Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 884

Search results for: membrane bioreactors

884 Effect of Fluidized Granular Activated Carbon for the Mitigation of Membrane Fouling in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew


The use of fluidized Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a means of mitigation membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has received much attention in recent years, especially in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). It has been affirmed that the unsteady-state tangential shear conferred by GAC fluidization on membrane surface suppressed the extent of membrane fouling with energy consumption much lower than that of bubbling (i.e., air sparging). In a previous work, the hydrodynamics of the fluidized GAC particles were correlated with membrane fouling mitigation effectiveness. Results verified that the momentum transfer from particle to membrane held a key in fouling mitigation. The goal of the current work is to understand the effect of fluidized GAC on membrane critical flux. Membrane critical flux values were measured by a vertical Direct Observation Through the Membrane (DOTM) setup. The polystyrene particles (known as latex particles) with the particle size of 5 µm were used as model foulant thus to give the number of the foulant on the membrane surface. Our results shed light on the positive effect of fluidized GAC enhancing the critical membrane flux by an order-of-magnitude as compared to that of liquid shear alone. Membrane fouling mitigation was benefitted by the increasing of power input.

Keywords: membrane fouling mitigation, liquid-solid fluidization, critical flux, energy input

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883 Development of an Integrated Methodology for Fouling Control in Membrane Bioreactors

Authors: Petros Gkotsis, Anastasios Zouboulis, Manasis Mitrakas, Dimitrios Zamboulis, E. Peleka


The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is membrane fouling which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This work is part of a research project that aims to develop an integrated methodology for membrane fouling control, using specific chemicals which will enhance the coagulation and flocculation of compounds responsible for fouling, hence reducing biofilm formation on the membrane surface and limiting the fouling rate acting as a pre-treatment step. For this purpose, a pilot-scale plant with fully automatic operation achieved by means of programmable logic controller (PLC) has been constructed and tested. The experimental set-up consists of four units: wastewater feed unit, bioreactor, membrane (side-stream) filtration unit and permeate collection unit. Synthetic wastewater was fed as the substrate for the activated sludge. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the aerobic tank was maintained in the range of 2-3 mg/L during the entire operation by using an aerator below the membrane module. The membranes were operated at a flux of 18 LMH while membrane relaxation steps of 1 min were performed every 10 min. Both commercial and composite coagulants are added in different concentrations in the pilot-scale plant and their effect on the overall performance of the ΜΒR system is presented. Membrane fouling was assessed in terms of TMP, membrane permeability, sludge filterability tests, total resistance and the unified modified fouling index (UMFI). Preliminary tests showed that particular attention should be paid to the addition of the coagulant solution, indicating that pipe flocculation effectively increases hydraulic retention time and leads to voluminous sludge flocs. The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using MBRs is membrane fouling, which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This results in increased treatment cost, due to high energy consumption and the need for frequent membrane cleaning and replacement. Due to the widespread application of MBR technology over the past few years, it becomes clear that the development of a methodology to mitigate membrane fouling is of paramount importance. The present work aims to develop an integrated technique for membrane fouling control in MBR systems and, thus, contribute to sustainable wastewater treatment.

Keywords: coagulation, membrane bioreactor, membrane fouling, pilot plant

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882 Application of Bioreactors in Regenerative Dentistry: Literature Review

Authors: Neeraj Malhotra


Background: Bioreactors in tissue engineering are used as devices that apply mechanical means to influence biological processes. They are commonly employed for stem cell culturing, growth and expansion as well as in 3D tissue culture. Contemporarily there use is well established and is tested extensively in the medical sciences, for tissue-regeneration and tissue engineering of organs like bone, cartilage, blood vessels, skin grafts, cardiac muscle etc. Methodology: Literature search, both electronic and hand search, was done using the following MeSH and keywords: bioreactors, bioreactors and dentistry, bioreactors & dental tissue engineering, bioreactors and regenerative dentistry. Articles published only in English language were included for review. Results: Bioreactors like, spinner flask-, rotating wall-, flow perfusion-, and micro-bioreactors and in-vivo bioreactor have been employed and tested for the regeneration of dental and like-tissues. These include gingival tissue, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, mucosa, cementum and blood vessels. Based on their working dynamics they can be customized in future for regeneration of pulp tissue and whole tooth regeneration. Apart from this, they have been successfully used in testing the clinical efficacy and biological safety of dental biomaterials. Conclusion: Bioreactors have potential use in testing dental biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches aimed at regenerative dentistry.

