cause damage to various crops, directly and indirectly, by gnawing, spoilage, contamination and hoarding activities, besides this behavior they have also significance importance in agricultural habitat. The burrowing activities of rodents alter the soil properties around their burrows which improve its aeration, infiltration, increase the water holding capacity and thus encourage plant growth. These properties are beneficial for the soil because they affect absorption of phosphorus, absorption zinc, copper, other nutrients and the uptake of water and thus rodents are known as indicator species in agricultural fields. Our review suggests that wide crop field’s borders, particularly those contiguous to various cropland fields, should be understood as priority sites for nesting, feeding, and cover for the rodent’s fauna. The goal of this review paper is to provide a comprehensive synthesis of understanding regarding rodent habitat and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.

Keywords: agricultural landscapes, food, indicator species, shelter

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