Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: clogging

26 Grain Size Effect of Durability of Bio-Clogging Treatment

Authors: Tahani Farah, Hanène Souli, Jean-Marie Fleureau, Guillaume Kermouche, Jean-Jacques Fry, Benjamin Girard, Denis Aelbrecht

Abstract:

In this work, the bio-clogging of two soils with different granulometries is presented. The durability of the clogging is also studied under cycles of hydraulic head and under cycles of desaturation- restauration. The studied materials present continuous grain size distributions. The first one corresponding to the "material 1", presents grain sizes between 0.4 and 4 mm. The second material called "material 2" is composed of grains with size varying between 1 and 10 mm. The results show that clogging occurs very quickly after the injection of nutrition and an outlet flow near to 0 is observed. The critical hydraulic head is equal to 0.76 for "material 1", and 0.076 for "material 2". The durability tests show a good resistance to unclogging under cycles of hydraulic head and desaturation-restauration for the "material 1". Indeed, the flow after the cycles is very low. In contrast, "material 2", shows a very bad resistance, especially under the hydraulic head cycles. The resistance under the cycles of desaturation-resaturation is better but an important increase of the flow is observed. The difference of behavior is due to the granulometry of the materials. Indeed, the large grain size contributes to the reduction of the efficiency of the bio-clogging treatment in this material.

Keywords: bio-clogging, granulometry, permeability, nutrition

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25 Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging

Authors: H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig

Abstract:

A transient model for nozzle clogging has been developed and successfully validated against a laboratory experiment. Key steps of clogging are considered: transport of particles by turbulent flow towards the nozzle wall; interactions between fluid flow and nozzle wall, and the adhesion of the particle on the wall; the growth of the clog layer and its interaction with the flow. The current paper is to investigate the mesh (size and type) sensitivity of the model in both two and three dimensions. It is found that the algorithm for clog growth alone excluding the flow effect is insensitive to the mesh type and size, but the calculation including flow becomes sensitive to the mesh quality. The use of 2D meshes leads to overestimation of the clog growth because the 3D nature of flow in the boundary layer cannot be properly solved by 2D calculation. 3D simulation with tetrahedron mesh can also lead to an error estimation of the clog growth. A mesh-independent result can be achieved with hexahedral mesh, or at least with triangular prism (inflation layer) for near-wall regions.

Keywords: clogging, continuous casting, inclusion, simulation, submerged entry nozzle

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24 Ragging and Sludging Measurement in Membrane Bioreactors

Authors: Pompilia Buzatu, Hazim Qiblawey, Albert Odai, Jana Jamaleddin, Mustafa Nasser, Simon J. Judd

Abstract:

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is challenged by the tendency for the membrane permeability to decrease due to ‘clogging’. Clogging includes ‘sludging’, the filling of the membrane channels with sludge solids, and ‘ragging’, the aggregation of short filaments to form long rag-like particles. Both sludging and ragging demand manual intervention to clear out the solids, which is time-consuming, labour-intensive and potentially damaging to the membranes. These factors impact on costs more significantly than membrane surface fouling which, unlike clogging, is largely mitigated by the chemical clean. However, practical evaluation of MBR clogging has thus far been limited. This paper presents the results of recent work attempting to quantify sludging and clogging based on simple bench-scale tests. Results from a novel ragging simulation trial indicated that rags can be formed within 24-36 hours from dispersed < 5 mm-long filaments at concentrations of 5-10 mg/L under gently agitated conditions. Rag formation occurred for both a cotton wool standard and samples taken from an operating municipal MBR, with between 15% and 75% of the added fibrous material forming a single rag. The extent of rag formation depended both on the material type or origin – lint from laundering operations forming zero rags – and the filament length. Sludging rates were quantified using a bespoke parallel-channel test cell representing the membrane channels of an immersed flat sheet MBR. Sludge samples were provided from two local MBRs, one treating municipal and the other industrial effluent. Bulk sludge properties measured comprised mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration, capillary suction time (CST), particle size, soluble COD (sCOD) and rheology (apparent viscosity μₐ vs shear rate γ). The fouling and sludging propensity of the sludge was determined using the test cell, ‘fouling’ being quantified as the pressure incline rate against flux via the flux step test (for which clogging was absent) and sludging by photographing the channel and processing the image to determine the ratio of the clogged to unclogged regions. A substantial difference in rheological and fouling behaviour was evident between the two sludge sources, the industrial sludge having a higher viscosity but less shear-thinning than the municipal. Fouling, as manifested by the pressure increase Δp/Δt, as a function of flux from classic flux-step experiments (where no clogging was evident), was more rapid for the industrial sludge. Across all samples of both sludge origins the expected trend of increased fouling propensity with increased CST and sCOD was demonstrated, whereas no correlation was observed between clogging rate and these parameters. The relative contribution of fouling and clogging was appraised by adjusting the clogging propensity via increasing the MLSS both with and without a commensurate increase in the COD. Results indicated that whereas for the municipal sludge the fouling propensity was affected by the increased sCOD, there was no associated increased in the sludging propensity (or cake formation). The clogging rate actually decreased on increasing the MLSS. Against this, for the industrial sludge the clogging rate dramatically increased with solids concentration despite a decrease in the soluble COD. From this was surmised that sludging did not relate to fouling.

Keywords: clogging, membrane bioreactors, ragging, sludge

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23 Permeable Asphalt Pavement as a Measure of Urban Green Infrastructure in the Extreme Events Mitigation

Authors: Márcia Afonso, Cristina Fael, Marisa Dinis-Almeida

Abstract:

Population growth in cities has led to an increase in the infrastructures construction, including buildings and roadways. This aspect leads directly to the soils waterproofing. In turn, changes in precipitation patterns are developing into higher and more frequent intensities. Thus, these two conjugated aspects decrease the rainwater infiltration into soils and increase the volume of surface runoff. The practice of green and sustainable urban solutions has encouraged research in these areas. The porous asphalt pavement, as a green infrastructure, is part of practical solutions set to address urban challenges related to land use and adaptation to climate change. In this field, permeable pavements with porous asphalt mixtures (PA) have several advantages in terms of reducing the runoff generated by the floods. The porous structure of these pavements, compared to a conventional asphalt pavement, allows the rainwater infiltration in the subsoil, and consequently, the water quality improvement. This green infrastructure solution can be applied in cities, particularly in streets or parking lots to mitigate the floods effects. Over the years, the pores of these pavements can be filled by sediment, reducing their function in the rainwater infiltration. Thus, double layer porous asphalt (DLPA) was developed to mitigate the clogging effect and facilitate the water infiltration into the lower layers. This study intends to deepen the knowledge of the performance of DLPA when subjected to clogging. The experimental methodology consisted on four evaluation phases of the DLPA infiltration capacity submitted to three precipitation events (100, 200 and 300 mm/h) in each phase. The evaluation first phase determined the behavior after DLPA construction. In phases two and three, two 500 g/m2 clogging cycles were performed, totaling a 1000 g/m2 final simulation. Sand with gradation accented in fine particles was used as clogging material. In the last phase, the DLPA was subjected to simple sweeping and vacuuming maintenance. A precipitation simulator, type sprinkler, capable of simulating the real precipitation was developed for this purpose. The main conclusions show that the DLPA has the capacity to drain the water, even after two clogging cycles. The infiltration results of flows lead to an efficient performance of the DPLA in the surface runoff attenuation, since this was not observed in any of the evaluation phases, even at intensities of 200 and 300 mm/h, simulating intense precipitation events. The infiltration capacity under clogging conditions decreased about 7% on average in the three intensities relative to the initial performance that is after construction. However, this was restored when subjected to simple maintenance, recovering the DLPA hydraulic functionality. In summary, the study proved the efficacy of using a DLPA when it retains thicker surface sediments and limits the fine sediments entry to the remaining layers. At the same time, it is guaranteed the rainwater infiltration and the surface runoff reduction and is therefore a viable solution to put into practice in permeable pavements.

Keywords: clogging, double layer porous asphalt, infiltration capacity, rainfall intensity

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22 Performance Evaluation of Filtration System for Groundwater Recharging Well in the Presence of Medium Sand-Mixed Storm Water

Authors: Krishna Kumar Singh, Praveen Jain

Abstract:

The collection of storm water runoff and forcing it into the groundwater is the need of the hour to sustain the ground water table. However, the runoff entraps various types of sediments and other floating objects whose removal are essential to avoid pollution of ground water and blocking of pores of aquifer. However, it requires regular cleaning and maintenance due to the problem of clogging. To evaluate the performance of filter system consisting of coarse sand (CS), gravel (G) and pebble (P) layers, a laboratory experiment was conducted in a rectangular column. The effect of variable thickness of CS, G and P layers of the filtration unit of the recharge shaft on the recharge rate and the sediment concentration of effluent water were evaluated. Medium sand (MS) of three particle sizes, viz. 0.150–0.300 mm (T1), 0.300–0.425 mm (T2) and 0.425–0.600 mm of thickness 25 cm, 30 cm, and 35 cm respectively in the top layer of the filter system and having seven influent sediment concentrations of 250–3,000 mg/l were used for the experimental study. The performance was evaluated in terms of recharge rates and clogging time. The results indicated that 100 % suspended solids were entrapped in the upper 10 cm layer of MS, the recharge rates declined sharply for influent concentrations of more than 1,000 mg/l. All treatments with a higher thickness of MS media indicated recharge rate slightly more than that of all treatment with a lower thickness of MS media respectively. The performance of storm water infiltration systems was highly dependent on the formation of a clogging layer at the filter. An empirical relationship has been derived between recharge rates, inflow sediment load, size of MS and thickness of MS with using MLR.

Keywords: groundwater, medium sand-mixed storm water filter, inflow sediment load

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21 Study of Nitrogen Species Fate and Transport in Subsurface: To Assess the Impact of Wastewater Irrigation

Authors: C. Mekala, Indumathi M. Nambi

Abstract:

Nitrogen pollution in groundwater arising from wastewater and fertilizer application through vadose zone is a major problem and it causes a prime risk to groundwater based drinking water supplies. Nitrogenous compounds namely ammonium, nitrate and nitrite fate and transport in soil subsurface were studied experimentally. The major process like sorption, leaching, biotransformation involving microbial growth kinetics, and biological clogging due to biomass growth were assessed and modeled with advection-dispersion reaction equations for ammonium, nitrate and acetate in a saturated, heterogeneous soil medium. The transport process was coupled with freundlich sorption and monod inhibition kinetics for immobile bacteria and permeability reduction due to biomass growth will be verified and validated with the numerical model. This proposed mathematical model will be very helpful in the development of a management model for a sustainable and safe wastewater reuse strategies such as irrigation and groundwater recharge.

Keywords: nitrogen species transport, transformation, biological clogging, biokinetic parameters, contaminant transport model, saturated soil

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20 Study of the Clogging of Localized Irrigation Pipelines at the Agricultural Region of Agadir

Authors: Ali Driouiche, Abdallah Hadfi

Abstract:

During this work on scaling phenomenon observed in the irrigation water pipes in the agricultural region of Greater Agadir, a follow-up was carried out during a year of the physico-chemical quality of these waters. Sampling was conducted from 120 sampling points, well distributed in the study area and involved 120 water samples. The parameters measured for each sample are temperature, pH, conductivity, total hardness and the concentrations of the ions HCO₃₋, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, SO₄₋, NO₃₋, Cl₋ and OH₋. Indeed, the monitoring of the physico-chemical quality shows that the total hardness varies between 20 and 65 °F and the complete alkalimetric title varies from 14 °F to 42 °F. For the kinetic study of the scaling power, an object of this work, 6 samples which have high hardness were selected from the 120 samples analyzed. This study was carried out using the controlled degassing method Laboratoire de Chimie et de Génie de l’Environnement (LCGE) where it was developed) and showed that the studied waters are calcifying. The germination time Tg varies between 16 and 34 minutes. The highlighting of new scale inhibitors to prevent the formation of scale in the pipelines of the agricultural sector of Greater Agadir will also be discussed.