Keywords: bioreactors, biological process, mechanical stimulation, regenerative dentistry, stem cells

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881 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan


The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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880 Process for Production of Added-Value Water–Extract from Liquid Biomass

Authors: Lozano Paul


Coupled Membrane Separation Technology (CMST), including Cross Flow Microfiltration (CFM) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), are used to concentrate microalgae biomass or/and to extract and concentrate water-soluble metabolites produced during micro-algae production cycle, as well as water recycling. Micro-algae biomass was produced using different feeding mixtures of ingredients: pure chemical origin compounds and natural/ecological water-extracted components from available local plants. Micro-algae was grown either in conventional plastic bags (100L/unit) or in small-scale innovative bioreactors (75L). Biomass was concentrated as CFM retentate using a P19-60 ceramic membrane (0.2μm pore size), and water-soluble micro-algae metabolites left in the CFM filtrate were concentrated by RO. Large volumes of water (micro-algae culture media) of were recycled by the CMTS for another biomass production cycle.

Keywords: extraction, membrane process, microalgae, natural compound

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879 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi


Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

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878 Treatment of High Concentration Cutting Fluid Wastewater by Ceramic Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Kai-Shiang Chang, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu


In recent years, membrane bioreactors (MBR) have been widely utilized as it can effectively replace conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is found to be more effective technology compared to other conventional activated sludge process and advanced membrane separation technique. Additionally, as far as the MBR is concerned, it is having excellent control of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) and conducive to the retention of high concentration of sludge biomass. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can effectively reduce footprint in terms of area and omit the secondary processing procedures in the conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Currently, as per the membrane technology, the ceramic membrane is found to have highly strong anti-acid-base properties, and it is more suitable than polymeric membrane while using for backwash and chemical cleaning. This study is based upon the treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater, as the Cutting Fluid is widely used in the cutting equipment. However, the Cutting Fluid wastewater is very difficult to treat. In this study, the ceramic membrane was used and combine with of MBR system to treat the Cutting Fluid wastewater. In this present study, different kind of chemical coagulants have been utilized for pretreatment purpose in order to get the supernatant and simultaneously this wastewater (supernatant) was treated by MBR process. Nevertheless, ceramic membrane has three advantages such as high mechanical strength, drug resistance and reuse. During the experiment, the backwash technique was used for every interval of 10 minutes in order to avoid fouling of the membrane. In this study, during pretreatment the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency was found to be 71-86% and oil removal efficiency was analyzed to be 83-92%. This pretreatment study suggests that it is quiet effective methodology to reduce COD and oil concentration. Finally, In the MBR system when the HRT is more than 7.5 hour, the COD removal efficiency was found to be 87-93% and could achieve 100% oil removal efficiency. Coagulation test series were seen in Refs coagulants for the treatment of wastewater containing cutting oil with better oil and COD removal efficiency. The results also showed that the oil removal efficiency in the MBR system could reduce the oil content to less than 1 mg / L when the oil quality was 126 mg / L. Therefore, in this paper, the performance of membrane bioreactor by utilizing ceramic membrane has been demonstrated for treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor, cutting fluid, oil, chemical oxygen demand

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877 Basic Evaluation for Polyetherimide Membrane Using Spectroscopy Techniques

Authors: Hanan Alenezi


Membrane performance depends on the kind of solvent used in preparation. A membrane made by Polyetherimide (PEI) was evaluated for gas separation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The purity and the thickness are detected to evaluate the membrane in order to optimize PEI membrane preparation.

Keywords: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Membrane, Polyetherimide PEI, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Solvent, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

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876 Impact of Light Intensity, Illumation Strategy and Self-Shading on Sustainable Algal Growth in Photo Bioreactors

Authors: Amritanshu Shriwastav, Purnendu Bose


Algal photo bioreactors were operated at incident light intensities of 0.24, 2.52 and 5.96 W L-1 to determine the impact of light on algal growth. Low specific Chlorophyll-a content of algae was a strong indicator of light induced stress on algal cells. It was concluded that long term operation of photo bioreactors in the continuous illumination mode was infeasible under the range of incident light intensities examined and provision of a dark period after each light period was necessary for algal cells to recover from light-induced stress. Long term operation of photo bioreactors in the intermittent illumination mode was however possible at light intensities of 0.24 and 2.52 W L-1. Further, the incident light intensity in the photo bioreactors was found to decline exponentially with increase in algal concentration in the reactor due to algal ‘self-shading’. This may be an important determinant for photo bioreactor performance at higher algal concentrations.

Keywords: Algae, algal growth, photo bioreactor, photo-inhibition, ‘self-shading’

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875 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha


Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

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874 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Godson Osueke, Edward Gobina


A unique sol–gel dip-coating process to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility has been reported. First, we deposited repeatedly a silica solution on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The coated membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to a single-layer process using only the membrane support, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the scientifically significant difficulties of natural gas purification, collective CO2, CH4 and H2 gas fluxes and separation factors obtained gave reasonably excellent values. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen as demonstrated by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

Keywords: gas permeation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness

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873 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah


The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

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872 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak


Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: membrane distillation, vacuum membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, desalination

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871 Super-Hydrophilic TFC Membrane with High Stability in Oil

Authors: M. Obaid, Nasser A. M. Barakat, Fadali O.A


Low stability in oil media and the hydrophobicity problems of the ploysulfone electrospun membranes could be overcome in the present study. Synthesis of super-hydrophilic and highly stable in oil polysulfone electrospun nanofiber membrane was achieved by electrospinning of polysulfone solution containing NaOH salt followed by activation of the dried electrospun membrane by deposition of polyamide layer on the surface using m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride. The introduced membrane has super-hydrophilicity characteristic (contact angle=3o), excellent stability in oil media and distinct performance in oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-degradability, membrane, nanofibers

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870 Single Layer Carbon Nanotubes Array as an Efficient Membrane for Desalination: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Elisa Y. M. Ang, Teng Yong Ng, Jingjie Yeo, Rongming Lin, Zishun Liu, K. R. Geethalakshmi


By stacking carbon nanotubes (CNT) one on top of another, single layer CNT arrays can perform water-salt separation with ultra-high permeability and selectivity. Such outer-wall CNT slit membrane is named as the transverse flow CNT membrane. By adjusting the slit size between neighboring CNTs, the membrane can be configured to sieve out different solutes, right down to the separation of monovalent salt ions from water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the permeability of transverse flow CNT membrane is more than two times that of conventional axial-flow CNT membranes, and orders of magnitude higher than current reverse osmosis membrane. In addition, by carrying out MD simulations with different CNT size, it was observed that the variance in desalination performance with CNT size is small. This insensitivity of the transverse flow CNT membrane’s performance to CNT size is a distinct advantage over axial flow CNT membrane designs. Not only does the membrane operate well under constant pressure desalination operation, but MD simulations further indicate that oscillatory operation can further enhance the membrane’s desalination performance, making it suitable for operation such as electrodialysis reversal. While there are still challenges that need to be overcome, particularly on the physical fabrication of such membrane, it is hope that this versatile membrane design can bring the idea of using low dimensional structures for desalination closer to reality.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, membrane desalination, transverse flow carbon nanotube membrane, molecular dynamics

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869 Effects of SRT and HRT on Treatment Performance of MBR and Membrane Fouling