Keywords: agadir, clogging pipes, localized irrigation, scaling power

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19 Urban Water Logging Adversity: A Case Study on Disruption of Urban Landscape Due to Water Logging Problems and Probable Analytical Solutions for Urban Region on Port City Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Obidul Haque, Abbasi Khanm

Abstract:

Port city Chittagong, the commercial capital of Bangladesh, is flourished with fascinating topography and climatic context along with basic resources for livelihood; both shape this city and become living archives of its ecologies. Chittagong has been witnessing numerous urban development measures being taken by city development authority, though some of those seem incomplete because of lack of proper planning. Due to this unplanned trail, the blessings of nature have become the reason of sufferings for city dwellers. One of which is the water clogging due to heavy rainfall, seepage, high tide, absence of well-knit underground drainage system, and so on. The problem has reached such an extent that the first monsoon rain is enough to shut down the entire city and causing immense sufferings to livestock, specially most vulnerable groups such as children and office going people. Study shows that total discharge is higher than present drainage capacity of the canals, thus, resulting in overflow, as major channels are clogged up by dumping waste or illegal encroachment, which are supposed to flush out rain water. This paper aims to address natural and manmade causes behind urban water clogging, adverse socio-environmental hazardous effects, possibilities for probable solutions on basis of local people’s experience and rational urban planning and landscape architectural proposals such as facilitating well planned drainage system, along with waste management policies etc. which can be able to intervene in these movements to activate the mighty port city’s unfulfilled potentials.

Keywords: drainage, high-tide, urban storm water logging (USWL), urban planning, water management

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18 Inertial Particle Focusing Dynamics in Trapezoid Straight Microchannels: Application to Continuous Particle Filtration

Authors: Reza Moloudi, Steve Oh, Charles Chun Yang, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani, May Win Naing

Abstract:

Inertial microfluidics has emerged recently as a promising tool for high-throughput manipulation of particles and cells for a wide range of flow cytometric tasks including cell separation/filtration, cell counting, and mechanical phenotyping. Inertial focusing is profoundly reliant on the cross-sectional shape of the channel and its impacts not only on the shear field but also the wall-effect lift force near the wall region. Despite comprehensive experiments and numerical analysis of the lift forces for rectangular and non-rectangular microchannels (half-circular and triangular cross-section), which all possess planes of symmetry, less effort has been made on the 'flow field structure' of trapezoidal straight microchannels and its effects on inertial focusing. On the other hand, a rectilinear channel with trapezoidal cross-sections breaks down all planes of symmetry. In this study, particle focusing dynamics inside trapezoid straight microchannels was first studied systematically for a broad range of channel Re number (20 < Re < 800). The altered axial velocity profile and consequently new shear force arrangement led to a cross-laterally movement of equilibration toward the longer side wall when the rectangular straight channel was changed to a trapezoid; however, the main lateral focusing started to move backward toward the middle and the shorter side wall, depending on particle clogging ratio (K=a/Hmin, a is particle size), channel aspect ratio (AR=W/Hmin, W is channel width, and Hmin is smaller channel height), and slope of slanted wall, as the channel Reynolds number further increased (Re > 50). Increasing the channel aspect ratio (AR) from 2 to 4 and the slope of slanted wall up to Tan(α)≈0.4 (Tan(α)=(Hlonger-sidewall-Hshorter-sidewall)/W) enhanced the off-center lateral focusing position from the middle of channel cross-section, up to ~20 percent of the channel width. It was found that the focusing point was spoiled near the slanted wall due to the dissymmetry; it mainly focused near the bottom wall or fluctuated between the channel center and the bottom wall, depending on the slanted wall and Re (Re < 100, channel aspect ratio 4:1). Eventually, as a proof of principle, a trapezoidal straight microchannel along with a bifurcation was designed and utilized for continuous filtration of a broader range of particle clogging ratio (0.3 < K < 1) exiting through the longer wall outlet with ~99% efficiency (Re < 100) in comparison to the rectangular straight microchannels (W > H, 0.3 ≤ K < 0.5).

Keywords: cell/particle sorting, filtration, inertial microfluidics, straight microchannel, trapezoid

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17 Influence of the Nature of Plants on Drainage, Purification Performance and Quality of Biosolids on Faecal Sludge Planted Drying Beds in Sub-Saharan Climate Conditions

Authors: El Hadji Mamadou Sonko, Mbaye Mbéguéré, Cheikh Diop, Linda Strande

Abstract:

In new approaches that are being developed for the treatment of sludge, the valorization of by-product is increasingly encouraged. In this perspective, Echinochloa pyramidalis has been successfully tested in Cameroon. Echinochloa pyramidalis is an efficient forage plant in the treatment of faecal sludge. It provides high removal rates and biosolids of high agronomic value. Thus in order to advise the use of this plant in planted drying beds in Senegal its comparison with the plants long been used in the field deserves to be carried out. That is the aim of this study showing the influence of the nature of the plants on the drainage, the purifying performances and the quality of the biosolids. Echinochloa pyramidalis, Typha australis, and Phragmites australis are the three macrophytes used in this study. The drainage properties of the beds were monitored through the frequency of clogging, the percentage of recovered leachate and the dryness of the accumulated sludge. The development of plants was followed through the measurement of the density. The purification performances were evaluated from the incoming raw sludge flows and the outflows of leachate for parameters such as Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Volatile Solids (TVS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Ammonia (NH₄⁺), Nitrate (NO₃⁻), Total Phosphorus (TP), Orthophosphorus (PO₄³⁻) and Ascaris eggs. The quality of the biosolids accumulated on the beds was measured after 3 months of maturation for parameters such as dryness, C/N ratio NH₄⁺/NO₃⁻ ratio, ammonia, Ascaris eggs. The results have shown that the recovered leachate volume is about 40.4%; 45.6% and 47.3%; the dryness about 41.7%; 38.7% and 28.7%, and clogging frequencies about 6.7%; 8.2% and 14.2% on average for the beds planted with Echinochloa pyramidalis, Typha australis and Phragmites australis respectively. The plants of Echinochloa pyramidalis (198.6 plants/m²) and Phragmites australis (138 plants/m²) have higher densities than Typha australis (90.3 plants/m²). The nature of the plants has no influence on the purification performance with reduction percentages around 80% or more for all the parameters followed whatever the nature of the plants. However, the concentrations of these various leachate pollutants are above the limit values of the Senegalese standard NS 05-061 for the release into the environment. The biosolids harvested after 3 months of maturation are all mature with C/N ratios around 10 for all the macrophytes. The NH₄⁺/NO₃⁻ ratio is lower than 1 except for the biosolids originating from the Echinochloa pyramidalis beds. The ammonia is also less than 0.4 g/kg except for biosolids from Typha australis beds. Biosolids are also rich in mineral elements. Their concentrations of Ascaris eggs are higher than the WHO recommendations despite a percentage of inactivation around 80%. These biosolids must be stored for an additional time or composted. From these results, the use of Echinochloa pyramidalis as the main macrophyte can be recommended in the various drying beds planted in sub-Saharan climate conditions.