Authors: M. I. Aida Isma, Azni Idris, Rozita Omar, A. R. Putri Razreena


40L of hollow fiber membrane bioreactor with solids retention times (SRT) of 30, 15 and 4 days were setup for treating synthetic wastewater at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 12, 8 and 4 hours. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of SRT and HRT on membrane fouling. A comparative analysis was carried out for physiochemical quality parameters (turbidity, suspended solids, COD, NH3-N and PO43-). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy diffusive X-ray (EDX) analyzer and particle size distribution (PSD) were used to characterize the membrane fouling properties. The influence of SRT on the quality of effluent, activated sludge quality, and membrane fouling were also correlated. Lower membrane fouling and slower rise in trans-membrane pressure (TMP) were noticed at the longest SRT and HRT of 30d and 12h, respectively. Increasing SRT results in noticeable reduction of dissolved organic matters. The best removal efficiencies of COD, TSS, NH3-N and PO43- were 93%, 98%, 80% and 30% respectively. The high HRT with shorter SRT induced faster fouling rate. The main fouling resistance was cake layer. The most severe membrane fouling was observed at SRT and HRT of 4 and 12, respectively with thickness cake layer of 17 μm as reflected by higher TMP, lower effluent removal and thick sludge cake layer.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor, SRT, HRT, fouling

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868 Organic Rejection and Membrane Fouling with Inorganic Alumina Membrane for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Rizwan Ahmad, Soomin Chang, Daeun Kwon, Jeonghwan Kim


Interests in an inorganic membrane are growing rapidly for industrial wastewater treatment due to its excellent chemical and thermal stability over polymeric membrane. Nevertheless, understanding of the membrane rejection and fouling rate caused by the deposit of contaminants on membrane surface and within membrane pores through inorganic porous membranes still requires much attention. Microfiltration alumina membranes were developed and applied for the industrial wastewater treatment to investigate rejection efficiency of organic contaminant and membrane fouling at various operational conditions. In this study, organic rejection and membrane fouling were investigated by using the alumina flat-tubular membrane developed for the treatment of industrial wastewaters. The flat-tubular alumina membranes were immersed in a fluidized membrane reactor added with granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Fluidization was driven by recirculating a bulk industrial wastewater along membrane surface through the reactor. In the absence of GAC particles, for hazardous anionic dye contaminants, functional group characterized by the organic contaminant was found as one of the main factors affecting both membrane rejection and fouling rate. More fouling on the membrane surface led to the existence of dipolar characterizations and this was more pronounced at lower solution pH, thereby improving membrane rejection accordingly. Similar result was observed with a real metal-plating wastewater. Strong correlation was found that higher fouling rate resulted in higher organic rejection efficiency. Hydrophilicity exhibited by alumina membrane improved the organic rejection efficiency of the membrane due to the formation of hydrophilic fouling layer deposited on it. In addition, less surface roughness of alumina membrane resulted in less fouling rate. Regardless of the operational conditions applied in this study, fluidizing the GAC particles along the surface of alumina membrane was very effective to enhance organic removal efficiency higher than 95% and provide an excellent tool to reduce membrane fouling. Less than 0.1 bar as suction pressure was maintained with the alumina membrane at 25 L/m²hr of permeate set-point flux during the whole operational periods without performing any backwashing and chemical enhanced cleaning for the membrane.

Keywords: alumina membrane, fluidized membrane reactor, industrial wastewater, membrane fouling, rejection

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867 Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane

Authors: M. Heidari, A. Safekordi, A. Zamaniyan, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Amanipour


Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Keywords: hydrogen separation, perovskite, proton conducting membrane.

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866 Synthesis and Characterizations of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Speek Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: N. Hasbullah, K. A. Sekak


The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane were successfully electrospun for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and their nanosized properties were investigated. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK victrex® grade 90p was sulfonated with concentrated sulfuric acid (95-98% w/w) at room temperature for 60 hours sulfonation times. The degree sulfonation of SPEEK are 70% was determined by H1 NMR and the functional groups of the SPEEK were characterize using FTIR. Then, the SPEEK nanofiber membrane were prepared via electrospinning method using DMAC as a solvent. The SPEEK sample were successfully electrospun using predetermine set up. FESEM show the electrospun fiber mat surface and confirmed the nanostructure membrane cell.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), degree sulfonation, Electrospinning, Nanofibers

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865 Preparation of Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membranes for CO2 Capture

Authors: Kai-Wei Huang, Yi-Feng Lin


The purpose of this study is to have chemical resistance, high heat resistance and mechanical strength of ceramic hollow fiber membrane into a membrane contactor, and the combustion process is applied (Post-combustion capture) of the carbon dioxide absorption device. In this paper, we would investigate the effect of the ceramic membrane hydrophobicity to the flux of the carbon dioxide adsorption. To improve the applicability of the ceramic film. We use the dry-wet spinning method with the high temperature sintering process for preparing a ceramic hollow fiber membranes to increase the filling density per unit volume of the membrane. The PESf/Al2O3 ratio of 1:5 was prepared ceramic hollow fibers membrane precursors and investigate the relationship of the different sintering temperature to the membrane pore size and porosity. It can be found that the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1400 °C prepared with the highest porosity of 70%, while the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1600 °C prepared although has a minimum porosity of about 54%, but also has the smallest average pore size of about 0.2 μm. The hydrophilic ceramic hollow fiber membranes which after high-temperature sintering were changed into hydrophobic successfully via the 0.02M FAS modifier. The hydrophobic ceramic hollow fiber membranes with different sintering temperature, the membrane which was prepared via 1400 °C sintering has the highest carbon dioxide adsorption about 4.2 × 10-4 (mole/m2s). The membrane prepared via 1500 °C sintering has the carbon dioxide adsorption about 3.8 × 10-3 (mole/m2s),and the membrane prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the lowest carbon dioxide adsorption about 2.68 × 10-3 (mole/m2s).All of them have reusability and in long time operation, the membrane which was prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the smallest pores and also could operate for three days. After the test, the 1600 °C sintering ceramic hollow fiber membrane was most suitable for the factory.

Keywords: carbon dioxide capture, membrane contactor, ceramic membrane, ceramic hollow fiber membrane

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864 Application of a Submerged Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor Hybrid System for High-Strength Wastewater Treatment and Phosphorus Recovery

Authors: Ming-Yeh Lu, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu


Recently, anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) has been widely utilized, which combines anaerobic biological treatment process and membrane filtration, that can be present an attractive option for wastewater treatment and water reuse. Conventional AnMBR is having several advantages, such as improving effluent quality, compact space usage, lower sludge yield, without aeration and production of energy. However, the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the AnMBR permeate was negligible which become the biggest disadvantage. In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology that utilizes osmotic pressure as driving force to extract clean water without additional external pressure. The pore size of FO membrane is kindly mentioned the pore size, so nitrogen or phosphorus could effectively improve removal of nitrogen or phosphorus. Anaerobic bioreactor with FO membrane (AnOMBR) can retain the concentrate organic matters and nutrients. However, phosphorus is a non-renewable resource. Due to the high rejection property of FO membrane, the high amount of phosphorus could be recovered from the combination of AnMBR and FO. In this study, development of novel submerged anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from wastewater was evaluated. A laboratory-scale AnOMBR utilizes cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with effective membrane area of 130 cm² was fully submerged into a 5.5 L bioreactor at 30-35℃. Active layer-facing feed stream orientation was utilized, for minimizing fouling and scaling. Additionally, a peristaltic pump was used to circulate draw solution (DS) at a cross flow velocity of 0.7 cm/s. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄) solution was used as DS. Microfiltration membrane periodically extracted about 1 L solution when the TDS reaches to 5 g/L to recover phosphorus and simultaneous control the salt accumulation in the bioreactor. During experiment progressed, the average water flux was achieved around 1.6 LMH. The AnOMBR process show greater than 95% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nearly 100% of total phosphorous whereas only partial removal of ammonia, and finally average methane production of 0.22 L/g sCOD was obtained. Therefore, AnOMBR system periodically utilizes MF membrane extracted for phosphorus recovery with simultaneous pH adjustment. The overall performance demonstrates that a novel submerged AnOMBR system is having potential for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastewater, and hence, the new concept of this system can be used to replace for conventional AnMBR in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic treatment, forward osmosis, phosphorus recovery, membrane bioreactor