Keywords: faecal sludge, nature of plants, quality of biosolids, treatment performances

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16 Application of Nanofiltration Membrane for River Nile Water Treatment in Egypt

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, Ahmed M. Shaban, Eman S. Mansor, Ahmed A. Karim, Azza M. Abdel Aty

Abstract:

In this manuscript, 35 m³/d NF unit was designed and applied for surface water treatment of river Nile water. Intake of Embaba drinking water treatment plant was selected to install that unit at since; it has the lowest water quality index value through the examined 6 sites in greater Cairo area. The optimized operating conditions were feed and permeate flow, 40 and 7 m³/d, feed pressure 2.68 bar and flux rate 37.7 l/m2.h. The permeate water was drinkable according to Egyptian Ministerial decree 458/2007 for the tested parameters (physic-chemical, heavy metals, organic, algal, bacteriological and parasitological). Single and double sand filters were used as pretreatment for NF membranes, but continuous clogging for sand filters moved us to use UF membrane as pretreatment for NF membrane.

Keywords: River Nile, NF membrane, pretreatment, UF membrane, water quality

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15 Identification and Understanding of Colloidal Destabilization Mechanisms in Geothermal Processes

Authors: Ines Raies, Eric Kohler, Marc Fleury, Béatrice Ledésert

Abstract:

In this work, the impact of clay minerals on the formation damage of sandstone reservoirs is studied to provide a better understanding of the problem of deep geothermal reservoir permeability reduction due to fine particle dispersion and migration. In some situations, despite the presence of filters in the geothermal loop at the surface, particles smaller than the filter size (<1 µm) may surprisingly generate significant permeability reduction affecting in the long term the overall performance of the geothermal system. Our study is carried out on cores from a Triassic reservoir in the Paris Basin (Feigneux, 60 km Northeast of Paris). Our goal is to first identify the clays responsible for clogging, a mineralogical characterization of these natural samples was carried out by coupling X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the studied stratigraphic interval contains mostly illite and chlorite particles. Moreover, the spatial arrangement of the clays in the rocks as well as the morphology and size of the particles, suggest that illite is more easily mobilized than chlorite by the flow in the pore network. Thus, based on these results, illite particles were prepared and used in core flooding in order to better understand the factors leading to the aggregation and deposition of this type of clay particles in geothermal reservoirs under various physicochemical and hydrodynamic conditions. First, the stability of illite suspensions under geothermal conditions has been investigated using different characterization techniques, including Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Various parameters such as the hydrodynamic radius (around 100 nm), the morphology and surface area of aggregates were measured. Then, core-flooding experiments were carried out using sand columns to mimic the permeability decline due to the injection of illite-containing fluids in sandstone reservoirs. In particular, the effects of ionic strength, temperature, particle concentration and flow rate of the injected fluid were investigated. When the ionic strength increases, a permeability decline of more than a factor of 2 could be observed for pore velocities representative of in-situ conditions. Further details of the retention of particles in the columns were obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging and X-ray Tomography techniques, showing that the particle deposition is nonuniform along the column. It is clearly shown that very fine particles as small as 100 nm can generate significant permeability reduction under specific conditions in high permeability porous media representative of the Triassic reservoirs of the Paris basin. These retention mechanisms are explained in the general framework of the DLVO theory

Keywords: geothermal energy, reinjection, clays, colloids, retention, porosity, permeability decline, clogging, characterization, XRD, SEM-EDS, STEM, DLS, NMR, core flooding experiments

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14 Electrokinetics and Stability of Solder Powders in Aqueous Media

Authors: Terence Lucero F. Menor, Manolo G. Mena, Herman D. Mendoza

Abstract:

Solder pastes are widely used in creating mechanical, thermal and electrical connection between electronic components. Continued miniaturization of consumer electronics drives manufacturers to achieve smaller, lighter, and faster electronic packages at low cost. This faces them to the difficult challenge of dispensing solder pastes in extremely precise and repeatable manner. The most common problem in solder paste dispensing is the clogging of dispensers which results from agglomeration and settling of solder powders leading to increase on the effective particle size and uneven distribution of particles in the mixture. In this work, microelectrophoresis was employed to investigate the effect of pH and KNO₃ concentration on the electrokinetic behavior and stability of SAC305, PbSn5Ag2.5 and Sn powders in aqueous media. Results revealed that the electrokinetic behavior of the three types of solder powders are similar, which was attributed to high SnO₂ content on the surface of the particles. Electrokinetic measurements showed that the zeta potentials of the solder powders are highly dependent on pH and KNO₃ concentration with isoelectric points ranging from 3.5 to 5.5. Results were verified using stability tests.

Keywords: electrokinetic behavior, isoelectric point, solder powder, stability, surface analysis

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13 EZOB Technology, Biomass Gasification, and Microcogeneration Unit

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála

Abstract:

This paper deals with the issue of biomass and sorted municipal waste gasification and cogeneration using hot air turbo set. It brings description of designed pilot plant with electrical output 80 kWe. The generated gas is burned in secondary combustion chamber located beyond the gas generator. Flue gas flows through the heat exchanger where the compressed air is heated and consequently brought to a micro turbine. Except description, this paper brings our basic experiences from operating of pilot plant (operating parameters, contributions, problems during operating, etc.). The principal advantage of the given cycle is the fact that there is no contact between the generated gas and the turbine. So there is no need for costly and complicated gas cleaning which is the main source of operating problems in direct use in combustion engines because the content of impurities in the gas causes operation problems to the units due to clogging and tarring of working surfaces of engines and turbines, which may lead as far as serious damage to the equipment under operation. Another merit is the compact container package making installation of the facility easier or making it relatively more mobile. We imagine, this solution of cogeneration from biomass or waste can be suitable for small industrial or communal applications, for low output cogeneration.