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863 Next Generation Membrane for Water Desalination: Facile Fabrication of Patterned Graphene Membrane

Authors: Jae-Kyung Choi, Soon-Yong Kwon, Hyung Duk Yun, Hyun-Sang Chung, Seongho Seo, Kukjin Bae


Recently, there were several attempts to utilize a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane. In order to use a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane, fabrication of crack-free suspension of graphene on a porous membrane, having hydrophobic surface, and generation of a uniform holes on a graphene are very important. In here, we showed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to create a patterned graphene membrane on a patterned platinum film. After CVD growth process of patterned graphene layer/patterned Pt on SiO2 substrates, the patterned graphene layer can be successfully transferred onto arbitrary substrates via thermal-assisted transfer method. In this result, the transferred patterned graphene membrane has so hydrophobic surface which will certainly impact on the naturally and speed pass way for fresh water. In addition to this, we observed that overlapping of patterned graphene membranes reported previously by our group may generate different size of holes.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hydrophobic surface, membrane desalination, porous graphene

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862 Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye

Authors: Shruti Sakarkar, Jega Jegatheesan, Srinivasan Madapusi


Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.

Keywords: photocatalytic membrane, TiO₂, PVDF, nanoparticles

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861 Synthesis and Performance of Polyamide Forward Osmosis Membrane for Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Removal

Authors: M. N. Abu Seman, L. M. Kei, M. A. Yusoff


Forward Osmosis (FO) polyamide thin-film composite membranes have been prepared by inter facial polymerization using commercial UF polyethersulfone as membrane support. Different inter facial polymerization times (10s, 30s and 60s) in the organic solution containing trimesoyl chloride (TMC) at constant m-phenylenediamine (MPD) concentration (2% w/v) were studied. The synthesized polyamide membranes then tested for treatment of natural organic matter (NOM) and compared to commercial Cellulose TriAcetate (CTA) membrane. It was found that membrane prepared with higher reaction time (30 s and 60 s) exhibited better membrane performance (flux and humic acid removal) over commercial CTA membrane.

Keywords: cellulose triacetate, forward osmosis, humic acid, polyamide

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860 Ultrathin Tin-Silicalite 1 Zeolite Membrane in Ester Solvent Recovery

Authors: Kun Liang Ang, Eng Toon Saw, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna


Ester solvents are widely used in pharmaceutical, printing and flavor industry due to their good miscibility, low toxicity, and high volatility. Through pervaporation, these ester solvents can be recovered from industrial wastewater. While metal-doped silicalite 1 zeolite membranes are commonly used in organic solvent recovery in the pervaporation process, these ceramic membranes suffer from low membrane permeation flux, mainly due to the high thickness of the metal-doped zeolite membrane. Herein, a simple method of fabricating an ultrathin tin-silicalite 1 membrane supported on alumina tube is reported. This ultrathin membrane is able to achieve high permeation flux and separation factor for an ester in a diluted aqueous solution. Nanosized tin-Silicalite 1 seeds which are smaller than 500nm has been formed through hydrothermal synthesis. The sn-Silicalite 1 seeds were then seeded onto alumina tube through dip coating, and the tin-Silicalite 1 membrane was then formed by hydrothermal synthesis in an autoclave through secondary growth method. Multiple membrane synthesis factors such as seed size, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection, and secondary growth conditions were studied for their effects on zeolite membrane growth. The microstructure, morphology and the membrane thickness of tin-Silicalite 1 zeolite membrane were examined. The membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, pervaporation, solvent recovery, Sn-MFI zeolite