Keywords: biomass, combustion, gasification, microcogeneration

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12 Biomass Gasification and Microcogeneration Unit–EZOB Technology

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála

Abstract:

This paper deals with the issue of biomass and sorted municipal waste gasification and cogeneration using hot-air turbo-set. It brings description of designed pilot plant with electrical output 80 kWe. The generated gas is burned in secondary combustion chamber located beyond the gas generator. Flue gas flows through the heat exchanger where the compressed air is heated and consequently brought to a micro turbine. Except description, this paper brings our basic experiences from operating of pilot plant (operating parameters, contributions, problems during operating, etc.). The principal advantage of the given cycle is the fact that there is no contact between the generated gas and the turbine. So there is no need for costly and complicated gas cleaning which is the main source of operating problems in direct use in combustion engines because the content of impurities in the gas causes operation problems to the units due to clogging and tarring of working surfaces of engines and turbines, which may lead as far as serious damage to the equipment under operation. Another merit is the compact container package making installation of the facility easier or making it relatively more mobile. We imagine, this solution of cogeneration from biomass or waste can be suitable for small industrial or communal applications, for low output cogeneration.

Keywords: biomass, combustion, gasification, microcogeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
11 Causes Analysis of Vacuum Consolidation Failure to Soft Foundation Filled by Newly Dredged Mud

Authors: Bao Shu-Feng, Lou Yan, Dong Zhi-Liang, Mo Hai-Hong, Chen Ping-Shan

Abstract:

For soft foundation filled by newly dredged mud, after improved by Vacuum Preloading Technology (VPT), the soil strength was increased only a little, the effective improved depth was small, and the ground bearing capacity is still low. To analyze the causes in depth, it was conducted in laboratory of several comparative single well model experiments of VPT. It was concluded: (1) it mainly caused serious clogging problem and poor drainage performance in vertical drains of high content of fine soil particles and strong hydrophilic minerals in dredged mud, too fast loading rate at the early stage of vacuum preloading (namely rapidly reaching-80kPa) and too small characteristic opening size of the filter of the existed vertical drains; (2) it commonly reduced the drainage efficiency of drainage system, in turn weaken vacuum pressure in soils and soil improvement effect of the greater partial loss and friction loss of vacuum pressure caused by larger curvature of vertical drains and larger transfer resistance of vacuum pressure in horizontal drain.

Keywords: newly dredged mud, single well model experiments of vacuum preloading technology, poor drainage performance of vertical drains, poor soil improvement effect, causes analysis

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10 Effect of Roughness and Microstructure on Tribological Behaviour of 35NCD16 Steel

Authors: A. Jourani, C. Trevisiol, S. Bouvier

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the coupled effect of microstructure and surface roughness on friction coefficient, wear resistance and wear mechanisms. Friction tests on 35NCD16 steel are performed under different normal loads (50-110 N) on a pin-on-plane configuration at cyclic sliding with abrasive silicon carbide grains ranging from 35 µm to 200 µm. To vary hardness and microstructure, the specimens are subjected to water quenching and tempering at various temperatures from 200°C to 600°C. The evolution of microstructures and wear mechanisms of worn surfaces are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For a given microstructure and hardness, the friction coefficient decreases with increasing of normal load and decreasing of the abrasive particle size. The wear rate increase with increasing of normal load and abrasive particle size. The results also reveal that there is a critical hardness Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ around 430 Hv which maximizes the friction coefficient and wear rate. This corresponds to a microstructure transition from martensite laths to carbides and equiaxed grains, for a tempering around 400°C. Above Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ the friction coefficient and the amount of material loss decrease with an increase of hardness and martensite volume fraction. This study also shows that the debris size and the space between the abrasive particles decrease with a reduction in the particle size. The coarsest abrasive grains lost their cutting edges, accompanied by particle damage and empty space due to the particle detachment from the resin matrix. The compact packing nature of finer abrasive papers implicates lower particle detachment and facilitates the clogging and the transition from abrasive to adhesive wear.

Keywords: martensite, microstructure, friction, wear, surface roughness

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9 Numerical Analysis of Gas-Particle Mixtures through Pipelines

Authors: G. Judakova, M. Bause

Abstract:

The ability to model and simulate numerically natural gas flow in pipelines has become of high importance for the design of pipeline systems. The understanding of the formation of hydrate particles and their dynamical behavior is of particular interest, since these processes govern the operation properties of the systems and are responsible for system failures by clogging of the pipelines under certain conditions. Mathematically, natural gas flow can be described by multiphase flow models. Using the two-fluid modeling approach, the gas phase is modeled by the compressible Euler equations and the particle phase is modeled by the pressureless Euler equations. The numerical simulation of compressible multiphase flows is an important research topic. It is well known that for nonlinear fluxes, even for smooth initial data, discontinuities in the solution are likely to occur in finite time. They are called shock waves or contact discontinuities. For hyperbolic and singularly perturbed parabolic equations the standard application of the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) leads to spurious oscillations (e.g. Gibb's phenomenon). In our approach, we use stabilized FEM, the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method, where artificial diffusion acting only in the direction of the streamlines and using a special treatment of the boundary conditions in inviscid convective terms, is added. Numerical experiments show that the numerical solution obtained and stabilized by SUPG captures discontinuities or steep gradients of the exact solution in layers. However, within this layer the approximate solution may still exhibit overshoots or undershoots. To suitably reduce these artifacts we add a discontinuity capturing or shock capturing term. The performance properties of our numerical scheme are illustrated for two-phase flow problem.

Keywords: two-phase flow, gas-particle mixture, inviscid two-fluid model, euler equation, finite element method, streamline upwind petrov-galerkin, shock capturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
8 Study of Surface Water Quality in the Wadi El Harrach for Its Use in the Artificial Groundwater Recharge of the Mitidja, North Algeria

Authors: M. Meddi, A. Boufekane

Abstract:

The Mitidja coastal groundwater which extends over an area of 1450 km2 is a strategic resource in the Algiers region. The high dependence of the regional economy on the use of this groundwater forces us to have recourse to its artificial recharge from the Wadi El Harrach in its upstream part. This system of artificial recharge has shown its effectiveness in the development of water resource mentioned in the succeeding works in several regions of the world. The objective of this study is to: Increase the reserves of water inputs by infiltration, raise the water level and its good quality in wells and boreholes, reduce losses to the sea, and address seawater intrusion by maintaining balance in the freshwater-saltwater interface in the downstream part of the groundwater basin. After analyzing the situation, it was noticed that a qualitative monitoring of the Wadi water for the groundwater recharge has to be done. For this purpose, we proceeded during three successive years (2010, 2011, and 2012) to the monthly sampling of water in the upstream part of the Wadi El Harrach for chemical analysis. The variation of the sediment transport concentration will be also measured. This monitoring aims to characterize the water quality and avoid clogging in the proposed recharge area. The results of these analyses showed the good chemical quality according to the analyses we performed in the laboratory during the three years, but they are too loaded with suspended matters. We noticed that these fine particles come from the grinding of limestone of sandpit located upstream of the area of the proposed recharge system. This problem can be solved by a water supply upstream of sandpit. For the recharge, we propose the method of using two wells for dual use, which means that it can be used for water supply and extraction. This solution is inexpensive in our case and could easily be used as wells are already drilled in the upstream part. This solution increases over time the piezometric level and also reduce groundwater contamination by saltwater in the downstream part.