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859 Ragging and Sludging Measurement in Membrane Bioreactors

Authors: Pompilia Buzatu, Hazim Qiblawey, Albert Odai, Jana Jamaleddin, Mustafa Nasser, Simon J. Judd


Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is challenged by the tendency for the membrane permeability to decrease due to ‘clogging’. Clogging includes ‘sludging’, the filling of the membrane channels with sludge solids, and ‘ragging’, the aggregation of short filaments to form long rag-like particles. Both sludging and ragging demand manual intervention to clear out the solids, which is time-consuming, labour-intensive and potentially damaging to the membranes. These factors impact on costs more significantly than membrane surface fouling which, unlike clogging, is largely mitigated by the chemical clean. However, practical evaluation of MBR clogging has thus far been limited. This paper presents the results of recent work attempting to quantify sludging and clogging based on simple bench-scale tests. Results from a novel ragging simulation trial indicated that rags can be formed within 24-36 hours from dispersed < 5 mm-long filaments at concentrations of 5-10 mg/L under gently agitated conditions. Rag formation occurred for both a cotton wool standard and samples taken from an operating municipal MBR, with between 15% and 75% of the added fibrous material forming a single rag. The extent of rag formation depended both on the material type or origin – lint from laundering operations forming zero rags – and the filament length. Sludging rates were quantified using a bespoke parallel-channel test cell representing the membrane channels of an immersed flat sheet MBR. Sludge samples were provided from two local MBRs, one treating municipal and the other industrial effluent. Bulk sludge properties measured comprised mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration, capillary suction time (CST), particle size, soluble COD (sCOD) and rheology (apparent viscosity μₐ vs shear rate γ). The fouling and sludging propensity of the sludge was determined using the test cell, ‘fouling’ being quantified as the pressure incline rate against flux via the flux step test (for which clogging was absent) and sludging by photographing the channel and processing the image to determine the ratio of the clogged to unclogged regions. A substantial difference in rheological and fouling behaviour was evident between the two sludge sources, the industrial sludge having a higher viscosity but less shear-thinning than the municipal. Fouling, as manifested by the pressure increase Δp/Δt, as a function of flux from classic flux-step experiments (where no clogging was evident), was more rapid for the industrial sludge. Across all samples of both sludge origins the expected trend of increased fouling propensity with increased CST and sCOD was demonstrated, whereas no correlation was observed between clogging rate and these parameters. The relative contribution of fouling and clogging was appraised by adjusting the clogging propensity via increasing the MLSS both with and without a commensurate increase in the COD. Results indicated that whereas for the municipal sludge the fouling propensity was affected by the increased sCOD, there was no associated increased in the sludging propensity (or cake formation). The clogging rate actually decreased on increasing the MLSS. Against this, for the industrial sludge the clogging rate dramatically increased with solids concentration despite a decrease in the soluble COD. From this was surmised that sludging did not relate to fouling.

Keywords: clogging, membrane bioreactors, ragging, sludge

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858 Advances in Membrane Technologies for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Deniz Sahin


This study provides a literature review of the special issue on wastewater treatment technologies, especially membrane technologies. Currently, wastewater is a serious and increasing worldwide problem with an adverse effect on the environment and living organisms. For this reason, many technologies have been developed to treat wastewater before discharging it to water bodies. We have been discussed membrane technologies to remove contaminants from wastewater such as heavy metals, dyes, pesticides, etc., which represent the main pollutants in wastewater. All the properties of these technologies including performance, economics, simplicity, and operability are also compared with other wastewater treatment technologies. The conventional water treatment technologies have the disadvantages of low separation efficiency, high energy consumption, and strict operating temperature. To overcome these difficulties, membrane technologies have been developed and used in wastewater treatment. Membrane technology uses a selectively permeable membrane to remove suspended and dissolved solids from water. This membrane is a very thin film of synthetic organic or inorganic materials, that can allow a very selective separation between a mixture and its components. Examples of membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), gas separation, etc. Most of these technologies have been used extensively for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. For instance, wastewater that contains Cu²⁺, Cd²⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺ was treated by ultrafiltration technology. It was shown that complete removal of metal ions could be achieved.