Keywords: water quality, artificial groundwater recharge, Mitidja, North Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
7 Organic Matter Distribution in Bazhenov Source Rock: Insights from Sequential Extraction and Molecular Geochemistry

Authors: Margarita S. Tikhonova, Alireza Baniasad, Anton G. Kalmykov, Georgy A. Kalmykov, Ralf Littke

Abstract:

There is a high complexity in the pore structure of organic-rich rocks caused by the combination of inter-particle porosity from inorganic mineral matter and ultrafine intra-particle porosity from both organic matter and clay minerals. Fluids are retained in that pore space, but there are major uncertainties in how and where the fluids are stored and to what extent they are accessible or trapped in 'closed' pores. A large degree of tortuosity may lead to fractionation of organic matter so that the lighter and flexible compounds would diffuse to the reservoir whereas more complicated compounds may be locked in place. Additionally, parts of hydrocarbons could be bound to solid organic matter –kerogen– and mineral matrix during expulsion and migration. Larger compounds can occupy thin channels so that clogging or oil and gas entrapment will occur. Sequential extraction of applying different solvents is a powerful tool to provide more information about the characteristics of trapped organic matter distribution. The Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Bazhenov shale is one of the most petroliferous source rock extended in West Siberia, Russia. Concerning the variable mineral composition, pore space distribution and thermal maturation, there are high uncertainties in distribution and composition of organic matter in this formation. In order to address this issue geological and geochemical properties of 30 samples including mineral composition (XRD and XRF), structure and texture (thin-section microscopy), organic matter contents, type and thermal maturity (Rock-Eval) as well as molecular composition (GC-FID and GC-MS) of different extracted materials during sequential extraction were considered. Sequential extraction was performed by a Soxhlet apparatus using different solvents, i.e., n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol-benzene (1:1 v:v) first on core plugs and later on pulverized materials. The results indicate that the studied samples are mainly composed of type II kerogen with TOC contents varied from 5 to 25%. The thermal maturity ranged from immature to late oil window. Whereas clay contents decreased with increasing maturity, the amount of silica increased in the studied samples. According to molecular geochemistry, stored hydrocarbons in open and closed pore space reveal different geochemical fingerprints. The results improve our understanding of hydrocarbon expulsion and migration in the organic-rich Bazhenov shale and therefore better estimation of hydrocarbon potential for this formation.

Keywords: Bazhenov formation, bitumen, molecular geochemistry, sequential extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
6 Solid Waste and Its Impact on the Human Health

Authors: Waseem Akram, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

Abstract:

Unplanned urbanization together with change in life from simple to more technologically advanced style with flow of rural masses to urban areas has played a vital role in pilling loads of solid wastes in our environment. The cities and towns have expanded beyond boundaries. Even the uncontrolled population expansion has caused the overall environmental burden. Thus, today the indifference remains as one of the biggest trash that has come up due to the non-responsive behavior of the people. Everyday huge amount of solid waste is thrown in the streets, on the roads, parks, and in all those places that are frequently and often visited by the human beings. This behavior based response in many countries of the world has led to serious health concerns and environmental issues. Over 80% of our products that are sold in the market are packed in plastic bags. None of the bags are later recycled but simply become a permanent environment concern that flies, choke lines or are burnt and release toxic gases in the environment or form dumps of heaps. Lack of classification of the daily waste generated from houses and other places lead to worst clogging of the sewerage lines and formation of ponding areas which ultimately favor vector borne disease and sometimes become a cause of transmission of polio virus. Solid waste heaps were checked at different places of the cities. All of the wastes on visual assessments were classified into plastic bags, papers, broken plastic pots, clay pots, steel boxes, wrappers etc. All solid waste dumping sites in the cities and wastes that were thrown outside of the trash containers usually contained wrappers, plastic bags, and unconsumed food products. Insect populations seen in these sites included the house flies, bugs, cockroaches and mosquito larvae breeding in water filled wrappers, containers or plastic bags. The population of the mosquitoes, cockroaches and houseflies were relatively very high in dumping sites close to human population. This population has been associated with cases like dengue, malaria, dysentery, gastro and also to skin allergies during the monsoon and summer season. Thus, dumping of the huge amount of solid wastes in and near the residential areas results into serious environmental concerns, bad smell circulation, and health related issues. In some places, the same waste is burnt to get rid of mosquitoes through smoke which ultimately releases toxic material in the atmosphere. Therefore, a proper environmental strategy is needed to minimize environmental burden and promote concepts of recycled products and thus, reduce the disease burden.

Keywords: solid waste accumulation, disease burden, mosquitoes, vector borne diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
5 Monitoring and Improving Performance of Soil Aquifer Treatment System and Infiltration Basins Performance: North Gaza Emergency Sewage Treatment Plant as Case Study

Authors: Sadi Ali, Yaser Kishawi

Abstract:

As part of Palestine, Gaza Strip (365 km2 and 1.8 million habitants) is considered a semi-arid zone relies solely on the Coastal Aquifer. The coastal aquifer is only source of water with only 5-10% suitable for human use. This barely cover the domestic and agricultural needs of Gaza Strip. Palestinian Water Authority Strategy is to find non-conventional water resource from treated wastewater to irrigate 1500 hectares and serves over 100,000 inhabitants. A new WWTP project is to replace the old-overloaded Biet Lahia WWTP. The project consists of three parts; phase A (pressure line & 9 infiltration basins - IBs), phase B (a new WWTP) and phase C (Recovery and Reuse Scheme – RRS – to capture the spreading plume). Currently, phase A is functioning since Apr 2009. Since Apr 2009, a monitoring plan is conducted to monitor the infiltration rate (I.R.) of the 9 basins. Nearly 23 million m3 of partially treated wastewater were infiltrated up to Jun 2014. It is important to maintain an acceptable rate to allow the basins to handle the coming quantities (currently 10,000 m3 are pumped an infiltrated daily). The methodology applied was to review and analysis the collected data including the I.R.s, the WW quality and the drying-wetting schedule of the basins. One of the main findings is the relation between the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) at BLWWTP and the I.R. at the basins. Since April 2009, the basins scored an average I.R. of about 2.5 m/day. Since then the records showed a decreasing pattern of the average rate until it reached the lower value of 0.42 m/day in Jun 2013. This was accompanied with an increase of TSS (mg/L) concentration at the source reaching above 200 mg/L. The reducing of TSS concentration directly improved the I.R. (by cleaning the WW source ponds at Biet Lahia WWTP site). This was reflected in an improvement in I.R. in last 6 months from 0.42 m/day to 0.66 m/day then to nearly 1.0 m/day as the average of the last 3 months of 2013. The wetting-drying scheme of the basins was observed (3 days wetting and 7 days drying) besides the rainfall rates. Despite the difficulty to apply this scheme accurately a control of flow to each basin was applied to improve the I.R. The drying-wetting system affected the I.R. of individual basins, thus affected the overall system rate which was recorded and assessed. Also the ploughing activities at the infiltration basins as well were recommended at certain times to retain a certain infiltration level. This breaks the confined clogging layer which prevents the infiltration. It is recommended to maintain proper quality of WW infiltrated to ensure an acceptable performance of IBs. The continual maintenance of settling ponds at BLWWTP, continual ploughing of basins and applying soil treatment techniques at the IBs will improve the I.R.s. When the new WWTP functions a high standard effluent quality (TSS 20mg, BOD 20 mg/l and TN 15 mg/l) will be infiltrated, thus will enhance I.R.s of IBs due to lower organic load.

Keywords: SAT, wastewater quality, soil remediation, North Gaza

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
4 Monitoring and Improving Performance of Soil Aquifer Treatment System and Infiltration Basins of North Gaza Emergency Sewage Treatment Plant as Case Study

Authors: Sadi Ali, Yaser Kishawi

Abstract:

As part of Palestine, Gaza Strip (365 km2 and 1.8 million habitants) is considered a semi-arid zone relies solely on the Coastal Aquifer. The coastal aquifer is only source of water with only 5-10% suitable for human use. This barely covers the domestic and agricultural needs of Gaza Strip. Palestinian Water Authority Strategy is to find non-conventional water resource from treated wastewater to irrigate 1500 hectares and serves over 100,000 inhabitants. A new WWTP project is to replace the old-overloaded Biet Lahia WWTP. The project consists of three parts; phase A (pressure line & 9 infiltration basins - IBs), phase B (a new WWTP) and phase C (Recovery and Reuse Scheme – RRS – to capture the spreading plume). Currently, phase A is functioning since Apr 2009. Since Apr 2009, a monitoring plan is conducted to monitor the infiltration rate (I.R.) of the 9 basins. Nearly 23 million m3 of partially treated wastewater were infiltrated up to Jun 2014. It is important to maintain an acceptable rate to allow the basins to handle the coming quantities (currently 10,000 m3 are pumped an infiltrated daily). The methodology applied was to review and analysis the collected data including the I.R.s, the WW quality and the drying-wetting schedule of the basins. One of the main findings is the relation between the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) at BLWWTP and the I.R. at the basins. Since April 2009, the basins scored an average I.R. of about 2.5 m/day. Since then the records showed a decreasing pattern of the average rate until it reached the lower value of 0.42 m/day in Jun 2013. This was accompanied with an increase of TSS (mg/L) concentration at the source reaching above 200 mg/L. The reducing of TSS concentration directly improved the I.R. (by cleaning the WW source ponds at Biet Lahia WWTP site). This was reflected in an improvement in I.R. in last 6 months from 0.42 m/day to 0.66 m/day then to nearly 1.0 m/day as the average of the last 3 months of 2013. The wetting-drying scheme of the basins was observed (3 days wetting and 7 days drying) besides the rainfall rates. Despite the difficulty to apply this scheme accurately a control of flow to each basin was applied to improve the I.R. The drying-wetting system affected the I.R. of individual basins, thus affected the overall system rate which was recorded and assessed. Also the ploughing activities at the infiltration basins as well were recommended at certain times to retain a certain infiltration level. This breaks the confined clogging layer which prevents the infiltration. It is recommended to maintain proper quality of WW infiltrated to ensure an acceptable performance of IBs. The continual maintenance of settling ponds at BLWWTP, continual ploughing of basins and applying soil treatment techniques at the IBs will improve the I.R.s. When the new WWTP functions a high standard effluent quality (TSS 20mg, BOD 20 mg/l, and TN 15 mg/l) will be infiltrated, thus will enhance I.R.s of IBs due to lower organic load.

Keywords: soil aquifer treatment, recovery and reuse scheme, infiltration basins, North Gaza

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
3 The Pore–Scale Darcy–Brinkman–Stokes Model for the Description of Advection–Diffusion–Precipitation Using Level Set Method

Authors: Jiahui You, Kyung Jae Lee

Abstract:

Hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) is widely used in shale reservoir productions. HFF contains diverse chemical additives, which result in the dissolution and precipitation of minerals through multiple chemical reactions. In this study, a new pore-scale Darcy–Brinkman–Stokes (DBS) model coupled with Level Set Method (LSM) is developed to address the microscopic phenomena occurring during the iron–HFF interaction, by numerically describing mass transport, chemical reactions, and pore structure evolution. The new model is developed based on OpenFOAM, which is an open-source platform for computational fluid dynamics. Here, the DBS momentum equation is used to solve for velocity by accounting for the fluid-solid mass transfer; an advection-diffusion equation is used to compute the distribution of injected HFF and iron. The reaction–induced pore evolution is captured by applying the LSM, where the solid-liquid interface is updated by solving the level set distance function and reinitialized to a signed distance function. Then, a smoothened Heaviside function gives a smoothed solid-liquid interface over a narrow band with a fixed thickness. The stated equations are discretized by the finite volume method, while the re-initialized equation is discretized by the central difference method. Gauss linear upwind scheme is used to solve the level set distance function, and the Pressure–Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PISO) method is used to solve the momentum equation. The numerical result is compared with 1–D analytical solution of fluid-solid interface for reaction-diffusion problems. Sensitivity analysis is conducted with various Damkohler number (DaII) and Peclet number (Pe). We categorize the Fe (III) precipitation into three patterns as a function of DaII and Pe: symmetrical smoothed growth, unsymmetrical growth, and dendritic growth. Pe and DaII significantly affect the location of precipitation, which is critical in determining the injection parameters of hydraulic fracturing. When DaII<1, the precipitation uniformly occurs on the solid surface both in upstream and downstream directions. When DaII>1, the precipitation mainly occurs on the solid surface in an upstream direction. When Pe>1, Fe (II) transported deeply into and precipitated inside the pores. When Pe<1, the precipitation of Fe (III) occurs mainly on the solid surface in an upstream direction, and they are easily precipitated inside the small pore structures. The porosity–permeability relationship is subsequently presented. This pore-scale model allows high confidence in the description of Fe (II) dissolution, transport, and Fe (III) precipitation. The model shows fast convergence and requires a low computational load. The results can provide reliable guidance for injecting HFF in shale reservoirs to avoid clogging and wellbore pollution. Understanding Fe (III) precipitation, and Fe (II) release and transport behaviors give rise to a highly efficient hydraulic fracture project.

Keywords: reactive-transport , Shale, Kerogen, precipitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2 Supercritical Water Gasification of Organic Wastes for Hydrogen Production and Waste Valorization

Authors: Laura Alvarez-Alonso, Francisco Garcia-Carro, Jorge Loredo

Abstract:

Population growth and industrial development imply an increase in the energy demands and the problems caused by emissions of greenhouse effect gases, which has inspired the search for clean sources of energy. Hydrogen (H₂) is expected to play a key role in the world’s energy future by replacing fossil fuels. The properties of H₂ make it a green fuel that does not generate pollutants and supplies sufficient energy for power generation, transportation, and other applications. Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) represents an attractive alternative for the recovery of energy from wastes. SCWG allows conversion of a wide range of raw materials into a fuel gas with a high content of hydrogen and light hydrocarbons through their treatment at conditions higher than those that define the critical point of water (temperature of 374°C and pressure of 221 bar). Methane used as a transport fuel is another important gasification product. The number of different uses of gas and energy forms that can be produced depending on the kind of material gasified and type of technology used to process it, shows the flexibility of SCWG. This feature allows it to be integrated with several industrial processes, as well as power generation systems or waste-to-energy production systems. The final aim of this work is to study which conditions and equipment are the most efficient and advantageous to explore the possibilities to obtain streams rich in H₂ from oily wastes, which represent a major problem both for the environment and human health throughout the world. In this paper, the relative complexity of technology needed for feasible gasification process cycles is discussed with particular reference to the different feedstocks that can be used as raw material, different reactors, and energy recovery systems. For this purpose, a review of the current status of SCWG technologies has been carried out, by means of different classifications based on key features as the feed treated or the type of reactor and other apparatus. This analysis allows to improve the technology efficiency through the study of model calculations and its comparison with experimental data, the establishment of kinetics for chemical reactions, the analysis of how the main reaction parameters affect the yield and composition of products, or the determination of the most common problems and risks that can occur. The results of this work show that SCWG is a promising method for the production of both hydrogen and methane. The most significant choices of design are the reactor type and process cycle, which can be conveniently adopted according to waste characteristics. Regarding the future of the technology, the design of SCWG plants is still to be optimized to include energy recovery systems in order to reduce costs of equipment and operation derived from the high temperature and pressure conditions that are necessary to convert water to the SC state, as well as to find solutions to remove corrosion and clogging of components of the reactor.

Keywords: hydrogen production, organic wastes, supercritical water gasification, system integration, waste-to-energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1 Sustainable Recycling Practices to Reduce Health Hazards of Municipal Solid Waste in Patna, India

Authors: Anupama Singh, Papia Raj

Abstract:

Though Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a worldwide problem, yet its implications are enormous in developing countries, as they are unable to provide proper Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) for the large volume of MSW. As a result, the collected wastes are dumped in open dumping at landfilling sites while the uncollected wastes remain strewn on the roadside, many-a-time clogging drainage. Such unsafe and inadequate management of MSW causes various public health hazards. For example, MSW directly on contact or by leachate contaminate the soil, surface water, and ground water; open burning causes air pollution; anaerobic digestion between the piles of MSW enhance the greenhouse gases i.e., carbon dioxide and methane (CO2 and CH4) into the atmosphere. Moreover, open dumping can cause spread of vector borne disease like cholera, typhoid, dysentery, and so on. Patna, the capital city of Bihar, one of the most underdeveloped provinces in India, is a unique representation of this situation. Patna has been identified as the ‘garbage city’. Over the last decade there has been an exponential increase in the quantity of MSW generation in Patna. Though a large proportion of such MSW is recyclable in nature, only a negligible portion is recycled. Plastic constitutes the major chunk of the recyclable waste. The chemical composition of plastic is versatile consisting of toxic compounds, such as, plasticizers, like adipates and phthalates. Pigmented plastic is highly toxic and it contains harmful metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cobalt, selenium, and cadmium. Human population becomes vulnerable to an array of health problems as they are exposed to these toxic chemicals multiple times a day through air, water, dust, and food. Based on analysis of health data it can be emphasized that in Patna there has been an increase in the incidence of specific diseases, such as, diarrhoea, dysentry, acute respiratory infection (ARI), asthma, and other chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). This trend can be attributed to improper MSWM. The results were reiterated through a survey (N=127) conducted during 2014-15 in selected areas of Patna. Random sampling method of data collection was used to better understand the relationship between different variables affecting public health due to exposure to MSW and lack of MSWM. The results derived through bivariate and logistic regression analysis of the survey data indicate that segregation of wastes at source, segregation behavior, collection bins in the area, distance of collection bins from residential area, and transportation of MSW are the major determinants of public health issues. Sustainable recycling is a robust method for MSWM with its pioneer concerns being environment, society, and economy. It thus ensures minimal threat to environment and ecology consequently improving public health conditions. Hence, this paper concludes that sustainable recycling would be the most viable approach to manage MSW in Patna and would eventually reduce public health hazards.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, Patna, public health, sustainable recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 176