Keywords: industrial pollution, membrane technologies, metal ions, wastewater

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857 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation

Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas, Navab Singh


This paper presents thermal annealing dewetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for thin film encapsulation application. Thermal annealing dewetting experimental results reveal that pore size in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate on which metal is deposited for formation of porous metal cap membrane, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for porous metal membrane formation. Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane by annealing the film at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for thin film encapsulation application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a-Si) was release using XeF2. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for thin film encapsulation (TFE) application.

Keywords: dewetting, themal annealing, metal, melting point, porous

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856 Interaction of Glycolipid S-TGA-1 with Bacteriorhodopsin and Its Functional Role

Authors: Masataka Inada, Masanao Kinoshita, Nobuaki Matsumori


It has been demonstrated that lipid molecules in biological membranes are responsible for the functionalization and structuration of membrane proteins. However, it is still unclear how the interaction of lipid molecules with membrane proteins is correlated with the function of the membrane proteins. Here we first developed an evaluation method for the interaction between membrane proteins and lipid molecules via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), which was obtained by the culture of halobacteria, was used as a membrane protein. We prepared SPR sensor chips covered with self-assembled monolayer containing mercaptocarboxylic acids, and immobilized bR onto them. Then, we evaluated the interactions with various lipids that have different structures. As a result, the halobacterium-specific glycolipid S-TGA-1 was found to have much higher affinity with bRs than other lipids. This is probably due to not only hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions but also hydrogen bonds with sugar moieties in the glycolipid. Next, we analyzed the roles of the lipid in the structuration and functionalization of bR. CD analysis showed that S-TGA-1 could promote trimerization of bR monomers more efficiently than any other lipids. Flash photolysis further indicated that bR trimers formed by S-TGA-1 reproduced the photocyclic activity of bR in purple membrane, halobacterium-membrane. These results suggest that S-TGA-1 promotes trimerization of bR through strong interactions and consequently fulfills the bR’s function efficiently.

Keywords: membrane protein, lipid, interaction, bacteriorhodopsin, glycolipid

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855 Separation Performance of CO₂ by Mixed Matrix Membrane Comprising Carbide-Derived Carbon

Authors: Musa Najimu, Isam Aljundi


In this study, the development of mixed matrix membrane (MMM) containing carbide-derived carbon (CDC) for the separation of CO₂ was investigated. MMM with four different loadings (0.1 to 2 wt%) were prepared by the dry/wet phase inversion technique. Prior to this, the formula of the control polysulfone (PSF) membrane was optimized in terms of the PSF concentration in a mixture of NMP/THF solvents and ethanol. Prepared samples were characterized and tested for CO₂ and CH₄ gas permeation. The optimization of the control PSF membrane revealed that 30 wt% PSF is the critical polymer concentration in the formulation. Characterization results unveiled reinforcement of thermal stability and improved polarity imparted by CDC in the MMM, in addition to uniform dispersion of filler up to 1 wt% loading. Furthermore, the incorporation of CDC in PSF membrane formulation enhanced both the CO₂ permeance and ideal selectivity over the control membrane. A CDC loading of 0.5 wt% resulted in the highest CO₂ permeance of 5.5 GPU corresponding to 120% increase in permeance while a CDC loading of 1 wt% resulted in the highest selectivity (CO₂ /CH₄) of 27 corresponding to 29% increase in selectivity. Studies of operating temperature effect showed that an optimum operating temperature for M1.0 membrane is 20 ⁰C. In addition, the feed pressure studies showed that high pressure feeds will favor high performance of the membrane and a good CO₂ /CH₄ separation.

Keywords: carbide derived carbon, mixed matrix membrane, CO₂ separation, polysulfone

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